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Din & Daf: Resolving Ownership Disputes

Din & Daf: Conceptual Analysis of Halakha Through Case Study with Dr. Elana Stein Hain

Resolving Ownership Disputes: An Overview

Dr. Elana Stein Hain โ€“ย dinanddaf@hadran.org.il

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The opening mishnah in Bava Metzia is about two people holding the same found garment and is an important springboard for discussions about the different ways that ownership disputes are resolved throughout Shas. In this shiur, we will offer a general overview of the different methodologies used by Chazal to resolve such disputes, and what variables determine those methods.

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  • ื‘ื‘ื ืžืฆื™ืขื ื‘. (ืžืฉื ื” ื:ื)

ืฉืึฐื ึทื™ึดื ืื•ึนื—ึฒื–ึดื™ืŸ ื‘ึผึฐื˜ึทืœึผึดื™ืช, ื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ืึฒื ึดื™ ืžึฐืฆึธืืชึดื™ื”ึธ ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ืึฒื ึดื™ ืžึฐืฆึธืืชึดื™ื”ึธ, ื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ื›ึผึปืœึผึธื”ึผ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™ ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ื›ึผึปืœึผึธื”ึผ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™, ื–ึถื” ื™ึดืฉึผืึธื‘ึทืข ืฉืึถืึตื™ืŸ ืœื•ึน ื‘ึธื”ึผ ืคึผึธื—ื•ึนืช ืžึตื—ึถืฆึฐื™ึธื”ึผ, ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ื™ึดืฉึผืึธื‘ึทืข ืฉืึถืึตื™ืŸ ืœื•ึน ื‘ึธื”ึผ ืคึผึธื—ื•ึนืช ืžึตื—ึถืฆึฐื™ึธื”ึผ, ื•ึฐื™ึทื—ึฒืœึนืงื•ึผ. ื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ื›ึผึปืœึผึธื”ึผ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™ ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ื—ึถืฆึฐื™ึธื”ึผ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™, ื”ึธืื•ึนืžึตืจ ื›ึผึปืœึผึธื”ึผ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™, ื™ึดืฉึผืึธื‘ึทืข ืฉืึถืึตื™ืŸ ืœื•ึน ื‘ึธื”ึผ ืคึผึธื—ื•ึนืช ืžึดืฉึผืึฐืœืฉืึธื” ื—ึฒืœึธืงึดื™ื, ื•ึฐื”ึธืื•ึนืžึตืจ ื—ึถืฆึฐื™ึธื”ึผ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™, ื™ึดืฉึผืึธื‘ึทืข ืฉืึถืึตื™ืŸ ืœื•ึน ื‘ึธื”ึผ ืคึผึธื—ื•ึนืช ืžึตืจึฐื‘ึดื™ืขึท. ื–ึถื” ื ื•ึนื˜ึตืœ ืฉืึฐืœืฉืึธื” ื—ึฒืœึธืงึดื™ื, ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ื ื•ึนื˜ึตืœ ืจึฐื‘ึดื™ืขึท:

 

If two people came to court holding a garment, and this one, the first litigant, says: I found it, and that one, the second litigant, says: I found it; this one says: All of it is mine, and that one says: All of it is mine; how does the court adjudicate this case? This one takes an oath that he does not have ownership of less than half of it, and that one takes an oath that he does not have ownership of less than half of it, and they divide it. If this one says: All of it is mine, and that one says: Half of it is mine, since they both agree that half of the cloak belongs to one of them, the conflict between them is only about the other half. Therefore, the one who says: All of it is mine, takes an oath that he does not have ownership of less than three parts, i.e., three-fourths, of it, and the one who says: Half of it is mine, takes an oath that he does not have ownership of less than one-quarter of it. This one takes three parts, and that one takes one-quarter.

  • ื‘ื‘ื ื‘ืชืจื ืœื“:

ื”ึธื”ื•ึผื ืึทืจึฐื‘ึผึธื ื“ึผึทื”ึฒื•ื•ึน ืžึดื™ื ึผึฐืฆื•ึผ ืขึฒืœึทื”ึผ ื‘ึผึตื™ ืชึฐืจึตื™, ื”ึทืื™ ืึธืžึทืจ: ืดื“ึผึดื™ื“ึดื™ ื”ึดื™ืืด, ื•ึฐื”ึทืื™ ืึธืžึทืจ: ืดื“ึผึดื™ื“ึดื™ ื”ึดื™ืืด. ืึฒืชึธื ื—ึทื“ ืžึดื™ื ึผึทื™ึฐื™ื”ื•ึผ ืœึฐื‘ึตื™ ื“ึดื™ื ึธื, ื•ึฐืึธืžึทืจ: ืชึผึดื™ืคึฐืกื•ึผื”ึธ ืึทื“ึผึฐืžึทื™ึฐื™ืชึตื™ื ึธื ืกึธื”ึฒื“ึตื™ ื“ึผึฐื“ึดื™ื“ึดื™ ื”ึดื™ื. ืชึผึธืคึฐืกึดื™ื ึทืŸ, ืื•ึน ืœึธื ืชึผึธืคึฐืกึดื™ื ึทืŸ? ืจึทื‘ ื”ื•ึผื ึธื ืึธืžึทืจ: ืชึผึธืคึฐืกึดื™ื ึทืŸ. ืจึทื‘ ื™ึฐื”ื•ึผื“ึธื” ืึธืžึทืจ: ืœึธื ืชึผึธืคึฐืกึดื™ื ึทืŸ.

There was a certain boat that two people were quarreling about with regard to its ownership. This one said: It is mine, and that one also said: It is mine. One of them came to court and said: Seize it until I am able to bring witnesses that it is mine. The Gemara asks: In such a case, do we seize it or do we not seize it? Rav Huna said: We seize it. Rav Yehuda said: We do not seize it, as there is no cause for the court to intervene.

 

ืึฒื–ึทืœ, ื•ึฐืœึธื ืึทืฉืึฐื›ึผึทื— ืกึธื”ึฒื“ึตื™. ืึฒืžึทืจ ืœึฐื”ื•ึผ: ืึทืคึผึฐืงื•ึผื”ึธ, ื•ึฐื›ึนืœ ื“ึผึฐืึทืœึผึดื™ื ื’ึผึธื‘ึทืจ. ืžึทืคึผึฐืงึดื™ื ึทืŸ, ืื•ึน ืœึธื ืžึทืคึผึฐืงึดื™ื ึทืŸ? ืจึทื‘ ื™ึฐื”ื•ึผื“ึธื” ืึธืžึทืจ: ืœึธื ืžึทืคึผึฐืงึดื™ื ึทืŸ. ืจึทื‘ ืคึผึธืคึผึธื ืึธืžึทืจ: ืžึทืคึผึฐืงึดื™ื ึทืŸ. ื•ึฐื”ึดืœึฐื›ึฐืชึธื: ืœึธื ืชึผึธืคึฐืกึดื™ื ึทืŸ, ื•ึฐื”ึตื™ื›ึธื ื“ึผึดืชึฐืคึทืก โ€“ ืœึธื ืžึทืคึผึฐืงึดื™ื ึทืŸ.

The court seized the boat. The one who requested of the court to seize it went to seek witnesses, but did not find witnesses. He then said to the court: Release the boat, and whoever is stronger prevails, as this is the ruling in a case where there is neither evidence nor presumptive ownership for either litigant. The Gemara asks: In such a case, do we release it or do we not release it? Rav Yehuda said: We do not release it. Rav Pappa said: We release it. And the halakha is that we do not seize property in a case where ownership is uncertain, and where it was seized, we do not release it.

 

ืžืฉื ื” ื‘ื‘ื ืžืฆื™ืขื ื’:ื“ (ื’ืž’ ื‘”ืž ืœื–.)

ืฉืึฐื ึทื™ึดื ืฉืึถื”ึดืคึฐืงึดื™ื“ื•ึผ ืึตืฆึถืœ ืึถื—ึธื“, ื–ึถื” ืžึธื ึถื” ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ืžึธืืชึทื™ึดื, ื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™ ืžึธืืชึธื™ึดื ื•ึฐื–ึถื” ืื•ึนืžึตืจ ืฉืึถืœึผึดื™ ืžึธืืชึธื™ึดื, ื ื•ึนืชึตืŸ ืœึธื–ึถื” ืžึธื ึถื” ื•ึฐืœึธื–ึถื” ืžึธื ึถื”, ื•ึฐื”ึทืฉึผืึฐืึธืจ ื™ึฐื”ึตื ืžึปื ึผึธื— ืขึทื“ ืฉืึถื™ึผึธื‘ึนื ืึตืœึดื™ึผึธื”ื•ึผ. ืึธืžึทืจ ืจึทื‘ึผึดื™ ื™ื•ึนืกึตื™, ืึดื ื›ึผึตืŸ ืžึทื” ื”ึดืคึฐืกึดื™ื“ ื”ึธืจึทืžึผึทืื™? ืึถืœึผึธื ื”ึทื›ึผึนืœ ื™ึฐื”ึตื ืžึปื ึผึธื— ืขึทื“ ืฉืึถื™ึผึธื‘ึนื ืึตืœึดื™ึผึธื”ื•ึผ:

In the case of two people who deposited money with one person, and this one deposited one hundred dinars and that one deposited two hundred dinars, and when they come to collect their deposit, this one says: My deposit was two hundred dinars, and that one says: My deposit was two hundred dinars, the bailee gives one hundred dinars to this one and one hundred dinars to that one. And the rest of the money, i.e., the contested one hundred dinars, will be placed in a safe place until Elijah comes and prophetically determines the truth. Rabbi Yosei said: If so, what did the swindler lose? He lost nothing by claiming the one hundred dinars that belongs to another, and he has no incentive to admit the truth. Rather, the entire deposit will be placed in a safe place until Elijah comes. As his fraud will cause him to lose even the one hundred dinars that he deposited, perhaps he will be discouraged from making a fraudulent claim.

 

ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช ื‘”ืž ื‘. ื“”ื” ื•ื™ื—ืœื•ืงื•

ื•ื™ื—ืœื•ืงื• – ืชื™ืžื” ื“ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžื”ื”ื™ื ื“ืืจื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื“ืืœื™ื ื’ื‘ืจ ืคืจืง ื—ื–ืงืช ื”ื‘ืชื™ื (ื‘”ื‘ ื“ืฃ ืœื“: ื•ืฉื) ื•ื™”ืœ ื“ืื•ื—ื–ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ื™ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื‘ื” ื‘ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื—ืฆื™ ื“ืื ืŸ ืกื”ื“ื™ ื“ืžืื™ ื“ืชืคื™ืก ื”ืื™ ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืžื ื” ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ื“ืžื“ืžื™ ื‘ื’ืžืจื ืœื˜ืœื™ืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื”ื”ื•ื ืฉื”ื ืคืงื“ ืชื•ืคืก ื‘ื—ื–ืงืช ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื›ืื™ืœื• ื”ื ืขืฆืžื ืžื•ื—ื–ืงื™ื ื‘ื• ืœื›ืš ืžืฉื ื™ ื“ื”ืชื ื•ื“ืื™ ื“ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื”ื•ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืืžืช ื•ืœื›ืš ื™ื”ื ืžื•ื ื— ืื‘ืœ ื˜ืœื™ืช ื“ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื“ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ื”ื•ื ื™ื—ืœื•ืงื• ื•ื›ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื ืื“ื•ืงื™ื ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ื“ืžื“ืžื™ ืœืงืžืŸ (ื‘ื‘ื ืžืฆื™ืขื ื“ืฃ ื–.) ืœืžืชื ื™’ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืื“ื•ืงื™ื ื‘ื• ื“ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืืžืช ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืฉืคืจืข ืœื• ื”ื—ืฆื™ ื•ื‘ืžื ื” ืื™ืŸ ื“ืจืš ืฉื™ืงื ื” ืœื• ื”ื—ืฆื™ ืื—ืจื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ื“ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืืจื‘ื ืืข”ื’ ื“ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื”ื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื—ื–ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื”ื•ื™ ื“ื™ื ื ื›ืœ ื“ืืœื™ื ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ืœืกื•ืžื›ื•ืก ืืข”ื’ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื—ื–ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืืžืช ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื“ืจืจื ื“ืžืžื•ื ื ืคื™ืจื•ืฉ ืฉื‘ืœื ื˜ืขื ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื™ืฉ ืกืคืง ืœื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ื—ืœื•ืงื•:

And they should split – Question: how is this different from the case of the boat in which whoever is stronger prevails in chapter chezkat habatim (BB 34b)? It is possible to say that grasping the item is different because it is as though each person definitely owns their half; for we can all see that what someone is holding is theirs. And likewise regarding the third maneh which the Gemara compares to the garment case: the fact that a third party holds it on behalf of both of them is considered as though the claimants themselves are actually holding it. Therefore, the Gemara answers that only because it must belong only to one of them and dividing the money cannot be a true verdict, and therefore, the money should stay where it is until Elijah comes. But concerning the garment, where it is possible that it actually belongs to both of them, they should split it(s value). And likewise is the case regarding two people who are jointly holding a contract (BM 7a), which is also compared to our mishnah, where the division may be a true verdict because perhaps one already paid the other half. But regarding a maneh, it is not customary to given ownership over half of it to someone else once it is in a third partyโ€™s hand. But regarding the boat, even though it may belong to both of them, because they are not both physically holding it, the ruling is whoever is stronger prevails. And for Sumchus, even though they are not holding it and the ruling cannot be true, where there is derara de-mamona – meaning that even without their claims the court is uncertain to whom this belongs – they should split it.ย 

 

ืจ”ื™ ืžื™ื’ืืฉ ื‘ื‘ื ื‘ืชืจื ื“ืฃ ืœื“:
ื›ืœ ื“ืืœื™ื ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ื›ื•’ ืขื“ ื•ืื™ ื“ืžืจ ืœื ื“ืžืจ.ย 

Whoever is stronger prevails…if it belongs to one, it does not belong to the other.

ืžื—ื•ื•ืจืชื ื“ื”ืื™ ื“ื™ื ื ื“ื›ืœ ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืžื™ื ืฆื• ืขืœื” ื‘ื™ ืชืจื™ ื”ืื™ ืืžืจ ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืื™ ืืžืจ ื“ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื ืื™ ืื™ืชื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื“ื ื“ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื”ื ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ื”ืจืื™ื” ื•ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืคื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืœืคื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ื.

It is clear that the rule that anything that two people fight over, and one says it’s mine, and the other says it’s mine, if that item is in the hands of one of them, the rule is certainly that the one who comes to take something from the other bears the burden of proof. And this does not require…..

ื•ืื™ ืื™ืชื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื“ื ื“ืชืจื•ื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืงื ื ืงื˜ื™ ืœื™ื” ืคืœื’ื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืขื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ (ื‘ืจื™ืฉ ืžืฆื™ืขื) ืฉื ื™ื ืื•ื—ื–ื™ืŸ ื‘ื˜ืœื™ืช ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื™ ืžืฆืืชื™ื” ื•ื›ื•’ ื•ื”ื•ื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื ื“ืชืจื•ื•ื™ื™ื”ื•.

But if the item is in both their hands, they divide it with an oath, and that is what is taught in the Mishnah at the outset of Bava Metzia – Two who are holding a piece of clothing, and one says I found it [and the other says, I found it], etc., and the same would be if that item was in the jurisdiction of both of them.

ื•ืื™ ืœื™ืชื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื“ื ื“ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ ื‘ื™ื“ ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื ืชื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื ืžื•ื ื— ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ื ืืœื™ื”ื• ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ (ืฉื ืค”ื’) ืฉื ื™ื ืฉื”ืคืงื™ื“ื• ืืฆืœ ื’ ื–ื” ืžื ื” ื•ื–ื” ืžืืชื™ื ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืืชื™ื ืฉืœื™ ื•ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืืชื™ื ืฉืœื™ ื–ื” ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืžื ื” ื•ื–ื” ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืžื ื” ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ื™ื”ื ืžื•ื ื— ืขื“ ืฉื™ื‘ื ืืœื™ื”ื• ื•ื›ื•’

But if the item is not in the hands of one of them, or it is in the hand of a third party, it should remain in escrow until Elijah comes, and that is what is taught in the Mishnah (BM ch. 3), Two who gave a deposit to someone – one deposited 100 while the other deposited 200, but each claims that they deposited 200 – each gets 100 and the rest is held in escrow until Elijah comes, etc.

ื•ืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื“ ืฉืœื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื ืืœื ื“ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืชื ื“ืœื™ืชื™ื” ืœื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ ื”ื•ื• ื˜ืขื ืชื ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื˜ืขื ืชื ื“ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืงื ืขืœื” ื“ืžื™ืœืชื ื ื”ื™ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœื™ ื•ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœื™ ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ ื•ื–ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœ ืื‘ื•ืชื™ ื“ืื™ืคืฉืจ ื“ืืชื• ืกื”ื“ื™ ื•ืืžืจื™ ื›ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืงื ืขืœื” ื“ืžื™ืœืชื ืœื ืคืœื’ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื™ื”ื• ืืœื ื›ืœ ื“ืืœื™ื ื’ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื™ ืื™ื“ืš ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ื”ืจืื™ื”

And if it is not in the hand of a third party, but is in the public thoroughfare or a property that belongs to neither of them, if their claims are proveable – e.g., one says this is mine, and the other says this is mine, or one says this belonged to my ancestors and the others says this belonged to my ancestors – that it is possible that witnesses might come to substantiate one of them; because it is possible to find out the truth, we do not divide it among them, but instead, whoever is stronger prevails, and the other becomes the one who is trying to remove it from their fellow and the burden of proof rests on him.

ื•ืื™ ืœื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืงื ืขืœื” ื“ืžื™ืœืชื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืืกืชืคืง ืœื™ื” ืžืขื™ืงืจื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืœื™’ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืกืคืง ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื“ืจืจื ื“ืžืžื•ื ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื”ืžื—ืœื™ืฃ ืคืจื” ื‘ื—ืžื•ืจ ื•ื›ื•’ ื™ื—ืœื•ืงื•. ื•ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืจืจื ื“ืžืžื•ื ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื‘’ ืฉื˜ืจื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื•ื“ื ื“ื“ื™ื™ื ื™ ื›ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืงื™ื™ืžื ืœืŸ ื›ืฉืžื•ืืœ…

And if it is impossible to find out the truth, but instead it is fully uncertain, i.e., it is uncertain money, if each side has a monetary connection, they divide it. But if neither of them has a monetary connection, as in the case of two documents from the same day, we follow the discretion of the judges, like Samuel’s position.

ืชื•ืกืคื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื ื‘ืชืจื ืœืดื“:

…ื‘ืืจื‘ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืจืžืื™ ืœื ื™ื—ืœื•ืงื• ืืœื ื”ื•ื™ ื“ื™ื ื ื›ืœ ื“ืืœื™ื ื’ื‘ืจโ€ฆ

โ€ฆIn the case of the boat, because one of them is lying, they do not split (the value). Rather, the ruling is whoever is stronger will overpowerโ€ฆ

Dr.ย Elanaย Stein Hainย is the Rosh Beit Midrash and a senior research fellow at the Shalom Hartman Institute of North America. Passionate about bringing Torah into conversation with contemporary life, she teachesย Talmud from the Balcony, an occasional learning seminar exposing the big ideas, questions, and issues motivating Talmudic discussions; she authoredย Circumventing the Law: Rabbinic Perspectives on Legal Loopholes and Integrityย (pre-order discount code: PENN-ESHAIN30)ย which uses halakhic loopholes as a lens for understanding rabbinic views on law and ethics; and she co-hostsย For Heavenโ€™s Sake, a bi-weekly podcast with Donniel Hartman and Yossi Klein Halevi, exploring contemporary issues related to Israel and the Jewish world.ย Elanaย has also startedย TEXTing; a podcast where she and guest scholars study Torah texts that engage issues of the moment for the Jewish world. She lives in Manhattan with her beloved family.

 


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Beyond the Daf is where you will discover enlightening shiurim led by remarkable women, delving deep into the intricacies of Talmudic teachings, and exploring relevant and thought-provoking topics that arise from the Daf.

Dr. Elana Stein Hain

Dr. Elana Stein Hain is the Rosh Beit Midrash and a senior research fellow at the Shalom Hartman Institute of North America. Passionate about bringing Torah into conversation with contemporary life, she teaches Talmud from the Balcony, an occasional learning seminar exposing the big ideas, questions, and issues motivating talmudic discussions; she authored Circumventing the Law: Rabbinic Perspectives on Legal Loopholes and Integrity (pre-order discount code: PENN-ESHAIN30) which uses halakhic loopholes as a lens for understanding rabbinic views on law and ethics; and she co-hosts For Heavenโ€™s Sake, a bi-weekly podcast with Donniel Hartman and Yossi Klein Halevi, exploring contemporary issues related to Israel and the Jewish world. In mid-January, Elana will be starting a new podcast called TEXTing, where she and guest scholars study Torah texts that engage issues of the moment for the Jewish world. She lives in Manhattan with her beloved family.
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