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Gefet – The Character Portrait of Tavi the Slave of Rabban Gamliel聽– Sukkah 3

Gefet: Gemara Rashi and Tosafot.

Delve into commentaries on the daf in this advanced level shiur with Rabbanit Yael Shimoni.

Disclaimer: you do not have to be a daf learner to study Gefet. The texts are in Hebrew, the class teaching is in English.

Gefet is a collaboration with Drisha Institute.

讘”讛

Gefet 3 – The Character Portrait of Tavi the Slave of Rabban Gamliel聽

We will begin with brachot for finishing the first perek and beginning the second perek of the masechet 鈥 chizku v鈥檌mtzu!聽

Tavi, the slave of Rabban Gamliel is one of the most intriguing characters to appear throughout Shas. In the first Mishna of our new perek, he appears as a source for learning halacha, and as we will see, Rashi and Tosfot both add to the portrait of this unique character.

转诇诪讜讚 讘讘诇讬 诪住讻转 住讜讻讛 讚祝 讻 注诪讜讚 讘

讛讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 讘住讜讻讛 – 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜. 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛: 谞讜讛讙讬谉 讛讬讬谞讜 砖讛讬讬谞讜 讬砖谞讬诐 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 讘驻谞讬 讛讝拽谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 诇谞讜 讚讘专. 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉: 诪注砖讛 讘讟讘讬 注讘讚讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖讛讬讛 讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛, 讜讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讝拽谞讬诐: 专讗讬转诐 讟讘讬 注讘讚讬, 砖讛讜讗 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讜讬讜讚注 砖注讘讚讬诐 驻讟讜专讬谉 诪谉 讛住讜讻讛, 诇驻讬讻讱 讬砖谉 讛讜讗 转讞转 讛诪讟讛. 讜诇驻讬 讚专讻讬谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜 砖讛讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜.

Before we examine the mishna, we will begin with some important information needed for understanding the mishna and the discussion surrounding it. Tavi, the slave of Rabban Gamilel is an 注讘讚 讻谞注谞讬 鈥 a Canaanite slave. This means that we are speaking about a non-Jew who was sold into slavery by another non-Jew, or who sold himself into slavery, or who is the son of a slave who underwent a similar process. An 注讘讚 讻谞注谞讬 is circumcised and undergoes purification in the mikvah for the purposes of his slavery. After this, he is partially obligated in mitzvot, yet he cannot marry a Jewish woman, his children are not attributed to him, and he cannot leave them inheritance. If he is freed, he becomes a full Jew.聽 However, there is a prohibition against freeing slaves, with some special exceptions. The topic of slavery is a very sensitive one which raises many moral questions. For the purposes of this shiur, we will suffice by saying that slavery in the Torah is very different from other institutions of slavery in the world, and as we have mentioned, according to the Torah, the slave is a partial Jew. After this introduction about the laws of slavery, we will turn to the words of Rabban Gamliel about his slave Tavi.聽

” 讜讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讝拽谞讬诐: 专讗讬转诐 讟讘讬 注讘讚讬, 砖讛讜讗 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讜讬讜讚注 砖注讘讚讬诐 驻讟讜专讬谉 诪谉 讛住讜讻讛, 诇驻讬讻讱 讬砖谉 讛讜讗 转讞转 讛诪讟讛.”

The gemara brings one paragraph about this line in the mishna on Daf 21b:

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪注砖讛 讘讟讘讬 注讘讚讜. 转谞讬讗, 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉: 诪砖讬讞转讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇诪讚谞讜 砖谞讬 讚讘专讬诐; 诇诪讚谞讜 砖注讘讚讬诐 驻讟讜专讬诐 诪谉 讛住讜讻讛, 讜诇诪讚谞讜 砖讛讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜. 讜诇讬诪讗 诪讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇? – 诪讬诇转讗 讗讙讘 讗讜专讞讬讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉, 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讗讚讗, 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讗讚讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘: 诪谞讬谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬讞转 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 爪专讬讻讛 诇讬诪讜讚 – 砖谞讗诪专 讜注诇讛讜 诇讗 讬讘讜诇.

From the words of the gemara we can learn a few things: Rabban Gamliel calls Tavi, his slave, a talmid chacham because of his knowledge of two halachot: 1. That a slave is exempt from the mitzvah of sukkah 2. That a person who sleeps under a bed has not fulfilled his obligation. This praise by Rabban Gamliel was not said in the context of beit midrash learning, rather in the context of a conversation between talmidei chachamim, outside the beit midrash. In light of this context, a question arises as to the reading of this line in the mishna – what was the tone in which Rabban Gamliel said this praise about Tavi? Was the statement that Tavi is a talmid chacham said jokingly or seriously? We will examine Rashi on the mishna on Daf 20a:

讜诇驻讬 讚专讻讬谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜 – 讻诇讜诪专, 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 讗诪专 诇谞讜 诇砖诐 转诇诪讜讚 讗诇讗 诇砖讬讞转 讞讜诇讬谉 讘注诇诪讗, 砖讛讬讛 诪砖转讘讞 讘注讘讚讜 诇讘讚讬讞讜转讗 讘注诇诪讗, 诇诪讚谞讜 注诇 驻讬 讚专讱 讘讚讬讞讜转讜 砖讛讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜.

Rashi says that this praise for Tavi by Rabban Gamliel was merely said jokingly. Why does Rashi say this? We will suggest two different answers: 1. Knowledge of these two halachot is considered basic – you don鈥檛 need to be a talmid chacham to know this 2. Relating to a slave as a talmid chacham has an element of humor to it – a talmid chacham is someone extremely learned, and even if Tavi was a special slave, even one with yir鈥檃t shamayim and a love of Torah, he definitely did not reach the level of talmid chacham! After looking at Rashi, we will have a look at Tosfot and see that a different tone arises from their words:聽

转讜住驻讜转 诪住讻转 住讜讻讛 讚祝 讻 注诪讜讚 讘

专讗讬转诐 讟讘讬 注讘讚讬 砖讛讜讗 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 – 注讘讚 讻砖专 讛讬讛 讻讚讗讬转讗 讘驻专拽 砖谞讬 讚讘专讻讜转 (讚祝 讟讝:) 讜讘讬专讜砖诇诪讬 转谞讬 砖讛讬讛 诪谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讜驻专讬讱 诪讞诇驻讗 砖讬讟转讬’ 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚讛讗 讛讻讗 讙讘讬 住讜讻讛 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诪诇讬砖讘 讘住讜讻讛 砖讛专讬 讛讬讛 讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 讜诪砖谞讬 砖讛讬讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 砖诇讗 诇讚讞讜拽 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐 砖讛讬讜 讬砖谞讬诐 讘住讜讻讛 讜驻专讬讱 讗讬 砖诇讗 诇讚讞讜拽 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐 讬砖讘 诇讜 讞讜抓 诇住讜讻讛 讜诪砖谞讬 讚专讜爪讛 讛讬讛 诇砖诪讜注 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐.

The Tosfot open with a statement: Tavi was a 鈥渒osher slave鈥. Tosfot change the term 鈥渢almid chacham” to 鈥渒osher slave鈥, which on the one hand diminishes the praise which Rabban Gamliel gives to his slave, but on the other hand, turns it into something serious and not a joke. This tone is sharpened in light of the second stage in the Tosfot – the quote that is brought from a sugiya in the Yerushalmi. Before we examine the quote, we will mention that this is something which comes up many times in Tosfot. Bringing sugiyot from the Yerushalmi sheds additional light on what is said in the Bavli. By doing this, Tosfot emphasize and remind us of the importance of learning the Yerushalmi and how much it can deepen our understanding. We will now examine the sugiya which is quoted to by the Tosfot:聽

转诇诪讜讚 讬专讜砖诇诪讬 (讜讬诇谞讗) 诪住讻转 住讜讻讛 驻专拽 讘 讛诇讻讛 讗

诪转谞讬’ 讛讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讗”专 讬讛讜讚讛 谞讜讛讙讬谉 讛讬讬谞讜 讬砖讬谞讬诐 转讞转 讛诪讟讜转 讘驻谞讬 讛讝拽谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讗诪专讜 诇谞讜 讚讘专. 讗”专 砖诪注讜谉 诪注砖讛 讘讟讘讬 注讘讚讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖讛讬讛 讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讝拽谞讬诐 专讗讬转诐 讟讘讬 注讘讚讬 砖讛讜讗 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讬讜讚注 砖注讘讚讬诐 驻讟讜专讬谉 诪谉 讛住讜讻讛 讜讬砖谉 诇讜 转讞转 讛诪讟讛. 讜诇驻讬 讚专讻讬谞讜 诇诪讚谞讜 砖讛讬砖谉 转讞转 讛诪讟讛 诇讗 讬爪讗 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜:….. 诪讞诇驻讛 砖讬讟转讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇. 讚转谞讬 讟讘讬 注讘讚讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讛 谞讜转谉 转驻讬诇讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讻讗谉 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚讜. 砖诇讗 诇讚讞讜拽 讗转 讛讞讻诪讬诐. 讗诐 砖诇讗 诇讚讞讜拽 讗转 讛讞讻诪讬诐 讬砖讘 诇讜 讞讜抓 诇住讜讻讛. 专讜爪讛 讛讬讛 讟讘讬 注讘讚讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇砖诪讜注 讚讘专讬 讞讻诪讬诐:

The Yerushalmi raises a difficulty on the words of Rabban Gamliel in the mishna – in our mishna, it sounds like Rabban Gamliel is praising his slave for listening to the chachamim who objected to what Tavi was doing and told him that it is not right for him to take up space in the sukkah when he is not obligated in the mitzvah. However, the Yerushalmi reports that there is a contradicting story where Tavi put on tefillin, yet Rabban Gamliel did not object. What then is the law? Do we object to a slave who does mitzvot that he is not obligated to do or not?聽

In order to solve the contradiction, the Yerushalmi looks closer at the story and says that Tavi slept under the bed not because the chachamim objected to what he was doing, but rather out of his own initiative, in order to make space for the chachamim. In that case, there is no contradiction – if there was room in the rest of the sukka, Tavi would have slept there. He gave up his space not because it isn鈥檛 right for a slave who is not obligated in the mitzvah to perform it, rather because other Jews came, whose obligations were greater than his. In other words, we do not object to a slave performing a mitzvah that is beyond his official obligation.聽

After solving the contradiction, the Yerushalmi asks: why then, did Tavi not exit the sukkah completely, but rather stayed there under the bed? The Yerushalmi answers that Tavi wanted to hear the words of the chachamim, and therefore stayed in the sukkah.聽

This Yerushalmi adds to our portrait of the character of Tavi. He is not just a slave who knows basic halachot, but rather a slave who performs many mitzvot beyond what he is obligated to perform, including tefillin! He is also a slave who is thirsty to hear words of Torah, and is prepared to sit under a bed – to be physically uncomfortable and in a humiliating position, just to hear the conversation of the chachamim in the sukkah.聽

If we compare the tone that arises from Rashi to the tone that arises from Tosfot, we can see that there is an argument between them regarding how we should read the words of Rabban Gamliel. According to Rashi, the description ot Tavi as a talmid chacham was said jokingly, while according to Tosfot, it is a serious expression which describes the special character of a slave who worships Hashem with love and yearning, and who is thirsty for mitzvot, tefilla, and Torah.聽

A Step Beyond Tosfot

The Tosfot created for us an opening to see Tavi in a new light, not just as a good slave, but rather as a slave who is a real 鈥渙ved Hashem鈥, thirsty for mitzvot and Torah. We will continue to examine a number of additional sources which describe a figure who not only loves Torah, but is a real talmid chacham! The next stage in our learning will be done with the help of a commentator on the Yerushalmi, the 注诇讬 转诪专, who sends us to a number of fascinating sugiyot which take us one step further in our getting to know Tavi.聽

The Yerushalmi describes Tavi putting on tefillin and learning Torah. If we look at the Bavli Gittin and Yerushalmi Ketubot, we will see that a slave who puts on tefillin and learns Torah is extremely out of the ordinary.聽

转诇诪讜讚 讘讘诇讬 诪住讻转 讙讬讟讬谉 讚祝 诪 注诪讜讚 讗

讗”专 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬: 注讘讚 砖讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘驻谞讬 专讘讜 – 讬爪讗 诇讞讬专讜转. 诪讬转讬讘讬: 诇讜讛 讛讬诪谞讜 专讘讜, 讗讜 砖注砖讗讜 专讘讜 讗驻讜讟专讜驻讜住, 讗讜 砖讛谞讬讞 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘驻谞讬 专讘讜, 讗讜 砖拽专讗 砖诇砖讛 驻住讜拽讬诐 讘讘讛讻”谞 讘驻谞讬 专讘讜 – 讛”讝 诇讗 讬爪讗 诇讞讬专讜转! 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗: 讻砖专讘讜 讛谞讬讞 诇讜 转驻讬诇讬谉.

The gemara in Gittin raises a contradiction between a statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and a braita. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says that a slave who puts on tefillin goes free, yet the braita says that he doesn’t. The gemara solves the contradiction and says that if the master put the tefillin on the slave, this is an action that shows that he is setting him free. However, a slave who puts on tefillin out of his own initiative doesn鈥檛 go free. This gemara demonstrates that a slave who puts on tefillin can look like a free person! Putting on tefillin has more of a dramatic significance than sitting in the sukkah. A slave whose master sits him in the sukkah does not go free, yet a master who puts tefillin on his slave sets him free. Tefillin is a mitzvah that is also a symbol. What about learning Torah? We will examine the Yerushalmi in Ketubot:

转诇诪讜讚 讬专讜砖诇诪讬 (讜讬诇谞讗) 诪住讻转 讻转讜讘讜转 驻专拽 讘 讛诇讻讛 讬

诪住讬讬注讗 诇讛讛讬讗 讚诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 注讜拽讘讛 讘砖诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讛 讗住讜专 诇讗讚诐 诇诇诪讚 讗转 注讘讚讜 转讜专讛 诇讗 讻谉 讗”专 讝注讬专讗 讘砖诐 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讛注讘讚 注讜诇讛 诪砖讘注讛 拽专讬讬讜转 讜讬讚讘专 注讜诇讛 诪讙’ 驻住讜拽讬诐 转讬驻转专 砖诇诪讚 诪讗讬诇讬讜 讗讜 砖诇诪讚讜 专讘讜 讻讟讘讬.

Mar Ukva brings a statement of Rabbi Yossi b鈥橰abbi Chanina who prohibits a rabbi from teaching his slave Torah! The gemara challenges this statement with the words of Rabbi Yirmiya, who says that a slave can be called up to the Torah. The gemara answers that there isn鈥檛 really a contradiction – a slave can learn Torah if he learns himself, or if he is like Tavi, who was taught by Rabban Gamliel. From this Yerushalmi, we learn that learning Torah is also different from sitting in the sukkah. Learning Torah and putting on tefillin are similar mitzvot in that they both belong to the world of free people. The slave can only perform them out of his own initiative, and if his master initiates it, he has either set him free or transgressed a prohibition.聽

In light of these gemarot, we will go back and examine the character of Tavi. Tavi is not just a 鈥渒osher鈥 slave who is interested in the mitzvah of sukkah. He is a slave who puts on tefillin and learns Torah! More than this, according to the Yerushalmi in Ketubot, Tavi didn鈥檛 only learn out of his own initiative, but Rabban Gamliel also actively taught him. Through this we have understood more and more how Tavi was really exceptional. The Yerushalmi in Ketubot has left us with a riddle – why could Rabban Gamliel actively teach Tavi and not be considered to have transgressed the prohibition? In order to solve this riddle, in the footsteps of the 注诇讬 转诪专, we will look in Masechet Yoma and in the Rambam in Hilchot Sanhedrin.

转诇诪讜讚 讘讘诇讬 诪住讻转 讬讜诪讗 讚祝 驻讝 注诪讜讚 讗

讗砖专讬讛诐 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐, 诇讗 讚讬讬谉 砖讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诇讗 砖诪讝讻讬谉 诇讘谞讬讛诐 讜诇讘谞讬 讘谞讬讛诐 注讚 住讜祝 讻诇 讛讚讜专讜转. 砖讻诪讛 讘谞讬诐 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讗讛专谉 砖专讗讜讬讬谉 诇讬砖专祝 讻谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗, 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讜转专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖注诪讚 诇讛诐 讝讻讜转 讗讘讬讛诐. 讗讜讬 诇讛诐 诇专砖注讬诐, 诇讗 讚讬讬谉 砖诪讞讬讬讘讬谉 注爪诪谉 讗诇讗 砖诪讞讬讬讘讬谉 诇讘谞讬讛诐 讜诇讘谞讬 讘谞讬讛诐 注讚 住讜祝 讻诇 讛讚讜专讜转. 讛专讘讛 讘谞讬诐 讛讬讜 诇讜 诇讻谞注谉 砖专讗讜讬讬谉 诇讬住诪讱, 讻讟讘讬, 注讘讚讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇, 讗诇讗 砖讞讜讘转 讗讘讬讛诐 讙专诪讛 诇讛谉.

The gemara in Yoma claims that Tavi was worthy of being appointed to the Sanhedrin, but the sin of Cham prevented this from happening. Here, Tavi isn鈥檛 just described as a slave who knows basic halachot, and also not as a slave who only loves Torah and mitzvot, rather as a slave who was worthy of being appointed to the Sanhedrin! In order to understand the power of this formulation on Yoma, we will turn to the Rambam in Hilchot Sanhedrin, who describes what is required for a person to be considered worthy of being appointed to the Sanhedrin, and through this, we will understand what kind of a person Tavi was.聽

专诪讘”诐 讛诇讻讜转 住谞讛讚专讬谉 驻专拽 讚

讜讬砖 诇讛谉 诇诪谞讜转 讻诇 诪讬 砖讬专爪讜 诇讚讘专讬诐 讬讞讬讚讬诐, 讜讛讜讗 砖讬讛讬讛 专讗讜讬 诇讻诇 讛讚讘专讬诐, 讻讬爪讚 讞讻诐 诪讜驻诇讗 砖专讗讜讬 诇讛讜专讜转 诇讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛

The Rambam says that in order to merit being appointed to the Sanhedrin even in one halachic area, he needs to be an outstanding chacham who is able to teach the entire Torah.聽

In light of these gemarot, we will return to the words of Rabban Gamliel and will suggest the following reading: when Rabban Gamliel says that Tavi is a talmid chacham, he means this in the fullest sense of the term. Tavi was worthy of being appointed to the Sanhedrin, he was practically a free person, he learned Torah in the fullest way, and put on tefillin. This reading leaves us with one large question – why did he not go free? Discussion of this question is beyond the scope of this shiur and so we will leave it open, but will summarize what we have seen.聽

Summary:

Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 praise of Tavi, his slave, can be read in different ways. We saw two tones in the rishonim, and another tone in the acharonim in the interpretation of the 注诇讬 转诪专 who based his reading on other gemarot in the Bavli and Yerushalmi, and on the Rambam.聽

  1. Rashi read Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 words in a joking tone. He did not mean to say that Tavi was really a talmid chacham in the real sense of the term, and this fits with the wording on Daf 21 which describes Rabban Gamliel speaking in the context of regular conversation.聽
  2. Tosfot sent us to the parallel Yerushalmi where Tavi is described as putting on tefillin and searching for conversations and teachings of the talmidei chachamim. According to Tosfot he was a 鈥渒osher slave鈥, meaning that calling him a talmid chacham was something serious and not a joke. It is a description of a person who is yearning and who searches for mitzvot and Torah beyond his obligation.聽
  3. The 注诇讬 转诪专 sent us to a number of additional sources which emphasize that putting on tefillin and learning Torah are not just signs of a 鈥渒osher鈥 person when a slave does them, rather they symbolize that the slave is practically free. Furthermore, we saw that Tavi was not just a talmid chacham in the sense of a person who learns well and longs for this, rather that he could have been one of the chachamim of the Sanhedrin had he not been a slave! We were left with the question of why he did not go free, and this is where we stopped.聽

We have therefore seen that the character of Tavi is one that is full of wonders and surprises. At first glance we saw a slave who stood out among slaves and at the end, saw in front of us a chacham from the chachamim of the Sanhedrin – almost.聽

(Translated by Daphna Ansel-Nizan)

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(1) Rabbi Yissachar Tamar was born in Poland in 1896. He learned in yeshivot in Poland and Galicia, and when the first world war broke out, he moved to Germany and England, where he acted as Rabbi in many communities. In 1933 he moved to Eretz Yisrael and was a rabbi in Tel Aviv. From childhood he loved the Yerushalmi and over the years wrote notes and many perushim on it which were compiled into an extensive commentary called 鈥溩⒆溩 转诪专鈥. This is not a sequential commentary, rather a wide collection of comments of all kinds – 诇诪讚谞讬, halachic, historical, linguistic, and academic, in the order of the dapim of all of the mashechtot of the Yerushalmi. His son in law, Rabbi Avraham Tzvi Rabinovitz compiled the book. Rabbi Tamar died in 1982. The first volume of 注诇讬 转诪专 was published during his lifetime, in 1979, and six other volumes were published after his death. The perush on Zeraim, Moed, and Nashim were put into the Responsa Project of Bar Ilan University, from where this biography was taken.聽

Rabbanit Yael Shimoni

Rabbanit Shimoni has learned at Migdal Oz, Matan, and the Susi Bradfield Women鈥檚 Institute for Halakhic Leadership at Midreshet Lindenbaum. She holds a BFA from Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design and a BEd in Torah Shebe鈥檃l Peh and Jewish Thought from Herzog College. She is currently studying towards an MA in Jewish Thought Education at Herzog College. Rabbanit Shimoni taught gemara and halakha at Pelech High School and served as a ramit for shana bet at Migdal Oz. She directs Meshivat Nefesh, the online responsa program of the rabbaniyot of Beit Hillel. She is also a plastic artist and member of 鈥淎 Studio of Her Own.
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