Overview by Susan Suna
Daf 46 is the intersection between Halachic development and modern day practice. We know what Brachot we say and when, but how was Halacha developed? What were the differing opinions? The Daf starts with the question of when does one say שהחיינו – is it when one assembles their Lulav or builds their Sukkah or is it on the holiday itself when one is obligated in the Mitzvah and one says the שהחיינו along with the Bracha for that Mitzvah. In addition the question of how often one says Brachat HaMitzah on the Lulav and Sukkah is investigated.
To answer the latter question the Daf zooms in on the blessing for Tefillin. Rebbi says that one says the Bracha on Tefillin each time one puts on Tefillin, while Rabanan say that a Bracha is only said in the morning. The story of Rava illustrates how he followed Rebbi and that each time he removed and then rewrapped his Tefillin on himself, he said the Bracha. The students of Rav Ashi said the Bracha each time they touched their Tefillin. Learning from Tefillin to Sukkah – it would indicate that each time we sit in the Sukkah one would say the Blessing.
The discussion moves forward to question how can one say that Hashem commanded us each day of Sukkot as we bless the Lulav if taking the Lulav all seven days is a Rabbinic edict outside the Mikdash? The example of Hanukkah is given as a similar instance of saying a blessing on a Rabbinic edict and two answers are given. Both are from Sefer Devarim: לא תסור – do not deviate from the teachings of the Rabbis and שאל אביך ויגדך זקנך ויאמרו לך – and ask your father and elders and they will teach you.
We conclude this discussion with Rav Ashi saying that he observed Rav Kahana making both the blessing on the Sukkah and שהחיינו when he said Kiddush and that is what we do today.
Amud b focuses on the end of Sukkot – when does the Mitzvah of Etrog and Sukkah end thereby allowing for the eating of the Etrog and prohibiting enjoyment from the Sukkah. Reish L’Kish looks at the Etrog as being set aside for the Mitzvah of the four species and once the Mitzvah has been completed on the seventh day, the Etrog can be eaten. Rebbi Yochanan looks at the Etrog as being מוקצה למצותו for the full seventh day, so it is only on the eighth day that one can eat the Etrog. The Etrogim that belonged to the children it seems can be eaten immediately following its use for the Mitzvah on the seventh day. Rav Asi follows Rav Yochanan and that is the Halacha stated by the Rambam. For those outside of Israel, the Halacha is established like Abayee that only on the ninth day would the Etrog be permitted to be eaten.
The Sukkah is in a different category as it can still be used during twilight on the seven day and therefore it is considered מוקצה למצותה even on the eighth day, Shemini Atzeret, as it was not permissible to use when the holiday began. The daf ands with the Gemara investigating whether one sits in the Sukkah on Shemini Atzeret and what Bracha would be said on the eighth day.
Teachers: Yehudit Epstein and Dena Rock