לזכות לרפואה שלמה לרחל בת גולדה מארים שתחי’ בתוך שאר חולי ישראל
Jewish men are required to visit the Bet HaMikdash three times a year- on Sukkot, Pesach and Shavuot. This mitzva is known as Aliyah le’Regel, and is specified in Shemot 23:17
|שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כׇּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶל־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן ה’׃||Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Sovereign, the LORD.|
and in Devarim 16:16-17
|שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כׇל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי ה’ אֱ–לֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר בְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת וּבְחַג הַשָּׁבֻעוֹת וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי ה’ רֵיקָם׃
אִישׁ כְּמַתְּנַת יָדוֹ כְּבִרְכַּת ה’ אֱ–לֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לָךְ׃
|Three times a year—on the Feast of Unleavened Bread, on the Feast of Weeks, and on the Feast of Booths—all your males shall appear before the LORD your God in the place that He will choose. They shall not appear before the LORD empty-handed, but each with his own gift, according to the blessing that the LORD your God has bestowed upon you.|
When this pilgrimage is made, so as not to be “empty-handed,” three korbanot are offered by each person:
- Olat Re’iyah (burnt offering of appearance). This is often called re’iyah. It is an olah offering, and thus completely burned on the mizbeach. Ideally, this korban was offered on the first day of the holiday; if one failed to do so, it could be brought on any day of the chag, as we will learn on 9a.
- Shalmei Chagiga (peace offering of celebration). This is often called chagigah, as in the name of our masechta. As a shelamim, it is “shared” between the mizbeach (where certain organs and fats are burned), the owner, his family and guests (who celebrate a festive meal), and the kohanim (who receive the chest and the right thigh). This korban should also be brought on the first day, and has a “make-up period” of the rest of the chag as well.
- Shalmei Simcha (peace offering of joy). As we learned in Pesachim (109a), the requirement to be in a state of joy during the chagim is fulfilled by eating the meat of korbanot until satiated. So that there is enough sanctified meat, these “supplemental” shelamim are offered. The division of the korban is the same as that of the chagiga. We will learn (7b) that if someone has other korbanot to offer, he does not have to offer these; their purpose is to ensure that there is a supply of sanctified meat throughout the chag.
Tuma and Tahara
Since a person must be in a state of tahara in order to offer a korban, after discussing the laws of these korbanot, the last 10 dapim focus on the laws of tuma and tahara. Tuma varies as to its severity and transmissibility. It is important to note that tuma is really only relevant when dealing with teruma, the Bet HaMikdash or sanctified items. However, there were people known as chaverim who were meticulous about tuma and tahara even when not involved in these categories.
There are varying levels of tuma. In general, each time a person/object comes in contact with a level of tuma, (s)he/it acquires the status of one level “down” (less stringent).
- The most severe type of tuma is a human corpse and is known as avi avot hatuma. This tuma is transmitted via:
- Being carried
- Being in a “tent”
- One level down is the av hatuma, which can be someone who touched a human corpse, a neveila (carcass of an animal that died in any manner except via shechita), a dead sheretz (one of eight species of creeping animals listed in Vayikra 11:29-30), a person who is a zav, zava, or nidda, or a yoledet (woman who has given birth). This tuma is transmitted:
- To a person or vessel by contact
- To a person who carries it even without direct contact
- The clothes of the person also become tamei
- An object that is affected by an av hatuma becomes a rishon letuma. By Torah law, people or vessels cannot contract tuma from a The tuma “chain” for them stops here.
- However, food items can acquire further levels of Any food which touches a rishon becomes a sheini letuma. By Rabbinic decree, liquids, however, become a rishon. If the food is not sanctified or consecrated (and is therefore known as chullin), the chain stops here and the food is known as passul (disqualified). But, if a sheini touches sanctified food, such as teruma or kodesh, the chain of transmission continues.
- If a sheini touches teruma, it becomes shelishi letuma. The chain for teruma ends here; it can only transmit tuma to kodesh.
- Kodesh (sacrifices) can become revii letuma. Their chain stops here.
- There is also a unique case of chamishi letuma, which only applies to the Para Aduma.
|Tuma statuses past sheini are Rabbinic, not Torah-based.
The Rabbis also decreed that holy books and unwashed hands have the status of a sheini.
What can contract tuma?
There are four categories:
- Adam: People
- Keilim: Utensils, including clothing
- Ochlin: Foods
- Mashkin: According to the Rambam, only seven liquids qualify as beverages. These are known by the acronym יד שחט דם:
- Yayin – wine
- Dvash – honey
- Shemen – olive oil
- Chalav – milk
- Tal – dew
- Dam – blood
- Mayim – water
|Food is only susceptible to tuma if it has been touched by one of these seven liquids, even after it has dried. This is known as hechsher tuma (preparation for tuma).|
The process for purification of a person or vessel generally involves immersion in a mikve. Once a person has immersed, s/he no longer contaminates non-sanctified food (chullin) and may also eat maser sheini (the second tithe). However, s/he must wait for nightfall (ha’arev shemesh) in order to touch teruma or kodshim. During the interval between immersion and nightfall, the person is known as a t’vul yom (immersed in the day) and can make teruma or kodshim into a shlishi by touching it.
If a person is required to offer a korban as part of his/her purification process, that is offered on the day following immersion. Between nightfall after the mikve and the sacrifice, the person is known as mechusar kippurim (lacking [complete] atonement), and will make kodesh into a revii if it is touched.
Structure of the Masechta
|2a-11b||Basic obligation to be oleh regel
The holiday korbanot
Esoteric areas of the Torah which are explained by the Rabbis
|11b-20b||Matters which may not be taught in public
How korbanot are offered on the holiday
The differences in the laws of tuma and tahara as they apply to non-sanctified items, teruma, and items from the Bet HaMikdash
|20b-27a||The higher standard for sanctified items beyond teruma
The leniencies applied to tuma and tahara in Jerusalem, especially during chagim
|From the Mussaf Amida:|
אֱלהֵינוּ וֵאלהֵי אֲבותֵינוּ…מֶלֶךְ רַחֲמָן רַחֵם עָלֵינוּ. טוב וּמֵטִיב הִדָּרֶשׁ לָנוּ. שׁוּבָה אֵלֵינוּ בַּהֲמון רַחֲמֶיךָ. בִּגְלַל אָבות שֶׁעָשוּ רְצונֶךָ. בְּנֵה בֵיתְךָ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה וְכונֵן מִקְדָּשְׁךָ עַל מְכונו. וְהַרְאֵנוּ בְּבִנְיָנו וְשמְּחֵנוּ בְּתִקּוּנו. וְהָשֵׁב כּהֲנִים לַעֲבודָתָם וּלְוִיִּם לְשִׁירָם וּלְזִמְרָם. וְהָשֵׁב יִשרָאֵל לִנְוֵיהֶם. וְשָׁם נַעֲלֶה וְנֵרָאֶה וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְפָנֶיךָ בְּשָׁלשׁ פַּעֲמֵי רְגָלֵינוּ כַּכָּתוּב בְּתורָתֶךָ. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָל זְכוּרְךָ אֶת פְּנֵי ה’ אֱלהֶיךָ בַּמָּקום אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר. בְּחַג הַמַּצּות. וּבְחַג הַשָּׁבֻעות. וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּות. וְלא יֵרָאֶה אֶת פְּנֵי ה’ רֵיקָם. אִישׁ כְּמַתְּנַת יָדו כְּבִרְכַּת ה’ אֱלהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָךְ:
|Our God and God of our ancestors, O Merciful King, have mercy on us; O good and beneficent One, be accessible to us; return to us in Your abundant mercy, for the sake of the forefathers who did Your will. Rebuild Your House as it was originally, and establish Your Sanctuary on its predestined site. Show us its rebuilding and gladden us in its perfection. Restore the kohanim to their service, and the leviim to their song and music, and restore all of Israel to their homes. And there we will ascend and appear and bow down before You, during our three pilgrimage festivals, as is written in Your Torah: “Three times a year shall all your males appear before Hashem, your God, in the place that He will choose – on the holiday of the matzot, and on the holiday of Shavuot, and on the holiday of Sukkot – and they shall not appear before God empty-handed. Each one according to the gift of his hand, according to the blessing of Hashem, your God, that He has given you.”|
 Since Shavuot is only one day, the “compensatory” time period was the full week; this is the source of the custom not to say Tachanun for a week after Shavuot.
 Now that we do not have a Bet HaMikdash, the mitzva of rejoicing is fulfilled by giving pleasure (Pesachim 109a): Men drink wine and eat meat, women wear new clothes and jewelry.
 Their polar opposites, people who were not careful about tuma and tahara even when required, as well as lax in several other areas of halacha, were known as amei ha’aretz. The Rabbis decreed that all amei ha’aretz should be regarded as tamei – but only OUTSIDE the Bet HaMikdash.
 Also a metal utensil which touched the corpse, and the tombstone and stones which support it (golel udofek).
 Literally, “the father of the fathers of tuma”
 There are rabbinic additions to the mode of transmission: beit hapras, a place where non-Jews live, land outside Israel, and a “chain of contact” where several people are holding on to each other and one is touching the corpse.
 Literally, “the father of tuma”
 וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃ וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃
The following shall be unclean for you from among the things that swarm on the earth: the mole, the mouse, and great lizards of every variety; the gecko, the land crocodile, the lizard, the sand lizard, and the chameleon.
 There are additional modes of transmission for a person experiencing some type of discharge: Contact, being moved by them, moving them (even if not in direct contact), lying or sitting on them, leaning or hanging on them or a heavy immoveable stone over them. Also, bodily fluids carry different levels of transmission.
 Literally, “first degree of tuma”
 A metal object that comes in contact with a HUMAN rishon is a rishon.
 Literally, “second degree of tuma”
 Even if it came in contact with a sheini
 Literally, “third degree of tuma”
 So it is known as passul.
 Literally, “fourth degree of tuma”
 Literally, “fifth degree of tuma”
 Raavad holds that all fruit juices are included
 Eaten in Jerusalem; separated on the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the Shemitta cycle.
 Tuma which arises from an “irregularity” in the body – zav, zava, leper and a woman who has given birth.
 Included here because the laws of the holiday korbanot are only alluded to in the Torah, and explained by the Rabbis