In the Daf Yomi, we see many interesting discussions about ancient vessels and other types of furnishings and tools. An excellent resource is the Israel Antiquities Authority website which can be searched by time period and object name.
Here is the link. http://www.antiquities.org.il/t/PeriodsList_en.aspx
So, for example, if you search for lamp or נר in the Roman/Byzantine period, you will find pictures such as these:
But a lantern (עשישית) looks like this:
Here’s something useful I found on the website: https://www.simpletoremember.com/articles/a/talmud-history/
The text of the Mishna is quoting rabbis who lived from about 100 BCE to 200 CE. The Gemara is quoting the rabbis who lived from about 200 CE to about 500 CE. The surrounding text of today’s Talmud also quotes Rishonim, literally “the first ones,” rabbinic authorities (from c. 1,000 C.E. until 1,500 C.E.).
This means that we will frequently encounter words for vessels and garments and foods and all types of products from a very large period in history, and words in Hebrew, Greek, Persian, Latin, Aramaic and even Akkadian (the ancient language of Mesopotamia—written in cuneiform inscriptions on clay!) See below.
So, the Rabbis, in addition to studying Jewish law, had to be archaeologists and linguists! Sometimes they were referring to vessels in use during their own lives, but often, they had to know what a jug, a bowl, an oven, or a cloth looked like in the times of Abraham, Moses or David. I will do my best to find relevant research on some of these topics!
P.S. Here is a picture of a metal ring with a stone signet, as mentioned on Daf 52. (All images in this post are copyrighted by the Israel Antiquities Authority)
Object’s Name: Signet Ring Human/Semi-Divine/Divine Images
Period: Late Roman
Site: American Colony Tombs-1940
Diameter: 2.5 cm
Description: Man and woman holding hands