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Today's Daf Yomi

September 11, 2014 | ื˜ืดื– ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืขืดื“

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Chagigah 3

ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ืœื ืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืœื ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืžื—ื” ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืืžื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ื“ืคื˜ื™ืจื™ ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืฉืžื—ื” ื“ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™

they are obligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor are all exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to the mitzva of appearance, that a deaf person and a mute are exempt from this mitzva? And what is different with regard to the mitzva of rejoicing, that they are obligated?

ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ื’ืžืจ ืจืื™ื” ืจืื™ื” ืžื”ืงื”ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืงื”ืœ ืืช ื”ืขื ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืฃ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืจืื•ืช

The Gemara explains: With regard to their exemption from the obligation of appearance, the tanna derives this halakha by means of a verbal analogy between the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly, i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical Year. As it is written, with regard to the mitzva of assembly: โ€œAssemble the people, the men and the women and the little onesโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:12), and it is written in that context: โ€œWhen all of Israel come to appearโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.

ื•ื”ืชื ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ืคืจื˜ ืœืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ืคืจื˜ ืœืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžื“ื‘ืจ

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to the mitzva of assembly, from where do we derive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? As it is written there: โ€œThat they may hear, and that they may learnโ€ (Deuteronomy 31:12), and it is taught in a baraita that the phrase โ€œthat they may hearโ€ excludes one who speaks but does not hear; and the phrase โ€œand that they may learnโ€ excludes one who hears but does not speak, as he is unable to learn.

ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืœื ื’ืžืจ ื•ื”ื ื”ื ื”ื• ืชืจื™ ืื™ืœืžื™ ื“ื”ื•ื• ื‘ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ื•ื“ื’ื“ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื—ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื›ืœ ืื™ืžืช ื“ื”ื•ื” ืขื™ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ื”ื•ื• ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ื•ื™ืชื‘ื™ ืงืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืžื ื™ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืžืจื—ืฉื™ืŸ ืฉืคื•ื•ืชื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one who is not able to speak is not able to learn? But consider the following incident. There were two mute people who were in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. They were the sons of the daughter of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Gudgeda, and some say that they were the sons of the sister of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Gudgeda. Whenever Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would enter the study hall they would also enter and sit before the Sages, and they would nod their heads as if they understood and move their lips.

ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื—ืžื™ ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืื™ืชืกื• ื•ืืฉืชื›ื— ื“ื”ื•ื• ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืกืคืจื ื•ืกืคืจื™ ื•ื›ื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื

And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi prayed for God to have mercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learned and were proficient in halakha, i.e., Mishna; Sifra, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; Sifrei, the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; and the entire Talmud. This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื•ื“ืื™ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืœื ื’ืžืจ ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืฉืžืข ืœื ื’ืžืจ

Mar Zutra said that one should read into the verse: That they may teach [yelamdu], instead of: โ€œThat they may learn [yilmedu]โ€ (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. Rav Ashi said that the verse is certainly to be read: That they may teach. As, if it enters your mind that one should read: โ€œThat they may learn,โ€ as it is written, and you will explain that since he is not able to speak he is not able to learn, and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that since he is not able to hear he is not able to learn, you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: โ€œThat they may hear,โ€ not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.

ื”ืื™ ืžืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื ืคืงื ืืœื ื•ื“ืื™ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื”ื•ื

However, this is incorrect, for if so, this exemption of a mute could also be derived from: โ€œThat they may hear,โ€ as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. Rather, the verse is certainly to be read as: โ€œThat they may teach,โ€ which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ื—ืจืฉ ื‘ืื–ื ื• ืื—ืช ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื

Rabbi Tanแธฅum said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple, as it is stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly: โ€œWhen all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel in their earsโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this halakha applies to the mitzva of appearance as well.

ื•ื”ืื™ ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื ืžื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื ื“ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื ืคืงื ืื™ ืžื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืœื ืฉืžืขื™ ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉืžืขื™

The Gemara asks: But this phrase: โ€œIn their ears,โ€ is necessary to teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter the ears of the entire Jewish people. Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the halakha concerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, is derived from the phrase: โ€œBefore all Israelโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:11). The Gemara asks: If that halakha were derived from: โ€œBefore all Israel,โ€ I would say that the mitzva applies even though they cannot hear; therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œIn their ears,โ€ and that indicates that they must be able to hear. If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the halakha of someone who is deaf in one ear.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื ืคืงื

The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the people must hear, is derived from: โ€œThat they may hearโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:12). Therefore, the phrase: โ€œIn their ears,โ€ is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ื—ื™ื’ืจ ื‘ืจื’ืœื• ืื—ืช ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจื’ืœื™ื

Rabbi Tanแธฅum said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is stated: โ€œThree times [regalim] shall you keep a feast for Me in the yearโ€ (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is raglayim, it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of oneโ€™s legs.

ื•ื”ื ืจื’ืœื™ื ืžื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืคืจื˜ ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ืงื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืคืขืžื™ื ื ืคืงื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืคืขืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืคืขืžื™ื ืืœื ืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชืจืžืกื ื” ืจื’ืœ ืจื’ืœื™ ืขื ื™ ืคืขืžื™ ื“ืœื™ื ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืžื” ื™ืคื• ืคืขืžื™ืš ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืช ื ื“ื™ื‘

The Gemara asks: But the term โ€œregalimโ€ is necessary to exclude people with artificial legs. Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: That halakha is derived from: โ€œThree occasions [peโ€™amim] in the year all your males will appear before the Lord Godโ€ (Exodusย 23:17). The term peโ€™amim can also mean legs, as it is taught in a baraita, with regard to the term โ€œpeโ€™amimโ€: Peโ€™amim means nothing other than legs. And so it says: โ€œThe foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps [paโ€™amei] of the needyโ€ (Isaiah 26:6), and it says: โ€œHow beautiful are your feet [feโ€™amayikh] in sandals, daughter of the princeโ€ (Song of Songs 7:2).

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื” ื™ืคื• ืคืขืžื™ืš ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืช ื ื“ื™ื‘ ื›ืžื” ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื’ืœื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœืจื’ืœ ื‘ืช ื ื“ื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ืฉื ืงืจื ื ื“ื™ื‘ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื“ื™ื‘ื™ ืขืžื™ื ื ืืกืคื• ืขื ืืœื”ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœื”ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ืœื ืืœื”ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืœื ืืœื”ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื’ืจื™ื

With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œHow beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince [nadiv]โ€? How pleasant are the feet [raglehen] of the Jewish people when they ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival [regel]. โ€œDaughter of the princeโ€: this is referring to the daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: โ€œThe princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abrahamโ€ (Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only โ€œthe God of Abraham,โ€ and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather, the verse mentions โ€œthe God of Abraham,โ€ as he was the first of the converts. Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called โ€œthe princes of the peoples.โ€

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ ื ืชืŸ ื‘ืจ ืžื ื™ื•ืžื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ืจืง ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžื™ื ืžืžืฉืžืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ืจืง ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžื™ื ืืœื ืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืื‘ืœ ื ื—ืฉื™ื ื•ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื•

The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tanแธฅum. Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tanแธฅum: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Joseph: โ€œAnd they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in itโ€ (Genesis 37:24). By inference from that which is stated: โ€œAnd the pit was empty,โ€ donโ€™t I know that there was no water in it? Rather, this teaches that there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื—ืกืžื ืฉื”ืœื›ื• ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืคืงื™ืขื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื” ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ืš ืื ื• ื•ืžื™ืžื™ืš ืื ื• ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื‘ืœื ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ

ยง The Sages taught: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben แธคisma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Pekiโ€™in. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drink from your water, i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? He said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty.

ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืžื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ื’ื“ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ื•ืžื” ื“ืจืฉ ื‘ื”

He asked them: Whose week was it, i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: It was Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryaโ€™s week. He inquired: And on what subject was the lecture today? They said to him: He spoke about the portion of the mitzva of assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: And what verse did he interpret homiletically with regard to this mitzva?

ื”ืงื”ืœ ืืช ื”ืขื ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืฃ ืื ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืื™ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืื•ืช ืœืฉืžื•ืข ื˜ืฃ ืœืžื” ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ืœืžื‘ื™ืื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžืจื’ืœื™ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ื“ื›ื ื•ื‘ืงืฉืชื ืœืื‘ื“ื” ืžืžื ื™

They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: โ€œAssemble the people, the men and the women and the little onesโ€ (Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: If men come to learn, and women, who might not understand, come at least to hear, why do the little ones come? They come in order for God to give a reward to those who bring them, i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This good pearl of wisdom was in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me?

ื•ืขื•ื“ ื“ืจืฉ ืืช ื”ืณ ื”ืืžืจืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ืณ ื”ืืžื™ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ื

Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben แธคisma said to him: Additionally, Rabbi Elazar interpreted the following verses homiletically: โ€œYou have affirmed, this day, that the Lord is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordinances, and listen to His voice. And the Lord has affirmed you, this day, to be His treasure, asHe promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvotโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:17โ€“18).

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืชื ืขืฉื™ืชื•ื ื™ ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ื™ ืืขืฉื” ืืชื›ื ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืืชื ืขืฉื™ืชื•ื ื™ ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืณ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื ื™ ืืขืฉื” ืืชื›ื ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉื ืืžืจ

Rabbi Elazar explained: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entityย in the world, as you singled Me out as separate and unique. And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: โ€œHear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is Oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:4). And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated:

ื•ืžื™ ื›ืขืžืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื•ื™ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืืจืฅ

โ€œAnd who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?โ€ (Iย Chronicles 17:21).

ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ืคืชื— ื•ื“ืจืฉ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ื“ืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื•ื›ืžืฉืžืจื•ืช ื ื˜ื•ืขื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืกืคื•ืช ื ืชื ื• ืžืจื•ืขื” ืื—ื“ ืœืžื” ื ืžืฉืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืœื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืžื” ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื–ื” ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืคืจื” ืœืชืœืžื™ื” ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื›ื•ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืืช ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžื“ืจื›ื™ ืžื™ืชื” ืœื“ืจื›ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื™ ืžื” ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื–ื” ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœ ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืžืฉืžืจื•ืช

The Gemara adds: And Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya also commenced his lecture and taught: It is written: โ€œThe words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are those that are composed in collections; they are given from one shepherdโ€ (Ecclesiastes 12:11). Why are matters of Torah compared to a goad? To tell you that just as this goad directs the cow to her furrow to bring forth sustenance for life to the world, so too the words of Torah direct those who study them from the paths of death to the paths of life. The Gemara asks: If so, derive the following from that same analogy: Just as this goad is movable and not rigid, so too matters of Torah are movable in accordance with circumstance and are not permanent. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œNails,โ€ which are permanent.

ืื™ ืžื” ืžืกืžืจ ื–ื” ื—ืกืจ ื•ืœื ื™ืชืจ ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื—ืกื™ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื™ืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื ื˜ื•ืขื™ื ืžื” ื ื˜ื™ืขื” ื–ื• ืคืจื” ื•ืจื‘ื” ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืกืคื•ืช ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืคื•ืช ืืกื•ืคื•ืช ื•ืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื”ืœืœื• ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžื˜ื”ืจื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืคื•ืกืœื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ

The Gemara further asks: If so, one can explain as follows: Just as this nail is diminished in size and does not expand, as it wastes away over time, so too matters of Torah are gradually diminished and do not expand. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œWell fastened [netuim].โ€ Just as this plant [netiโ€™a] flourishes and multiplies, so too matters of Torah flourish and multiply. โ€œThose that are composed in collections [baโ€™alei asufot]โ€: These are Torah scholars who sit in many groups [asupot] and engage in Torah study. There are often debates among these groups, as some of these Sages render an object or person ritually impure and these render it pure; these prohibit an action and these permit it; these deem an item invalid and these deem it valid.

ืฉืžื ื™ืืžืจ ืื“ื ื”ื™ืืš ืื ื™ ืœืžื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืžืขืชื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื ื ืชื ื• ืžืจื•ืขื” ืื—ื“ ืืœ ืื—ื“ ื ืชื ืŸ ืคืจื ืก ืื—ื“ ืืžืจืŸ ืžืคื™ ืื“ื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืฉื™ื ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœื”ื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื”

Lest a person say: Now, how can I study Torah when it contains so many different opinions? The verse states that they are all โ€œgiven from one shepherd.โ€ One God gave them; one leader, i.e., Moses, said them from the mouth of the Master of all creation, Blessed be He, as it is written: โ€œAnd God spoke all these wordsโ€ (Exodusย 20:1). The plural form โ€œwordsโ€ indicates that God transmitted all the interpretations of the Ten Commandments. Since the Sages invariably utilize the Torah itself or the statements of the prophets as the sources for their opinions, there is a certain unity to the study of Torah, despite the numerous explanations and applications.

ืืฃ ืืชื” ืขืฉื” ืื–ื ื™ืš ื›ืืคืจื›ืกืช ื•ืงื ื” ืœืš ืœื‘ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืฉืžื•ืข ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื˜ืžืื™ื ื•ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื˜ื”ืจื™ื ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ื•ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืคื•ืกืœื™ืŸ ื•ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจ ื™ืชื•ื ืฉืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืฉืจื•ื™ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื•

So too you, the student, make your ears like a funnel and acquire for yourself an understanding heart to hear both the statements of those who render objects ritually impure and the statements of those who render them pure; the statements of those who prohibit actions and the statements of those who permit them; the statements of those who deem items invalid and the statements of those who deem them valid. When Rabbi Yehoshua heard these interpretations, he said to them in these words: No generation is considered orphaned, i.e. without a leader, if Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya dwells among it.

ื•ืœื™ืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื ืžืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืจืžืกืงื™ืช ืฉื”ืœืš ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ (ืืœืขื–ืจ) ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžื” ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื

The Gemara asks: But Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben แธคisma should have told Rabbi Yehoshua these statements of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya directly, without delay. Why did they hesitate at first? The Gemara answers: They were hesitant due to an incident that occurred. As it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit, who went to greet Rabbi Eliezer in Lod. Rabbi Elazar said to him: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืžื ื• ื•ื’ืžืจื• ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit said to him: The Sages assembled, counted the votes, and concluded that although the lands of Ammon and Moab on the eastern side of the Jordan River are not part of Eretz Yisrael, and therefore the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year and tithes should not apply to them, as these lands are adjacent to Eretz Yisrael, one separates the poor manโ€™s tithe there in the Sabbatical Year. Since the Sages debated which tithes should be separated, they had to take a vote to determine the halakha in this regard.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื™ื•ืกื™ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื™ื“ื™ืš ื•ืงื‘ืœ ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืคืฉื˜ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืงื‘ืœ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ื›ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืกื•ื“ ื”ืณ ืœื™ืจืื™ื• ื•ื‘ืจื™ืชื• ืœื”ื•ื“ื™ืขื

Rabbi Elazar said to him in anger: Yosei, extend your hands and catch your eyes, which are about to come out of their sockets. He extended his hands and caught his eyes. Rabbi Elazar wept and said the verse: โ€œThe counsel of the Lord is with them who fear Him; and His covenant, to make them know itโ€ (Psalmsย 25:14), i.e., the Sages arrived at the correct conclusion, although they were unaware of the proper rationale behind it.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืœืš ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื ืืœ ืชื—ื•ืฉื• ืœืžื ื™ื™ื ื›ื ื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ืฉืฉืžืข ืžืจื‘ื• ื•ืจื‘ื• ืžืจื‘ื• ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžื” ื˜ืขื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื›ื‘ืฉื• ืขื•ืœื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ

Rabbi Elazar said to Rabbi Yosei to go and say to the Sages in the study hall: Do not be concerned with regard to your counting, that you might not have ruled properly, as you have not in fact instituted a new ordinance at all. This is the tradition that I received from Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai, who heard from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher: It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai that in Ammon and Moab one separates the poor manโ€™s tithe in the Sabbatical Year. What is the reason? Those who ascended from Egypt conquered many cities, and those who ascended from Babylonia did not conquer them after the destruction of the First Temple.

ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืงื“ืฉื” ืœืฉืขืชื” ื•ืœื ืงื“ืฉื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืกืžื›ื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

This difference is important, because the first consecration of Eretz Yisrael, by those who ascended from Egypt, caused it to be sanctified only for its time and it was not sanctified forever, as that depended on the renewed conquest of the land by the Jewish people. And those who ascended from Babylonia left those cities aside and did not consider them part of Eretz Yisrael even after Jewish settlement was renewed there. They would plow and harvest in these places in the Sabbatical Year and tithe the poor manโ€™s tithe, so that the poor of Eretz Yisrael, who did not have sufficient income from the previous years, could rely upon that produce in the Sabbatical Year, receiving help from this tithe.

ืชื ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื“ืขืชื• ืืžืจ ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉื™ื—ื–ืจื• ืขื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœืžืงื•ืžืŸ ื•ื—ื–ืจื•

It was taught that after Rabbi Elazarโ€™s mind was put at ease, he said: May it be Godโ€™s will that Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s eyes should return to their place. And indeed his eyes returned. Due to this event, in which Rabbi Elazar responded harshly when his disciple related what he considered a novel idea, the students of Rabbi Yehoshua hesitated to recount what they had heard until their teacher encouraged them to do so.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื–ื”ื• ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื”ืœืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืงืจืข ืืช ื›ืกื•ืชื• ืื™ืชืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ

ยง The Sages taught: Who is considered an imbecile? One who goes out alone at night, and one who sleeps in a cemetery, and one who rends his garment. It was stated that Rav Huna said: One does not have the halakhic status of an imbecile until there are all of these signs present in him at the same time. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He is considered an imbecile even due to the appearance of one of these signs.

ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ ืื™ ื“ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื—ื“ื ื ืžื™ ืื™ ื“ืœื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื ืžื™ ืœื

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of the case under discussion? If he performs them in a deranged manner, then even the appearance of one sign should be enough to classify him as an imbecile. If he does not perform these actions in a deranged manner, but has a reason to act this way, then even if he performs all of them he should not be deemed an imbecile.

ืœืขื•ืœื ื“ืงื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ืœืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืฉืจื” ืขืœื™ื• ืจื•ื— ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื’ื ื“ืจื™ืคืก ืื—ื“ื™ื” ื•ื”ืžืงืจืข ืืช ื›ืกื•ืชื• ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืขืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ืœื”ื•

The Gemara answers: Actually, the baraita is referring to one who performs these actions in a deranged manner, but each action on its own could be explained rationally. With regard to one who sleeps in the cemetery, one could say that he is doing so in order that an impure spirit should settle upon him. Although it is inappropriate to do this, as there is a reason for this behavior it is not a sign of madness. And with regard to one who goes out alone at night, one could say that perhaps a fever took hold of him and he is trying to cool himself down. And as for one who tears his garments, one could say that he is a man engaged in thought, and out of anxiety he tears his clothing unintentionally. Despite these possible explanations, since one performed all of these together they are considered

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Chagigah 3

ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื‘ืฉืžื—ื” ื•ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ืœื ืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืœื ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉืžื—ื” ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ืืžื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ื“ืคื˜ื™ืจื™ ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืฉืžื—ื” ื“ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™

they are obligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor are all exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to the mitzva of appearance, that a deaf person and a mute are exempt from this mitzva? And what is different with regard to the mitzva of rejoicing, that they are obligated?

ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืจืื™ื” ื’ืžืจ ืจืื™ื” ืจืื™ื” ืžื”ืงื”ืœ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืงื”ืœ ืืช ื”ืขื ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืฃ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืจืื•ืช

The Gemara explains: With regard to their exemption from the obligation of appearance, the tanna derives this halakha by means of a verbal analogy between the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly, i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical Year. As it is written, with regard to the mitzva of assembly: โ€œAssemble the people, the men and the women and the little onesโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:12), and it is written in that context: โ€œWhen all of Israel come to appearโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.

ื•ื”ืชื ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ืคืจื˜ ืœืžื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ืคืจื˜ ืœืฉื•ืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžื“ื‘ืจ

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to the mitzva of assembly, from where do we derive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? As it is written there: โ€œThat they may hear, and that they may learnโ€ (Deuteronomy 31:12), and it is taught in a baraita that the phrase โ€œthat they may hearโ€ excludes one who speaks but does not hear; and the phrase โ€œand that they may learnโ€ excludes one who hears but does not speak, as he is unable to learn.

ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืœื ื’ืžืจ ื•ื”ื ื”ื ื”ื• ืชืจื™ ืื™ืœืžื™ ื“ื”ื•ื• ื‘ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ื•ื“ื’ื“ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื—ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื›ืœ ืื™ืžืช ื“ื”ื•ื” ืขื™ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ื”ื•ื• ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ื•ื™ืชื‘ื™ ืงืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืžื ื™ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืžืจื—ืฉื™ืŸ ืฉืคื•ื•ืชื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one who is not able to speak is not able to learn? But consider the following incident. There were two mute people who were in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. They were the sons of the daughter of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Gudgeda, and some say that they were the sons of the sister of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Gudgeda. Whenever Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would enter the study hall they would also enter and sit before the Sages, and they would nod their heads as if they understood and move their lips.

ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืจื—ืžื™ ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืื™ืชืกื• ื•ืืฉืชื›ื— ื“ื”ื•ื• ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืกืคืจื ื•ืกืคืจื™ ื•ื›ื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื

And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi prayed for God to have mercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learned and were proficient in halakha, i.e., Mishna; Sifra, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; Sifrei, the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; and the entire Talmud. This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื•ื“ืื™ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืžืฉืชืขื™ ืœื ื’ืžืจ ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืฉืžืข ืœื ื’ืžืจ

Mar Zutra said that one should read into the verse: That they may teach [yelamdu], instead of: โ€œThat they may learn [yilmedu]โ€ (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. Rav Ashi said that the verse is certainly to be read: That they may teach. As, if it enters your mind that one should read: โ€œThat they may learn,โ€ as it is written, and you will explain that since he is not able to speak he is not able to learn, and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that since he is not able to hear he is not able to learn, you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: โ€œThat they may hear,โ€ not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.

ื”ืื™ ืžืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื ืคืงื ืืœื ื•ื“ืื™ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืœืžื“ื• ื”ื•ื

However, this is incorrect, for if so, this exemption of a mute could also be derived from: โ€œThat they may hear,โ€ as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. Rather, the verse is certainly to be read as: โ€œThat they may teach,โ€ which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ื—ืจืฉ ื‘ืื–ื ื• ืื—ืช ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื

Rabbi Tanแธฅum said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple, as it is stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly: โ€œWhen all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel in their earsโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this halakha applies to the mitzva of appearance as well.

ื•ื”ืื™ ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื ืžื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื ื“ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื ืคืงื ืื™ ืžื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืœื ืฉืžืขื™ ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื”ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉืžืขื™

The Gemara asks: But this phrase: โ€œIn their ears,โ€ is necessary to teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter the ears of the entire Jewish people. Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the halakha concerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, is derived from the phrase: โ€œBefore all Israelโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:11). The Gemara asks: If that halakha were derived from: โ€œBefore all Israel,โ€ I would say that the mitzva applies even though they cannot hear; therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œIn their ears,โ€ and that indicates that they must be able to hear. If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the halakha of someone who is deaf in one ear.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืœืžืขืŸ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื ืคืงื

The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the people must hear, is derived from: โ€œThat they may hearโ€ (Deuteronomyย 31:12). Therefore, the phrase: โ€œIn their ears,โ€ is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ื—ื™ื’ืจ ื‘ืจื’ืœื• ืื—ืช ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืจืื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจื’ืœื™ื

Rabbi Tanแธฅum said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is stated: โ€œThree times [regalim] shall you keep a feast for Me in the yearโ€ (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is raglayim, it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of oneโ€™s legs.

ื•ื”ื ืจื’ืœื™ื ืžื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืคืจื˜ ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ืงื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืคืขืžื™ื ื ืคืงื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืคืขืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืคืขืžื™ื ืืœื ืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชืจืžืกื ื” ืจื’ืœ ืจื’ืœื™ ืขื ื™ ืคืขืžื™ ื“ืœื™ื ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืžื” ื™ืคื• ืคืขืžื™ืš ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืช ื ื“ื™ื‘

The Gemara asks: But the term โ€œregalimโ€ is necessary to exclude people with artificial legs. Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: That halakha is derived from: โ€œThree occasions [peโ€™amim] in the year all your males will appear before the Lord Godโ€ (Exodusย 23:17). The term peโ€™amim can also mean legs, as it is taught in a baraita, with regard to the term โ€œpeโ€™amimโ€: Peโ€™amim means nothing other than legs. And so it says: โ€œThe foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps [paโ€™amei] of the needyโ€ (Isaiah 26:6), and it says: โ€œHow beautiful are your feet [feโ€™amayikh] in sandals, daughter of the princeโ€ (Song of Songs 7:2).

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื” ื™ืคื• ืคืขืžื™ืš ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืช ื ื“ื™ื‘ ื›ืžื” ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื’ืœื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœืจื’ืœ ื‘ืช ื ื“ื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื• ืฉืœ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ืฉื ืงืจื ื ื“ื™ื‘ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื“ื™ื‘ื™ ืขืžื™ื ื ืืกืคื• ืขื ืืœื”ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืœื”ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ืœื ืืœื”ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืœื ืืœื”ื™ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืœื’ืจื™ื

With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œHow beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince [nadiv]โ€? How pleasant are the feet [raglehen] of the Jewish people when they ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival [regel]. โ€œDaughter of the princeโ€: this is referring to the daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: โ€œThe princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abrahamโ€ (Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only โ€œthe God of Abraham,โ€ and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather, the verse mentions โ€œthe God of Abraham,โ€ as he was the first of the converts. Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called โ€œthe princes of the peoples.โ€

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ ื ืชืŸ ื‘ืจ ืžื ื™ื•ืžื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ืจืง ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžื™ื ืžืžืฉืžืข ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ืจืง ืื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ื“ืข ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžื™ื ืืœื ืžื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืื‘ืœ ื ื—ืฉื™ื ื•ืขืงืจื‘ื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื•

The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tanแธฅum. Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tanแธฅum: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Joseph: โ€œAnd they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in itโ€ (Genesis 37:24). By inference from that which is stated: โ€œAnd the pit was empty,โ€ donโ€™t I know that there was no water in it? Rather, this teaches that there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื—ืกืžื ืฉื”ืœื›ื• ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืคืงื™ืขื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžื” ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ืš ืื ื• ื•ืžื™ืžื™ืš ืื ื• ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื‘ืœื ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ

ยง The Sages taught: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben แธคisma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Pekiโ€™in. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drink from your water, i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? He said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty.

ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืžื™ ื”ื™ืชื” ืฉื‘ืช ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื”ื’ื“ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ื‘ืคืจืฉืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ื•ืžื” ื“ืจืฉ ื‘ื”

He asked them: Whose week was it, i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: It was Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryaโ€™s week. He inquired: And on what subject was the lecture today? They said to him: He spoke about the portion of the mitzva of assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: And what verse did he interpret homiletically with regard to this mitzva?

ื”ืงื”ืœ ืืช ื”ืขื ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ืฃ ืื ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืื™ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืื•ืช ืœืฉืžื•ืข ื˜ืฃ ืœืžื” ื‘ืื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ืœืžื‘ื™ืื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืžืจื’ืœื™ืช ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ื“ื›ื ื•ื‘ืงืฉืชื ืœืื‘ื“ื” ืžืžื ื™

They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: โ€œAssemble the people, the men and the women and the little onesโ€ (Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: If men come to learn, and women, who might not understand, come at least to hear, why do the little ones come? They come in order for God to give a reward to those who bring them, i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This good pearl of wisdom was in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me?

ื•ืขื•ื“ ื“ืจืฉ ืืช ื”ืณ ื”ืืžืจืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ื”ืณ ื”ืืžื™ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ื

Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben แธคisma said to him: Additionally, Rabbi Elazar interpreted the following verses homiletically: โ€œYou have affirmed, this day, that the Lord is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordinances, and listen to His voice. And the Lord has affirmed you, this day, to be His treasure, asHe promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvotโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:17โ€“18).

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืชื ืขืฉื™ืชื•ื ื™ ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื•ืื ื™ ืืขืฉื” ืืชื›ื ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืืชื ืขืฉื™ืชื•ื ื™ ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉืžืข ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ื”ืณ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื ื™ ืืขืฉื” ืืชื›ื ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉื ืืžืจ

Rabbi Elazar explained: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entityย in the world, as you singled Me out as separate and unique. And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: โ€œHear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is Oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:4). And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated:

ื•ืžื™ ื›ืขืžืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ื•ื™ ืื—ื“ ื‘ืืจืฅ

โ€œAnd who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the land?โ€ (Iย Chronicles 17:21).

ื•ืืฃ ื”ื•ื ืคืชื— ื•ื“ืจืฉ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ื“ืจื‘ื ื•ืช ื•ื›ืžืฉืžืจื•ืช ื ื˜ื•ืขื™ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืกืคื•ืช ื ืชื ื• ืžืจื•ืขื” ืื—ื“ ืœืžื” ื ืžืฉืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืœื“ืจื‘ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืžื” ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื–ื” ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืคืจื” ืœืชืœืžื™ื” ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื›ื•ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืืช ืœื•ืžื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžื“ืจื›ื™ ืžื™ืชื” ืœื“ืจื›ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื™ ืžื” ื“ืจื‘ืŸ ื–ื” ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœ ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืžืฉืžืจื•ืช

The Gemara adds: And Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya also commenced his lecture and taught: It is written: โ€œThe words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are those that are composed in collections; they are given from one shepherdโ€ (Ecclesiastes 12:11). Why are matters of Torah compared to a goad? To tell you that just as this goad directs the cow to her furrow to bring forth sustenance for life to the world, so too the words of Torah direct those who study them from the paths of death to the paths of life. The Gemara asks: If so, derive the following from that same analogy: Just as this goad is movable and not rigid, so too matters of Torah are movable in accordance with circumstance and are not permanent. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œNails,โ€ which are permanent.

ืื™ ืžื” ืžืกืžืจ ื–ื” ื—ืกืจ ื•ืœื ื™ืชืจ ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื—ืกื™ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื™ืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื ื˜ื•ืขื™ื ืžื” ื ื˜ื™ืขื” ื–ื• ืคืจื” ื•ืจื‘ื” ืืฃ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ ืืกืคื•ืช ืืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืคื•ืช ืืกื•ืคื•ืช ื•ืขื•ืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื”ืœืœื• ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžื˜ื”ืจื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ื”ืœืœื• ืคื•ืกืœื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืœืœื• ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ

The Gemara further asks: If so, one can explain as follows: Just as this nail is diminished in size and does not expand, as it wastes away over time, so too matters of Torah are gradually diminished and do not expand. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œWell fastened [netuim].โ€ Just as this plant [netiโ€™a] flourishes and multiplies, so too matters of Torah flourish and multiply. โ€œThose that are composed in collections [baโ€™alei asufot]โ€: These are Torah scholars who sit in many groups [asupot] and engage in Torah study. There are often debates among these groups, as some of these Sages render an object or person ritually impure and these render it pure; these prohibit an action and these permit it; these deem an item invalid and these deem it valid.

ืฉืžื ื™ืืžืจ ืื“ื ื”ื™ืืš ืื ื™ ืœืžื“ ืชื•ืจื” ืžืขืชื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื ื ืชื ื• ืžืจื•ืขื” ืื—ื“ ืืœ ืื—ื“ ื ืชื ืŸ ืคืจื ืก ืื—ื“ ืืžืจืŸ ืžืคื™ ืื“ื•ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืฉื™ื ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœื”ื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื”

Lest a person say: Now, how can I study Torah when it contains so many different opinions? The verse states that they are all โ€œgiven from one shepherd.โ€ One God gave them; one leader, i.e., Moses, said them from the mouth of the Master of all creation, Blessed be He, as it is written: โ€œAnd God spoke all these wordsโ€ (Exodusย 20:1). The plural form โ€œwordsโ€ indicates that God transmitted all the interpretations of the Ten Commandments. Since the Sages invariably utilize the Torah itself or the statements of the prophets as the sources for their opinions, there is a certain unity to the study of Torah, despite the numerous explanations and applications.

ืืฃ ืืชื” ืขืฉื” ืื–ื ื™ืš ื›ืืคืจื›ืกืช ื•ืงื ื” ืœืš ืœื‘ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืฉืžื•ืข ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื˜ืžืื™ื ื•ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื˜ื”ืจื™ื ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ื•ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžืชื™ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืคื•ืกืœื™ืŸ ื•ืืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจ ื™ืชื•ื ืฉืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืฉืจื•ื™ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื•

So too you, the student, make your ears like a funnel and acquire for yourself an understanding heart to hear both the statements of those who render objects ritually impure and the statements of those who render them pure; the statements of those who prohibit actions and the statements of those who permit them; the statements of those who deem items invalid and the statements of those who deem them valid. When Rabbi Yehoshua heard these interpretations, he said to them in these words: No generation is considered orphaned, i.e. without a leader, if Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya dwells among it.

ื•ืœื™ืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื ืžืขืฉื” ืฉื”ื™ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืจืžืกืงื™ืช ืฉื”ืœืš ืœื”ืงื‘ื™ืœ ืคื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ (ืืœืขื–ืจ) ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืœื•ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžื” ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื”ื™ื•ื

The Gemara asks: But Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben แธคisma should have told Rabbi Yehoshua these statements of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya directly, without delay. Why did they hesitate at first? The Gemara answers: They were hesitant due to an incident that occurred. As it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit, who went to greet Rabbi Eliezer in Lod. Rabbi Elazar said to him: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืžื ื• ื•ื’ืžืจื• ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

Rabbi Yosei ben Durmaskit said to him: The Sages assembled, counted the votes, and concluded that although the lands of Ammon and Moab on the eastern side of the Jordan River are not part of Eretz Yisrael, and therefore the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year and tithes should not apply to them, as these lands are adjacent to Eretz Yisrael, one separates the poor manโ€™s tithe there in the Sabbatical Year. Since the Sages debated which tithes should be separated, they had to take a vote to determine the halakha in this regard.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื™ื•ืกื™ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื™ื“ื™ืš ื•ืงื‘ืœ ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืคืฉื˜ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืงื‘ืœ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื‘ื›ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืกื•ื“ ื”ืณ ืœื™ืจืื™ื• ื•ื‘ืจื™ืชื• ืœื”ื•ื“ื™ืขื

Rabbi Elazar said to him in anger: Yosei, extend your hands and catch your eyes, which are about to come out of their sockets. He extended his hands and caught his eyes. Rabbi Elazar wept and said the verse: โ€œThe counsel of the Lord is with them who fear Him; and His covenant, to make them know itโ€ (Psalmsย 25:14), i.e., the Sages arrived at the correct conclusion, although they were unaware of the proper rationale behind it.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืœืš ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื ืืœ ืชื—ื•ืฉื• ืœืžื ื™ื™ื ื›ื ื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ืฉืฉืžืข ืžืจื‘ื• ื•ืจื‘ื• ืžืจื‘ื• ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ืขืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืื‘ ืžืขืฉืจื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจ ืขื ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžื” ื˜ืขื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื›ื‘ืฉื• ืขื•ืœื™ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืœื ื›ื‘ืฉื•ื ืขื•ืœื™ ื‘ื‘ืœ

Rabbi Elazar said to Rabbi Yosei to go and say to the Sages in the study hall: Do not be concerned with regard to your counting, that you might not have ruled properly, as you have not in fact instituted a new ordinance at all. This is the tradition that I received from Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai, who heard from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher: It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai that in Ammon and Moab one separates the poor manโ€™s tithe in the Sabbatical Year. What is the reason? Those who ascended from Egypt conquered many cities, and those who ascended from Babylonia did not conquer them after the destruction of the First Temple.

ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืงื“ืฉื” ืœืฉืขืชื” ื•ืœื ืงื“ืฉื” ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืกืžื›ื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

This difference is important, because the first consecration of Eretz Yisrael, by those who ascended from Egypt, caused it to be sanctified only for its time and it was not sanctified forever, as that depended on the renewed conquest of the land by the Jewish people. And those who ascended from Babylonia left those cities aside and did not consider them part of Eretz Yisrael even after Jewish settlement was renewed there. They would plow and harvest in these places in the Sabbatical Year and tithe the poor manโ€™s tithe, so that the poor of Eretz Yisrael, who did not have sufficient income from the previous years, could rely upon that produce in the Sabbatical Year, receiving help from this tithe.

ืชื ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ืชื™ื™ืฉื‘ื” ื“ืขืชื• ืืžืจ ื™ื”ื™ ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืฉื™ื—ื–ืจื• ืขื™ื ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœืžืงื•ืžืŸ ื•ื—ื–ืจื•

It was taught that after Rabbi Elazarโ€™s mind was put at ease, he said: May it be Godโ€™s will that Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s eyes should return to their place. And indeed his eyes returned. Due to this event, in which Rabbi Elazar responded harshly when his disciple related what he considered a novel idea, the students of Rabbi Yehoshua hesitated to recount what they had heard until their teacher encouraged them to do so.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ื–ื”ื• ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื”ืœืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืงืจืข ืืช ื›ืกื•ืชื• ืื™ืชืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ

ยง The Sages taught: Who is considered an imbecile? One who goes out alone at night, and one who sleeps in a cemetery, and one who rends his garment. It was stated that Rav Huna said: One does not have the halakhic status of an imbecile until there are all of these signs present in him at the same time. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He is considered an imbecile even due to the appearance of one of these signs.

ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ ืื™ ื“ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื—ื“ื ื ืžื™ ืื™ ื“ืœื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื˜ื•ืช ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื ืžื™ ืœื

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of the case under discussion? If he performs them in a deranged manner, then even the appearance of one sign should be enough to classify him as an imbecile. If he does not perform these actions in a deranged manner, but has a reason to act this way, then even if he performs all of them he should not be deemed an imbecile.

ืœืขื•ืœื ื“ืงื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจืš ืฉื˜ื•ืช ื•ื”ืœืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืงื‘ืจื•ืช ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืฉืจื” ืขืœื™ื• ืจื•ื— ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื•ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื’ื ื“ืจื™ืคืก ืื—ื“ื™ื” ื•ื”ืžืงืจืข ืืช ื›ืกื•ืชื• ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื‘ืขืœ ืžื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ืœื”ื•

The Gemara answers: Actually, the baraita is referring to one who performs these actions in a deranged manner, but each action on its own could be explained rationally. With regard to one who sleeps in the cemetery, one could say that he is doing so in order that an impure spirit should settle upon him. Although it is inappropriate to do this, as there is a reason for this behavior it is not a sign of madness. And with regard to one who goes out alone at night, one could say that perhaps a fever took hold of him and he is trying to cool himself down. And as for one who tears his garments, one could say that he is a man engaged in thought, and out of anxiety he tears his clothing unintentionally. Despite these possible explanations, since one performed all of these together they are considered

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