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Today's Daf Yomi

February 12, 2015 | 讻状讙 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讛

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah Shlema of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Ketubot 10

讗讬转诪专 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讞讻诪讬诐 转拽谞讜 诇讛诐 诇讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 诇讘转讜诇讛 诪讗转讬诐 讜诇讗诇诪谞讛 诪谞讛 讜讛诐 讛讗诪讬谞讜讛讜 砖讗诐 讗诪专 驻转讞 驻转讜讞 诪爪讗转讬 谞讗诪谉 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 讛讜注讬诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘转拽谞转诐

It was stated: Rav Na岣an said that Shmuel said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar: The Sages instituted the marriage contract for Jewish women: For a virgin two hundred dinars and for a widow one hundred dinars. And they deemed the groom credible in that if he says with regard to his virgin bride: I encountered an unobstructed orifice and she is not a virgin, he is deemed credible, causing her to lose her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: If so, and the Sages deemed him credible, what did the Sages accomplish in their ordinance that the marriage contract of a virgin is two hundred dinars, if his claim that she is not a virgin is effective?

讗诪专 专讘讗 讞讝拽讛 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讟讜专讞 讘住注讜讚讛 讜诪驻住讬讚讛

Rava said: The ordinance is effective due to the presumption that a person does not exert himself to prepare a wedding feast and then cause it to be lost. Investing in the wedding preparations clearly indicates that the groom鈥檚 intention is to marry the bride and rejoice with her. If, nevertheless, he claims that she is not a virgin, apparently he is telling the truth.

转谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜拽谞住 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讜讗 诇讗 转讙讘讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讝讬讘讜专讬转 拽谞住讗 诪讗讬 拽谞住讗 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转拽谞转 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讜讗 诇讗 转讙讘讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讝讬讘讜专讬转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛

搂 A Sage taught in a baraita: Since payment of the marriage contract is a penalty instituted by the Sages, she may collect only from the husband鈥檚 land of the most inferior quality. The Gemara asks: A penalty? What penalty is there in a marriage contract? Rather, emend the baraita and say: Since it is a rabbinic ordinance and not a Torah obligation, she may collect only from the husband鈥檚 land of the most inferior quality. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The marriage contract of a woman is an obligation by Torah law.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讻讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻住祝 讬砖拽诇 讻诪讛专 讛讘转讜诇讜转 砖讬讛讗 讝讛 讻诪讜讛专 讛讘转讜诇讜转 讜诪讜讛专 讛讘转讜诇讜转 讻讝讛 诪讻讗谉 住诪讻讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐

The Gemara asks: And did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel say that? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that it is written with regard to a seducer: 鈥淗e shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins鈥 (Exodus 22:16)? The Torah establishes that this fine will be like the dowry of a virgin, and that the dowry of a virgin will be like this fine, i.e., fifty silver sela, or two hundred dinars. From here the Sages based their determination that a woman鈥檚 marriage contract is an obligation by Torah law. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The marriage contract of a woman is not an obligation by Torah law, but is by rabbinic law.

讗讬驻讜讱 讜诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 讚讗驻讻转 讘转专讬讬转讗 讗讬驻讜讱 拽诪讬讬转讗

The Gemara resolves the contradiction between the statements of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Reverse the attribution of opinions in this baraita. The Gemara asks: And what did you see that led you to reverse the attribution of opinions in the latter baraita? Reverse the attribution of opinions in the former, in the baraita, and say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is the one who holds that the marriage contract is a rabbinic ordinance.

讛讗 砖诪注讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚讗诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚转谞谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 谞讜转谉 诇讛 诪诪注讜转 拽驻讜讟拽讬讗

The Gemara answers: The reason is that we learned that it is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel who said elsewhere that the marriage contract of a woman is an obligation by Torah law, as we learned in a mishna (110b) that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that if a man marries a woman in Cappadocia, where the currency is more valuable, and he divorces her in Eretz Yisrael, he gives her payment for the marriage contract from the money of Cappadocia. From the fact that he is obligated to pay the marriage contract in the currency of the place where he undertook the obligation, apparently the marriage contract of a woman is an obligation by Torah law.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讜诇讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讗 讜讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 诪讻讗谉 住诪讻讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讻转讜讘转 讗诇诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐 砖专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗诇诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐

And if you wish, say instead that the entire latter baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, but the baraita is incomplete and it is teaching the following: From here, the Sages based their determination that a woman鈥檚 marriage contract in the case of a virgin is an obligation by Torah law. However, the marriage contract of a widow is not an obligation by Torah law but is an ordinance by rabbinic law, as Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The marriage contract of a widow is not an obligation by Torah law but is an ordinance by rabbinic law.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 驻转讞 驻转讜讞 诪爪讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗住讘讜讛讜 讻讜驻专讬 诪讘专讻转讗 讞讘讬讟讗 诇讬讛

搂 The Gemara relates: A certain man who had never been married came before Rav Na岣an and said to him: I encountered an unobstructed orifice when I consummated the marriage. Rav Na岣an said in his regard: Flog him with palm branches [kufrei]; prostitutes [mevarakhta] are common around him. As he was never previously married, how was he able to determine whether or not the orifice was unobstructed, if he did not gain experience with prostitutes?

讜讛讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 诪讛讬诪谉 诪讛讬诪谉 讜诪住讘讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讻讜驻专讬 专讘 讗讞讗讬 诪砖谞讬 讻讗谉 讘讘讞讜专 讻讗谉 讘谞砖讜讬

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 Rav Na岣an he who said that he is deemed credible when he claims that he encountered an unobstructed orifice? The Gemara answers: Yes, he is deemed credible, and nevertheless, we flog him with palm branches. Rav A岣i answered: Here, in the case where he is flogged, it is with regard to a bachelor, who is not accorded credibility, because he lacks experience. There, in the case where he is accorded credibility, it is with regard to one who has been married.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 驻转讞 驻转讜讞 诪爪讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讛讟讬转讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘讗讬砖讜谉 诇讬诇讛 讜讗驻讬诇讛 讛讬讟讛 诪爪讗讜 驻转讜讞 诇讗 讛讬讟讛 诪爪讗讜 谞注讜诇

The Gemara relates a similar incident from an earlier era: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel said to him: I encountered an unobstructed orifice. Rabban Gamliel said to him: Perhaps you diverted your approach and therefore, you encountered no obstruction? I will tell you a parable to which this is similar. It is similar to a man who was walking in the blackness of night and darkness and he arrived at the entrance to the house; if he diverts the object preventing the door from opening, he finds it open; if he does not divert it, he finds it locked. Perhaps you too diverted your approach and entered from a different angle and that is why you did not encounter an obstruction.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讘诪讝讬讚 讛讟讬转讛 讜注拽专转 诇讚砖讗 讜注讘专讗 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讜讗 诪讛诇讱 讘讗讬砖讜谉 诇讬诇讛 讜讗驻讬诇讛 讛讬讟讛 讘诪讝讬讚 诪爪讗讜 驻转讜讞 诇讗 讛讬讟讛 讘诪讝讬讚 诪爪讗讜 谞注讜诇

Some say this is what Rabban Gamliel said to him: Maybe you diverted your approach intentionally and you displaced the door and the bolt. I will tell you a parable to which this is similar. It is similar to a man who is walking in the blackness of night and darkness and he arrives at his entrance. If he diverts intentionally, he finds it open; if he does not divert intentionally, he finds it locked.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘专 专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 专讘讬 讘转讜诇讛 讛讬讬转讬 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 讗讜转讜 住讜讚专 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讜 讛住讜讚专 讜砖专讗讜 讘诪讬诐 讜讻讘住讜 讜诪爪讗 注诇讬讜 讻诪讛 讟讬驻讬 讚诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I was a virgin. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Bring me that cloth [sudar] on which you consummated the marriage. They brought him the cloth, and he soaked it in water and laundered it and found upon it several drops of blood from the rupture of the hymen. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the groom: Go take possession of your acquisition, as she was a virgin and there is no need for concern.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜谞讗 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 诪驻专讝拽讬讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 谞注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛

Huna Mar, son of Rava, from Parzakya, said to Rav Ashi: Let us do so as well in similar cases and examine whether there is blood that is obscured by semen or another substance. Rav Ashi said to him:

讙讬讛讜抓 砖诇谞讜 讻讻讘讜住 砖诇讛诐 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 谞讬注讘讚 讙讬讛讜抓 诪注讘专讗 诇讬讛 讞讜诪专转讗

Our calendering in Babylonia, which includes passing an abrasive stone over the garments to scrape off dirt, is like their laundering in Eretz Israel, and only in that manner do the garments in Babylonia reach that level of cleanliness. And if you say: Let us perform the process of calendering on cloths brought as proof that she was not a virgin, the stone removes any trace of blood. Therefore, the process would be ineffective.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘专 专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 专讘讬 注讚讬讬谉 讘转讜诇讛 讗谞讬 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 砖转讬 砖驻讞讜转 讗讞转 讘转讜诇讛 讜讗讞转 讘注讜诇讛 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讜 讜讛讜砖讬讘谉 注诇 驻讬 讞讘讬转 砖诇 讬讬谉 讘注讜诇讛 专讬讞讛 谞讜讚祝 讘转讜诇讛 讗讬谉 专讬讞讛 谞讜讚祝 讗祝 讝讜 讛讜砖讬讘讛 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 专讬讞讛 谞讜讚祝 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I am still a virgin. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Bring me two maidservants, one a virgin and one a non-virgin, to conduct a trial. They brought him the two maidservants, and he seated them on the opening of a barrel of wine. From the non-virgin, he discovered that the scent of the wine in the barrel diffuses from her mouth; from the virgin he discovered that the scent does not diffuse from her mouth. Then, he also seated that bride on the barrel, and the scent of the wine did not diffuse from her mouth. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the groom: Go take possession of your acquisition, as she is a virgin.

讜谞讘讚讜拽 诪注讬拽专讗 讘讙讜讜讛 讙诪专讗 讛讜讛 砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 诪注砖讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 讞讝讬 讜住讘专 讚诇诪讗 诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讬讛 讘讙讜讜讛 讚诪诇转讗 砖驻讬专 讜诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇讝诇讝讜诇讬 讘讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇

The Gemara asks: Since Rabban Gamliel was familiar with this method of examination, let him use it to examine her initially. Why was the trial with the maidservants necessary? The Gemara answers: He learned that it was effective through tradition; however, he had never seen it in action, and he thought perhaps he was not sufficiently expert in that manner of examination, and it is improper conduct to demean Jewish women by subjecting them to that indignity for naught. Once he established the effectiveness of that method, he proceeded to examine the bride to resolve the matter.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 专讘讬 诪诪砖驻讞转 讚讜专拽讟讬 讗谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讛谉 诇讗 讚诐 谞讚讛 讜诇讗 讚诐 讘转讜诇讬诐 讘讚拽 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘拽专讜讘讜转讬讛 讜诪爪讗 讻讚讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱 讗砖专讬讱 砖讝讻讬转 诇诪砖驻讞转 讚讜专拽讟讬

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel the Elder said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I am from the family of Dorketi, who have neither menstrual blood nor blood from the rupture of the hymen. Rabban Gamliel investigated among her relatives to determine whether the claim with regard to her family was true, and discovered that the truth was in accordance with her statement. He said to him: Go take possession of your acquisition. Happy are you that you were privileged to marry a member of the Dorketi family, as those forms of blood will never pose a problem for you.

诪讗讬 讚讜专拽讟讬 讚讜专 拽讟讜注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 转谞讞讜诪讬诐 砖诇 讛讘诇 谞讬讞诪讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讻砖诐 砖讛砖讗讜专 讬驻讛 诇注讬住讛 讻讱 讚诪讬诐 讬驻讬诐 诇讗砖讛 讜转谞讗 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讻诇 讗砖讛 砖讚诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 讘谞讬讛 诪专讜讘讬诐

The Gemara elaborates: What is the meaning of Dorketi? It means truncated generation [dor katua]. Rabbi 岣nina said: Rabban Gamliel consoled that man with vain words of consolation, because the absence of blood in this woman is a drawback. As Rabbi 岣yya taught: Just as leaven is fortuitous for dough, so too, blood is fortuitous for a woman. And it was taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: Any woman whose blood is plentiful, her children are plentiful. This bride, who lacks blood, will not produce many children.

讗转诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 谞转讞讬讬讘 讘诪拽讞讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 谞转讞讬讬讘 讛讬讬谞讜 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝讻讛 诪讗讬 讝讻讜转讗 讚诇讗 讗转讬 诇讬讚讬 住驻拽 谞讚讛

It was stated that there is a dispute with regard to Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 reply. Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rabban Gamliel said to the groom: Exercise your privilege and take possession of your acquisition. And Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said that Rabban Gamliel said to him: It is your misfortune to take possession of your acquisition. Granted, according to the one who says: It is your misfortune, that is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina, who said the consolation was vain. However, according to the one who says: Exercise your privilege, what is the privilege to which he is referring? The Gemara answers: The privilege is that thanks to the condition of the women of this family, he will not come to a situation of uncertainty whether she has the halakhic status of a menstruating woman.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 专讘讬 注讚讬讬谉 讘转讜诇讛 讛讬讬转讬 讜砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讛讜讛 专讗讛 专讘讬 砖驻谞讬讛诐 砖讞讜专讬诐 爪讜讛 注诇讬讛谉 讜讛讻谞讬住讜诐 诇诪专讞抓 讜讛讗讻讬诇讜诐 讜讛砖拽讜诐 讜讛讻谞讬住讜诐 诇讞讚专 讘注诇 讜诪爪讗 讚诐 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱 拽专讬 专讘讬 注诇讬讛诐 爪驻讚 注讜专诐 注诇 注爪诪诐 讬讘砖 讛讬讛 讻注抓

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I was still a virgin. And the Gemara comments that this incident was during years of drought. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi saw that their faces were black due to hunger. He instructed his attendants to tend to them and they took them into the bathhouse and bathed them and they fed them and gave them drink. Then they took them into a room, and the groom engaged in intercourse with her and found blood, as it was due to the famine that there was no blood. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Go take possession of your acquisition. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi read this verse in their regard: 鈥淭heir skin is shriveled upon their bones, it is withered, it has become like a stick鈥 (Lamentations 4:8), in the sense that no blood flows from them.

诪转谞讬壮 讘转讜诇讛 讻转讜讘转讛 诪讗转讬诐 讜讗诇诪谞讛 诪谞讛 讘转讜诇讛 讗诇诪谞讛 讙专讜砖讛 讜讞诇讜爪讛 诪谉 讛讗讬专讜住讬谉 讻转讜讘转谉 诪讗转讬诐 讜讬砖 诇讛谉 讟注谞转 讘转讜诇讬诐

MISHNA: With regard to a virgin, her marriage contract is two hundred dinars, and with regard to a widow, her marriage contract is one hundred dinars. With regard to a virgin who is a widow, a divorc茅e, or a 岣lutza who achieved that status from a state of betrothal, before marriage and before consummation of the marriage, for all of these their marriage contract is two hundred dinars, and they are subject to a claim concerning their virginity, as their presumptive status of virginity is intact.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗诇诪谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘讙讚转讗讛 讗诇诪谞讛 注诇 砖诐 诪谞讛 讗诇诪谞讛 诪谉 讛讗讬专讜住讬谉 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讗讬讬讚讬 讚讛讗 拽专讬 诇讛 讗诇诪谞讛 讛讗 谞诪讬 拽专讬 诇讛 讗诇诪谞讛

GEMARA: What is the relationship between the term almana and its meaning, widow? Rav 岣na of Baghdad said: A widow is called an almana after the maneh, one hundred dinars, which is the sum of her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: With regard to a widow from betrothal, whose marriage contract is two hundred dinars and not a maneh, what is there to say? The Gemara answers: Since they called this widow from marriage almana, this widow from betrothal they also called almana.

讗诇诪谞讛 讚讻转讬讘讗 讘讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讚注转讬讚讬谉 专讘谞谉 讚诪转拽谞讬 诇讛 诪谞讛 讜诪讬 讻转讘 拽专讗 诇注转讬讚 讗讬谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诐 讛谞讛专 讛砖诇讬砖讬 讞讚拽诇 讛讜讗 讛讛讜诇讱 拽讚诪转 讗砖讜专 讜转谞讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗砖讜专 讝讜 住诇讬拽讗 讜诪讬 讛讜讗讬 讗诇讗 讚注转讬讚讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讚注转讬讚讛

The Gemara asks: That explains the use of almana in the terminology of the Sages. However, with regard to the term almana that is written in the Torah, what is there to say? The rabbinic ordinance that the marriage contract of a widow is a maneh was not yet instituted. The Gemara answers: The Torah employs the term almana because the Sages are destined to institute the sum of a maneh for her in her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: And is a verse written for the future? The Gemara answers: Yes, indeed it is, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goes toward the east of Asshur鈥 (Genesis 2:14). And Rav Yosef taught: Asshur, that is Seleucia. And did that city exist when the Torah was written? Rather, the Torah is referring to that city because it was destined to exist in the future. Here too, the Torah employs the term almana because a widow was destined to have a marriage contract of a maneh instituted for her.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘讙讚转讗讛 诪讟专 诪砖拽讛 诪专讜讛 讜诪讝讘诇 讜诪注讚谉 讜诪诪砖讬讱 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讬讬诪专 讘专 砖诇诪讬讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 转诇诪讬讛 专讜讛 谞讞转 讙讚讜讚讬讛 讘专讘讬讘讬诐 转诪讙讙谞讛 爪诪讞讛 转讘专讱

Apropos the statement of Rav 岣na of Baghdad, the Gemara cites additional statements of his. And Rav 岣na of Baghdad said: Rain irrigates, saturates, and fertilizes the land, and refines the fruit and causes it to proliferate. Rava bar Rabbi Yishmael, and some say it was Rav Yeimar bar Shelamya who said: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淲atering its ridges abundantly, settling its furrows, You make it soft with showers, You bless its growth鈥 (Psalms 65:11). 鈥淲atering its ridges abundantly鈥 indicates that the rain irrigates and saturates the land, 鈥淵ou make it soft with showers鈥 indicates that it fertilizes the land, and 鈥淵ou bless its growth鈥 indicates that it refines the fruit and causes it to proliferate.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讝讘讞 诪讝讬讞 讜诪讝讬谉 诪讞讘讘 诪讻驻专 讛讬讬谞讜 诪讻驻专 讛讬讬谞讜 诪讝讬讞 诪讝讬讞 讙讝讬专讜转 讜诪讻驻专 注讜谞讜转

Rabbi Elazar said: The term mizbe鈥檃岣, altar, is a rough acrostic representing its qualities. It moves [mezia岣] sins and sustains [mezin], because as a result of the offerings sacrificed on the altar, sustenance is provided to all. It endears [me岣bev], and atones [mekhapper]. Mizbe鈥檃岣 evokes the letters mem and zayin from the first two qualities, bet from me岣bev and the kaf from mekhapper. The Gemara asks: This quality, that the altar atones, is the same as that quality, that it moves sins. Why are they listed separately? The Gemara answers: The altar moves evil decrees, and atones for sins.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘讙讚转讗讛 转诪专讬 诪砖讞谞谉 诪砖讘注谉 诪砖诇砖诇谉 诪讗砖专谉 讜诇讗 诪驻谞拽谉 讗诪专 专讘 讗讻诇 转诪专讬诐 讗诇 讬讜专讛 诪讬转讬讘讬 转诪专讬诐 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讬驻讜转 讘诪谞讞讛 专注讜转 讘爪讛专讬诐 讗讬谉 讻诪讜转谉 讜诪讘讟诇讜转 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讞砖讘讛 专注讛 讜讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 讜转讞转讜谞讬讜转

And Rav 岣na of Baghdad said: Dates warm and satiate, loosen the bowels, strengthen, but do not pamper. Rav said: If one ate dates he should not issue halakhic rulings, as dates are intoxicating. The Gemara raises an objection: With regard to dates, in the morning and evening they have a positive effect on one who eats them; in the afternoon, they have a negative effect on one who eats them. At noon, their positive effect is unparalleled, and they negate three matters: A troubling thought, intestinal illness, and hemorrhoids. Apparently, the effect of dates is primarily a positive one.

诪讬 讗诪专讬谞谉 讚诇讗 诪注诇讜 注诇讜讬讬 诪注诇讜 讜诇驻讬 砖注转讗 讟专讚讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗讞诪专讗 讚讗诪专 诪专 讛砖讜转讛 专讘讬注讬转 讬讬谉 讗诇 讬讜专讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 谞讛诪讗 讛讗 诇讘转专 谞讛诪讗 讚讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 转诪专讬 诪拽诪讬 谞讛诪讗 讻讬 谞专讙讗 诇讚讬拽讜诇讗 讘转专 谞讛诪讗 讻讬 注讘专讗 诇讚砖讗

The Gemara answers that there is no contradiction. Did we say that they are not exemplary? They are exemplary, and at the same time cause temporary distraction and intoxication, just as it is in the case of wine, as the Master said: One who drinks a quarter-log of wine should not issue halakhic rulings. And if you wish, say instead: This apparent contradiction is not difficult. This statement, which prohibits issuing a ruling under the influence of dates, is referring to one eating dates before he eats bread, when eating them can lead to intoxication. That statement, which enumerates the salutary effects of dates, is referring to one eating dates after he eats bread. As Abaye said: My mother told me that dates eaten before eating bread are destructive like an ax to a palm tree; dates eaten after eating bread they are beneficial like a bolt to a door, which provides support.

讚砖讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讱 砖诐 讚专讙讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讱 讙讙 驻讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖驻专讬谉 讜专讘讬谉 注诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽

Apropos the term door [dasha], the Gemara cites statements referring to its etymology as well as that of several other Aramaic terms. With regard to the word dasha, door, Rava said: It is an acrostic for derekh sham, meaning through there. With regard to the word darga, ladder or stair, Rava said: It is an acrostic for derekh gag, meaning way to the roof. With regard to the word purya, bed, Rav Pappa said: It is an acrostic for parin veravin aleha, meaning one procreates upon it. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said:

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Ketubot 10

讗讬转诪专 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讞讻诪讬诐 转拽谞讜 诇讛诐 诇讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇 诇讘转讜诇讛 诪讗转讬诐 讜诇讗诇诪谞讛 诪谞讛 讜讛诐 讛讗诪讬谞讜讛讜 砖讗诐 讗诪专 驻转讞 驻转讜讞 诪爪讗转讬 谞讗诪谉 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 讛讜注讬诇讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘转拽谞转诐

It was stated: Rav Na岣an said that Shmuel said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar: The Sages instituted the marriage contract for Jewish women: For a virgin two hundred dinars and for a widow one hundred dinars. And they deemed the groom credible in that if he says with regard to his virgin bride: I encountered an unobstructed orifice and she is not a virgin, he is deemed credible, causing her to lose her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: If so, and the Sages deemed him credible, what did the Sages accomplish in their ordinance that the marriage contract of a virgin is two hundred dinars, if his claim that she is not a virgin is effective?

讗诪专 专讘讗 讞讝拽讛 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讟讜专讞 讘住注讜讚讛 讜诪驻住讬讚讛

Rava said: The ordinance is effective due to the presumption that a person does not exert himself to prepare a wedding feast and then cause it to be lost. Investing in the wedding preparations clearly indicates that the groom鈥檚 intention is to marry the bride and rejoice with her. If, nevertheless, he claims that she is not a virgin, apparently he is telling the truth.

转谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜拽谞住 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讜讗 诇讗 转讙讘讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讝讬讘讜专讬转 拽谞住讗 诪讗讬 拽谞住讗 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转拽谞转 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讜讗 诇讗 转讙讘讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讝讬讘讜专讬转 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛

搂 A Sage taught in a baraita: Since payment of the marriage contract is a penalty instituted by the Sages, she may collect only from the husband鈥檚 land of the most inferior quality. The Gemara asks: A penalty? What penalty is there in a marriage contract? Rather, emend the baraita and say: Since it is a rabbinic ordinance and not a Torah obligation, she may collect only from the husband鈥檚 land of the most inferior quality. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The marriage contract of a woman is an obligation by Torah law.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讻讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻住祝 讬砖拽诇 讻诪讛专 讛讘转讜诇讜转 砖讬讛讗 讝讛 讻诪讜讛专 讛讘转讜诇讜转 讜诪讜讛专 讛讘转讜诇讜转 讻讝讛 诪讻讗谉 住诪讻讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐

The Gemara asks: And did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel say that? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that it is written with regard to a seducer: 鈥淗e shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins鈥 (Exodus 22:16)? The Torah establishes that this fine will be like the dowry of a virgin, and that the dowry of a virgin will be like this fine, i.e., fifty silver sela, or two hundred dinars. From here the Sages based their determination that a woman鈥檚 marriage contract is an obligation by Torah law. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The marriage contract of a woman is not an obligation by Torah law, but is by rabbinic law.

讗讬驻讜讱 讜诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 讚讗驻讻转 讘转专讬讬转讗 讗讬驻讜讱 拽诪讬讬转讗

The Gemara resolves the contradiction between the statements of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Reverse the attribution of opinions in this baraita. The Gemara asks: And what did you see that led you to reverse the attribution of opinions in the latter baraita? Reverse the attribution of opinions in the former, in the baraita, and say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is the one who holds that the marriage contract is a rabbinic ordinance.

讛讗 砖诪注讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚讗诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚转谞谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 谞讜转谉 诇讛 诪诪注讜转 拽驻讜讟拽讬讗

The Gemara answers: The reason is that we learned that it is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel who said elsewhere that the marriage contract of a woman is an obligation by Torah law, as we learned in a mishna (110b) that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says that if a man marries a woman in Cappadocia, where the currency is more valuable, and he divorces her in Eretz Yisrael, he gives her payment for the marriage contract from the money of Cappadocia. From the fact that he is obligated to pay the marriage contract in the currency of the place where he undertook the obligation, apparently the marriage contract of a woman is an obligation by Torah law.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讜诇讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讗 讜讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 诪讻讗谉 住诪讻讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇讻转讜讘转 讗砖讛 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讻转讜讘转 讗诇诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐 砖专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讻转讜讘转 讗诇诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪讚讘专讬 住讜驻专讬诐

And if you wish, say instead that the entire latter baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, but the baraita is incomplete and it is teaching the following: From here, the Sages based their determination that a woman鈥檚 marriage contract in the case of a virgin is an obligation by Torah law. However, the marriage contract of a widow is not an obligation by Torah law but is an ordinance by rabbinic law, as Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The marriage contract of a widow is not an obligation by Torah law but is an ordinance by rabbinic law.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 驻转讞 驻转讜讞 诪爪讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗住讘讜讛讜 讻讜驻专讬 诪讘专讻转讗 讞讘讬讟讗 诇讬讛

搂 The Gemara relates: A certain man who had never been married came before Rav Na岣an and said to him: I encountered an unobstructed orifice when I consummated the marriage. Rav Na岣an said in his regard: Flog him with palm branches [kufrei]; prostitutes [mevarakhta] are common around him. As he was never previously married, how was he able to determine whether or not the orifice was unobstructed, if he did not gain experience with prostitutes?

讜讛讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 诪讛讬诪谉 诪讛讬诪谉 讜诪住讘讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讻讜驻专讬 专讘 讗讞讗讬 诪砖谞讬 讻讗谉 讘讘讞讜专 讻讗谉 讘谞砖讜讬

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 Rav Na岣an he who said that he is deemed credible when he claims that he encountered an unobstructed orifice? The Gemara answers: Yes, he is deemed credible, and nevertheless, we flog him with palm branches. Rav A岣i answered: Here, in the case where he is flogged, it is with regard to a bachelor, who is not accorded credibility, because he lacks experience. There, in the case where he is accorded credibility, it is with regard to one who has been married.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 驻转讞 驻转讜讞 诪爪讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讛讟讬转讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘讗讬砖讜谉 诇讬诇讛 讜讗驻讬诇讛 讛讬讟讛 诪爪讗讜 驻转讜讞 诇讗 讛讬讟讛 诪爪讗讜 谞注讜诇

The Gemara relates a similar incident from an earlier era: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel said to him: I encountered an unobstructed orifice. Rabban Gamliel said to him: Perhaps you diverted your approach and therefore, you encountered no obstruction? I will tell you a parable to which this is similar. It is similar to a man who was walking in the blackness of night and darkness and he arrived at the entrance to the house; if he diverts the object preventing the door from opening, he finds it open; if he does not divert it, he finds it locked. Perhaps you too diverted your approach and entered from a different angle and that is why you did not encounter an obstruction.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讘诪讝讬讚 讛讟讬转讛 讜注拽专转 诇讚砖讗 讜注讘专讗 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讜讗 诪讛诇讱 讘讗讬砖讜谉 诇讬诇讛 讜讗驻讬诇讛 讛讬讟讛 讘诪讝讬讚 诪爪讗讜 驻转讜讞 诇讗 讛讬讟讛 讘诪讝讬讚 诪爪讗讜 谞注讜诇

Some say this is what Rabban Gamliel said to him: Maybe you diverted your approach intentionally and you displaced the door and the bolt. I will tell you a parable to which this is similar. It is similar to a man who is walking in the blackness of night and darkness and he arrives at his entrance. If he diverts intentionally, he finds it open; if he does not divert intentionally, he finds it locked.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘专 专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 专讘讬 讘转讜诇讛 讛讬讬转讬 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 讗讜转讜 住讜讚专 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讜 讛住讜讚专 讜砖专讗讜 讘诪讬诐 讜讻讘住讜 讜诪爪讗 注诇讬讜 讻诪讛 讟讬驻讬 讚诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I was a virgin. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Bring me that cloth [sudar] on which you consummated the marriage. They brought him the cloth, and he soaked it in water and laundered it and found upon it several drops of blood from the rupture of the hymen. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the groom: Go take possession of your acquisition, as she was a virgin and there is no need for concern.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜谞讗 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 诪驻专讝拽讬讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 谞注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛

Huna Mar, son of Rava, from Parzakya, said to Rav Ashi: Let us do so as well in similar cases and examine whether there is blood that is obscured by semen or another substance. Rav Ashi said to him:

讙讬讛讜抓 砖诇谞讜 讻讻讘讜住 砖诇讛诐 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 谞讬注讘讚 讙讬讛讜抓 诪注讘专讗 诇讬讛 讞讜诪专转讗

Our calendering in Babylonia, which includes passing an abrasive stone over the garments to scrape off dirt, is like their laundering in Eretz Israel, and only in that manner do the garments in Babylonia reach that level of cleanliness. And if you say: Let us perform the process of calendering on cloths brought as proof that she was not a virgin, the stone removes any trace of blood. Therefore, the process would be ineffective.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘专 专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 专讘讬 注讚讬讬谉 讘转讜诇讛 讗谞讬 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讬 砖转讬 砖驻讞讜转 讗讞转 讘转讜诇讛 讜讗讞转 讘注讜诇讛 讛讘讬讗讜 诇讜 讜讛讜砖讬讘谉 注诇 驻讬 讞讘讬转 砖诇 讬讬谉 讘注讜诇讛 专讬讞讛 谞讜讚祝 讘转讜诇讛 讗讬谉 专讬讞讛 谞讜讚祝 讗祝 讝讜 讛讜砖讬讘讛 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 专讬讞讛 谞讜讚祝 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I am still a virgin. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to them: Bring me two maidservants, one a virgin and one a non-virgin, to conduct a trial. They brought him the two maidservants, and he seated them on the opening of a barrel of wine. From the non-virgin, he discovered that the scent of the wine in the barrel diffuses from her mouth; from the virgin he discovered that the scent does not diffuse from her mouth. Then, he also seated that bride on the barrel, and the scent of the wine did not diffuse from her mouth. Rabban Gamliel bar Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the groom: Go take possession of your acquisition, as she is a virgin.

讜谞讘讚讜拽 诪注讬拽专讗 讘讙讜讜讛 讙诪专讗 讛讜讛 砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 诪注砖讛 诇讗 讛讜讛 讞讝讬 讜住讘专 讚诇诪讗 诇讗 拽讬诐 诇讬讛 讘讙讜讜讛 讚诪诇转讗 砖驻讬专 讜诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇讝诇讝讜诇讬 讘讘谞讜转 讬砖专讗诇

The Gemara asks: Since Rabban Gamliel was familiar with this method of examination, let him use it to examine her initially. Why was the trial with the maidservants necessary? The Gemara answers: He learned that it was effective through tradition; however, he had never seen it in action, and he thought perhaps he was not sufficiently expert in that manner of examination, and it is improper conduct to demean Jewish women by subjecting them to that indignity for naught. Once he established the effectiveness of that method, he proceeded to examine the bride to resolve the matter.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讝拽谉 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 专讘讬 诪诪砖驻讞转 讚讜专拽讟讬 讗谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讛谉 诇讗 讚诐 谞讚讛 讜诇讗 讚诐 讘转讜诇讬诐 讘讚拽 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘拽专讜讘讜转讬讛 讜诪爪讗 讻讚讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱 讗砖专讬讱 砖讝讻讬转 诇诪砖驻讞转 讚讜专拽讟讬

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabban Gamliel the Elder said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I am from the family of Dorketi, who have neither menstrual blood nor blood from the rupture of the hymen. Rabban Gamliel investigated among her relatives to determine whether the claim with regard to her family was true, and discovered that the truth was in accordance with her statement. He said to him: Go take possession of your acquisition. Happy are you that you were privileged to marry a member of the Dorketi family, as those forms of blood will never pose a problem for you.

诪讗讬 讚讜专拽讟讬 讚讜专 拽讟讜注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 转谞讞讜诪讬诐 砖诇 讛讘诇 谞讬讞诪讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讻砖诐 砖讛砖讗讜专 讬驻讛 诇注讬住讛 讻讱 讚诪讬诐 讬驻讬诐 诇讗砖讛 讜转谞讗 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讻诇 讗砖讛 砖讚诪讬讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 讘谞讬讛 诪专讜讘讬诐

The Gemara elaborates: What is the meaning of Dorketi? It means truncated generation [dor katua]. Rabbi 岣nina said: Rabban Gamliel consoled that man with vain words of consolation, because the absence of blood in this woman is a drawback. As Rabbi 岣yya taught: Just as leaven is fortuitous for dough, so too, blood is fortuitous for a woman. And it was taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: Any woman whose blood is plentiful, her children are plentiful. This bride, who lacks blood, will not produce many children.

讗转诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 谞转讞讬讬讘 讘诪拽讞讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 谞转讞讬讬讘 讛讬讬谞讜 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讝讻讛 诪讗讬 讝讻讜转讗 讚诇讗 讗转讬 诇讬讚讬 住驻拽 谞讚讛

It was stated that there is a dispute with regard to Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 reply. Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said that Rabban Gamliel said to the groom: Exercise your privilege and take possession of your acquisition. And Rabbi Yosei bar Avin said that Rabban Gamliel said to him: It is your misfortune to take possession of your acquisition. Granted, according to the one who says: It is your misfortune, that is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina, who said the consolation was vain. However, according to the one who says: Exercise your privilege, what is the privilege to which he is referring? The Gemara answers: The privilege is that thanks to the condition of the women of this family, he will not come to a situation of uncertainty whether she has the halakhic status of a menstruating woman.

讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讘注诇转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讚诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 专讘讬 注讚讬讬谉 讘转讜诇讛 讛讬讬转讬 讜砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讛讜讛 专讗讛 专讘讬 砖驻谞讬讛诐 砖讞讜专讬诐 爪讜讛 注诇讬讛谉 讜讛讻谞讬住讜诐 诇诪专讞抓 讜讛讗讻讬诇讜诐 讜讛砖拽讜诐 讜讛讻谞讬住讜诐 诇讞讚专 讘注诇 讜诪爪讗 讚诐 讗诪专 诇讜 诇讱 讝讻讛 讘诪拽讞讱 拽专讬 专讘讬 注诇讬讛诐 爪驻讚 注讜专诐 注诇 注爪诪诐 讬讘砖 讛讬讛 讻注抓

The Gemara relates: A certain man who came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: My teacher, I engaged in intercourse and did not find blood. The bride said to him: My teacher, I was still a virgin. And the Gemara comments that this incident was during years of drought. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi saw that their faces were black due to hunger. He instructed his attendants to tend to them and they took them into the bathhouse and bathed them and they fed them and gave them drink. Then they took them into a room, and the groom engaged in intercourse with her and found blood, as it was due to the famine that there was no blood. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Go take possession of your acquisition. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi read this verse in their regard: 鈥淭heir skin is shriveled upon their bones, it is withered, it has become like a stick鈥 (Lamentations 4:8), in the sense that no blood flows from them.

诪转谞讬壮 讘转讜诇讛 讻转讜讘转讛 诪讗转讬诐 讜讗诇诪谞讛 诪谞讛 讘转讜诇讛 讗诇诪谞讛 讙专讜砖讛 讜讞诇讜爪讛 诪谉 讛讗讬专讜住讬谉 讻转讜讘转谉 诪讗转讬诐 讜讬砖 诇讛谉 讟注谞转 讘转讜诇讬诐

MISHNA: With regard to a virgin, her marriage contract is two hundred dinars, and with regard to a widow, her marriage contract is one hundred dinars. With regard to a virgin who is a widow, a divorc茅e, or a 岣lutza who achieved that status from a state of betrothal, before marriage and before consummation of the marriage, for all of these their marriage contract is two hundred dinars, and they are subject to a claim concerning their virginity, as their presumptive status of virginity is intact.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗诇诪谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘讙讚转讗讛 讗诇诪谞讛 注诇 砖诐 诪谞讛 讗诇诪谞讛 诪谉 讛讗讬专讜住讬谉 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讗讬讬讚讬 讚讛讗 拽专讬 诇讛 讗诇诪谞讛 讛讗 谞诪讬 拽专讬 诇讛 讗诇诪谞讛

GEMARA: What is the relationship between the term almana and its meaning, widow? Rav 岣na of Baghdad said: A widow is called an almana after the maneh, one hundred dinars, which is the sum of her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: With regard to a widow from betrothal, whose marriage contract is two hundred dinars and not a maneh, what is there to say? The Gemara answers: Since they called this widow from marriage almana, this widow from betrothal they also called almana.

讗诇诪谞讛 讚讻转讬讘讗 讘讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪讗讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬诪专 讚注转讬讚讬谉 专讘谞谉 讚诪转拽谞讬 诇讛 诪谞讛 讜诪讬 讻转讘 拽专讗 诇注转讬讚 讗讬谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诐 讛谞讛专 讛砖诇讬砖讬 讞讚拽诇 讛讜讗 讛讛讜诇讱 拽讚诪转 讗砖讜专 讜转谞讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗砖讜专 讝讜 住诇讬拽讗 讜诪讬 讛讜讗讬 讗诇讗 讚注转讬讚讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讚注转讬讚讛

The Gemara asks: That explains the use of almana in the terminology of the Sages. However, with regard to the term almana that is written in the Torah, what is there to say? The rabbinic ordinance that the marriage contract of a widow is a maneh was not yet instituted. The Gemara answers: The Torah employs the term almana because the Sages are destined to institute the sum of a maneh for her in her marriage contract. The Gemara asks: And is a verse written for the future? The Gemara answers: Yes, indeed it is, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goes toward the east of Asshur鈥 (Genesis 2:14). And Rav Yosef taught: Asshur, that is Seleucia. And did that city exist when the Torah was written? Rather, the Torah is referring to that city because it was destined to exist in the future. Here too, the Torah employs the term almana because a widow was destined to have a marriage contract of a maneh instituted for her.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘讙讚转讗讛 诪讟专 诪砖拽讛 诪专讜讛 讜诪讝讘诇 讜诪注讚谉 讜诪诪砖讬讱 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讬讬诪专 讘专 砖诇诪讬讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 转诇诪讬讛 专讜讛 谞讞转 讙讚讜讚讬讛 讘专讘讬讘讬诐 转诪讙讙谞讛 爪诪讞讛 转讘专讱

Apropos the statement of Rav 岣na of Baghdad, the Gemara cites additional statements of his. And Rav 岣na of Baghdad said: Rain irrigates, saturates, and fertilizes the land, and refines the fruit and causes it to proliferate. Rava bar Rabbi Yishmael, and some say it was Rav Yeimar bar Shelamya who said: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淲atering its ridges abundantly, settling its furrows, You make it soft with showers, You bless its growth鈥 (Psalms 65:11). 鈥淲atering its ridges abundantly鈥 indicates that the rain irrigates and saturates the land, 鈥淵ou make it soft with showers鈥 indicates that it fertilizes the land, and 鈥淵ou bless its growth鈥 indicates that it refines the fruit and causes it to proliferate.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讝讘讞 诪讝讬讞 讜诪讝讬谉 诪讞讘讘 诪讻驻专 讛讬讬谞讜 诪讻驻专 讛讬讬谞讜 诪讝讬讞 诪讝讬讞 讙讝讬专讜转 讜诪讻驻专 注讜谞讜转

Rabbi Elazar said: The term mizbe鈥檃岣, altar, is a rough acrostic representing its qualities. It moves [mezia岣] sins and sustains [mezin], because as a result of the offerings sacrificed on the altar, sustenance is provided to all. It endears [me岣bev], and atones [mekhapper]. Mizbe鈥檃岣 evokes the letters mem and zayin from the first two qualities, bet from me岣bev and the kaf from mekhapper. The Gemara asks: This quality, that the altar atones, is the same as that quality, that it moves sins. Why are they listed separately? The Gemara answers: The altar moves evil decrees, and atones for sins.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘讙讚转讗讛 转诪专讬 诪砖讞谞谉 诪砖讘注谉 诪砖诇砖诇谉 诪讗砖专谉 讜诇讗 诪驻谞拽谉 讗诪专 专讘 讗讻诇 转诪专讬诐 讗诇 讬讜专讛 诪讬转讬讘讬 转诪专讬诐 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 讬驻讜转 讘诪谞讞讛 专注讜转 讘爪讛专讬诐 讗讬谉 讻诪讜转谉 讜诪讘讟诇讜转 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讞砖讘讛 专注讛 讜讞讜诇讬 诪注讬诐 讜转讞转讜谞讬讜转

And Rav 岣na of Baghdad said: Dates warm and satiate, loosen the bowels, strengthen, but do not pamper. Rav said: If one ate dates he should not issue halakhic rulings, as dates are intoxicating. The Gemara raises an objection: With regard to dates, in the morning and evening they have a positive effect on one who eats them; in the afternoon, they have a negative effect on one who eats them. At noon, their positive effect is unparalleled, and they negate three matters: A troubling thought, intestinal illness, and hemorrhoids. Apparently, the effect of dates is primarily a positive one.

诪讬 讗诪专讬谞谉 讚诇讗 诪注诇讜 注诇讜讬讬 诪注诇讜 讜诇驻讬 砖注转讗 讟专讚讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗讞诪专讗 讚讗诪专 诪专 讛砖讜转讛 专讘讬注讬转 讬讬谉 讗诇 讬讜专讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 谞讛诪讗 讛讗 诇讘转专 谞讛诪讗 讚讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诐 转诪专讬 诪拽诪讬 谞讛诪讗 讻讬 谞专讙讗 诇讚讬拽讜诇讗 讘转专 谞讛诪讗 讻讬 注讘专讗 诇讚砖讗

The Gemara answers that there is no contradiction. Did we say that they are not exemplary? They are exemplary, and at the same time cause temporary distraction and intoxication, just as it is in the case of wine, as the Master said: One who drinks a quarter-log of wine should not issue halakhic rulings. And if you wish, say instead: This apparent contradiction is not difficult. This statement, which prohibits issuing a ruling under the influence of dates, is referring to one eating dates before he eats bread, when eating them can lead to intoxication. That statement, which enumerates the salutary effects of dates, is referring to one eating dates after he eats bread. As Abaye said: My mother told me that dates eaten before eating bread are destructive like an ax to a palm tree; dates eaten after eating bread they are beneficial like a bolt to a door, which provides support.

讚砖讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讱 砖诐 讚专讙讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚专讱 讙讙 驻讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖驻专讬谉 讜专讘讬谉 注诇讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽

Apropos the term door [dasha], the Gemara cites statements referring to its etymology as well as that of several other Aramaic terms. With regard to the word dasha, door, Rava said: It is an acrostic for derekh sham, meaning through there. With regard to the word darga, ladder or stair, Rava said: It is an acrostic for derekh gag, meaning way to the roof. With regard to the word purya, bed, Rav Pappa said: It is an acrostic for parin veravin aleha, meaning one procreates upon it. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said:

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