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Today's Daf Yomi

July 15, 2014 | 讬状讝 讘转诪讜讝 转砖注状讚

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 4

Study Guide Megillah 4


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诇讜讚 讜讗讜谞讜 讜讙讬讗 讛讞专砖讬诐 诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讛讜讜

The cities Lod, and Ono, and Gei He岣rashim are cities that have been surrounded by walls since the days of Joshua, son of Nun.

讜讛谞讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谞谞讛讬 讜讛讗 讗诇驻注诇 讘谞谞讛讬 讚讻转讬讘 [讜]讘谞讬 讗诇驻注诇 注讘专 讜诪砖注诐 讜砖诪专 讛讜讗 讘谞讛 讗转 讗讜谞讜 讜讗转 诇讜讚 讜讘谞讜转讬讛 讜诇讟注诪讬讱 讗住讗 讘谞谞讛讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘谉 (讗住讗 讗转 注专讬 讛讘爪讜专讜转 讗砖专 诇讬讛讜讚讛)

The Gemara asks: Did Joshua, son of Nun, really build these cities? Didn鈥檛 Elpaal build them at a later date, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the sons of Elpaal: Eber, and Misham, and Shemed, who built Ono and Lod, with its hamlets鈥 (I聽Chronicles聽8:12)? The Gemara counters: According to your reasoning, that this verse proves that these cities were built later, you can also say that Asa, king of Judah, built them, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he, Asa, built fortified cities in Judah鈥 (see II聽Chronicles聽14:5). Therefore, it is apparent that these cities were built more than once.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛谞讬 诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讛讜讜 讞专讜讘 讘讬诪讬 驻讬诇讙砖 讘讙讘注讛 讜讗转讗 讗诇驻注诇 讘谞谞讛讬 讛讚讜专 讗讬谞驻讜诇 讗转讗 讗住讗 砖驻爪讬谞讛讜

Rabbi Elazar said: These cities were surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, and they were destroyed in the days of the concubine in Gibea, as they stood in the tribal territory of Benjamin, and in that war all of the cities of Benjamin were destroyed (see Judges, chapters 19鈥21). Elpaal then came and built them again. They then fell in the wars between Judah and Israel, and Asa came and restored them.

讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬讛讜讚讛 谞讘谞讛 讗转 讛注专讬诐 讛讗诇讛 诪讻诇诇 讚注专讬诐 讛讜讜 诪注讬拽专讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara comments: The language of the verse is also precise according to this explanation, as it is written聽with regard to Asa: 鈥淎nd he said to Judah: Let us build these cities鈥 (II聽Chronicles 14:6), which proves by inference that they had already been cities at the outset, and that he did not build new cities. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that it is so.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 谞砖讬诐 讞讬讬讘讜转 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 砖讗祝 讛谉 讛讬讜 讘讗讜转讜 讛谞住 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讜讚讜专砖讬谉 讘注谞讬谞讜 砖诇 讬讜诐

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said: Women are obligated in the reading of the Megilla, as they too were significant partners in that miracle. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said: When Purim occurs on Shabbat, one asks questions and expounds upon the subject of the day.

诪讗讬 讗专讬讗 驻讜专讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 谞诪讬 讚转谞讬讗 诪砖讛 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讜讚讜专砖讬谉 讘注谞讬谞讜 砖诇 讬讜诐 讛诇讻讜转 驻住讞 讘驻住讞 讛诇讻讜转 注爪专转 讘注爪专转 讜讛诇讻讜转 讞讙 讘讞讙

The Gemara raises a question with regard to the last halakha: Why was it necessary to specify Purim? The same principle applies also to the Festivals, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses enacted for the Jewish people that they should ask questions about and expound upon the subject of the day: They should occupy themselves with the halakhot of Passover on Passover, with the halakhot of Shavuot on Shavuot, and with the halakhot of the festival of Sukkot on the festival of Sukkot.

驻讜专讬诐 讗讬爪讟专讬讻讗 诇讬讛 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讙讝讜专 诪砖讜诐 讚专讘讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara answers: It was necessary for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi to mention Purim, lest you say that when Purim falls on Shabbat we should decree that it is prohibited to expound upon the halakhot of the day due to the concern of Rabba, who said that the reason the Megilla is not read on a Purim that falls on Shabbat is due to a concern that one carry the Megilla in the public domain. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi therefore teaches us that expounding the halakhot of the day is not prohibited as a preventive measure lest one read the Megilla on Shabbat.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇拽专讜转 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛讬 讗拽专讗 讬讜诪诐 讜诇讗 转注谞讛 讜诇讬诇讛 讜诇讗 讚讜诪讬讛 诇讬

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi further said with regard to Purim: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then to repeat it [lishnota] during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淥 my God, I call by day but You do not answer; and at night, and there is no surcease for me鈥 (Psalms 22:3), which alludes to reading the Megilla both by day and by night.

住讘讜专 诪讬谞讛 诇诪拽专讬讬讛 讘诇讬诇讬讗 讜诇诪讬转谞讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚讬讚讛 讘讬诪诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬 诪讬驻专砖讗 诇讬 诪讬谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讻讙讜谉 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗注讘讜专 驻专砖转讗 讚讗 讜讗转谞讬讬讛

Some of the students who heard this statement understood from it that one is obligated to read the Megilla at night and to study its relevant tractate of Mishna by day, as the term lishnota can be understood to mean studying Mishna. Rabbi Yirmeya said to them: It was explained to me personally by Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba himself that the term lishnota here has a different connotation, for example, as people say: I will conclude this section and repeat it, i.e., I will review my studies. Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 statement means that one must repeat the reading of the Megilla by day after reading it at night.

讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讘讬专讗讛 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇拽专讜转 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪注谉 讬讝诪专讱 讻讘讜讚 讜诇讗 讬讚讜诐 讛壮 讗诇讛讬 诇注讜诇诐 讗讜讚讱

The Gemara notes that this ruling was also stated by another amora, as Rabbi 岣lbo said that Ulla Bira鈥檃 said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淪o that my glory may sing praise to You and not be silent; O Lord, my God, I will give thanks to You forever鈥 (Psalms 30:13). The dual formulation of singing praise and not being silent alludes to reading the Megilla both by night and by day.

讗诇讗 砖讛讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讞讻诪讬诐 讛拽讬诇讜 注诇 讛讻驻专讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住驻拽讜 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘讻专讻讬谉

搂 We learned in the mishna that residents of unwalled towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth of Adar; however, residents of villages may advance their reading to the day of assembly, the Monday or Thursday preceding Purim. Rabbi 岣nina said: The Sages were lenient with the villages and allowed them to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, so that they could be free to provide water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. If everyone would be busy reading the Megilla on the fourteenth, the residents of the cities would not have enough to eat.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚转拽谞转讗 讚讻专讻讬谉 讛讜讬 讜讛转谞谉 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 诇讬拽讚诪讜 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讛讜讜 诇讛讜 注砖专讛 讜注砖专讛 诇讗 转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that this ordinance is for the benefit of the cities? Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that if the fourteenth occurred on a Monday, the residents of villages and large towns read it on that very day? If it is so, that the ordinance allowing the villagers to sometimes advance their reading of the Megilla is for the benefit of the cities, let the villagers advance their reading to the previous day of assembly even when the fourteenth occurs on a Monday. The Gemara responds: That would mean that Megilla reading for them would take place on the tenth of Adar, and the Sages did not establish the tenth of Adar as a day that is fit to read the Megilla.

转讗 砖诪注 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 诇讬拽讚诪讜 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讚讗讞讚 注砖专 讛讜讗 诪讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 诇讗 讚讞讬谞谉

The Gemara continues: Come and hear a proof from a different statement of the mishna: If the fourteenth occurs on a Thursday, the villages and large towns read it on that day, the fourteenth, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth. If it is so, that the ordinance is for the benefit of the cities, let the villagers advance their reading of the Megilla to the previous day of assembly, i.e., the previous Monday, as it is the eleventh of Adar. The Gemara responds: We do not defer the reading of the Megilla from one day of assembly to another day of assembly.

转讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讻谞住讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讘诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 转拽谞转讗 讚讻专讻讬谉 讛讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪驻住讚讬 诇讛讜 诇讻专讻讬谉

The Gemara continues: Come and hear that which was taught in the following mishna (5a): Rabbi Yehuda said: When is the Megilla read from the eleventh of Adar and onward? In a place where the villagers generally enter town on Monday and Thursday. However, in a place where they do not generally enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar. The Gemara infers: If it enters your mind to say that the ordinance is for the benefit of the cities, would it be reasonable to suggest that because the villagers do not enter town on Monday and Thursday the residents of the cities should lose out and not be provided with food and water?

诇讗 转讬诪讗 讻讚讬 砖讬住驻拽讜 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 诪驻谞讬 砖诪住驻拽讬诐 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘讻专讻讬谉

The Gemara accepts this argument: Do not say that the Sages allowed the villages to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly so that they can be free to provide water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. Rather, say that the Sages were lenient with them because the villages supply water and food to their brethren in the cities. This ordinance was established for the benefit of the villagers so that they should not have to make an extra trip to the cities to hear the reading of the Megilla. However, in a place where the villages do not go to the cities, advancing their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly will not benefit them, and therefore they must read on the fourteenth.

讻讬爪讚 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 专讬砖讗 讚谞拽讟 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬专讞讗 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 住讬驻讗 讚谞拽讟 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬讜诪讬

搂 We learned in the mishna: How so? If the fourteenth of Adar occurs on Monday, the villages and large towns read it on that day. The mishna continues to explain the days on which the Megilla is read. The Gemara asks: What is different about the first clause of the mishna, which employs the order of the dates of the month, i.e., the eleventh of Adar, and the latter clause, which employs the order of the days of the week, i.e., Monday?

讗讬讬讚讬 讚诪讬转讛驻讻讬 诇讬讛 谞拽讟 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬讜诪讬

The Gemara answers: Since the days of the week would be reversed if the latter clause was organized according to the dates of the month, as the mishna would first have to mention a case where the fourteenth occurs on a Sunday, then a case where it occurs on a Wednesday or Shabbat, and then a case where it occurs on a Friday or Tuesday, the mishna employed the order of the days of the week in order to avoid confusion.

讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讻讜壮 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诪谞讬 讗讬 专讘讬 讗讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬

搂 We learned in the mishna: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, Friday, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, and the large towns and walled cities read it on Friday, the fourteenth of Adar. The Gemara asks: Whose opinion is expressed in the mishna? It can be either Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi or Rabbi Yosei.

诪讗讬 专讘讬 讚转谞讬讗 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 诇讗 讬讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讗诇讗 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara explains: What is the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? As it is taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, villages and large towns advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, and walled cities read it on the day of Purim, Friday. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi disagrees and says: I say that the readings in the large towns should not be deferred from their usual date, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar. Rather, both these, the large towns and those, the walled cities, read the Megilla on the day of Purim.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉

The Gemara asks: What is the reason of the first tanna? The Gemara explains that it is as it is written: 鈥淭o keep these two days, according to their writing and according to their time, in every year鈥 (Esther 9:27), which indicates that Purim must be celebrated every year in similar fashion. Just as in every other year the large towns precede the walled cities by one day, so too here the large towns precede the walled cities by one day. Consequently, since the walled cities cannot read the Megilla on Shabbat and they are required to advance the reading to Friday, the large towns must also advance their reading a day to Thursday.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 谞讚讞讬谉 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 诇讗 讬讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises an objection: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as in every other year the Megilla readings in the large towns are not deferred from their usual date and they read the Megilla on the fourteenth, so too here the Megilla readings in the large towns should not be deferred from their usual date and they too should read on the fourteenth. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible for the large towns to fulfill all of the conditions at the same time, i.e., to read on the fourteenth and to read a day before the walled cities.

讜专讘讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 注讬讬专讜转 谞讚讞讬谉 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 诇讗 讬讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what is his reason? The Gemara explains that it is also based upon the words 鈥渋n every year鈥; just as in every other year the readings in the large towns are not deferred from their usual date and they read on the fourteenth, so too here, the readings in the large towns are not deferred from their usual date, but rather they read on the fourteenth.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 谞诪讬 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises an objection: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as every year the large towns precede the walled cities by one day, and read on the fourteenth, so too here the large towns precede the walled cities by one day, and read on the thirteenth. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible to fulfill all of the conditions at the same time, i.e., to read on the fourteenth and to read a day before the walled cities.

诪讗讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讚转谞讬讗 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讜讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 讗诇讗 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara asks: What is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei? As it is taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, the walled cities and villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, and the large towns read it on the day of Purim itself. Rabbi Yosei says: The walled cities never precede the large towns; rather, both these, the large towns, and those, the walled cities, read on that day, i.e., Friday, the fourteenth of Adar.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 注讬讬专讜转 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讬讬专讜转 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛

The Gemara asks: What is the reason of the first tanna? As it is written: 鈥淚n every year鈥; just as in every other year the large towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth, and the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla, as the large towns and walled cities never read the Megilla on the same day, so too here, the large towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth, and the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla. Therefore, the walled cities must advance their reading of the Megilla by two days to the day of assembly, Thursday.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises an objection: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as in every other year the walled cities do not precede the large towns, so too here, the walled cities do not precede the large towns. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible to fulfill all of the conditions at the same time, i.e., that the large towns should read on the fourteenth, the large towns and the walled cities should read on different days, and the walled cities should not precede the large towns.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转

What is the reason of Rabbi Yosei? It is based upon the words 鈥渋n every year鈥; just as in every other year the walled cities do not precede the large towns, so too here, the walled cities do not precede the large towns.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as in every other year, the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla, so too here, the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla. Therefore, since the large towns read on the fourteenth, the walled cities read on the thirteenth. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible to fulfill all the conditions. It is clear from these baraitot that the tanna of the mishna can either be Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi or Rabbi Yosei, but not either of two anonymous tanna鈥檌m.

讜住讘专 专讘讬 注讬讬专讜转 诇讗 讚讞讬谞谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讬讚讞讜 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛

The Gemara asks: Does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi really hold that one does not defer the reading of the Megilla in large towns to the day of assembly? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat, the villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, the large towns read it on Shabbat eve, and the walled cities read it the next day, i.e., on Sunday. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: I say that since the readings in the large towns were already deferred from their usual date, i.e., the fourteenth, they are deferred to the day of assembly, i.e., to Thursday. Consequently, even Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi agrees that the reading in the large towns can be shifted to the day of assembly. Why doesn鈥檛 he also hold that large towns read the Megilla on the day of assembly when the fourteenth occurs on a Friday?

讛讻讬 讛砖转讗 讛转诐 讝诪谞诐 砖讘转 讛讬讗 讜讛讜讗讬诇 讚谞讚讞讜 讬讚讞讜 讜讛讻讗 讝诪谞诐 注专讘 砖讘转

The Gemara responds: How can these cases be compared? There, in the second baraita, the designated time for them to read the Megilla is Shabbat, but the Megilla is not read on Shabbat, and therefore they must read it on a different day. Therefore, since the readings in the large towns have been deferred, they are deferred an additional day, and take place on Thursday, the day of assembly, at the same time as the readings in the villages. Here, their designated time is Shabbat eve, and there is no reason to move the reading from that day.

讻诪讗谉 讗讝诇讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讛讻诇 谞讚讞讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讛讻诇 谞讚讞讬谉 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讚注讘讚讬 诇诪讞专 讗诇讗 讻诇 讛谞讚讞讛 讬讚讞讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi 岣lbo said that Rav Huna said: When Purim occurs on Shabbat, the reading of the Megilla in all places is deferred to the day of assembly? The Gemara corrects the wording of Rav Huna鈥檚 statement: Can it enter your mind to say that the reading of the Megilla in all places is deferred to the day of assembly? Aren鈥檛 there walled cities that perform this ceremony the next day, i.e., on Sunday? Rather, Rav Huna鈥檚 statement should say as follows: All readings that are deferred are deferred to the day of assembly. In accordance with whose opinion was this stated? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讛讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讘砖讘转 诇讗 拽专讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讛讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬谉 讘拽专讬讗转 诪讙讬诇讛 (讜讘转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专) 讜讗讬谉 讛讻诇 讘拽讬讗讬谉 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬讟诇谞讛 讘讬讚讜 讜讬诇讱 讗爪诇 讘拽讬 诇诇诪讜讚 讜讬注讘讬专谞讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讘专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐

In any case, it is apparent from the mishna and the baraitot that everyone agrees that one does not read the Megilla on Shabbat. What is the reason for this? Rabba said: Everyone is obligated to participate in reading the Megilla on Purim and blowing the shofar on Rosh HaShana, and not everyone is proficient in reading the Megilla. Therefore, the Sages issued a rabbinic decree that the Megilla is not read on Shabbat, lest one take the Megilla in his hand and go to an expert to learn how to read it or to hear the expert read it, and, due to his preoccupation, he will carry it four cubits in the public domain, and thereby desecrate Shabbat.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚砖讜驻专 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚诇讜诇讘

The Gemara comments: And this same concern for the sanctity of Shabbat is the reason that the Sages decreed that the shofar is not blown when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat. And this same concern is the reason that the Sages decreed that one may not take the lulav on Shabbat.

专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖注讬谞讬讛谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐 谞砖讜讗讜转 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讙讜讘讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讞诇拽讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

Rav Yosef said that there is another reason the Megilla is not read on Shabbat: Because the eyes of the poor are raised to the reading of the Megilla. The poor await the day on which the Megilla is read, because on that day gifts are distributed to the poor. If the Megilla is read on Shabbat, it will not be possible to distribute gifts to the poor, who will be deeply disappointed. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: Even though the Sages said that the villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, they also collect the gifts for the poor on that day, and they distribute them to the poor on that day.

讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 讗讚专讘讛 诪砖讜诐 讚讗诪专讜 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗诪专讜 砖讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讙讜讘讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讞诇拽讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖注讬谞讬讛诐 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐 谞砖讜讗讜转 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讗讘诇

The Gemara is troubled by the wording of this baraita. Does the baraita read: Even though the Sages said? On the contrary, it is because they said that the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly that the gifts must be collected and distributed to the poor on that very day. Rather, the baraita should read as follows: Since the Sages said that the villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, they collect the gifts for the poor on that day and they distribute them on that day, because the eyes of the poor are raised to the reading of the Megilla, and they should not be disappointed. However,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah 4

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Megillah 4

诇讜讚 讜讗讜谞讜 讜讙讬讗 讛讞专砖讬诐 诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讛讜讜

The cities Lod, and Ono, and Gei He岣rashim are cities that have been surrounded by walls since the days of Joshua, son of Nun.

讜讛谞讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谞谞讛讬 讜讛讗 讗诇驻注诇 讘谞谞讛讬 讚讻转讬讘 [讜]讘谞讬 讗诇驻注诇 注讘专 讜诪砖注诐 讜砖诪专 讛讜讗 讘谞讛 讗转 讗讜谞讜 讜讗转 诇讜讚 讜讘谞讜转讬讛 讜诇讟注诪讬讱 讗住讗 讘谞谞讛讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讘谉 (讗住讗 讗转 注专讬 讛讘爪讜专讜转 讗砖专 诇讬讛讜讚讛)

The Gemara asks: Did Joshua, son of Nun, really build these cities? Didn鈥檛 Elpaal build them at a later date, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the sons of Elpaal: Eber, and Misham, and Shemed, who built Ono and Lod, with its hamlets鈥 (I聽Chronicles聽8:12)? The Gemara counters: According to your reasoning, that this verse proves that these cities were built later, you can also say that Asa, king of Judah, built them, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he, Asa, built fortified cities in Judah鈥 (see II聽Chronicles聽14:5). Therefore, it is apparent that these cities were built more than once.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛谞讬 诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讛讜讜 讞专讜讘 讘讬诪讬 驻讬诇讙砖 讘讙讘注讛 讜讗转讗 讗诇驻注诇 讘谞谞讛讬 讛讚讜专 讗讬谞驻讜诇 讗转讗 讗住讗 砖驻爪讬谞讛讜

Rabbi Elazar said: These cities were surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, and they were destroyed in the days of the concubine in Gibea, as they stood in the tribal territory of Benjamin, and in that war all of the cities of Benjamin were destroyed (see Judges, chapters 19鈥21). Elpaal then came and built them again. They then fell in the wars between Judah and Israel, and Asa came and restored them.

讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬讛讜讚讛 谞讘谞讛 讗转 讛注专讬诐 讛讗诇讛 诪讻诇诇 讚注专讬诐 讛讜讜 诪注讬拽专讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara comments: The language of the verse is also precise according to this explanation, as it is written聽with regard to Asa: 鈥淎nd he said to Judah: Let us build these cities鈥 (II聽Chronicles 14:6), which proves by inference that they had already been cities at the outset, and that he did not build new cities. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from this that it is so.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 谞砖讬诐 讞讬讬讘讜转 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 砖讗祝 讛谉 讛讬讜 讘讗讜转讜 讛谞住 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讜讚讜专砖讬谉 讘注谞讬谞讜 砖诇 讬讜诐

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said: Women are obligated in the reading of the Megilla, as they too were significant partners in that miracle. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi also said: When Purim occurs on Shabbat, one asks questions and expounds upon the subject of the day.

诪讗讬 讗专讬讗 驻讜专讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 谞诪讬 讚转谞讬讗 诪砖讛 转讬拽谉 诇讛诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讜讚讜专砖讬谉 讘注谞讬谞讜 砖诇 讬讜诐 讛诇讻讜转 驻住讞 讘驻住讞 讛诇讻讜转 注爪专转 讘注爪专转 讜讛诇讻讜转 讞讙 讘讞讙

The Gemara raises a question with regard to the last halakha: Why was it necessary to specify Purim? The same principle applies also to the Festivals, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses enacted for the Jewish people that they should ask questions about and expound upon the subject of the day: They should occupy themselves with the halakhot of Passover on Passover, with the halakhot of Shavuot on Shavuot, and with the halakhot of the festival of Sukkot on the festival of Sukkot.

驻讜专讬诐 讗讬爪讟专讬讻讗 诇讬讛 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讙讝讜专 诪砖讜诐 讚专讘讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara answers: It was necessary for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi to mention Purim, lest you say that when Purim falls on Shabbat we should decree that it is prohibited to expound upon the halakhot of the day due to the concern of Rabba, who said that the reason the Megilla is not read on a Purim that falls on Shabbat is due to a concern that one carry the Megilla in the public domain. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi therefore teaches us that expounding the halakhot of the day is not prohibited as a preventive measure lest one read the Megilla on Shabbat.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇拽专讜转 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛讬 讗拽专讗 讬讜诪诐 讜诇讗 转注谞讛 讜诇讬诇讛 讜诇讗 讚讜诪讬讛 诇讬

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi further said with regard to Purim: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then to repeat it [lishnota] during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淥 my God, I call by day but You do not answer; and at night, and there is no surcease for me鈥 (Psalms 22:3), which alludes to reading the Megilla both by day and by night.

住讘讜专 诪讬谞讛 诇诪拽专讬讬讛 讘诇讬诇讬讗 讜诇诪讬转谞讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚讬讚讛 讘讬诪诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬 诪讬驻专砖讗 诇讬 诪讬谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讻讙讜谉 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讗注讘讜专 驻专砖转讗 讚讗 讜讗转谞讬讬讛

Some of the students who heard this statement understood from it that one is obligated to read the Megilla at night and to study its relevant tractate of Mishna by day, as the term lishnota can be understood to mean studying Mishna. Rabbi Yirmeya said to them: It was explained to me personally by Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba himself that the term lishnota here has a different connotation, for example, as people say: I will conclude this section and repeat it, i.e., I will review my studies. Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi鈥檚 statement means that one must repeat the reading of the Megilla by day after reading it at night.

讗讬转诪专 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讘讬专讗讛 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇拽专讜转 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜诇砖谞讜转讛 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪注谉 讬讝诪专讱 讻讘讜讚 讜诇讗 讬讚讜诐 讛壮 讗诇讛讬 诇注讜诇诐 讗讜讚讱

The Gemara notes that this ruling was also stated by another amora, as Rabbi 岣lbo said that Ulla Bira鈥檃 said: A person is obligated to read the Megilla at night and then repeat it during the day, as it is stated: 鈥淪o that my glory may sing praise to You and not be silent; O Lord, my God, I will give thanks to You forever鈥 (Psalms 30:13). The dual formulation of singing praise and not being silent alludes to reading the Megilla both by night and by day.

讗诇讗 砖讛讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讞讻诪讬诐 讛拽讬诇讜 注诇 讛讻驻专讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住驻拽讜 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘讻专讻讬谉

搂 We learned in the mishna that residents of unwalled towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth of Adar; however, residents of villages may advance their reading to the day of assembly, the Monday or Thursday preceding Purim. Rabbi 岣nina said: The Sages were lenient with the villages and allowed them to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, so that they could be free to provide water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. If everyone would be busy reading the Megilla on the fourteenth, the residents of the cities would not have enough to eat.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚转拽谞转讗 讚讻专讻讬谉 讛讜讬 讜讛转谞谉 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 诇讬拽讚诪讜 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讛讜讜 诇讛讜 注砖专讛 讜注砖专讛 诇讗 转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉

The Gemara asks: Is that to say that this ordinance is for the benefit of the cities? Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that if the fourteenth occurred on a Monday, the residents of villages and large towns read it on that very day? If it is so, that the ordinance allowing the villagers to sometimes advance their reading of the Megilla is for the benefit of the cities, let the villagers advance their reading to the previous day of assembly even when the fourteenth occurs on a Monday. The Gemara responds: That would mean that Megilla reading for them would take place on the tenth of Adar, and the Sages did not establish the tenth of Adar as a day that is fit to read the Megilla.

转讗 砖诪注 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 诇讬拽讚诪讜 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讚讗讞讚 注砖专 讛讜讗 诪讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 诇讗 讚讞讬谞谉

The Gemara continues: Come and hear a proof from a different statement of the mishna: If the fourteenth occurs on a Thursday, the villages and large towns read it on that day, the fourteenth, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth. If it is so, that the ordinance is for the benefit of the cities, let the villagers advance their reading of the Megilla to the previous day of assembly, i.e., the previous Monday, as it is the eleventh of Adar. The Gemara responds: We do not defer the reading of the Megilla from one day of assembly to another day of assembly.

转讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讻谞住讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讘诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 转拽谞转讗 讚讻专讻讬谉 讛讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪驻住讚讬 诇讛讜 诇讻专讻讬谉

The Gemara continues: Come and hear that which was taught in the following mishna (5a): Rabbi Yehuda said: When is the Megilla read from the eleventh of Adar and onward? In a place where the villagers generally enter town on Monday and Thursday. However, in a place where they do not generally enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar. The Gemara infers: If it enters your mind to say that the ordinance is for the benefit of the cities, would it be reasonable to suggest that because the villagers do not enter town on Monday and Thursday the residents of the cities should lose out and not be provided with food and water?

诇讗 转讬诪讗 讻讚讬 砖讬住驻拽讜 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 诪驻谞讬 砖诪住驻拽讬诐 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘讻专讻讬谉

The Gemara accepts this argument: Do not say that the Sages allowed the villages to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly so that they can be free to provide water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. Rather, say that the Sages were lenient with them because the villages supply water and food to their brethren in the cities. This ordinance was established for the benefit of the villagers so that they should not have to make an extra trip to the cities to hear the reading of the Megilla. However, in a place where the villages do not go to the cities, advancing their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly will not benefit them, and therefore they must read on the fourteenth.

讻讬爪讚 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 专讬砖讗 讚谞拽讟 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬专讞讗 讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 住讬驻讗 讚谞拽讟 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬讜诪讬

搂 We learned in the mishna: How so? If the fourteenth of Adar occurs on Monday, the villages and large towns read it on that day. The mishna continues to explain the days on which the Megilla is read. The Gemara asks: What is different about the first clause of the mishna, which employs the order of the dates of the month, i.e., the eleventh of Adar, and the latter clause, which employs the order of the days of the week, i.e., Monday?

讗讬讬讚讬 讚诪讬转讛驻讻讬 诇讬讛 谞拽讟 住讬讚讜专讗 讚讬讜诪讬

The Gemara answers: Since the days of the week would be reversed if the latter clause was organized according to the dates of the month, as the mishna would first have to mention a case where the fourteenth occurs on a Sunday, then a case where it occurs on a Wednesday or Shabbat, and then a case where it occurs on a Friday or Tuesday, the mishna employed the order of the days of the week in order to avoid confusion.

讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讻讜壮 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诪谞讬 讗讬 专讘讬 讗讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬

搂 We learned in the mishna: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, Friday, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, and the large towns and walled cities read it on Friday, the fourteenth of Adar. The Gemara asks: Whose opinion is expressed in the mishna? It can be either Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi or Rabbi Yosei.

诪讗讬 专讘讬 讚转谞讬讗 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 诇讗 讬讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讗诇讗 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara explains: What is the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? As it is taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, villages and large towns advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, and walled cities read it on the day of Purim, Friday. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi disagrees and says: I say that the readings in the large towns should not be deferred from their usual date, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar. Rather, both these, the large towns and those, the walled cities, read the Megilla on the day of Purim.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉

The Gemara asks: What is the reason of the first tanna? The Gemara explains that it is as it is written: 鈥淭o keep these two days, according to their writing and according to their time, in every year鈥 (Esther 9:27), which indicates that Purim must be celebrated every year in similar fashion. Just as in every other year the large towns precede the walled cities by one day, so too here the large towns precede the walled cities by one day. Consequently, since the walled cities cannot read the Megilla on Shabbat and they are required to advance the reading to Friday, the large towns must also advance their reading a day to Thursday.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 谞讚讞讬谉 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 诇讗 讬讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises an objection: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as in every other year the Megilla readings in the large towns are not deferred from their usual date and they read the Megilla on the fourteenth, so too here the Megilla readings in the large towns should not be deferred from their usual date and they too should read on the fourteenth. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible for the large towns to fulfill all of the conditions at the same time, i.e., to read on the fourteenth and to read a day before the walled cities.

讜专讘讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 注讬讬专讜转 谞讚讞讬谉 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 诇讗 讬讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what is his reason? The Gemara explains that it is also based upon the words 鈥渋n every year鈥; just as in every other year the readings in the large towns are not deferred from their usual date and they read on the fourteenth, so too here, the readings in the large towns are not deferred from their usual date, but rather they read on the fourteenth.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 谞诪讬 注讬讬专讜转 拽讜讚诪讜转 诇诪讜拽驻讬谉 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises an objection: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as every year the large towns precede the walled cities by one day, and read on the fourteenth, so too here the large towns precede the walled cities by one day, and read on the thirteenth. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible to fulfill all of the conditions at the same time, i.e., to read on the fourteenth and to read a day before the walled cities.

诪讗讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讚转谞讬讗 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讜讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 讗诇讗 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara asks: What is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei? As it is taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, the walled cities and villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, and the large towns read it on the day of Purim itself. Rabbi Yosei says: The walled cities never precede the large towns; rather, both these, the large towns, and those, the walled cities, read on that day, i.e., Friday, the fourteenth of Adar.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 注讬讬专讜转 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讬讬专讜转 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛

The Gemara asks: What is the reason of the first tanna? As it is written: 鈥淚n every year鈥; just as in every other year the large towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth, and the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla, as the large towns and walled cities never read the Megilla on the same day, so too here, the large towns read the Megilla on the fourteenth, and the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla. Therefore, the walled cities must advance their reading of the Megilla by two days to the day of assembly, Thursday.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises an objection: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as in every other year the walled cities do not precede the large towns, so too here, the walled cities do not precede the large towns. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible to fulfill all of the conditions at the same time, i.e., that the large towns should read on the fourteenth, the large towns and the walled cities should read on different days, and the walled cities should not precede the large towns.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇注讬讬专讜转

What is the reason of Rabbi Yosei? It is based upon the words 鈥渋n every year鈥; just as in every other year the walled cities do not precede the large towns, so too here, the walled cities do not precede the large towns.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Say that the words 鈥渋n every year鈥 indicate that just as in every other year, the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla, so too here, the time for this type of settlement to read the Megilla is not the time for that type of settlement to read the Megilla. Therefore, since the large towns read on the fourteenth, the walled cities read on the thirteenth. The Gemara answers: Here it is different, as it is not possible to fulfill all the conditions. It is clear from these baraitot that the tanna of the mishna can either be Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi or Rabbi Yosei, but not either of two anonymous tanna鈥檌m.

讜住讘专 专讘讬 注讬讬专讜转 诇讗 讚讞讬谞谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜诪专 讗谞讬 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞讚讞讜 注讬讬专讜转 诪诪拽讜诪谉 讬讚讞讜 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛

The Gemara asks: Does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi really hold that one does not defer the reading of the Megilla in large towns to the day of assembly? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat, the villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, the large towns read it on Shabbat eve, and the walled cities read it the next day, i.e., on Sunday. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: I say that since the readings in the large towns were already deferred from their usual date, i.e., the fourteenth, they are deferred to the day of assembly, i.e., to Thursday. Consequently, even Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi agrees that the reading in the large towns can be shifted to the day of assembly. Why doesn鈥檛 he also hold that large towns read the Megilla on the day of assembly when the fourteenth occurs on a Friday?

讛讻讬 讛砖转讗 讛转诐 讝诪谞诐 砖讘转 讛讬讗 讜讛讜讗讬诇 讚谞讚讞讜 讬讚讞讜 讜讛讻讗 讝诪谞诐 注专讘 砖讘转

The Gemara responds: How can these cases be compared? There, in the second baraita, the designated time for them to read the Megilla is Shabbat, but the Megilla is not read on Shabbat, and therefore they must read it on a different day. Therefore, since the readings in the large towns have been deferred, they are deferred an additional day, and take place on Thursday, the day of assembly, at the same time as the readings in the villages. Here, their designated time is Shabbat eve, and there is no reason to move the reading from that day.

讻诪讗谉 讗讝诇讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诇讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讛讻诇 谞讚讞讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讛讻诇 谞讚讞讬谉 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讚注讘讚讬 诇诪讞专 讗诇讗 讻诇 讛谞讚讞讛 讬讚讞讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi 岣lbo said that Rav Huna said: When Purim occurs on Shabbat, the reading of the Megilla in all places is deferred to the day of assembly? The Gemara corrects the wording of Rav Huna鈥檚 statement: Can it enter your mind to say that the reading of the Megilla in all places is deferred to the day of assembly? Aren鈥檛 there walled cities that perform this ceremony the next day, i.e., on Sunday? Rather, Rav Huna鈥檚 statement should say as follows: All readings that are deferred are deferred to the day of assembly. In accordance with whose opinion was this stated? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诪讬讛讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讘砖讘转 诇讗 拽专讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讛讻诇 讞讬讬讘讬谉 讘拽专讬讗转 诪讙讬诇讛 (讜讘转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专) 讜讗讬谉 讛讻诇 讘拽讬讗讬谉 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讙讝讬专讛 砖诪讗 讬讟诇谞讛 讘讬讚讜 讜讬诇讱 讗爪诇 讘拽讬 诇诇诪讜讚 讜讬注讘讬专谞讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讘专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐

In any case, it is apparent from the mishna and the baraitot that everyone agrees that one does not read the Megilla on Shabbat. What is the reason for this? Rabba said: Everyone is obligated to participate in reading the Megilla on Purim and blowing the shofar on Rosh HaShana, and not everyone is proficient in reading the Megilla. Therefore, the Sages issued a rabbinic decree that the Megilla is not read on Shabbat, lest one take the Megilla in his hand and go to an expert to learn how to read it or to hear the expert read it, and, due to his preoccupation, he will carry it four cubits in the public domain, and thereby desecrate Shabbat.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚砖讜驻专 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚诇讜诇讘

The Gemara comments: And this same concern for the sanctity of Shabbat is the reason that the Sages decreed that the shofar is not blown when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat. And this same concern is the reason that the Sages decreed that one may not take the lulav on Shabbat.

专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖注讬谞讬讛谉 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐 谞砖讜讗讜转 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讙讜讘讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讞诇拽讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

Rav Yosef said that there is another reason the Megilla is not read on Shabbat: Because the eyes of the poor are raised to the reading of the Megilla. The poor await the day on which the Megilla is read, because on that day gifts are distributed to the poor. If the Megilla is read on Shabbat, it will not be possible to distribute gifts to the poor, who will be deeply disappointed. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: Even though the Sages said that the villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, they also collect the gifts for the poor on that day, and they distribute them to the poor on that day.

讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 讗讚专讘讛 诪砖讜诐 讚讗诪专讜 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗诪专讜 砖讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讙讜讘讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讞诇拽讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖注讬谞讬讛诐 砖诇 注谞讬讬诐 谞砖讜讗讜转 讘诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讗讘诇

The Gemara is troubled by the wording of this baraita. Does the baraita read: Even though the Sages said? On the contrary, it is because they said that the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly that the gifts must be collected and distributed to the poor on that very day. Rather, the baraita should read as follows: Since the Sages said that the villages advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, they collect the gifts for the poor on that day and they distribute them on that day, because the eyes of the poor are raised to the reading of the Megilla, and they should not be disappointed. However,

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