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Today's Daf Yomi

December 18, 2021 | 讬状讚 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讘

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.聽

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen z鈥漧 who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 6 – Shabbat December 18

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Is the city Reket mentioned in Joshua 19:35 referring to Tiberias or is Chamat? Perhaps Rakat is Tzipori? What about Kineret? Rabbi Yochanan and Rava disagree about the identification of these cities. Zeira said that Kitron is Tzipori. However, since Kitron is in Zevulun鈥檚 land and Zevulun complained that they were not given good land, how could this be? Or is it just that the grass is always greener on the other side? Ekron is the city of Caesaria. It was a Roman stronghold. It is not possible for the Romans and the Jews to both be well established at the same time or both be destroyed at the same time 鈥 two different verses are brought to prove this. Drashot are brought on verses explaining conversations between Yitzchak and Yaakov with God about Esau, which is the father of Edom, from who the Romans are descended. If one says one is successful without hard work or works hard but is not successful, do not believe them. However, if one says one worked hard and was successful, that is to be believed. Is this only regarding Torah and only some type of Torah learning? Why? Can one provoke evildoers? Or should one stay away? On what does it depend? If there are two months of Adar, when do we read the Megillah 鈥 in the first month or the second? If one holds the second month and one reads it in the first and only after that, it was decided to add another month, does one need to read it again? What about other mitzvot like the four parshiot?

讜讗讬砖转讻讞 讻讜讜转讬 讞诪转 讝讜 讟讘专讬讗 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讞诪转 注诇 砖讜诐 讞诪讬 讟讘专讬讗 专拽转 讝讜 爪讬驻讜专讬 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 专拽转 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讚诇讬讬讗 讻专拽转讗 讚谞讛专讗 讻讬谞专转 讝讜 讙讬谞讜住专 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讻讬谞专转 讚诪转讬拽讬 驻讬专讗 讻拽诇讗 讚讻讬谞专讬

and it was found in accordance with my opinion. I said that Hammath is Tiberias. And why was it called Hammath? On account of the hot springs of [岣mmei] Tiberias that are located there. And I said that Rakkath is Tzippori. And why was it called Rakkath? Because it is raised above the surrounding areas like the bank [rakta] of a river. And I said that Chinnereth is Ginosar. And why was it called Chinnereth? Because its fruit are sweet like the sound of a harp [kinnor].

讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 专拽转 诇讗讜 讟讘专讬讗 讛讬讗 讜讛讗 讻讬 砖讻讬讘 讗讬谞讬砖 讛讻讗 讛转诐 住驻讚讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讙讚讜诇 讛讜讗 讘砖砖讱 讜砖诐 诇讜 讘专拽转 讜讻讬 诪住拽讬 讗专讜谞讗 诇讛转诐 住驻讚讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗讜讛讘讬 砖专讬讚讬诐 讬讜砖讘讬 专拽转 爪讗讜 讜拽讘诇讜 讛专讜讙讬 注讜诪拽

Rava said: Is there anyone who says that Rakkath is not Tiberias? Isn鈥檛 it true that when a great man dies here, in Babylonia, they lament his demise there, in Tiberias, as follows: Great was he in Sheshakh, i.e., Babylonia (see Jeremiah 25:26), and he had a name in Rakkath? Furthermore, when they bring up the casket of an important person to there, to Tiberias, they lament his demise as follows: You lovers of the remnants of the Jewish people, residents of Rakkath, go out and receive the dead from the deep, i.e., the low-lying lands of Babylonia.

讻讬 谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 驻转讞 注诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 住驻讚谞讗 讗专抓 砖谞注专 讛专讛 讜讬诇讚讛 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讙讬讚诇讛 砖注砖讜注讬讛 讗讜讬 谞讗 诇讛 讗诪专讛 专拽转 讻讬 讗讘讚讛 讻诇讬 讞诪讚转讛

Similarly, the Gemara relates that when Rabbi Zeira died, a certain eulogizer opened his eulogy for him with these words: The land of Shinar, i.e., Babylonia, Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 birthplace, conceived and bore him; the land of the deer, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Zeira lived as an adult and rose to prominence, raised her delights. Woe unto her, said Rakkath, for she has lost her precious instrument. It is apparent from these examples that Rakkath is Tiberias.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 (专讘讛) 讞诪转 讝讜 讞诪讬 讙专专 专拽转 讝讜 讟讘专讬讗 讻讬谞专转 讝讜 讙讬谞讜住专 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 专拽转 砖讗驻讬诇讜 专讬拽谞讬谉 砖讘讛 诪诇讗讬谉 诪爪讜转 讻专诪讜谉 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讗诪专 专拽转 砖诪讛 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讟讘专讬讗 砖讬讜砖讘转 讘讟讘讜专讛 砖诇 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 (专讘讗) 讗诪专 专拽转 砖诪讛 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讟讘专讬讗 砖讟讜讘讛 专讗讬讬转讛

Rather, Rabba said: Hammath is the hot springs of Gerar that are adjacent to Tiberias; Rakkath is Tiberias; and Chinnereth is Ginosar. And why was Tiberias called Rakkath? Because even the empty ones [reikanin] of Tiberias are as full of mitzvot as a pomegranate is full of seeds. Rabbi Yirmeya said: In fact, Rakkath is its real name; and why was it called Tiberias? Because it sits in the very center [tabbur] of Eretz Yisrael. Rava said: Rakkath is its real name, and why was it called Tiberias? Because its appearance is good [tova re鈥檌yyata].

讗诪专 讝注讬专讗 拽讟专讜谉 讝讜 爪讬驻讜专讬 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 爪讬驻讜专讬 砖讬讜砖讘转 讘专讗砖 讛讛专 讻爪驻讜专

搂 While continuing to identify places that are mentioned in the Bible, Zeira said: The city of Kitron that is mentioned in the Bible is the city of Tzippori. And why was it called Tzippori? Because it sits on top of a mountain like a bird [tzippor].

讜拽讟专讜谉 爪讬驻讜专讬 讛讬讗 讜讛讗 拽讟专讜谉 讘讞诇拽讜 砖诇 讝讘讜诇讜谉 讛讜讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讘讜诇讜谉 诇讗 讛讜专讬砖 讗转 讬讜砖讘讬 拽讟专讜谉 讜讗转 讬讜砖讘讬 谞讛诇讜诇 讜讝讘讜诇讜谉 诪转专注诐 注诇 诪讚讜转讬讜 讛讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讝讘讜诇讜谉 注诐 讞专祝 谞驻砖讜 诇诪讜转 诪讛 讟注诐 诪砖讜诐 讚谞驻转诇讬 注诇 诪专讜诪讬 砖讚讛

The Gemara asks: Is Kitron really Tzippori? Wasn鈥檛 Kitron in the tribal territory of Zebulun, as it is written: 鈥淣either did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of Nahalol鈥 (Judges 1:30)? And the tribe of Zebulun was resentful of its portion, as it is stated: 鈥淶ebulun was a people that jeopardized their lives to the death鈥 (Judges 5:18). What is the reason for their resentfulness? Because 鈥淣aphtali was on the high places of the field鈥 (Judges 5:18).

讗诪专 讝讘讜诇讜谉 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讗讞讬讬 谞转转 诇讛诐 砖讚讜转 讜讻专诪讬诐 讜诇讬 谞转转 讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转 诇讗讞讬讬 谞转转 诇讛诐 讗专爪讜转 讜诇讬 谞转转 讬诪讬诐 讜谞讛专讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讱 注诇 讬讚讬 讞诇讝讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 [注诪讬诐 讛专 讬拽专讗讜] 讜砖驻讜谞讬 讟诪讜谞讬 讞讜诇

The verse should be interpreted as follows: Zebulun said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe! To my brothers, the tribes whose territory is adjacent to mine, You gave fields and vineyards, whereas to me You gave mountains and hills; to my brothers You gave lands, whereas to me You gave seas and rivers. God said back to him: Nevertheless, all will need you due to the 岣lazon, the small sea creature residing in your territory that is the source of the dye used in the ritual fringes [tzitzit]. As it is stated in Moses鈥 blessing to Zebulun: 鈥淭hey shall call the people to the mountain: There they shall sacrifice offerings of righteousness; for they shall suck of the abundance of the seas, and of the hidden treasures of the sand鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:19).

转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖驻讜谞讬 讝讛 讞诇讝讜谉 讟诪讜谞讬 讝讜 讟专讬转 讞讜诇 讝讜 讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讬 诪讜讚讬注谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诐 讬讝讘讞讜 讝讘讞讬 爪讚拽 住讬诪谉 讝讛 讬讛讗 诇讱 讻诇 讛谞讜讟诇 诪诪讱 讘诇讗 讚诪讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讜注讬诇 讘驻专拽诪讟讬讗 砖诇讜 讻诇讜诐

Rav Yosef teaches about this: 鈥淭reasures鈥; this is referring to the 岣lazon, which is found in the waters of Zebulun. 鈥淗idden鈥; this is referring to the tarit, a type of sardine, which is also found in Zebulun鈥檚 coastal waters. 鈥淪and鈥; this is referring to the sand from which white glass is made. Zebulun said to Him: All of these resources are indeed found in my territory, but Master of the Universe, who will inform me if others take them without permission? He said to the tribe of Zebulun: 鈥淭here they shall sacrifice offerings of righteousness.鈥 This shall be a sign for you that anyone who takes these items from you without making payment will not prosper at all in his business.

讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 拽讟专讜谉 讝讜 爪讬驻讜专讬 讗诪讗讬 诪转专注诐 注诇 诪讚讜转讬讜 讜讛讗 讛讜讬讗 爪讬驻讜专讬 诪讬诇转讗 讚注讚讬驻讗 讟讜讘讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讬转 讘讛 讝讘转 讞诇讘 讜讚讘砖 讜讛讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讝讘转 讞诇讘 讜讚讘砖 讚爪讬驻讜专讬 讜讛讜讬讗 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇 注诇 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇

It is clear from the exposition of the verse in Judges that the territory of Zebulun did not contain fields and vineyards. And if it enters your mind to say that Kitron is Tzippori, why was Zebulun resentful of his portion? Wasn鈥檛 Tzippori in his territory, which was land that was vastly superior with regard to its produce? And if you would say that Zebulun鈥檚 portion did not have quality land flowing with milk and honey, didn鈥檛 Reish Lakish say: I myself have seen the land flowing with milk and honey around Tzippori, and it was sixteen mil by sixteen mil?

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讗 谞驻讬砖讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讻讚讗讞讜讛 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讝讘转 讞诇讘 讜讚讘砖 讚讻诇 讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讜讬讗 讻诪讘讬 讻讜讘讬 注讚 讗拽专讗 讚转讜诇讘拽谞讬 注砖专讬谉 讜转专转讬谉 驻专住讬 讗讜专讻讗 讜驻讜转讬讗 砖讬转讗 驻专住讬

And if you would say that the part of his territory that flowed with milk and honey was not as vast as that of his brothers, the other tribes, didn鈥檛 Rabba bar bar 岣na say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I myself have seen the land flowing with milk and honey over all of Eretz Yisrael. And the size of the fertile land was like the distance from Bei Kovei to the fortress of Tulbakni, a total of twenty-two parasangs [parsa] in length and six parasangs in width. A parasang is four mil; consequently, the area flowing with milk and honey around Tzippori was four by four parasangs, which is more than the fair share of one tribe among twelve.

讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 砖讚讜转 讜讻专诪讬诐 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬讛 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞驻转诇讬 注诇 诪专讜诪讬 砖讚讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara answers: Even so, fields and vineyards were preferable to Zebulun. The fertile land in Zebulun鈥檚 territory is in a mountainous region, which makes it more difficult to cultivate. The Gemara comments: The language of the verse is also precise according to this explanation, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Naphtali was on the high places of the field,鈥 which indicates that Zebulun鈥檚 complaint was due to the fact that Naphtali had fields. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is so.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜注拽专讜谉 转注拽专 讝讜 拽住专讬 讘转 讗讚讜诐 砖讛讬讗 讬讜砖讘转 讘讬谉 讛讞讜诇讜转 讜讛讬讗 讛讬转讛 讬转讚 转拽讜注讛 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘讬诪讬 讬讜讜谞讬诐 讜讻砖讙讘专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讘讬转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讜谞爪讞讜诐 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗讞讬讚转 诪讙讚诇 砖讬专

搂 The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to identifying places mentioned in the Bible. Rabbi Abbahu said: 鈥淎nd Ekron shall be uprooted鈥 (Zephaniah 2:4). This is an allusion to Caesarea, daughter of Edom, which is situated among the sands. Caesarea was primarily populated by Greeks and Romans, and it served as the seat of Roman rule when the Romans, who are identified with Edom in Jewish literature, ruled Eretz Yisrael. And it was a spike stuck in the side of the Jewish people already in the days of the Greeks, as it was an obstacle to the spread of Jewish settlement. When the Hasmonean monarchy prevailed and triumphed over them, they called it: The captured tower of Shir.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛住讬专讜转讬 讚诪讬讜 诪驻讬讜 讜砖拽讜爪讬讜 诪讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讜 讜谞砖讗专 讙诐 讛讜讗 诇讗诇讛讬谞讜 讜讛住讬专讜转讬 讚诪讬讜 诪驻讬讜 讝讛 讘讬转 讘诪讬讗 砖诇讛谉 讜砖拽讜爪讬讜 诪讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讜 讝讛 讘讬转 讙诇讬讗 砖诇讛谉

Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his detestable things from between his teeth, and he also shall be a remnant for our God; and he shall be as a chief in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite鈥 (Zechariah 9:7)? The verse should be understood as follows: 鈥淎nd I will take away his blood out of his mouth鈥; this is referring to their house of altars, where they sacrifice offerings. 鈥淎nd his detestable things from between his teeth鈥; this is referring to their house of piles, where they heap their ritual stones.

讜谞砖讗专 讙诐 讛讜讗 诇讗诇讛讬谞讜 讗诇讜 讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转 砖讘讗讚讜诐 讜讛讬讛 讻讗诇讜祝 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讜注拽专讜谉 讻讬讘讜住讬 讗诇讜 转专讗讟专讬讜转 讜拽专拽住讬讜转 砖讘讗讚讜诐 砖注转讬讚讬谉 砖专讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇诇诪讚 讘讛谉 转讜专讛 讘专讘讬诐

鈥淎nd he also shall be a remnant for our God,鈥 these words are referring to the synagogues and study halls in Edom. 鈥淎nd he shall be as a chief [aluf ] in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite,鈥 these words are referring to the theaters [tere鈥檃trayot] and the circuses [kirkesayot] in Edom where the officers of Judah are destined to teach Torah in public.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇砖诐 讝讜 驻诪讬讬住 注拽专讜谉 转注拽专 讝讜 拽住专讬 讘转 讗讚讜诐 砖讛讬讗 讛讬转讛 诪讟专讜驻讜诇讬谉 砖诇 诪诇讻讬诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诪专讘讬 讘讛 诪诇讻讬 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诪讜拽诪讬 诪讬谞讛 诪诇讻讬

Rabbi Yitz岣k said: 鈥淎nd the children of Dan went up and fought against Leshem鈥 (Joshua 19:47); this is referring to the city that was known in the Talmudic period as Pamyas. 鈥淓kron shall be uprooted鈥 (Zephaniah 2:4); this is referring to Caesarea, the daughter of Edom, which was a metropolis [metropolin], i.e., a capital city, of kings. There are those who say this means that kings were raised there, and there are those who say it means that kings were appointed from there, meaning the kings of Edom were appointed from among the residents of this city.

拽住专讬 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诐 讬讗诪专 诇讱 讗讚诐 讞专讘讜 砖转讬讛谉 讗诇 转讗诪谉 讬砖讘讜 砖转讬讛谉 讗诇 转讗诪谉 讞专讘讛 拽住专讬 讜讬砖讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讬砖讘讛 拽住专讬 转讗诪谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪诇讗讛 讛讞专讘讛 讗诐 诪诇讬讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜 讗诐 诪诇讬讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜

The Sages said that the fortunes of Caesarea, which represents Rome, and Jerusalem are diametric opposites. If, therefore, someone says to you that both cities are destroyed, do not believe him. Similarly, if he says to you that they are both settled in tranquility, do not believe him. If, however, he says to you that Caesarea is destroyed and Jerusalem is settled, or that Jerusalem is destroyed and Caesarea is settled, believe him. As it is stated: 鈥淏ecause Tyre has said against Jerusalem: Aha, the gates of the people have been broken; she is turned to me; I shall be filled with her that is laid waste鈥 (Ezekiel 26:2), and Tyre, like Caesarea, represents Rome. Consequently, the verse indicates that if this city is filled, that one is laid waste, and if that city is filled, this one is laid waste. The two cities cannot coexist.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜诇讗讜诐 诪诇讗讜诐 讬讗诪抓

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The same idea may be derived from here, a verse dealing with Jacob and Esau: 鈥淎nd the one people shall be stronger than the other people鈥 (Genesis 25:23), teaching that when one nation rises, the other necessarily falls.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬讜讞谉 专砖注 讘诇 诇诪讚 爪讚拽 讗诪专 讬爪讞拽 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讬讜讞谉 注砖讜 讗诪专 诇讜 专砖注 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讘诇 诇诪讚 爪讚拽 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讗专抓 谞讻讜讞讜转 讬注讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讘诇 讬专讗讛 讙讗讜转 讛壮

搂 Having mentioned Edom, the Gemara cites what Rabbi Yitz岣k said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淟et favor be shown to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness; in the land of uprightness he will deal wrongfully, and will not behold the majesty of the Lord鈥 (Isaiah 26:10)? Isaac said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, let favor be shown to Esau, my beloved son. God said to him: Esau is wicked. Isaac said to God: 鈥淵et will he not learn righteousness,鈥 i.e., is there no one who can find merit in him? God said to him: 鈥淚n the land of uprightness he will deal wrongfully,鈥 meaning that he is destined to destroy Eretz Yisrael. Isaac said to God: If it is so that he is that wicked, 鈥渉e will not behold the majesty of the Lord.鈥

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转转谉 讛壮 诪讗讜讬讬 专砖注 讝诪诪讜 讗诇 转驻拽 讬专讜诪讜 住诇讛 讗诪专 讬注拽讘 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗诇 转转谉 诇注砖讜 讛专砖注 转讗讜转 诇讘讜 讝诪诪讜 讗诇 转驻拽 讝讜

And Rabbi Yitz岣k also said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淕rant not, O Lord, the desires of the wicked; further not his evil device, so that they not exalt themselves. Selah鈥 (Psalms 140:9)? Jacob said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, grant not to the wicked Esau the desires of his heart, as he wishes to destroy us. Further not his evil device [zemamo]; do not remove the muzzle [zamam] that constrains him and prevents him from breaking out and gathering further strength. This is a reference to

讙专诪诪讬讗 砖诇 讗讚讜诐 砖讗诇诪诇讬 讛谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讞专讬讘讬谉 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

Germamya of Edom, i.e., Germany, which is near the land of Edom, i.e., Rome. As, if the Germans would go forth, they would destroy the entire world.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 转诇转 诪讗讛 拽讟讬专讬 转讙讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讙专诪诪讬讗 砖诇 讗讚讜诐 讜转诇转 诪讗讛 讜砖讬转讬谉 讜讞诪砖讛 诪专讝讘谞讬 讗讬讻讗 讘专讜诪讬 讜讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 谞驻拽讬 讛谞讬 诇讗驻讬 讛谞讬 讜诪拽讟讬诇 讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜诪讬讟专讚讬 诇讗讜拽诪讬 诪诇讻讗

And Rabbi 岣ma Bar 岣nina said: There are three hundred young princes with crowns tied to their heads in Germamya of Edom, and there are three hundred and sixty-five chieftains [marzavnei] in Rome. Every day these go out to battle against those, and one of them is killed, and they are preoccupied with appointing a new king in his place. Since neither side is united, neither side is able to achieve a decisive victory. It is these wars between Rome and the Germanic tribes that act as a muzzle upon Esau-Edom-Rome and prevent it from becoming too strong.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诐 讬讗诪专 诇讱 讗讚诐 讬讙注转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讗诇 转讗诪谉 诇讗 讬讙注转讬 讜诪爪讗转讬 讗诇 转讗诪谉 讬讙注转讬 讜诪爪讗转讬 转讗诪谉

Rabbi Yitz岣k said in the style of a previous passage: If a person says to you: I have labored and not found success, do not believe him. Similarly, if he says to you: I have not labored but nevertheless I have found success, do not believe him. If, however, he says to you: I have labored and I have found success, believe him.

讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗讘诇 讘诪砖讗 讜诪转谉 住讬讬注转讗 讛讜讗 诪谉 砖诪讬讗 讜诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讞讚讜讚讬 讗讘诇 诇讗讜拽诪讬 讙讬专住讗 住讬讬注转讗 诪谉 砖诪讬讗 讛讬讗

The Gemara comments: This applies only to matters of Torah, as success with respect to Torah study is in accordance with the toil and effort invested. But with regard to success in business, it all depends upon assistance from Heaven, as there is no correlation between success and effort. And even with regard to matters of Torah, we said this only with regard to sharpening one鈥檚 understanding of Torah, as the more one labors, the deeper the understanding of the material he achieves. However, to preserve what one has learned, it is dependent upon assistance from Heaven. Not everyone achieves this, even with much effort.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诐 专讗讬转 专砖注 砖讛砖注讛 诪砖讞拽转 诇讜 讗诇 转转讙专讛 讘讜 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转转讞专 讘诪专注讬诐 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讚专讻讬讜 诪爪诇讬讞讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讬讞讬诇讜 讚专讻讬讜 讘讻诇 注转 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讝讜讻讛 讘讚讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪专讜诐 诪砖驻讟讬讱 诪谞讙讚讜 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖专讜讗讛 讘砖讜谞讗讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 爪讜专专讬讜 讬驻讬讞 讘讛诐

And Rabbi Yitz岣k also said: If you see a wicked man whom the hour is smiling upon, i.e., who is enjoying good fortune, do not provoke him, as it is stated: 鈥淐ontend not with evildoers鈥 (Psalms 37:1). And not only that, but if you provoke him, his undertakings will be successful, as it is stated: 鈥淗is ways prosper at all times鈥 (Psalms 10:5). And not only that, but even if he is brought to court, he emerges victorious in judgment, as it is stated: 鈥淵our judgments are far above him鈥 (Psalms 10:5), as though the trial is far removed from him and does not affect him. And not only that, but he will see his enemies fall, as it is stated: 鈥淎s for all his enemies, he hisses at them鈥 (Psalms 10:5).

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讙专讜转 讘专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 注讜讝讘讬 转讜专讛 讬讛诇诇讜 专砖注 讜砖讜诪专讬 转讜专讛 讬转讙专讜 讘诐 讜转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讚讜住转讗讬 讘专 诪转讜谉 讗诪专 诪讜转专 诇讛转讙专讜转 讘专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讗诐 诇讞砖讱 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 讗诇 转转讞专 讘诪专注讬诐 讜讗诇 转拽谞讗 讘注讜砖讬 注讜诇讛 诪讬 砖诇讘讜 谞讜拽驻讜 讗讜诪专 讻谉

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: It is permitted to provoke the wicked in this world, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey that forsake the Torah praise the wicked; but they who keep the Torah contend with them鈥 (Proverbs聽28:4)? And furthermore, it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Dostai bar Matun said: It is permitted to provoke the wicked in this world, and if a person whispers to you to say that this is not so, relying on the verse: 鈥淐ontend not with evildoers, nor be envious against the workers of iniquity鈥 (Psalms 37:1), know that only one whose heart strikes him with pangs of conscience over sins that he committed says this.

讗诇讗 讗诇 转转讞专 讘诪专注讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 讻诪专注讬诐 讜讗诇 转拽谞讗 讘注讜砖讬 注讜诇讛 诇讛讬讜转 讻注讜砖讬 注讜诇讛 讜讗讜诪专 讗诇 讬拽谞讗 诇讘讱 讘讞讟讗讬诐 讜讙讜壮

Rather, the true meaning of that verse is: 鈥淐ontend not with evildoers,鈥 to be like the evildoers; 鈥渘or be envious against the workers of iniquity,鈥 to be like the workers of iniquity. And it says elsewhere: 鈥淟et not your heart envy sinners, but be in the fear of the Lord all the day鈥 (Proverbs 23:17). In this context, to be envious of sinners means to desire to be like them. Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Dostai indicate that one is permitted to provoke the wicked, against the opinion of Rabbi Yitz岣k.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讬讚讬讛 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚砖诪讬讗

The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as it can be understood that this, Rabbi Yitz岣k鈥檚 statement that one may not provoke the wicked, is referring to his personal matters, while that, the statements of Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Dostai that it is permitted to provoke them, is referring to matters of Heaven, i.e., religious matters.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讬讚讬讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讛讗 讘爪讚讬拽 砖讗讬谞讜 讙诪讜专 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘诇诪讛 转讘讬讟 讘讜讙讚讬诐 转讞专讬砖 讘讘诇注 专砖注 爪讚讬拽 诪诪谞讜 爪讚讬拽 诪诪谞讜 讘讜诇注 爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讗讬谞讜 讘讜诇注

And if you wish, say: Both this statement and that statement are stated with regard to his own affairs, and still it is not difficult. This statement, that it is permitted to provoke the wicked, applies to a completely righteous individual; that statement, that one may not provoke them, applies to an individual who is not completely righteous. As Rav Huna said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淲hy do you look upon them that deal treacherously, and remain silent when the wicked devours the man that is more righteous than he鈥 (Habakkuk 1:13)? This verse indicates that the wicked devours one who is more righteous than he; however, he does not devour one who is completely righteous.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 砖注讛 诪砖讞拽转 诇讜 砖讗谞讬

And if you wish, say instead: When the hour is smiling upon him, i.e., when the wicked individual is enjoying good fortune, it is different. He is receiving divine assistance, and even the completely righteous should not provoke him.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗讬讟诇讬讗 砖诇 讬讜谉 讝讛 讻专讱 讙讚讜诇 砖诇 专讜诪讬 讜讛讜讬讗 转诇转 诪讗讛 驻专住讛 注诇 转诇转 诪讗讛 驻专住讛 讜讬砖 讘讛 砖诇讜砖 诪讗讜转 砖砖讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 砖讜讜拽讬诐 讻诪谞讬谉 讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜拽讟谉 砖讘讻讜诇诐 砖诇 诪讜讻专讬 注讜驻讜转 讜讛讜讬讗 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇 注诇 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇 讜诪诇讱 住讜注讚 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讘讗讞讚 诪讛谉

搂 Having mentioned Rome, the Gemara cites what Ulla said. Greek Italy, i.e., southern Italy, is the great city of Rome, and it is three hundred parasang [parsa] by three hundred parasang. It has three hundred and sixty-five markets, corresponding to the number of days in the solar year, and the smallest of them all is the market of poultry sellers, which is sixteen mil by sixteen mil. And the king, i.e., the Roman emperor, dines every day in one of them.

讜讛讚专 讘讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 谞讜诇讚 讘讛 谞讜讟诇 驻专住 诪讘讬转 讛诪诇讱 讜讛谞讜诇讚 讘讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 讚专 讘讛 谞讜讟诇 驻专住 诪讘讬转 讛诪诇讱 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讘讬 讘谞讬 讬砖 讘讜 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讞诇讜谞讜转 诪注诇讬谉 注砖谉 讞讜抓 诇讞讜诪讛 爪讚讜 讗讞讚 讬诐 讜爪讚讜 讗讞讚 讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转 爪讚讜 讗讞讚 诪讞讬爪讛 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜爪讚讜 讗讞讚 讞讜诇住讬转 讜诪爪讜诇讛

And one who resides in the city, even if he was not born there, receives an allowance for his living expenses from the king鈥檚 palace. And one who was born there, even if he does not reside there, also receives an allowance from the king鈥檚 palace. And there are three thousand bathhouses in the city, and five hundred apertures that let the smoke from the bathhouses out beyond the walls in a way that doesn鈥檛 blacken the walls themselves. One side of the city is bordered by the sea, one side by mountains and hills, one side by a barrier of iron and one side by gravel [岣lsit] and swamp.

诪转谞讬壮 拽专讗讜 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 讜谞转注讘专讛 讛砖谞讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 砖谞讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 诇讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 讗诇讗 拽专讬讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讜诪转谞讜转 诇讗讘讬讜谞讬诐

MISHNA: If the people read the Megilla during the first Adar and subsequently the year was then intercalated by the court and now the following month will be the second Adar, one reads the Megilla again during the second Adar. The Sages formulated a principle: The difference between the first Adar and the second Adar with regard to the mitzvot that are performed during those months is only that the reading of the Megilla and distributing gifts to the poor are performed in the second Adar and not in the first Adar.

讙诪壮 讛讗 诇注谞讬谉 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉

GEMARA: The Gemara infers that with regard to the matter of the sequence of Torah portions read each year on two Shabbatot before Purim, the portions of Shekalim and Zakhor, and on two Shabbatot after Purim, Para and Ha岣desh, this, the first Adar, and that, the second Adar are equal, in that reading them during the first Adar exempts one from reading them in the second Adar.

诪谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诇讗 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讜诇讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜诇讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚转谞讬讗 拽专讗讜 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 讜谞转注讘专讛 讛砖谞讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 砖讻诇 诪爪讜转 砖谞讜讛讙讜转 讘砖谞讬 谞讜讛讙讜转 讘专讗砖讜谉 讞讜抓 诪诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛

The Gemara asks: If so, whose opinion is taught in the mishna? It is neither the opinion of the anonymous first tanna of the following baraita, nor that of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, nor that of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as it is taught in a baraita: If they read the Megilla during the first Adar and the year was then intercalated, they read it during the second Adar, as all mitzvot that are practiced during the second Adar are practiced in the first Adar, except for the reading of the Megilla.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 砖讻诇 诪爪讜转 砖谞讜讛讙讜转 讘砖谞讬 谞讜讛讙讜转 讘专讗砖讜谉

Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: They do not read it again during the second Adar, as all mitzvot that are practiced during the second Adar are practiced during the first Adar. Once the Megilla was read during the first Adar, one need not read it again during the second Adar.

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗祝 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 砖讻诇 诪爪讜转 砖谞讜讛讙讜转 讘砖谞讬 讗讬谉 谞讜讛讙讜转 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜砖讜讬谉 讘讛住驻讚 讜讘转注谞讬转 砖讗住讜专讬谉 讘讝讛 讜讘讝讛

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yosei: They even read it again during the second Adar, as all mitzvot that are practiced during the second Adar are not practiced during the first Adar. And they all agree with regard to eulogy and with regard to fasting that they are prohibited on the fourteenth and the fifteenth days of this month of the first Adar and on that month of the second Adar.

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 讘砖谞讬 讜讗讬 注讘讜讚 讘专讗砖讜谉 注讘讜讚 讘专 诪诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讚讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚拽专讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 拽专讜 讘砖谞讬

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is identical to that of the first tanna. What novel element does he introduce? Rav Pappa said: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the sequence of four Torah portions, as the first tanna maintains: They should read those portions during the second Adar, ab initio. However, if they did so during the first Adar, they did so; and they fulfilled their obligation and need not read them again during the second Adar, except for the reading of the Megilla, as even though they already read it during the first Adar, they read it again during the second Adar.

讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 讗讬 拽专讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 拽专讜 讘砖谞讬

And Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, maintains that even the reading of the Megilla may be performed during the first Adar, ab initio, and they need not read it again during the second Adar. And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel maintains: Even with regard to the sequence of four Torah portions, if they read them during the first Adar, they read them again during the second Adar.

诪谞讬 讗讬 转谞讗 拽诪讗 拽砖讬讗 诪转谞讜转 讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 拽砖讬讗 谞诪讬 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讗讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 拽砖讬讗 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转

Returning to the original question, according to whose opinion is the mishna taught? If it is the opinion of the first tanna, the halakha of gifts to the poor is difficult. The first tanna does not mention these gifts, indicating that he maintains that if gifts were distributed during the first Adar one need not distribute gifts to the poor during the second Adar. And if the mishna was taught according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, the reading of the Megilla is also difficult. And if it is the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, the sequence of Torah portions is difficult.

诇注讜诇诐 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讜转谞讗 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讜讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 诪转谞讜转 诇讗讘讬讜谞讬诐 讚讛讗 讘讛讗 转诇讬讗

The Gemara answers: Actually, the mishna is according to the opinion of the first tanna, and he taught the halakha with regard to the reading of the Megilla, and the same is true with regard to gifts to the poor, as this mitzva is dependent upon that one. The Gemara already explained that the gifts to the poor are distributed on the day that the Megilla is read.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讗 讜诪转谞讬转讬谉 讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讘讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 讗诇讗 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讜诪转谞讜转 讛讗 诇注谞讬谉 讛住驻讚 讜转注谞讬转 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉 讜讗讬诇讜 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 诇讗 诪讬讬专讬

And if you wish, say instead: Actually, the mishna is according to the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and the mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: The difference between the fourteenth day of the first Adar and the fourteenth day of the second Adar is only with regard to the reading of the Megilla and distributing gifts to the poor. The Gemara infers that with regard to the matter of eulogy and fasting, this, the first Adar, and that, the second Adar are equal, while about the sequence of Torah portions, the mishna does not speak at all. The mishna limits its discussion to the halakhot of Purim.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬

Rabbi 岣yya bar Avin said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who said it in the name of Rabbi Yosei.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜砖谞讬讛诐 诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 讚专砖讜 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇砖讘讟 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇砖讘讟

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And both of them, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, interpreted the same verse differently, leading them to their conclusions. It is written: 鈥淭o enjoin upon them that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day of the same, in each and every year鈥 (Esther 9:21). Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, maintains: 鈥淚n each and every year鈥 teaches that Purim must be celebrated the same way each year, even if it is intercalated: Just as each and every year Purim is celebrated during Adar that is adjacent to Shevat, so too here in an intercalated year Purim is celebrated during Adar that is adjacent to Shevat.

讜专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇谞讬住谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇谞讬住谉

And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel maintains: 鈥淚n each and every year鈥 teaches that just as each and every year Purim is celebrated in Adar that is adjacent to Nisan, so too here, in an intercalated year, Purim is celebrated during Adar that is adjacent to Nisan.

讘砖诇诪讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪住转讘专 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬谉 诪注讘讬专讬谉 注诇 讛诪爪讜转 讗诇讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, the reason for his opinion is logical, based on the principle that one does not forego performance of the mitzvot; rather, when presented with the opportunity to perform a mitzva, one should do so immediately. However, with regard to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, what is the reason for his opinion?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讟讘讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪住诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇讙讗讜诇讛 注讚讬祝

Rabbi Tavi said: The reason for the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is that juxtaposing the celebration of one redemption, Purim, to the celebration of another redemption, Passover, is preferable.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讛讻讗 讚讻转讬讘 诇拽讬讬诐 讗转 讗讙专转 讛驻讜专讬诐 讛讝讗转 讛砖谞讬转

Rabbi Elazar said: The reason for the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is derived from here, as it is written: 鈥淭o confirm this second letter of Purim鈥 (Esther 9:29), indicating that there are circumstances where the Megilla is read a second time (Jerusalem Talmud), i.e., when the year was intercalated after the Megilla was read in the first Adar.

讜讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诇诪讬讻转讘

The Gemara comments: And it was necessary to write

This month's shiurim are dedicated聽by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen z鈥漧 who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah 6 – Shabbat December 18

讜讗讬砖转讻讞 讻讜讜转讬 讞诪转 讝讜 讟讘专讬讗 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讞诪转 注诇 砖讜诐 讞诪讬 讟讘专讬讗 专拽转 讝讜 爪讬驻讜专讬 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 专拽转 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讬讚诇讬讬讗 讻专拽转讗 讚谞讛专讗 讻讬谞专转 讝讜 讙讬谞讜住专 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讻讬谞专转 讚诪转讬拽讬 驻讬专讗 讻拽诇讗 讚讻讬谞专讬

and it was found in accordance with my opinion. I said that Hammath is Tiberias. And why was it called Hammath? On account of the hot springs of [岣mmei] Tiberias that are located there. And I said that Rakkath is Tzippori. And why was it called Rakkath? Because it is raised above the surrounding areas like the bank [rakta] of a river. And I said that Chinnereth is Ginosar. And why was it called Chinnereth? Because its fruit are sweet like the sound of a harp [kinnor].

讗诪专 专讘讗 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 专拽转 诇讗讜 讟讘专讬讗 讛讬讗 讜讛讗 讻讬 砖讻讬讘 讗讬谞讬砖 讛讻讗 讛转诐 住驻讚讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讙讚讜诇 讛讜讗 讘砖砖讱 讜砖诐 诇讜 讘专拽转 讜讻讬 诪住拽讬 讗专讜谞讗 诇讛转诐 住驻讚讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗讜讛讘讬 砖专讬讚讬诐 讬讜砖讘讬 专拽转 爪讗讜 讜拽讘诇讜 讛专讜讙讬 注讜诪拽

Rava said: Is there anyone who says that Rakkath is not Tiberias? Isn鈥檛 it true that when a great man dies here, in Babylonia, they lament his demise there, in Tiberias, as follows: Great was he in Sheshakh, i.e., Babylonia (see Jeremiah 25:26), and he had a name in Rakkath? Furthermore, when they bring up the casket of an important person to there, to Tiberias, they lament his demise as follows: You lovers of the remnants of the Jewish people, residents of Rakkath, go out and receive the dead from the deep, i.e., the low-lying lands of Babylonia.

讻讬 谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 驻转讞 注诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 住驻讚谞讗 讗专抓 砖谞注专 讛专讛 讜讬诇讚讛 讗专抓 爪讘讬 讙讬讚诇讛 砖注砖讜注讬讛 讗讜讬 谞讗 诇讛 讗诪专讛 专拽转 讻讬 讗讘讚讛 讻诇讬 讞诪讚转讛

Similarly, the Gemara relates that when Rabbi Zeira died, a certain eulogizer opened his eulogy for him with these words: The land of Shinar, i.e., Babylonia, Rabbi Zeira鈥檚 birthplace, conceived and bore him; the land of the deer, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, where Rabbi Zeira lived as an adult and rose to prominence, raised her delights. Woe unto her, said Rakkath, for she has lost her precious instrument. It is apparent from these examples that Rakkath is Tiberias.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 (专讘讛) 讞诪转 讝讜 讞诪讬 讙专专 专拽转 讝讜 讟讘专讬讗 讻讬谞专转 讝讜 讙讬谞讜住专 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 专拽转 砖讗驻讬诇讜 专讬拽谞讬谉 砖讘讛 诪诇讗讬谉 诪爪讜转 讻专诪讜谉 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讗诪专 专拽转 砖诪讛 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讟讘专讬讗 砖讬讜砖讘转 讘讟讘讜专讛 砖诇 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 (专讘讗) 讗诪专 专拽转 砖诪讛 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 讟讘专讬讗 砖讟讜讘讛 专讗讬讬转讛

Rather, Rabba said: Hammath is the hot springs of Gerar that are adjacent to Tiberias; Rakkath is Tiberias; and Chinnereth is Ginosar. And why was Tiberias called Rakkath? Because even the empty ones [reikanin] of Tiberias are as full of mitzvot as a pomegranate is full of seeds. Rabbi Yirmeya said: In fact, Rakkath is its real name; and why was it called Tiberias? Because it sits in the very center [tabbur] of Eretz Yisrael. Rava said: Rakkath is its real name, and why was it called Tiberias? Because its appearance is good [tova re鈥檌yyata].

讗诪专 讝注讬专讗 拽讟专讜谉 讝讜 爪讬驻讜专讬 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讛 爪讬驻讜专讬 砖讬讜砖讘转 讘专讗砖 讛讛专 讻爪驻讜专

搂 While continuing to identify places that are mentioned in the Bible, Zeira said: The city of Kitron that is mentioned in the Bible is the city of Tzippori. And why was it called Tzippori? Because it sits on top of a mountain like a bird [tzippor].

讜拽讟专讜谉 爪讬驻讜专讬 讛讬讗 讜讛讗 拽讟专讜谉 讘讞诇拽讜 砖诇 讝讘讜诇讜谉 讛讜讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讝讘讜诇讜谉 诇讗 讛讜专讬砖 讗转 讬讜砖讘讬 拽讟专讜谉 讜讗转 讬讜砖讘讬 谞讛诇讜诇 讜讝讘讜诇讜谉 诪转专注诐 注诇 诪讚讜转讬讜 讛讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讝讘讜诇讜谉 注诐 讞专祝 谞驻砖讜 诇诪讜转 诪讛 讟注诐 诪砖讜诐 讚谞驻转诇讬 注诇 诪专讜诪讬 砖讚讛

The Gemara asks: Is Kitron really Tzippori? Wasn鈥檛 Kitron in the tribal territory of Zebulun, as it is written: 鈥淣either did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of Nahalol鈥 (Judges 1:30)? And the tribe of Zebulun was resentful of its portion, as it is stated: 鈥淶ebulun was a people that jeopardized their lives to the death鈥 (Judges 5:18). What is the reason for their resentfulness? Because 鈥淣aphtali was on the high places of the field鈥 (Judges 5:18).

讗诪专 讝讘讜诇讜谉 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讗讞讬讬 谞转转 诇讛诐 砖讚讜转 讜讻专诪讬诐 讜诇讬 谞转转 讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转 诇讗讞讬讬 谞转转 诇讛诐 讗专爪讜转 讜诇讬 谞转转 讬诪讬诐 讜谞讛专讜转 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讜诇谉 爪专讬讻讬谉 诇讱 注诇 讬讚讬 讞诇讝讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 [注诪讬诐 讛专 讬拽专讗讜] 讜砖驻讜谞讬 讟诪讜谞讬 讞讜诇

The verse should be interpreted as follows: Zebulun said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe! To my brothers, the tribes whose territory is adjacent to mine, You gave fields and vineyards, whereas to me You gave mountains and hills; to my brothers You gave lands, whereas to me You gave seas and rivers. God said back to him: Nevertheless, all will need you due to the 岣lazon, the small sea creature residing in your territory that is the source of the dye used in the ritual fringes [tzitzit]. As it is stated in Moses鈥 blessing to Zebulun: 鈥淭hey shall call the people to the mountain: There they shall sacrifice offerings of righteousness; for they shall suck of the abundance of the seas, and of the hidden treasures of the sand鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:19).

转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖驻讜谞讬 讝讛 讞诇讝讜谉 讟诪讜谞讬 讝讜 讟专讬转 讞讜诇 讝讜 讝讻讜讻讬转 诇讘谞讛 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讬 诪讜讚讬注谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诐 讬讝讘讞讜 讝讘讞讬 爪讚拽 住讬诪谉 讝讛 讬讛讗 诇讱 讻诇 讛谞讜讟诇 诪诪讱 讘诇讗 讚诪讬诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讜注讬诇 讘驻专拽诪讟讬讗 砖诇讜 讻诇讜诐

Rav Yosef teaches about this: 鈥淭reasures鈥; this is referring to the 岣lazon, which is found in the waters of Zebulun. 鈥淗idden鈥; this is referring to the tarit, a type of sardine, which is also found in Zebulun鈥檚 coastal waters. 鈥淪and鈥; this is referring to the sand from which white glass is made. Zebulun said to Him: All of these resources are indeed found in my territory, but Master of the Universe, who will inform me if others take them without permission? He said to the tribe of Zebulun: 鈥淭here they shall sacrifice offerings of righteousness.鈥 This shall be a sign for you that anyone who takes these items from you without making payment will not prosper at all in his business.

讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 拽讟专讜谉 讝讜 爪讬驻讜专讬 讗诪讗讬 诪转专注诐 注诇 诪讚讜转讬讜 讜讛讗 讛讜讬讗 爪讬驻讜专讬 诪讬诇转讗 讚注讚讬驻讗 讟讜讘讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讬转 讘讛 讝讘转 讞诇讘 讜讚讘砖 讜讛讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讝讘转 讞诇讘 讜讚讘砖 讚爪讬驻讜专讬 讜讛讜讬讗 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇 注诇 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇

It is clear from the exposition of the verse in Judges that the territory of Zebulun did not contain fields and vineyards. And if it enters your mind to say that Kitron is Tzippori, why was Zebulun resentful of his portion? Wasn鈥檛 Tzippori in his territory, which was land that was vastly superior with regard to its produce? And if you would say that Zebulun鈥檚 portion did not have quality land flowing with milk and honey, didn鈥檛 Reish Lakish say: I myself have seen the land flowing with milk and honey around Tzippori, and it was sixteen mil by sixteen mil?

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚诇讗 谞驻讬砖讗 讚讬讚讬讛 讻讚讗讞讜讛 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讚讬讚讬 讞讝讬 诇讬 讝讘转 讞诇讘 讜讚讘砖 讚讻诇 讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讜讬讗 讻诪讘讬 讻讜讘讬 注讚 讗拽专讗 讚转讜诇讘拽谞讬 注砖专讬谉 讜转专转讬谉 驻专住讬 讗讜专讻讗 讜驻讜转讬讗 砖讬转讗 驻专住讬

And if you would say that the part of his territory that flowed with milk and honey was not as vast as that of his brothers, the other tribes, didn鈥檛 Rabba bar bar 岣na say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I myself have seen the land flowing with milk and honey over all of Eretz Yisrael. And the size of the fertile land was like the distance from Bei Kovei to the fortress of Tulbakni, a total of twenty-two parasangs [parsa] in length and six parasangs in width. A parasang is four mil; consequently, the area flowing with milk and honey around Tzippori was four by four parasangs, which is more than the fair share of one tribe among twelve.

讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 砖讚讜转 讜讻专诪讬诐 注讚讬驻讗 诇讬讛 讚讬拽讗 谞诪讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞驻转诇讬 注诇 诪专讜诪讬 砖讚讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara answers: Even so, fields and vineyards were preferable to Zebulun. The fertile land in Zebulun鈥檚 territory is in a mountainous region, which makes it more difficult to cultivate. The Gemara comments: The language of the verse is also precise according to this explanation, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Naphtali was on the high places of the field,鈥 which indicates that Zebulun鈥檚 complaint was due to the fact that Naphtali had fields. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that this is so.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜注拽专讜谉 转注拽专 讝讜 拽住专讬 讘转 讗讚讜诐 砖讛讬讗 讬讜砖讘转 讘讬谉 讛讞讜诇讜转 讜讛讬讗 讛讬转讛 讬转讚 转拽讜注讛 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘讬诪讬 讬讜讜谞讬诐 讜讻砖讙讘专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讘讬转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讜谞爪讞讜诐 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗讞讬讚转 诪讙讚诇 砖讬专

搂 The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to identifying places mentioned in the Bible. Rabbi Abbahu said: 鈥淎nd Ekron shall be uprooted鈥 (Zephaniah 2:4). This is an allusion to Caesarea, daughter of Edom, which is situated among the sands. Caesarea was primarily populated by Greeks and Romans, and it served as the seat of Roman rule when the Romans, who are identified with Edom in Jewish literature, ruled Eretz Yisrael. And it was a spike stuck in the side of the Jewish people already in the days of the Greeks, as it was an obstacle to the spread of Jewish settlement. When the Hasmonean monarchy prevailed and triumphed over them, they called it: The captured tower of Shir.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛住讬专讜转讬 讚诪讬讜 诪驻讬讜 讜砖拽讜爪讬讜 诪讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讜 讜谞砖讗专 讙诐 讛讜讗 诇讗诇讛讬谞讜 讜讛住讬专讜转讬 讚诪讬讜 诪驻讬讜 讝讛 讘讬转 讘诪讬讗 砖诇讛谉 讜砖拽讜爪讬讜 诪讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讜 讝讛 讘讬转 讙诇讬讗 砖诇讛谉

Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his detestable things from between his teeth, and he also shall be a remnant for our God; and he shall be as a chief in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite鈥 (Zechariah 9:7)? The verse should be understood as follows: 鈥淎nd I will take away his blood out of his mouth鈥; this is referring to their house of altars, where they sacrifice offerings. 鈥淎nd his detestable things from between his teeth鈥; this is referring to their house of piles, where they heap their ritual stones.

讜谞砖讗专 讙诐 讛讜讗 诇讗诇讛讬谞讜 讗诇讜 讘转讬 讻谞住讬讜转 讜讘转讬 诪讚专砖讜转 砖讘讗讚讜诐 讜讛讬讛 讻讗诇讜祝 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讜注拽专讜谉 讻讬讘讜住讬 讗诇讜 转专讗讟专讬讜转 讜拽专拽住讬讜转 砖讘讗讚讜诐 砖注转讬讚讬谉 砖专讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇诇诪讚 讘讛谉 转讜专讛 讘专讘讬诐

鈥淎nd he also shall be a remnant for our God,鈥 these words are referring to the synagogues and study halls in Edom. 鈥淎nd he shall be as a chief [aluf ] in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite,鈥 these words are referring to the theaters [tere鈥檃trayot] and the circuses [kirkesayot] in Edom where the officers of Judah are destined to teach Torah in public.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇砖诐 讝讜 驻诪讬讬住 注拽专讜谉 转注拽专 讝讜 拽住专讬 讘转 讗讚讜诐 砖讛讬讗 讛讬转讛 诪讟专讜驻讜诇讬谉 砖诇 诪诇讻讬诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诪专讘讬 讘讛 诪诇讻讬 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诪讜拽诪讬 诪讬谞讛 诪诇讻讬

Rabbi Yitz岣k said: 鈥淎nd the children of Dan went up and fought against Leshem鈥 (Joshua 19:47); this is referring to the city that was known in the Talmudic period as Pamyas. 鈥淓kron shall be uprooted鈥 (Zephaniah 2:4); this is referring to Caesarea, the daughter of Edom, which was a metropolis [metropolin], i.e., a capital city, of kings. There are those who say this means that kings were raised there, and there are those who say it means that kings were appointed from there, meaning the kings of Edom were appointed from among the residents of this city.

拽住专讬 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诐 讬讗诪专 诇讱 讗讚诐 讞专讘讜 砖转讬讛谉 讗诇 转讗诪谉 讬砖讘讜 砖转讬讛谉 讗诇 转讗诪谉 讞专讘讛 拽住专讬 讜讬砖讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讬砖讘讛 拽住专讬 转讗诪谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪诇讗讛 讛讞专讘讛 讗诐 诪诇讬讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜 讗诐 诪诇讬讗讛 讝讜 讞专讘讛 讝讜

The Sages said that the fortunes of Caesarea, which represents Rome, and Jerusalem are diametric opposites. If, therefore, someone says to you that both cities are destroyed, do not believe him. Similarly, if he says to you that they are both settled in tranquility, do not believe him. If, however, he says to you that Caesarea is destroyed and Jerusalem is settled, or that Jerusalem is destroyed and Caesarea is settled, believe him. As it is stated: 鈥淏ecause Tyre has said against Jerusalem: Aha, the gates of the people have been broken; she is turned to me; I shall be filled with her that is laid waste鈥 (Ezekiel 26:2), and Tyre, like Caesarea, represents Rome. Consequently, the verse indicates that if this city is filled, that one is laid waste, and if that city is filled, this one is laid waste. The two cities cannot coexist.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜诇讗讜诐 诪诇讗讜诐 讬讗诪抓

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The same idea may be derived from here, a verse dealing with Jacob and Esau: 鈥淎nd the one people shall be stronger than the other people鈥 (Genesis 25:23), teaching that when one nation rises, the other necessarily falls.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬讜讞谉 专砖注 讘诇 诇诪讚 爪讚拽 讗诪专 讬爪讞拽 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讬讜讞谉 注砖讜 讗诪专 诇讜 专砖注 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讘诇 诇诪讚 爪讚拽 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讗专抓 谞讻讜讞讜转 讬注讜诇 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讘诇 讬专讗讛 讙讗讜转 讛壮

搂 Having mentioned Edom, the Gemara cites what Rabbi Yitz岣k said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淟et favor be shown to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness; in the land of uprightness he will deal wrongfully, and will not behold the majesty of the Lord鈥 (Isaiah 26:10)? Isaac said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, let favor be shown to Esau, my beloved son. God said to him: Esau is wicked. Isaac said to God: 鈥淵et will he not learn righteousness,鈥 i.e., is there no one who can find merit in him? God said to him: 鈥淚n the land of uprightness he will deal wrongfully,鈥 meaning that he is destined to destroy Eretz Yisrael. Isaac said to God: If it is so that he is that wicked, 鈥渉e will not behold the majesty of the Lord.鈥

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转转谉 讛壮 诪讗讜讬讬 专砖注 讝诪诪讜 讗诇 转驻拽 讬专讜诪讜 住诇讛 讗诪专 讬注拽讘 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗诇 转转谉 诇注砖讜 讛专砖注 转讗讜转 诇讘讜 讝诪诪讜 讗诇 转驻拽 讝讜

And Rabbi Yitz岣k also said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淕rant not, O Lord, the desires of the wicked; further not his evil device, so that they not exalt themselves. Selah鈥 (Psalms 140:9)? Jacob said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, grant not to the wicked Esau the desires of his heart, as he wishes to destroy us. Further not his evil device [zemamo]; do not remove the muzzle [zamam] that constrains him and prevents him from breaking out and gathering further strength. This is a reference to

讙专诪诪讬讗 砖诇 讗讚讜诐 砖讗诇诪诇讬 讛谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讞专讬讘讬谉 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

Germamya of Edom, i.e., Germany, which is near the land of Edom, i.e., Rome. As, if the Germans would go forth, they would destroy the entire world.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 转诇转 诪讗讛 拽讟讬专讬 转讙讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讙专诪诪讬讗 砖诇 讗讚讜诐 讜转诇转 诪讗讛 讜砖讬转讬谉 讜讞诪砖讛 诪专讝讘谞讬 讗讬讻讗 讘专讜诪讬 讜讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 谞驻拽讬 讛谞讬 诇讗驻讬 讛谞讬 讜诪拽讟讬诇 讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜诪讬讟专讚讬 诇讗讜拽诪讬 诪诇讻讗

And Rabbi 岣ma Bar 岣nina said: There are three hundred young princes with crowns tied to their heads in Germamya of Edom, and there are three hundred and sixty-five chieftains [marzavnei] in Rome. Every day these go out to battle against those, and one of them is killed, and they are preoccupied with appointing a new king in his place. Since neither side is united, neither side is able to achieve a decisive victory. It is these wars between Rome and the Germanic tribes that act as a muzzle upon Esau-Edom-Rome and prevent it from becoming too strong.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诐 讬讗诪专 诇讱 讗讚诐 讬讙注转讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讗转讬 讗诇 转讗诪谉 诇讗 讬讙注转讬 讜诪爪讗转讬 讗诇 转讗诪谉 讬讙注转讬 讜诪爪讗转讬 转讗诪谉

Rabbi Yitz岣k said in the style of a previous passage: If a person says to you: I have labored and not found success, do not believe him. Similarly, if he says to you: I have not labored but nevertheless I have found success, do not believe him. If, however, he says to you: I have labored and I have found success, believe him.

讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讗讘诇 讘诪砖讗 讜诪转谉 住讬讬注转讗 讛讜讗 诪谉 砖诪讬讗 讜诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诇讞讚讜讚讬 讗讘诇 诇讗讜拽诪讬 讙讬专住讗 住讬讬注转讗 诪谉 砖诪讬讗 讛讬讗

The Gemara comments: This applies only to matters of Torah, as success with respect to Torah study is in accordance with the toil and effort invested. But with regard to success in business, it all depends upon assistance from Heaven, as there is no correlation between success and effort. And even with regard to matters of Torah, we said this only with regard to sharpening one鈥檚 understanding of Torah, as the more one labors, the deeper the understanding of the material he achieves. However, to preserve what one has learned, it is dependent upon assistance from Heaven. Not everyone achieves this, even with much effort.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诐 专讗讬转 专砖注 砖讛砖注讛 诪砖讞拽转 诇讜 讗诇 转转讙专讛 讘讜 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇 转转讞专 讘诪专注讬诐 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讚专讻讬讜 诪爪诇讬讞讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讬讞讬诇讜 讚专讻讬讜 讘讻诇 注转 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讝讜讻讛 讘讚讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪专讜诐 诪砖驻讟讬讱 诪谞讙讚讜 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖专讜讗讛 讘砖讜谞讗讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 爪讜专专讬讜 讬驻讬讞 讘讛诐

And Rabbi Yitz岣k also said: If you see a wicked man whom the hour is smiling upon, i.e., who is enjoying good fortune, do not provoke him, as it is stated: 鈥淐ontend not with evildoers鈥 (Psalms 37:1). And not only that, but if you provoke him, his undertakings will be successful, as it is stated: 鈥淗is ways prosper at all times鈥 (Psalms 10:5). And not only that, but even if he is brought to court, he emerges victorious in judgment, as it is stated: 鈥淵our judgments are far above him鈥 (Psalms 10:5), as though the trial is far removed from him and does not affect him. And not only that, but he will see his enemies fall, as it is stated: 鈥淎s for all his enemies, he hisses at them鈥 (Psalms 10:5).

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讙专讜转 讘专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 注讜讝讘讬 转讜专讛 讬讛诇诇讜 专砖注 讜砖讜诪专讬 转讜专讛 讬转讙专讜 讘诐 讜转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讚讜住转讗讬 讘专 诪转讜谉 讗诪专 诪讜转专 诇讛转讙专讜转 讘专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讗诐 诇讞砖讱 讗讚诐 诇讜诪专 讗诇 转转讞专 讘诪专注讬诐 讜讗诇 转拽谞讗 讘注讜砖讬 注讜诇讛 诪讬 砖诇讘讜 谞讜拽驻讜 讗讜诪专 讻谉

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: It is permitted to provoke the wicked in this world, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey that forsake the Torah praise the wicked; but they who keep the Torah contend with them鈥 (Proverbs聽28:4)? And furthermore, it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Dostai bar Matun said: It is permitted to provoke the wicked in this world, and if a person whispers to you to say that this is not so, relying on the verse: 鈥淐ontend not with evildoers, nor be envious against the workers of iniquity鈥 (Psalms 37:1), know that only one whose heart strikes him with pangs of conscience over sins that he committed says this.

讗诇讗 讗诇 转转讞专 讘诪专注讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 讻诪专注讬诐 讜讗诇 转拽谞讗 讘注讜砖讬 注讜诇讛 诇讛讬讜转 讻注讜砖讬 注讜诇讛 讜讗讜诪专 讗诇 讬拽谞讗 诇讘讱 讘讞讟讗讬诐 讜讙讜壮

Rather, the true meaning of that verse is: 鈥淐ontend not with evildoers,鈥 to be like the evildoers; 鈥渘or be envious against the workers of iniquity,鈥 to be like the workers of iniquity. And it says elsewhere: 鈥淟et not your heart envy sinners, but be in the fear of the Lord all the day鈥 (Proverbs 23:17). In this context, to be envious of sinners means to desire to be like them. Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Dostai indicate that one is permitted to provoke the wicked, against the opinion of Rabbi Yitz岣k.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讬讚讬讛 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚砖诪讬讗

The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as it can be understood that this, Rabbi Yitz岣k鈥檚 statement that one may not provoke the wicked, is referring to his personal matters, while that, the statements of Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Dostai that it is permitted to provoke them, is referring to matters of Heaven, i.e., religious matters.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚讬讚讬讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讛讗 讘爪讚讬拽 砖讗讬谞讜 讙诪讜专 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘诇诪讛 转讘讬讟 讘讜讙讚讬诐 转讞专讬砖 讘讘诇注 专砖注 爪讚讬拽 诪诪谞讜 爪讚讬拽 诪诪谞讜 讘讜诇注 爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讗讬谞讜 讘讜诇注

And if you wish, say: Both this statement and that statement are stated with regard to his own affairs, and still it is not difficult. This statement, that it is permitted to provoke the wicked, applies to a completely righteous individual; that statement, that one may not provoke them, applies to an individual who is not completely righteous. As Rav Huna said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淲hy do you look upon them that deal treacherously, and remain silent when the wicked devours the man that is more righteous than he鈥 (Habakkuk 1:13)? This verse indicates that the wicked devours one who is more righteous than he; however, he does not devour one who is completely righteous.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 砖注讛 诪砖讞拽转 诇讜 砖讗谞讬

And if you wish, say instead: When the hour is smiling upon him, i.e., when the wicked individual is enjoying good fortune, it is different. He is receiving divine assistance, and even the completely righteous should not provoke him.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗讬讟诇讬讗 砖诇 讬讜谉 讝讛 讻专讱 讙讚讜诇 砖诇 专讜诪讬 讜讛讜讬讗 转诇转 诪讗讛 驻专住讛 注诇 转诇转 诪讗讛 驻专住讛 讜讬砖 讘讛 砖诇讜砖 诪讗讜转 砖砖讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 砖讜讜拽讬诐 讻诪谞讬谉 讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜拽讟谉 砖讘讻讜诇诐 砖诇 诪讜讻专讬 注讜驻讜转 讜讛讜讬讗 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇 注诇 砖砖讛 注砖专 诪讬诇 讜诪诇讱 住讜注讚 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讘讗讞讚 诪讛谉

搂 Having mentioned Rome, the Gemara cites what Ulla said. Greek Italy, i.e., southern Italy, is the great city of Rome, and it is three hundred parasang [parsa] by three hundred parasang. It has three hundred and sixty-five markets, corresponding to the number of days in the solar year, and the smallest of them all is the market of poultry sellers, which is sixteen mil by sixteen mil. And the king, i.e., the Roman emperor, dines every day in one of them.

讜讛讚专 讘讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 谞讜诇讚 讘讛 谞讜讟诇 驻专住 诪讘讬转 讛诪诇讱 讜讛谞讜诇讚 讘讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 讚专 讘讛 谞讜讟诇 驻专住 诪讘讬转 讛诪诇讱 讜砖诇砖转 讗诇驻讬诐 讘讬 讘谞讬 讬砖 讘讜 讜讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讞诇讜谞讜转 诪注诇讬谉 注砖谉 讞讜抓 诇讞讜诪讛 爪讚讜 讗讞讚 讬诐 讜爪讚讜 讗讞讚 讛专讬诐 讜讙讘注讜转 爪讚讜 讗讞讚 诪讞讬爪讛 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜爪讚讜 讗讞讚 讞讜诇住讬转 讜诪爪讜诇讛

And one who resides in the city, even if he was not born there, receives an allowance for his living expenses from the king鈥檚 palace. And one who was born there, even if he does not reside there, also receives an allowance from the king鈥檚 palace. And there are three thousand bathhouses in the city, and five hundred apertures that let the smoke from the bathhouses out beyond the walls in a way that doesn鈥檛 blacken the walls themselves. One side of the city is bordered by the sea, one side by mountains and hills, one side by a barrier of iron and one side by gravel [岣lsit] and swamp.

诪转谞讬壮 拽专讗讜 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 讜谞转注讘专讛 讛砖谞讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 砖谞讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 诇讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 讗诇讗 拽专讬讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讜诪转谞讜转 诇讗讘讬讜谞讬诐

MISHNA: If the people read the Megilla during the first Adar and subsequently the year was then intercalated by the court and now the following month will be the second Adar, one reads the Megilla again during the second Adar. The Sages formulated a principle: The difference between the first Adar and the second Adar with regard to the mitzvot that are performed during those months is only that the reading of the Megilla and distributing gifts to the poor are performed in the second Adar and not in the first Adar.

讙诪壮 讛讗 诇注谞讬谉 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉

GEMARA: The Gemara infers that with regard to the matter of the sequence of Torah portions read each year on two Shabbatot before Purim, the portions of Shekalim and Zakhor, and on two Shabbatot after Purim, Para and Ha岣desh, this, the first Adar, and that, the second Adar are equal, in that reading them during the first Adar exempts one from reading them in the second Adar.

诪谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诇讗 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讜诇讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜诇讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讚转谞讬讗 拽专讗讜 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 讘讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 讜谞转注讘专讛 讛砖谞讛 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 砖讻诇 诪爪讜转 砖谞讜讛讙讜转 讘砖谞讬 谞讜讛讙讜转 讘专讗砖讜谉 讞讜抓 诪诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛

The Gemara asks: If so, whose opinion is taught in the mishna? It is neither the opinion of the anonymous first tanna of the following baraita, nor that of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, nor that of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as it is taught in a baraita: If they read the Megilla during the first Adar and the year was then intercalated, they read it during the second Adar, as all mitzvot that are practiced during the second Adar are practiced in the first Adar, except for the reading of the Megilla.

专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 砖讻诇 诪爪讜转 砖谞讜讛讙讜转 讘砖谞讬 谞讜讛讙讜转 讘专讗砖讜谉

Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: They do not read it again during the second Adar, as all mitzvot that are practiced during the second Adar are practiced during the first Adar. Once the Megilla was read during the first Adar, one need not read it again during the second Adar.

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗祝 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 砖讻诇 诪爪讜转 砖谞讜讛讙讜转 讘砖谞讬 讗讬谉 谞讜讛讙讜转 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜砖讜讬谉 讘讛住驻讚 讜讘转注谞讬转 砖讗住讜专讬谉 讘讝讛 讜讘讝讛

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yosei: They even read it again during the second Adar, as all mitzvot that are practiced during the second Adar are not practiced during the first Adar. And they all agree with regard to eulogy and with regard to fasting that they are prohibited on the fourteenth and the fifteenth days of this month of the first Adar and on that month of the second Adar.

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 讘砖谞讬 讜讗讬 注讘讜讚 讘专讗砖讜谉 注讘讜讚 讘专 诪诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讚讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚拽专讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 拽专讜 讘砖谞讬

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. The opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is identical to that of the first tanna. What novel element does he introduce? Rav Pappa said: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the sequence of four Torah portions, as the first tanna maintains: They should read those portions during the second Adar, ab initio. However, if they did so during the first Adar, they did so; and they fulfilled their obligation and need not read them again during the second Adar, except for the reading of the Megilla, as even though they already read it during the first Adar, they read it again during the second Adar.

讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 讘专讗砖讜谉 讜专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 讗讬 拽专讜 讘专讗砖讜谉 拽专讜 讘砖谞讬

And Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, maintains that even the reading of the Megilla may be performed during the first Adar, ab initio, and they need not read it again during the second Adar. And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel maintains: Even with regard to the sequence of four Torah portions, if they read them during the first Adar, they read them again during the second Adar.

诪谞讬 讗讬 转谞讗 拽诪讗 拽砖讬讗 诪转谞讜转 讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 拽砖讬讗 谞诪讬 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讗讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 拽砖讬讗 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转

Returning to the original question, according to whose opinion is the mishna taught? If it is the opinion of the first tanna, the halakha of gifts to the poor is difficult. The first tanna does not mention these gifts, indicating that he maintains that if gifts were distributed during the first Adar one need not distribute gifts to the poor during the second Adar. And if the mishna was taught according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, the reading of the Megilla is also difficult. And if it is the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, the sequence of Torah portions is difficult.

诇注讜诇诐 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讜转谞讗 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讜讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 诪转谞讜转 诇讗讘讬讜谞讬诐 讚讛讗 讘讛讗 转诇讬讗

The Gemara answers: Actually, the mishna is according to the opinion of the first tanna, and he taught the halakha with regard to the reading of the Megilla, and the same is true with regard to gifts to the poor, as this mitzva is dependent upon that one. The Gemara already explained that the gifts to the poor are distributed on the day that the Megilla is read.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讗 讜诪转谞讬转讬谉 讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讘讗讚专 讛专讗砖讜谉 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讘讗讚专 讛砖谞讬 讗诇讗 诪拽专讗 诪讙讬诇讛 讜诪转谞讜转 讛讗 诇注谞讬谉 讛住驻讚 讜转注谞讬转 讝讛 讜讝讛 砖讜讬谉 讜讗讬诇讜 住讚专 驻专砖讬讜转 诇讗 诪讬讬专讬

And if you wish, say instead: Actually, the mishna is according to the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and the mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: The difference between the fourteenth day of the first Adar and the fourteenth day of the second Adar is only with regard to the reading of the Megilla and distributing gifts to the poor. The Gemara infers that with regard to the matter of eulogy and fasting, this, the first Adar, and that, the second Adar are equal, while about the sequence of Torah portions, the mishna does not speak at all. The mishna limits its discussion to the halakhot of Purim.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬

Rabbi 岣yya bar Avin said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who said it in the name of Rabbi Yosei.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜砖谞讬讛诐 诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 讚专砖讜 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 住讘专 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇砖讘讟 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇砖讘讟

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And both of them, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, interpreted the same verse differently, leading them to their conclusions. It is written: 鈥淭o enjoin upon them that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day of the same, in each and every year鈥 (Esther 9:21). Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, maintains: 鈥淚n each and every year鈥 teaches that Purim must be celebrated the same way each year, even if it is intercalated: Just as each and every year Purim is celebrated during Adar that is adjacent to Shevat, so too here in an intercalated year Purim is celebrated during Adar that is adjacent to Shevat.

讜专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 讘讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 诪讛 讻诇 砖谞讛 讜砖谞讛 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇谞讬住谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 讗讚专 讛住诪讜讱 诇谞讬住谉

And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel maintains: 鈥淚n each and every year鈥 teaches that just as each and every year Purim is celebrated in Adar that is adjacent to Nisan, so too here, in an intercalated year, Purim is celebrated during Adar that is adjacent to Nisan.

讘砖诇诪讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪住转讘专 讟注诪讗 讚讗讬谉 诪注讘讬专讬谉 注诇 讛诪爪讜转 讗诇讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, the reason for his opinion is logical, based on the principle that one does not forego performance of the mitzvot; rather, when presented with the opportunity to perform a mitzva, one should do so immediately. However, with regard to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, what is the reason for his opinion?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讟讘讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪住诪讱 讙讗讜诇讛 诇讙讗讜诇讛 注讚讬祝

Rabbi Tavi said: The reason for the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is that juxtaposing the celebration of one redemption, Purim, to the celebration of another redemption, Passover, is preferable.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讛讻讗 讚讻转讬讘 诇拽讬讬诐 讗转 讗讙专转 讛驻讜专讬诐 讛讝讗转 讛砖谞讬转

Rabbi Elazar said: The reason for the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is derived from here, as it is written: 鈥淭o confirm this second letter of Purim鈥 (Esther 9:29), indicating that there are circumstances where the Megilla is read a second time (Jerusalem Talmud), i.e., when the year was intercalated after the Megilla was read in the first Adar.

讜讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诇诪讬讻转讘

The Gemara comments: And it was necessary to write

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