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Today's Daf Yomi

August 23, 2015 | ื—ืณ ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืขืดื”

  • Masechet Nazir is sponsored by the family of Rabbi Howard Alpert, HaRav Tzvi Lipa ben Hillel, in honor of his first yahrzeit.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Nazir 2

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช

MISHNA: One becomes a nazirite by taking a nazirite vow, in which he simply declares himself a nazirite, as detailed in the Torah (Numbers 6:1โ€“21). Additionally, all substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are like nazirite vows and are binding. Furthermore, intimations of nazirite vows, i.e., incomplete statements that are understood from context to be meant as nazirite vows, are considered binding nazirite vows.

ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื”ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ืื• ืื”ื ื ืื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื ื–ื™ืง ื ื–ื™ื— ืคื–ื™ื— ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ื›ื–ื” ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžืกืœืกืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžื›ืœื›ืœ ื”ืจื™ ืขืœื™ ืœืฉืœื— ืคืจืข ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ

Consequently, one who says: I will be, without further clarification, is a nazirite, as this is his implied intention. Or, if he said: I will be beautiful, he is a nazirite. The substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are as follows: If one says: I will be a nazik, a naziโ€™aแธฅ, or a paziโ€™aแธฅ, he is a nazirite. If one says: I am hereby like this, I am hereby a hair curler, I am hereby growing my hair; or: It is incumbent upon me to grow long hair, he is a nazirite.

ื”ืจื™ ืขืœื™ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ื ื• ื ื–ื™ืจ

If one says: An obligation is hereby incumbent upon me with regard to birds, Rabbi Meir says: He is a nazirite. A nazirite brings two bird-offerings if he inadvertently becomes ritually impure from a corpse (Numbers 6:10), and it is understood that the individual used this indirect phrase to take a vow of naziriteship. And the Sages say: He is not a nazirite.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื›ื“ื™ ืชื ื ื‘ืกื“ืจ ื ืฉื™ื ืงืื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืชื ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจ

GEMARA: The Gemara begins by clarifying why this tractate appears in the order of Nashim within the six orders of the Mishna. Now, the tanna is engaged in the study of the order of Nashim, which discusses laws concerning marriage and the resulting obligations as well as with forbidden sexual relations. What then is the reason that he teaches the laws of the nazirite here?

ืชื ื ืืงืจื ืงืื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืื ืœื ืชืžืฆื ื—ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื›ื™ ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ืขืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืžื™ ื’ืจื ืœื” ืœืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืงืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืื” ืกื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืงืœืงื•ืœื” ื™ื–ื™ืจ ืขืฆืžื• ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืŸ

The Gemara answers: The tanna is engaged in the study of the verse pertaining to divorce: โ€œThen it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because he has found some unseemly matter about herโ€ (Deuteronomy 24:1). And this is what he is saying: What caused the woman to commit the transgression of adultery, alluded to in the verse by the phrase โ€œunseemly matterโ€? It was wine. And the tanna is saying: Anyone who sees a sota in her disgrace should abstain from wine. Consequently, tractate Nazir is placed in the order of Nashim, immediately preceding tractate Sota, which is about a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful, and tractate Gittin, which discusses divorce.

ืคืชื— ื‘ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ื™ื“ื•ืช

ยง The Gemara asks a question with regard to the mishnaโ€™s presentation of the different topics it addresses: The tanna began with the statement that all substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are considered nazirite vows, but then it explains the halakha of intimations of nazirite vows by providing examples of intimations rather than examples of substitutes for nazirite vows. Why didnโ€™t the mishna provide examples of substitutes immediately after stating the halakha concerning substitutes?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ื›ื“ื™ ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื›ืœ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื™ื“ื•ืช ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื”ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ

Rava said, and some say this statement without attribution [kedi]: The mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: All substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are like nazirite vows. And similarly, all intimations of nazirite vows are like nazirite vows. And these are examples of intimations: One who says: I will be, is a nazirite.

ื•ืœืคืจื•ืฉ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืชื ื ืžื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืกืœื™ืง ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืคืจืฉ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžื” ืžื“ืœื™ืงื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara asks: But nevertheless, let the tanna explain the cases of substitutes first, before providing examples of intimations, as the halakha of substitutes is mentioned before the halakha of intimations. The Gemara answers: The tanna employs the general style of the Mishna, which is that the subject with which it concludes is the one that it explains first, as we learned in a mishna (Shabbat 20b): With what may one light the Shabbat lamp and with what may one not light it? And the mishna explains the details of what one may not light first, before providing examples of fuel that may be used to light the Shabbat lamp.

ื‘ืžื” ื˜ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

Similarly, another mishna (Shabbat 47b) states: In what may one insulate a pot of cooked food on Shabbat eve, and in what may one not insulate it? And the mishna explains the cases of material in which one may not insulate it first, before providing examples of materials in which one may insulate a pot of cooked food.

ื‘ืžื” ืืฉื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ื ื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืœื ืชืฆื ืืฉื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

A third example of this style is in the following mishna (Shabbat 57a): With what items may a woman go out into the public domain on Shabbat and with what items may she not go out? And the mishna explains the items with which a woman may not go out first, before providing examples of items with which she may go out.

ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžื” ื‘ื”ืžื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ื ื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ื™ื•ืฆื ื’ืžืœ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara challenges this explanation: But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Shabbat 51b): With what may an animal go out into the public domain on Shabbat, and with what may it not go out? And it explains the items with which a camel may go out first, before providing examples of items with which it may not go out.

ื™ืฉ ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืืœื• ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

Similarly, it is taught in another mishna (Bava Batra 108a): There are some relatives who inherit and bequeath, e.g., a father and son, who are heirs to each other; some who inherit but do not bequeath; some bequeath but do not inherit; and some do not inherit and do not bequeath. And the mishna explains the cases of those who both inherit and bequeath first, before providing examples of the other categories that were mentioned later in the opening clause of the mishna.

ืืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืชื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืชื ื™ ื”ื›ื™

Rather, the mishna actually teaches in this manner at times, and it teaches in that manner at other times. There are instances where the tanna begins by elaborating on the first principle mentioned in the mishna, while on other occasions he first elaborates upon the last principle mentioned.

ืืœื ื”ืชื ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืคืจืฉ ืื™ืกื•ืจื ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื’ื‘ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื ืื™ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื™ ืžืคืจืฉ ื”ื™ืชื™ืจื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

However, there is a rationale as to when the tanna employs each style. There, in the passages concerning the fuels one may use to light the Shabbat lamp, the materials one may use to insulate a pot on Shabbat eve, and the items with which a woman may go out on Shabbat to the public domain, where it is the individualโ€™s own prohibition that is being discussed, the tanna explains the cases pertaining to the individualโ€™s own prohibition first. By contrast, with regard to the mishna that addresses an animal carrying into the public domain on Shabbat, where the prohibition comes by means of the animal, the tanna explains what is permitted first.

ื’ื‘ื™ ื™ืฉ ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืžืคืจืฉ ืขื™ืงืจ ื ื—ืœื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

Similarly, with regard to the mishna that teaches that there are some relatives who inherit and bequeath, the tanna also had a reason for initially providing examples from the first category: He thereby explains the principal case of the Torahโ€™s halakhot of inheritance first.

ืืœื [ื”ื›ื] ืœืคืจื•ืฉ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืืœื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขื ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืืชื™ื™ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืจืฉื ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara now returns to its question: But here, let the tanna explain the cases of substitutes first. The Gemara explains: Rather, this is the reason: Since intimations are derived from the exposition of verses and are not explicitly mentioned in the Torah, they are dear to the tanna and he therefore mentions them first.

ื•ืœื™ืคืชื— ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืชื ื ื›ื™ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืงืจื‘ืŸ ื•ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื™ ืžืคืจืฉ ื™ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara asks: But if that is so, then let him begin with them first in the opening clause of the mishna as well. The Gemara answers: When the tanna begins, he begins with the main offering of the nazirite, i.e., with the halakha that has a basis in the Torah. But with regard to the explanation of these halakhot, he explains the cases of intimations first, as he favors that topic.

ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื”ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื“ืœืžื ืื”ื ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืช ืงืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ื•

ยง The mishna taught: One who says: I will be, is a nazirite. The Gemara asks: Perhaps he is saying: I will be fasting, i.e., his intention is to take a vow that will obligate himself to fast rather than to be a nazirite. The Gemara answers that Shmuel said: The mishna is describing a case where a nazirite was passing before him, so that it is clear that he is taking a nazirite vow.

ืœื™ืžื ืงืกื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื•ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื ื–ื™ืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืœื™ื›ื ืœืกืคื•ืงื ื‘ืžื™ืœืชื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืื‘ืœ ื•ื“ืื™ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ื–ื™ืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื“ืœืžื ืื”ื ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืช ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Shmuel holds as a principle that ambiguous intimations are not considered intimations, i.e., they are not considered vows? The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Say that when a nazirite is passing before him, there is no reason to doubt his intention. There is no possibility that he is referring to another matter, and therefore his statement is definitely an intimation of naziriteship. However, it is certainly the case that when a nazirite is not passing before him, and he states: I will be, we say that perhaps he is saying: I will be fasting. It is only in the latter case, where oneโ€™s intimation is so ambiguous that it offers no evidence whatsoever of his intentions, that Shmuel holds that oneโ€™s statement is not considered a vow.

ื•ื“ืœืžื ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื• ืžืŸ ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื• ืงืืžืจ ื“ืงืืžืจ ื‘ืœื‘ื•

The Gemara asks: But even if he made his statement when a nazirite was passing before him, perhaps he was saying that he intends to purchase the animals the nazirite will need for his offerings and thereby exempt the nazirite from paying for his own offerings. The Gemara answers: This is a case where he said in his heart that he accepts upon himself a nazirite vow.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืžืื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืคื™ื• ื•ืœื‘ื• ืฉื•ื™ืŸ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara asks: If that is so, then what is the purpose of stating this halakha? Isnโ€™t it obvious that he becomes a nazirite? The Gemara answers: It is necessary to state this halakha, lest you say that we require his mouth and heart to be identical. If that were the case, then if one did not clearly articulate his nazirite vow, he would not become a nazirite even if he intended to become one. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that since his words can be interpreted as referring to a nazirite vow, and that was his intention, he becomes a nazirite.

ืื”ื ื ืื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื“ืœืžื ืื ืื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื–ื” ืืœื™ ื•ืื ื•ื”ื• ืื ืื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ืืขืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ืกื•ื›ื” ื ืื” ืœื•ืœื‘ ื ืื” ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื ืื” ืื›ืชื•ื‘ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ื ืื” ื•ืื›ืจื›ื ื• ื‘ืฉื™ืจืื™ืŸ ื ืื™ื

ยง The mishna taught that if one says: I will be beautiful [naโ€™e], he is a nazirite. The Gemara asks: But perhaps when he said: I will be beautiful, he meant: I will be beautiful before Him in mitzvot? As it is taught in a baraita: โ€œThis is my God and I will glorify Him [anvehu]โ€ (Exodus 15:2). Anvehu has the same root as the word naโ€™e; therefore, the verse means: I will be beautiful before Him in mitzvot. How is this done? I will make before Him a beautiful sukka, a beautiful lulav, beautiful ritual fringes. I will write before Him a beautiful Torah scroll, and I will wrap it in beautiful silk cloths [shiraโ€™in].

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืฉืชืคื•ืก ื‘ืฉืขืจื• ื•ืืžืจ ืื ืื”

The Gemara answers that Shmuel said: The mishna is referring to a case where one is holding his hair and says: I will be beautiful. This clearly indicates that he is referring to naziriteship.

ื ื–ื™ืจื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื ืื”

The Gemara asks: Since naziriteship is a matter of transgression, can we say about a nazirite that he is beautiful?

  • Masechet Nazir is sponsored by the family of Rabbi Howard Alpert, HaRav Tzvi Lipa ben Hillel, in honor of his first yahrzeit.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Introduction to Masechet Nazir by Gitta Jaroslawicz-Neufeld ื–ื›ื•ืช ืœืจืคื•ืื” ืฉืœืžื” ืœื“ื•ื“ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ื™ื“ืœ ื "ื™ ื•ืจื—ืœ ื‘ืช ื’ื•ืœื“ื ืžืจื™ื ืฉืชื—ื™' ื‘ืชื•ืš...
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Nazir 2: The Vow of the Nazir

An introduction to Nazir, including its placement in Seder Nashim, and following Nedarim. An introduction to chapter 1, including the...
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Let Your Hair Down

Welcome to Nazir! As we enter the fascinating world of Nazirite vows, we will see that it seems to have...

Nazir 2

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Nazir 2

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช

MISHNA: One becomes a nazirite by taking a nazirite vow, in which he simply declares himself a nazirite, as detailed in the Torah (Numbers 6:1โ€“21). Additionally, all substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are like nazirite vows and are binding. Furthermore, intimations of nazirite vows, i.e., incomplete statements that are understood from context to be meant as nazirite vows, are considered binding nazirite vows.

ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื”ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ืื• ืื”ื ื ืื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื ื–ื™ืง ื ื–ื™ื— ืคื–ื™ื— ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ื›ื–ื” ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžืกืœืกืœ ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ืžื›ืœื›ืœ ื”ืจื™ ืขืœื™ ืœืฉืœื— ืคืจืข ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ

Consequently, one who says: I will be, without further clarification, is a nazirite, as this is his implied intention. Or, if he said: I will be beautiful, he is a nazirite. The substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are as follows: If one says: I will be a nazik, a naziโ€™aแธฅ, or a paziโ€™aแธฅ, he is a nazirite. If one says: I am hereby like this, I am hereby a hair curler, I am hereby growing my hair; or: It is incumbent upon me to grow long hair, he is a nazirite.

ื”ืจื™ ืขืœื™ ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ื ื• ื ื–ื™ืจ

If one says: An obligation is hereby incumbent upon me with regard to birds, Rabbi Meir says: He is a nazirite. A nazirite brings two bird-offerings if he inadvertently becomes ritually impure from a corpse (Numbers 6:10), and it is understood that the individual used this indirect phrase to take a vow of naziriteship. And the Sages say: He is not a nazirite.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื›ื“ื™ ืชื ื ื‘ืกื“ืจ ื ืฉื™ื ืงืื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืชื ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจ

GEMARA: The Gemara begins by clarifying why this tractate appears in the order of Nashim within the six orders of the Mishna. Now, the tanna is engaged in the study of the order of Nashim, which discusses laws concerning marriage and the resulting obligations as well as with forbidden sexual relations. What then is the reason that he teaches the laws of the nazirite here?

ืชื ื ืืงืจื ืงืื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืื ืœื ืชืžืฆื ื—ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื›ื™ ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ืขืจื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืžื™ ื’ืจื ืœื” ืœืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืงืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืื” ืกื•ื˜ื” ื‘ืงืœืงื•ืœื” ื™ื–ื™ืจ ืขืฆืžื• ืžืŸ ื”ื™ื™ืŸ

The Gemara answers: The tanna is engaged in the study of the verse pertaining to divorce: โ€œThen it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because he has found some unseemly matter about herโ€ (Deuteronomy 24:1). And this is what he is saying: What caused the woman to commit the transgression of adultery, alluded to in the verse by the phrase โ€œunseemly matterโ€? It was wine. And the tanna is saying: Anyone who sees a sota in her disgrace should abstain from wine. Consequently, tractate Nazir is placed in the order of Nashim, immediately preceding tractate Sota, which is about a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful, and tractate Gittin, which discusses divorce.

ืคืชื— ื‘ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ื™ื“ื•ืช

ยง The Gemara asks a question with regard to the mishnaโ€™s presentation of the different topics it addresses: The tanna began with the statement that all substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are considered nazirite vows, but then it explains the halakha of intimations of nazirite vows by providing examples of intimations rather than examples of substitutes for nazirite vows. Why didnโ€™t the mishna provide examples of substitutes immediately after stating the halakha concerning substitutes?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ื›ื“ื™ ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื›ืœ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื™ื“ื•ืช ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื›ื ื–ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื”ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ

Rava said, and some say this statement without attribution [kedi]: The mishna is incomplete and is teaching the following: All substitutes for the language of nazirite vows are like nazirite vows. And similarly, all intimations of nazirite vows are like nazirite vows. And these are examples of intimations: One who says: I will be, is a nazirite.

ื•ืœืคืจื•ืฉ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืชื ื ืžื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืกืœื™ืง ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืคืจืฉ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžื” ืžื“ืœื™ืงื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara asks: But nevertheless, let the tanna explain the cases of substitutes first, before providing examples of intimations, as the halakha of substitutes is mentioned before the halakha of intimations. The Gemara answers: The tanna employs the general style of the Mishna, which is that the subject with which it concludes is the one that it explains first, as we learned in a mishna (Shabbat 20b): With what may one light the Shabbat lamp and with what may one not light it? And the mishna explains the details of what one may not light first, before providing examples of fuel that may be used to light the Shabbat lamp.

ื‘ืžื” ื˜ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

Similarly, another mishna (Shabbat 47b) states: In what may one insulate a pot of cooked food on Shabbat eve, and in what may one not insulate it? And the mishna explains the cases of material in which one may not insulate it first, before providing examples of materials in which one may insulate a pot of cooked food.

ื‘ืžื” ืืฉื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ื ื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืœื ืชืฆื ืืฉื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

A third example of this style is in the following mishna (Shabbat 57a): With what items may a woman go out into the public domain on Shabbat and with what items may she not go out? And the mishna explains the items with which a woman may not go out first, before providing examples of items with which she may go out.

ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ื‘ืžื” ื‘ื”ืžื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ืื™ื ื” ื™ื•ืฆืื” ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ื™ื•ืฆื ื’ืžืœ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara challenges this explanation: But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Shabbat 51b): With what may an animal go out into the public domain on Shabbat, and with what may it not go out? And it explains the items with which a camel may go out first, before providing examples of items with which it may not go out.

ื™ืฉ ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืคืจืฉ ืืœื• ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื ื—ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

Similarly, it is taught in another mishna (Bava Batra 108a): There are some relatives who inherit and bequeath, e.g., a father and son, who are heirs to each other; some who inherit but do not bequeath; some bequeath but do not inherit; and some do not inherit and do not bequeath. And the mishna explains the cases of those who both inherit and bequeath first, before providing examples of the other categories that were mentioned later in the opening clause of the mishna.

ืืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืชื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืชื ื™ ื”ื›ื™

Rather, the mishna actually teaches in this manner at times, and it teaches in that manner at other times. There are instances where the tanna begins by elaborating on the first principle mentioned in the mishna, while on other occasions he first elaborates upon the last principle mentioned.

ืืœื ื”ืชื ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื”ื•ื ืžืคืจืฉ ืื™ืกื•ืจื ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื’ื‘ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื ืื™ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื™ ืžืคืจืฉ ื”ื™ืชื™ืจื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

However, there is a rationale as to when the tanna employs each style. There, in the passages concerning the fuels one may use to light the Shabbat lamp, the materials one may use to insulate a pot on Shabbat eve, and the items with which a woman may go out on Shabbat to the public domain, where it is the individualโ€™s own prohibition that is being discussed, the tanna explains the cases pertaining to the individualโ€™s own prohibition first. By contrast, with regard to the mishna that addresses an animal carrying into the public domain on Shabbat, where the prohibition comes by means of the animal, the tanna explains what is permitted first.

ื’ื‘ื™ ื™ืฉ ื ื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืžืคืจืฉ ืขื™ืงืจ ื ื—ืœื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

Similarly, with regard to the mishna that teaches that there are some relatives who inherit and bequeath, the tanna also had a reason for initially providing examples from the first category: He thereby explains the principal case of the Torahโ€™s halakhot of inheritance first.

ืืœื [ื”ื›ื] ืœืคืจื•ืฉ ื›ื™ื ื•ื™ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืืœื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขื ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืืชื™ื™ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืจืฉื ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara now returns to its question: But here, let the tanna explain the cases of substitutes first. The Gemara explains: Rather, this is the reason: Since intimations are derived from the exposition of verses and are not explicitly mentioned in the Torah, they are dear to the tanna and he therefore mentions them first.

ื•ืœื™ืคืชื— ื‘ื”ื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืชื ื ื›ื™ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืงืจื‘ืŸ ื•ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื™ ืžืคืจืฉ ื™ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืจื™ืฉื

The Gemara asks: But if that is so, then let him begin with them first in the opening clause of the mishna as well. The Gemara answers: When the tanna begins, he begins with the main offering of the nazirite, i.e., with the halakha that has a basis in the Torah. But with regard to the explanation of these halakhot, he explains the cases of intimations first, as he favors that topic.

ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื”ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื“ืœืžื ืื”ื ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืช ืงืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ื•

ยง The mishna taught: One who says: I will be, is a nazirite. The Gemara asks: Perhaps he is saying: I will be fasting, i.e., his intention is to take a vow that will obligate himself to fast rather than to be a nazirite. The Gemara answers that Shmuel said: The mishna is describing a case where a nazirite was passing before him, so that it is clear that he is taking a nazirite vow.

ืœื™ืžื ืงืกื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื™ื“ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื•ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื ื–ื™ืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืœื™ื›ื ืœืกืคื•ืงื ื‘ืžื™ืœืชื ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืื‘ืœ ื•ื“ืื™ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ื–ื™ืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื“ืœืžื ืื”ื ื‘ืชืขื ื™ืช ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Shmuel holds as a principle that ambiguous intimations are not considered intimations, i.e., they are not considered vows? The Gemara rejects this suggestion: Say that when a nazirite is passing before him, there is no reason to doubt his intention. There is no possibility that he is referring to another matter, and therefore his statement is definitely an intimation of naziriteship. However, it is certainly the case that when a nazirite is not passing before him, and he states: I will be, we say that perhaps he is saying: I will be fasting. It is only in the latter case, where oneโ€™s intimation is so ambiguous that it offers no evidence whatsoever of his intentions, that Shmuel holds that oneโ€™s statement is not considered a vow.

ื•ื“ืœืžื ืœืคื•ื˜ืจื• ืžืŸ ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื• ืงืืžืจ ื“ืงืืžืจ ื‘ืœื‘ื•

The Gemara asks: But even if he made his statement when a nazirite was passing before him, perhaps he was saying that he intends to purchase the animals the nazirite will need for his offerings and thereby exempt the nazirite from paying for his own offerings. The Gemara answers: This is a case where he said in his heart that he accepts upon himself a nazirite vow.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืžืื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืคื™ื• ื•ืœื‘ื• ืฉื•ื™ืŸ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara asks: If that is so, then what is the purpose of stating this halakha? Isnโ€™t it obvious that he becomes a nazirite? The Gemara answers: It is necessary to state this halakha, lest you say that we require his mouth and heart to be identical. If that were the case, then if one did not clearly articulate his nazirite vow, he would not become a nazirite even if he intended to become one. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that since his words can be interpreted as referring to a nazirite vow, and that was his intention, he becomes a nazirite.

ืื”ื ื ืื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื“ืœืžื ืื ืื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื–ื” ืืœื™ ื•ืื ื•ื”ื• ืื ืื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ืืขืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ืกื•ื›ื” ื ืื” ืœื•ืœื‘ ื ืื” ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื ืื” ืื›ืชื•ื‘ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ื ืื” ื•ืื›ืจื›ื ื• ื‘ืฉื™ืจืื™ืŸ ื ืื™ื

ยง The mishna taught that if one says: I will be beautiful [naโ€™e], he is a nazirite. The Gemara asks: But perhaps when he said: I will be beautiful, he meant: I will be beautiful before Him in mitzvot? As it is taught in a baraita: โ€œThis is my God and I will glorify Him [anvehu]โ€ (Exodus 15:2). Anvehu has the same root as the word naโ€™e; therefore, the verse means: I will be beautiful before Him in mitzvot. How is this done? I will make before Him a beautiful sukka, a beautiful lulav, beautiful ritual fringes. I will write before Him a beautiful Torah scroll, and I will wrap it in beautiful silk cloths [shiraโ€™in].

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืฉืชืคื•ืก ื‘ืฉืขืจื• ื•ืืžืจ ืื ืื”

The Gemara answers that Shmuel said: The mishna is referring to a case where one is holding his hair and says: I will be beautiful. This clearly indicates that he is referring to naziriteship.

ื ื–ื™ืจื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื ืื”

The Gemara asks: Since naziriteship is a matter of transgression, can we say about a nazirite that he is beautiful?

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