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Today's Daf Yomi

May 25, 2014 | 讻状讛 讘讗讬讬专 转砖注状讚

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 17

讜诪爪驻爪驻讬谉 讜注讜诇讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讘讗转讬 讗转 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讗砖 讜爪专驻转讬诐 讻爪专讜祝 讗转 讛讻住祝 讜讘讞谞转讬诐 讻讘讞讜谉 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讛讜讗 讬拽专讗 讘砖诪讬 讜讗谞讬 讗注谞讛 讗讜转讜 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专讛 讞谞讛 讛壮 诪诪讬转 讜诪讞讬讛 诪讜专讬讚 砖讗讜诇 讜讬注诇

and they will cry out in their pain and eventually ascend from there, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried; they shall call on My name, and I will answer them鈥 (Zechariah 13:9). This is referring to the members of the third group, who require refinement and cleansing. And about them, Hannah said: 鈥淭he Lord kills, and gives life; he brings down to the grave, and brings up鈥 (I Samuel 2:6).

讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讗讛讘转讬 讻讬 讬砖诪注 讛壮 讗转 拽讜诇讬 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 讚诇讜转讬 讜诇讬 讬讛讜砖讬注

Beit Hillel say: He Who is 鈥渁nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people should not have to pass through Gehenna. And about them, David said: 鈥淚 love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications鈥 (Psalms 116:1). And about them, David said the entire passage: 鈥淚 was brought low [daloti] and He saved me鈥 (Psalms 116:6). Although they are poor [dalim] in mitzvot, God saves them.

驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 讜驻讜砖注讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘讙讜驻谉 讬讜专讚讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐 讜谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 诇讗讞专 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讙讜驻谉 讻诇讛 讜谞砖诪转谉 谞砖专驻转 讜专讜讞 诪驻讝专转谉 转讞转 讻驻讜转 专讙诇讬 爪讚讬拽讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜注住讜转诐 专砖注讬诐 讻讬 讬讛讬讜 讗驻专 转讞转 讻驻讜转 专讙诇讬讻诐

The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies and also the rebellious people of the nations of the world who have sinned with their bodies descend to Gehenna and are judged there for twelve months. After twelve months, their bodies are consumed, their souls are burned, and a wind scatters them under the soles of the feet of the righteous, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet鈥 (Malachi 3:21).

讗讘诇 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讜讛诪住讜专讜转 讜讛讗驻讬拽讜专住讬诐 砖讻驻专讜 讘转讜专讛 讜砖讻驻专讜 讘转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 讜砖驻讬专砖讜 诪讚专讻讬 爪讘讜专 讜砖谞转谞讜 讞讬转讬转诐 讘讗专抓 讞讬讬诐 讜砖讞讟讗讜 讜讛讞讟讬讗讜 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讻讙讜谉 讬专讘注诐 讘谉 谞讘讟 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 讬讜专讚讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐 讜谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘讛 诇讚讜专讬 讚讜专讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬爪讗讜 讜专讗讜 讘驻讙专讬 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讛驻讜砖注讬诐 讘讬 讜讙讜壮

But the heretics; and the informers; and the apostates [apikorsim]; and those who denied the Torah; and those who denied the resurrection of the dead; and those who separated from the ways of the Jewish community and refused to share the suffering; and those who cast their fear over the land of the living; and those who sinned and caused the masses to sin, for example, Jeroboam, son of Nebat, and his company; all of these people descend to Gehenna and are judged there for generations and generations, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die; neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh鈥 (Isaiah 66:24).

讙讬讛谞诐 讻诇讛 讜讛谉 讗讬谞谉 讻诇讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜爪讜专诐 诇讘诇讜转 砖讗讜诇 诪讝讘讜诇 诇讜 讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 诪驻谞讬 砖驻砖讟讜 讬讚讬讛诐 讘讝讘讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 诪讝讘讜诇 诇讜 讜讗讬谉 讝讘讜诇 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讘谞讛 讘谞讬转讬 讘讬转 讝讘讜诇 诇讱 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专讛 讞谞讛讛壮 讬讞转讜 诪专讬讘讬讜

Gehenna will terminate, but they still will not terminate, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd their form shall wear away the netherworld, so that there be no dwelling for Him鈥 (Psalms 49:15); that is to say, Gehenna itself will be worn away before their punishment has come to an end. And why are they punished so severely? Because they stretched out their hands against God鈥檚 dwelling, the Temple, and everything else that is sanctified, as it is stated: 鈥淪o that there be no dwelling [zevul] for Him.鈥 Dwelling [zevul] is referring here only to the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淚 have built You a house for dwelling [zevul] in鈥 (I Kings 8:13). And about them Hannah said: 鈥淭he adversaries of the Lord shall be broken in pieces鈥 (I Samuel 2:10).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜驻谞讬讛诐 讚讜诪讬谉 诇砖讜诇讬 拽讚讬专讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬谞讛讜 诪砖驻讬专讬 砖驻讬专讬 讘谞讬 诪讞讜讝讗 讜诪拽专讬讬谉 讘谞讬 讙讬讛谞诐

Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avin said: And their faces on the Day of Judgment will be black and sooty like the bottom of a pot. And Rava said: And they shall include the most handsome, i.e., upstanding, of the people of Me岣za, as Rava thought that even the most upstanding people of the city of Me岣za were wicked, and they shall be called the people of Gehenna.

讗诪专 诪专 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讜讛讻转讬讘 讜讛讘讗转讬 讗转 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讗砖 讛转诐 讘驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉

The Master said in the baraita above: It stated that Beit Hillel say: He Who is 鈥渁nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd I will bring the third part through the fire鈥 (Zechariah 13:9), implying that there is a third group, which is sent to Gehenna temporarily? The Gemara answers: There, the verse is referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies.

驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 诇讬转 诇讛讜 转拽谞转讗 讻讬 诇讬转 诇讛讜 转拽谞讛 讘专讜讘 注讜谞讜转 讛讻讗 诪讞爪讛 注讜谞讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讝讻讬讜转 讜讗讬转 讘讛讜 谞诪讬 注讜谉 讚驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 诇讗 住讙讬讗 诇讬讛 讚诇讗讜 讜讛讘讗转讬 讗转 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讗砖 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讜注诇讬讛谉 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讗讛讘转讬 讻讬 讬砖诪注 讛壮

The Gemara asks: Can the verse be referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies? But didn鈥檛 you say that they have no rectification? The Gemara responds: When do they have no rectification? When in addition to their having sinned with their bodies, the majority of their actions are sins. But here, the verse is referring to people for whom half of their actions are sins and half are meritorious deeds, and those sins include the sin of the rebellious Jews who sin with their bodies. It is not sufficient that they not be subject to the verse: 鈥淎nd I will bring the third part through the fire.鈥 However, if their sins and meritorious deeds are equally balanced, and they did not sin with their bodies, He Who is 鈥渁bundant in kindness鈥 tilts the scales in favor of kindness. And about them, David said: 鈥淚 love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications鈥 (Psalms 116:1).

讚专砖 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讛讘转讬 讻讬 讬砖诪注 讛壮 讗诪专讛 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗讬诪转讬 讗谞讬 讗讛讜讘讛 诇驻谞讬讱 讘讝诪谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注 拽讜诇 转讞谞讜谞讬 讚诇讜转讬 讜诇讬 讬讛讜砖讬注 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讚诇讛 讗谞讬 诪谉 讛诪爪讜转 诇讬 谞讗讛 诇讛讜砖讬注

Rava interpreted the verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚 love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications鈥? The Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, when do I know that I am loved by You? When You hear the voice of my supplications, as the verse states: 鈥淚 was brought low [daloti], and He saved me鈥 (Psalms 116:6). Although I am poor [dala] in mitzvot, nevertheless it is fitting to save me.

驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 拽专拽驻转讗 讚诇讗 诪谞讞 转驻诇讬谉 驻讜砖注讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘讙讜驻谉 讗诪专 专讘 讘注讘讬专讛

The Gemara asks: The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: This is referring to the skull that did not ever don phylacteries. The Gemara asks further: The rebellious ones of the nations of the world who sin with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: They are those who engage in the sin, i.e., forbidden sexual relations.

讜砖谞转谞讜 讞讬转讬转诐 讘讗专抓 讞讬讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讝讛 驻专谞住 讛诪讟讬诇 讗讬诪讛 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 砖诇讗 诇砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 驻专谞住 讛诪讟讬诇 讗讬诪讛 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 砖诇讗 诇砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讗讬谞讜 专讜讗讛 讘谉 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇讻谉 讬专讗讜讛讜 讗谞砖讬诐 诇讗 讬专讗讛 讻诇 讞讻诪讬 诇讘

And those who cast their fear over the land of the living, who are they? Rav 岣sda said: This is referring to a communal leader [parnas] who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Any community leader who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven will be punished and not see any Torah scholar among his sons, as it is stated: 鈥淢en do therefore fear him; he sees not any who are wise of heart鈥 (Job 37:24). One who brings others to fear him will not merit having wise-hearted people in his family.

讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻讜讘砖讜 砖谞讗诪专 讬砖讜讘 讬专讞诪谞讜 讬讻讘讜砖 注讜谞讜转讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 砖谞讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 讜注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注

搂 It was taught in the baraita: Beit Hillel say: He who is 鈥渁nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: How does He do this? Rabbi Eliezer says: He pushes down on the side of the merits, tipping the scale in their favor, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will again have compassion upon us; He will push down our iniquities鈥 (Micah 7:19). Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina said: He bears, i.e., raises, the side of the sins, as it is stated: 鈥淗e bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgression鈥 (Micah 7:18).

转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注讘讬专 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 讜讻谉 讛讬讗 讛诪讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜注讜谉 注爪诪讜 讗讬谞讜 谞诪讞拽 讚讗讬 讗讬讻讗 专讜讘讗 注讜谞讜转 诪讞砖讬讘 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜

A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in a baraita: He overlooks each and every first transgression, and that is the attribute of mercy, that God forgives one鈥檚 first sin, and therefore He tips the scale in favor of the merits. Rava said: But that sin itself, which God overlooks, is not completely erased; if the individual鈥檚 actions are still mostly sins, God counts the overlooked sin with them and metes out punishment accordingly.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讻诇 讛诪注讘讬专 注诇 诪讚讜转讬讜 诪注讘讬专讬谉 诇讜 注诇 讻诇 驻砖注讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 讜注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注 诇诪讬 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 诇诪讬 砖注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注

Rava understood this verse differently and said: With regard to whoever forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices done to him, the heavenly court in turn forgoes punishment for all his sins, as it is stated: 鈥淗e bears sin and forgives transgression鈥 (Micah 7:18). Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讞诇砖 注诇 专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖讬讜诇讬 讘讬讛 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讞诇讬砖 诇讬讛 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 爪讘讬转讜 诇讬讛 讝讜讜讚转讗 诇住讜祝 讗讬转驻讞 讛讜讛 诪讬讻住讬祝 专讘 驻驻讗 诇诪讬讞讝讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬谉 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诇讗 诪讜拽讬诐 讘诪讬诇讬讛 诇讗 转拽讜诪讜 讘讛讚讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 讜注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注 诇诪讬 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 诇注讜讘专 驻砖注

It is related that Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, became sick, and Rav Pappa went into his home to inquire about his well-being. He saw that the world was growing weak for Rav Huna, i.e., he was dying. Rav Pappa said to his attendants: Prepare his provisions [zavdata], i.e., his shrouds. In the end, Rav Huna recovered. Rav Pappa was embarrassed to go and see him, as it seemed as if he had decreed Rav Huna鈥檚 death. Rav Huna鈥檚 friends said to him: What did you see when you were lying there suspended between life and death? He said to them: Yes, it was so, I was truly close to dying, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the heavenly court: Since he does not stand on his rights, i.e., he is ready to waive what is due him, you too should not be exacting with him in his judgment, as it is stated: 鈥淗e bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgression.鈥 Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

诇砖讗专讬转 谞讞诇转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诇讬讛 讜拽讜抓 讘讛 诇砖讗专讬转 谞讞诇转讜 讜诇讗 诇讻诇 谞讞诇转讜

That same verse continues: 鈥淗e bears sins and forgives transgression for the remnant of His inheritance鈥 (Micah 7:18). Rav A岣 bar 岣nina said: This is like the fat tail that has a thorn in it, i.e., something good that contains something bad. God forgives and pardons only 鈥渇or the remnant of His inheritance,鈥 but not for all His inheritance.

诇诪讬 砖诪砖讬诐 注爪诪讜 讻砖讬专讬诐

That is to say, God forgives sins only for one who regards himself as a remainder, i.e., of only secondary importance.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 爪讚讬拽 讛壮 讘讻诇 讚专讻讬讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讞住讬讚 讘讻诇 诪注砖讬讜 讘转讞诇讛 爪讚讬拽 讜诇讘住讜祝 讞住讬讚

Rav Huna raised a contradiction between the two halves of a verse. It is written: 鈥淭he Lord is righteous [tzaddik] in all His ways鈥 (Psalms 145:17), indicating that God acts in accordance with the attribute of strict justice [tzedek], and then it is written in the same verse: 鈥淎nd kind [岣sid] in all His works,鈥 implying that He acts with grace and loving-kindness [岣sed], going beyond the letter of the law. Rav Huna explained: Initially, at the time of judgment, He is righteous, but in the end, at the time of punishment, He is gracious.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜诇讱 讛壮 讞住讚 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗转讛 转砖诇诐 诇讗讬砖 讻诪注砖讛讜 讘转讞诇讛 讻讬 讗转讛 转砖诇诐 讻诪注砖讛讜 讜诇讘住讜祝 讜诇讱 讛壮 讞住讚

Rabbi Elazar raised a similar contradiction: It is written: 鈥淏ut to you, O Lord, belongs kindness鈥 (Psalms 62:13), implying that God acts beyond the letter of the law, and then it is written in the same verse: 鈥淔or You render to a man according to his deeds,鈥 implying that He rewards and punishes measure for measure. Rabbi Elazar answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: 鈥淔or You render to a man according to his deeds鈥; but in the end, at the time of punishment: 鈥淏ut to You, O Lord, belongs kindness.鈥

讗讬诇驻讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讬诇驻讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜专讘 讞住讚 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗诪转 讘转讞诇讛 讜讗诪转 讜诇讘住讜祝 讜专讘 讞住讚

Ilfai, and some say it was the Sage Ilfa, also raised a contradiction: It is written in the list of God鈥檚 attributes: 鈥淎nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6), and it is written in the same verse: 鈥淎nd truth,鈥 which implies the attribute of justice. He answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: 鈥淎nd truth,鈥 i.e., God employs strict justice, but in the end, when He sees that the world cannot survive on judgment based only on truth and justice: 鈥淎nd abundant in kindness,鈥 i.e., He is merciful.

讜讬注讘讜专 讛壮 注诇 驻谞讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诇诪诇讗 诪拽专讗 讻转讜讘 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讗讜诪专讜 诪诇诪讚 砖谞转注讟祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讻砖诇讬讞 爪讘讜专 讜讛专讗讛 诇讜 诇诪砖讛 住讚专 转驻诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 讞讜讟讗讬谉 讬注砖讜 诇驻谞讬 讻住讚专 讛讝讛 讜讗谞讬 诪讜讞诇 诇讛诐

搂 The verse states: 鈥淎nd the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed鈥 (Exodus 34:6). Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Were it not explicitly written in the verse, it would be impossible to say this, as it would be insulting to God鈥檚 honor. The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wrapped Himself in a prayer shawl like a prayer leader and showed Moses the structure of the order of the prayer. He said to him: Whenever the Jewish people sin, let them act before Me in accordance with this order. Let the prayer leader wrap himself in a prayer shawl and publicly recite the thirteen attributes of mercy, and I will forgive them.

讛壮 讛壮 讗谞讬 讛讜讗 拽讜讚诐 砖讬讞讟讗 讛讗讚诐 讜讗谞讬 讛讜讗 诇讗讞专 砖讬讞讟讗 讛讗讚诐 讜讬注砖讛 转砖讜讘讛 讗诇 专讞讜诐 讜讞谞讜谉

The verse continues: 鈥淭he Lord, the Lord,鈥 and it should be understood as follows: I am He before a person sins, and I am He after a person sins and performs repentance, as God does not recall for him his first sins, since He is always 鈥淕od, merciful and gracious鈥 (Exodus 34:6).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬转 讻专讜转讛 诇砖诇砖 注砖专讛 诪讚讜转 砖讗讬谞谉 讞讜讝专讜转 专讬拽诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讗谞讻讬 讻讜专转 讘专讬转

Rav Yehuda said: A covenant was made with the thirteen attributes that they will not return empty-handed, meaning that if one mentions them, he will certainly be answered, as it is stated in this regard: 鈥淏ehold, I make a covenant鈥 (Exodus 34:10).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讙讚讜诇讛 转砖讜讘讛 砖诪拽专注转 讙讝专 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛砖诪谉 诇讘 讛注诐 讛讝讛 讜讗讝谞讬讜 讛讻讘讚 讜注讬谞讬讜 讛砖注 驻谉 讬专讗讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讜讘讗讝谞讬讜 讬砖诪注 讜诇讘讘讜 讬讘讬谉 讜砖讘 讜专驻讗 诇讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Great is repentance, for it tears up the sentence issued against a person, as it is stated: 鈥淢ake the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear over their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and they will return, and be healed鈥 (Isaiah 6:10), implying that if indeed they return and repent, they will be healed from all their sins.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诇驻谞讬 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜专驻讗 诇讜 讻转讬讘 讗讬讝讛讜 讚讘专 砖爪专讬讱 专驻讜讗讛 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讙讝专 讚讬谉

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But perhaps this was said before the sentence was issued, but after one鈥檚 sentence has been decreed repentance no longer helps. Abaye said to him: It is written here: 鈥淎nd they will return and be healed鈥 (Isaiah 6:10). What requires healing? An illness does. Consequently, you must say that the reference here is to a sentence that has already been issued, and even so, after repentance, they will be healed.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛砖讘 讘讬谞转讬诐 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 诇讗 砖讘 讘讬谞转讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讘讬讗 讻诇 讗讬诇讬 谞讘讬讜转 砖讘注讜诇诐 讗讬谉 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讗 讘爪讘讜专

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If one repents in the meantime, between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, he is forgiven; if he does not repent in the meantime, then even if he later brings as offerings all the rams of Nebaioth in the world, which are of the best quality, they do not forgive him in the Heavenly court. This implies that once one鈥檚 sentence has been decreed, even repentance cannot alter it. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: Here, where repentance is effective only before the sentence on Yom Kippur, the baraita is referring to repentance of an individual; there, where forgiveness is granted even after a sentence is issued, it is referring to communal repentance.

诪讬转讬讘讬 注讬谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘讛 注转讬诐 诇讟讜讘讛 注转讬诐 诇专注讛 注转讬诐 诇讟讜讘讛 讻讬爪讚 讛专讬 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜驻住拽讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 诇住讜祝 讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 诇讛讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 讗讬 讗驻砖专 砖讻讘专 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝专讛 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜专讬讚谉 讘讝诪谞谉 注诇 讛讗专抓 讛爪专讬讻讛 诇讛谉 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛讗专抓

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎 land which the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). God鈥檚 constant providence over Eretz Yisrael is sometimes for the good and sometimes for the bad. Sometimes for the good; how so? If the Jews were wholly wicked on Rosh HaShana, so that only a meager amount of rain was decreed for them for the year, but in the end they repented, what can be done? To add rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes those sparse rains to fall at the appropriate times on land that needs it, e.g., fields, vineyards, and gardens, all according to requirements of the land, and those rains are just as effective as a lot of rain.

注转讬诐 诇专注讛 讻讬爪讚 讛专讬 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜驻住拽讜 注诇讬讛谉 讙砖诪讬诐 诪专讜讘讬谉 诇住讜祝 讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 诇驻讞讜转 诪讛谉 讗讬 讗驻砖专 砖讻讘专 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝专讛 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜专讬讚谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞谉 注诇 讛讗专抓 砖讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讛谉

Sometimes for bad; how so? If the Jewish people were wholly righteous on Rosh HaShana, so that much rain was decreed for them for that year, but in the end they regressed and sinned, what can be done? To reduce the amount of rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes the rain to fall not at the appropriate time, and on land that does not need it, e.g., forests and deserts, and the ample rain is no more beneficial than meager rain.

诇讟讜讘讛 诪讬讛讗 诇讬拽专注讬讛 诇讙讝专 讚讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜诇讜住讬祝 诇讛讜 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讗驻砖专 讘讛讻讬

The Gemara asks: When it is for good, however, let Him tear up their sentence and add to the rain that had originally been decreed for them. Since the baraita explains that God does not do so, it implies that an evil sentence cannot be rescinded, even if the entire community fully repents. The Gemara answers: It is different there, because it is possible to achieve the same result in this manner, by causing the rain to fall at the proper time and in the proper place, without rescinding the original sentence.

转讗 砖诪注 讬讜专讚讬 讛讬诐 讘讗谞讬讜转 注讜砖讬 诪诇讗讻讛 讘诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 讛诪讛 专讗讜 诪注砖讬 讛壮 讜讙讜壮 讜讬讗诪专 讜讬注诪讚 专讜讞 住注专讛 讜转专讜诪诐 讙诇讬讜 讬讞讜讙讜 讜讬谞讜注讜 讻砖讻讜专 讜讙讜壮 讜讬爪注拽讜 讗诇 讛壮 讘爪专 诇讛诐 讜讙讜壮 讬讜讚讜 诇讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讙讜壮

Come and hear a proof from a different baraita: The psalm states: 鈥淭hey that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these saw the works of the Lord, and His wonders in the deep鈥 (Psalms 107:23鈥24). The psalm continues: 鈥淔or He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, which lifted up the waves thereof鈥hey reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wits鈥 end鈥 (Psalms 107:25鈥27). It continues further: 鈥淭hen they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distresses鈥 (Psalms 107:28). And finally, 鈥淟et them give thanks to the Lord for His mercy, and for His wonderful works to the children of men鈥 (Psalms 107:31).

注砖讛 诇讛谉 住讬诪谞讬讜转 讻讗讻讬谉 讜专拽讬谉 砖讘转讜专讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 爪注拽讜 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 谞注谞讬谉 爪注拽讜 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讗讬谞谉 谞注谞讬谉

Markers were inserted here before each one of verses 23 through 28. These markers, which are the letter nun inverted, are similar in meaning to the words but and only in the Torah, to tell us that just as the Torah鈥檚 words are precise and cannot be changed, so too, these people cannot have their sentence changed. This tells you that if they cried out before the sentence was issued, they are answered, but if they cried out only after the sentence was issued, they are not answered.

讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讻讬讞讬讚讬谉 讚诪讜

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, for those who go down to the sea in ships are also considered like individuals. Even if there are many such people, they do not constitute an entire community but only a small defined group within it.

转讗 砖诪注 砖讗诇讛 讘诇讜专讬讗 讛讙讬讜专转 讗转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讻转讬讘 讘转讜专转讻诐 讗砖专 诇讗 讬砖讗 驻谞讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讬砖讗 讛壮 驻谞讬讜 讗诇讬讱

The Gemara continues: Come and hear: Beloreya the convert once asked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah: 鈥淭he great, mighty, and awesome God who favors no one鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:17), and elsewhere it is written: 鈥淭he Lord shall show favor to you and give you peace鈥 (Numbers 6: 26). How can this contradiction be resolved?

谞讟驻诇 诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讻讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜拽讘注 诇讜 讝诪谉 讘驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讜谞砖讘注 诇讜 讘讞讬讬 讛诪诇讱 讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 讜诇讗 驻专注讜 讘讗 诇驻讬讬住 讗转 讛诪诇讱 讜讗诪专 诇讜 注诇讘讜谞讬 诪讞讜诇 诇讱 诇讱 讜驻讬讬住 讗转 讞讘讬专讱 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讗谉 讘注讘讬专讜转 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讻讗谉 讘注讘讬专讜转 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜

Rabbi Yosei the priest joined the conversation with her and said: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a person who lent his friend one hundred dinars and fixed a time for repayment of the loan before the king, and the borrower took an oath by the life of the king that he would repay the money. The time arrived, and he did not repay the loan. The delinquent borrower came to appease the king for not fulfilling the oath that he had sworn by the life of the king, and the king said to him: For my insult I forgive you, but you must still go and appease your friend. Here also the same is true: Here, the verse that states: 鈥淭he Lord shall show favor to you,鈥 is referring to sins committed between man and God, which God will forgive; there, the verse that states: 鈥淕od favors no one,鈥 is referring to sins committed between a person and another, which God will not forgive until the offender appeases the one he hurt.

注讚 砖讘讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诇讬诪讚

This is how the contradiction had at first been resolved, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught as follows:

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

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Rosh Hashanah 17

讜诪爪驻爪驻讬谉 讜注讜诇讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讘讗转讬 讗转 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讗砖 讜爪专驻转讬诐 讻爪专讜祝 讗转 讛讻住祝 讜讘讞谞转讬诐 讻讘讞讜谉 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讛讜讗 讬拽专讗 讘砖诪讬 讜讗谞讬 讗注谞讛 讗讜转讜 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专讛 讞谞讛 讛壮 诪诪讬转 讜诪讞讬讛 诪讜专讬讚 砖讗讜诇 讜讬注诇

and they will cry out in their pain and eventually ascend from there, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried; they shall call on My name, and I will answer them鈥 (Zechariah 13:9). This is referring to the members of the third group, who require refinement and cleansing. And about them, Hannah said: 鈥淭he Lord kills, and gives life; he brings down to the grave, and brings up鈥 (I Samuel 2:6).

讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讗讛讘转讬 讻讬 讬砖诪注 讛壮 讗转 拽讜诇讬 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 讚诇讜转讬 讜诇讬 讬讛讜砖讬注

Beit Hillel say: He Who is 鈥渁nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people should not have to pass through Gehenna. And about them, David said: 鈥淚 love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications鈥 (Psalms 116:1). And about them, David said the entire passage: 鈥淚 was brought low [daloti] and He saved me鈥 (Psalms 116:6). Although they are poor [dalim] in mitzvot, God saves them.

驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 讜驻讜砖注讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘讙讜驻谉 讬讜专讚讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐 讜谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 诇讗讞专 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讙讜驻谉 讻诇讛 讜谞砖诪转谉 谞砖专驻转 讜专讜讞 诪驻讝专转谉 转讞转 讻驻讜转 专讙诇讬 爪讚讬拽讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜注住讜转诐 专砖注讬诐 讻讬 讬讛讬讜 讗驻专 转讞转 讻驻讜转 专讙诇讬讻诐

The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies and also the rebellious people of the nations of the world who have sinned with their bodies descend to Gehenna and are judged there for twelve months. After twelve months, their bodies are consumed, their souls are burned, and a wind scatters them under the soles of the feet of the righteous, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet鈥 (Malachi 3:21).

讗讘诇 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讜讛诪住讜专讜转 讜讛讗驻讬拽讜专住讬诐 砖讻驻专讜 讘转讜专讛 讜砖讻驻专讜 讘转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 讜砖驻讬专砖讜 诪讚专讻讬 爪讘讜专 讜砖谞转谞讜 讞讬转讬转诐 讘讗专抓 讞讬讬诐 讜砖讞讟讗讜 讜讛讞讟讬讗讜 讗转 讛专讘讬诐 讻讙讜谉 讬专讘注诐 讘谉 谞讘讟 讜讞讘讬专讬讜 讬讜专讚讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐 讜谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘讛 诇讚讜专讬 讚讜专讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬爪讗讜 讜专讗讜 讘驻讙专讬 讛讗谞砖讬诐 讛驻讜砖注讬诐 讘讬 讜讙讜壮

But the heretics; and the informers; and the apostates [apikorsim]; and those who denied the Torah; and those who denied the resurrection of the dead; and those who separated from the ways of the Jewish community and refused to share the suffering; and those who cast their fear over the land of the living; and those who sinned and caused the masses to sin, for example, Jeroboam, son of Nebat, and his company; all of these people descend to Gehenna and are judged there for generations and generations, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die; neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh鈥 (Isaiah 66:24).

讙讬讛谞诐 讻诇讛 讜讛谉 讗讬谞谉 讻诇讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜爪讜专诐 诇讘诇讜转 砖讗讜诇 诪讝讘讜诇 诇讜 讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 诪驻谞讬 砖驻砖讟讜 讬讚讬讛诐 讘讝讘讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 诪讝讘讜诇 诇讜 讜讗讬谉 讝讘讜诇 讗诇讗 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讘谞讛 讘谞讬转讬 讘讬转 讝讘讜诇 诇讱 讜注诇讬讛诐 讗诪专讛 讞谞讛讛壮 讬讞转讜 诪专讬讘讬讜

Gehenna will terminate, but they still will not terminate, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd their form shall wear away the netherworld, so that there be no dwelling for Him鈥 (Psalms 49:15); that is to say, Gehenna itself will be worn away before their punishment has come to an end. And why are they punished so severely? Because they stretched out their hands against God鈥檚 dwelling, the Temple, and everything else that is sanctified, as it is stated: 鈥淪o that there be no dwelling [zevul] for Him.鈥 Dwelling [zevul] is referring here only to the Temple, as it is stated: 鈥淚 have built You a house for dwelling [zevul] in鈥 (I Kings 8:13). And about them Hannah said: 鈥淭he adversaries of the Lord shall be broken in pieces鈥 (I Samuel 2:10).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜驻谞讬讛诐 讚讜诪讬谉 诇砖讜诇讬 拽讚讬专讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬谞讛讜 诪砖驻讬专讬 砖驻讬专讬 讘谞讬 诪讞讜讝讗 讜诪拽专讬讬谉 讘谞讬 讙讬讛谞诐

Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avin said: And their faces on the Day of Judgment will be black and sooty like the bottom of a pot. And Rava said: And they shall include the most handsome, i.e., upstanding, of the people of Me岣za, as Rava thought that even the most upstanding people of the city of Me岣za were wicked, and they shall be called the people of Gehenna.

讗诪专 诪专 讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讜讛讻转讬讘 讜讛讘讗转讬 讗转 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讗砖 讛转诐 讘驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉

The Master said in the baraita above: It stated that Beit Hillel say: He Who is 鈥渁nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd I will bring the third part through the fire鈥 (Zechariah 13:9), implying that there is a third group, which is sent to Gehenna temporarily? The Gemara answers: There, the verse is referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies.

驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 诇讬转 诇讛讜 转拽谞转讗 讻讬 诇讬转 诇讛讜 转拽谞讛 讘专讜讘 注讜谞讜转 讛讻讗 诪讞爪讛 注讜谞讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讝讻讬讜转 讜讗讬转 讘讛讜 谞诪讬 注讜谉 讚驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 诇讗 住讙讬讗 诇讬讛 讚诇讗讜 讜讛讘讗转讬 讗转 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讘讗砖 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讜注诇讬讛谉 讗诪专 讚讜讚 讗讛讘转讬 讻讬 讬砖诪注 讛壮

The Gemara asks: Can the verse be referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies? But didn鈥檛 you say that they have no rectification? The Gemara responds: When do they have no rectification? When in addition to their having sinned with their bodies, the majority of their actions are sins. But here, the verse is referring to people for whom half of their actions are sins and half are meritorious deeds, and those sins include the sin of the rebellious Jews who sin with their bodies. It is not sufficient that they not be subject to the verse: 鈥淎nd I will bring the third part through the fire.鈥 However, if their sins and meritorious deeds are equally balanced, and they did not sin with their bodies, He Who is 鈥渁bundant in kindness鈥 tilts the scales in favor of kindness. And about them, David said: 鈥淚 love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications鈥 (Psalms 116:1).

讚专砖 专讘讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讛讘转讬 讻讬 讬砖诪注 讛壮 讗诪专讛 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讗讬诪转讬 讗谞讬 讗讛讜讘讛 诇驻谞讬讱 讘讝诪谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注 拽讜诇 转讞谞讜谞讬 讚诇讜转讬 讜诇讬 讬讛讜砖讬注 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讚诇讛 讗谞讬 诪谉 讛诪爪讜转 诇讬 谞讗讛 诇讛讜砖讬注

Rava interpreted the verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚 love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplications鈥? The Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, when do I know that I am loved by You? When You hear the voice of my supplications, as the verse states: 鈥淚 was brought low [daloti], and He saved me鈥 (Psalms 116:6). Although I am poor [dala] in mitzvot, nevertheless it is fitting to save me.

驻讜砖注讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘讙讜驻谉 诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 拽专拽驻转讗 讚诇讗 诪谞讞 转驻诇讬谉 驻讜砖注讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘讙讜驻谉 讗诪专 专讘 讘注讘讬专讛

The Gemara asks: The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: This is referring to the skull that did not ever don phylacteries. The Gemara asks further: The rebellious ones of the nations of the world who sin with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: They are those who engage in the sin, i.e., forbidden sexual relations.

讜砖谞转谞讜 讞讬转讬转诐 讘讗专抓 讞讬讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讝讛 驻专谞住 讛诪讟讬诇 讗讬诪讛 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 砖诇讗 诇砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 驻专谞住 讛诪讟讬诇 讗讬诪讛 讬转讬专讛 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 砖诇讗 诇砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讗讬谞讜 专讜讗讛 讘谉 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇讻谉 讬专讗讜讛讜 讗谞砖讬诐 诇讗 讬专讗讛 讻诇 讞讻诪讬 诇讘

And those who cast their fear over the land of the living, who are they? Rav 岣sda said: This is referring to a communal leader [parnas] who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Any community leader who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven will be punished and not see any Torah scholar among his sons, as it is stated: 鈥淢en do therefore fear him; he sees not any who are wise of heart鈥 (Job 37:24). One who brings others to fear him will not merit having wise-hearted people in his family.

讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讜专讘 讞住讚 诪讟讛 讻诇驻讬 讞住讚 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讻讜讘砖讜 砖谞讗诪专 讬砖讜讘 讬专讞诪谞讜 讬讻讘讜砖 注讜谞讜转讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 砖谞讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 讜注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注

搂 It was taught in the baraita: Beit Hillel say: He who is 鈥渁nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: How does He do this? Rabbi Eliezer says: He pushes down on the side of the merits, tipping the scale in their favor, as it is stated: 鈥淗e will again have compassion upon us; He will push down our iniquities鈥 (Micah 7:19). Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina said: He bears, i.e., raises, the side of the sins, as it is stated: 鈥淗e bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgression鈥 (Micah 7:18).

转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪注讘讬专 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 讜讻谉 讛讬讗 讛诪讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜注讜谉 注爪诪讜 讗讬谞讜 谞诪讞拽 讚讗讬 讗讬讻讗 专讜讘讗 注讜谞讜转 诪讞砖讬讘 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜

A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in a baraita: He overlooks each and every first transgression, and that is the attribute of mercy, that God forgives one鈥檚 first sin, and therefore He tips the scale in favor of the merits. Rava said: But that sin itself, which God overlooks, is not completely erased; if the individual鈥檚 actions are still mostly sins, God counts the overlooked sin with them and metes out punishment accordingly.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讻诇 讛诪注讘讬专 注诇 诪讚讜转讬讜 诪注讘讬专讬谉 诇讜 注诇 讻诇 驻砖注讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 讜注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注 诇诪讬 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 诇诪讬 砖注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注

Rava understood this verse differently and said: With regard to whoever forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices done to him, the heavenly court in turn forgoes punishment for all his sins, as it is stated: 鈥淗e bears sin and forgives transgression鈥 (Micah 7:18). Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讞诇砖 注诇 专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖讬讜诇讬 讘讬讛 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讞诇讬砖 诇讬讛 注诇诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 爪讘讬转讜 诇讬讛 讝讜讜讚转讗 诇住讜祝 讗讬转驻讞 讛讜讛 诪讬讻住讬祝 专讘 驻驻讗 诇诪讬讞讝讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬谉 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诇讗 诪讜拽讬诐 讘诪讬诇讬讛 诇讗 转拽讜诪讜 讘讛讚讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 讜注讜讘专 注诇 驻砖注 诇诪讬 谞讜砖讗 注讜谉 诇注讜讘专 驻砖注

It is related that Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, became sick, and Rav Pappa went into his home to inquire about his well-being. He saw that the world was growing weak for Rav Huna, i.e., he was dying. Rav Pappa said to his attendants: Prepare his provisions [zavdata], i.e., his shrouds. In the end, Rav Huna recovered. Rav Pappa was embarrassed to go and see him, as it seemed as if he had decreed Rav Huna鈥檚 death. Rav Huna鈥檚 friends said to him: What did you see when you were lying there suspended between life and death? He said to them: Yes, it was so, I was truly close to dying, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the heavenly court: Since he does not stand on his rights, i.e., he is ready to waive what is due him, you too should not be exacting with him in his judgment, as it is stated: 鈥淗e bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgression.鈥 Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

诇砖讗专讬转 谞讞诇转讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诇讬讛 讜拽讜抓 讘讛 诇砖讗专讬转 谞讞诇转讜 讜诇讗 诇讻诇 谞讞诇转讜

That same verse continues: 鈥淗e bears sins and forgives transgression for the remnant of His inheritance鈥 (Micah 7:18). Rav A岣 bar 岣nina said: This is like the fat tail that has a thorn in it, i.e., something good that contains something bad. God forgives and pardons only 鈥渇or the remnant of His inheritance,鈥 but not for all His inheritance.

诇诪讬 砖诪砖讬诐 注爪诪讜 讻砖讬专讬诐

That is to say, God forgives sins only for one who regards himself as a remainder, i.e., of only secondary importance.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 爪讚讬拽 讛壮 讘讻诇 讚专讻讬讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讞住讬讚 讘讻诇 诪注砖讬讜 讘转讞诇讛 爪讚讬拽 讜诇讘住讜祝 讞住讬讚

Rav Huna raised a contradiction between the two halves of a verse. It is written: 鈥淭he Lord is righteous [tzaddik] in all His ways鈥 (Psalms 145:17), indicating that God acts in accordance with the attribute of strict justice [tzedek], and then it is written in the same verse: 鈥淎nd kind [岣sid] in all His works,鈥 implying that He acts with grace and loving-kindness [岣sed], going beyond the letter of the law. Rav Huna explained: Initially, at the time of judgment, He is righteous, but in the end, at the time of punishment, He is gracious.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜诇讱 讛壮 讞住讚 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗转讛 转砖诇诐 诇讗讬砖 讻诪注砖讛讜 讘转讞诇讛 讻讬 讗转讛 转砖诇诐 讻诪注砖讛讜 讜诇讘住讜祝 讜诇讱 讛壮 讞住讚

Rabbi Elazar raised a similar contradiction: It is written: 鈥淏ut to you, O Lord, belongs kindness鈥 (Psalms 62:13), implying that God acts beyond the letter of the law, and then it is written in the same verse: 鈥淔or You render to a man according to his deeds,鈥 implying that He rewards and punishes measure for measure. Rabbi Elazar answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: 鈥淔or You render to a man according to his deeds鈥; but in the end, at the time of punishment: 鈥淏ut to You, O Lord, belongs kindness.鈥

讗讬诇驻讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗讬诇驻讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜专讘 讞住讚 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗诪转 讘转讞诇讛 讜讗诪转 讜诇讘住讜祝 讜专讘 讞住讚

Ilfai, and some say it was the Sage Ilfa, also raised a contradiction: It is written in the list of God鈥檚 attributes: 鈥淎nd abundant in kindness鈥 (Exodus 34:6), and it is written in the same verse: 鈥淎nd truth,鈥 which implies the attribute of justice. He answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: 鈥淎nd truth,鈥 i.e., God employs strict justice, but in the end, when He sees that the world cannot survive on judgment based only on truth and justice: 鈥淎nd abundant in kindness,鈥 i.e., He is merciful.

讜讬注讘讜专 讛壮 注诇 驻谞讬讜 讜讬拽专讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诇诪诇讗 诪拽专讗 讻转讜讘 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讗讜诪专讜 诪诇诪讚 砖谞转注讟祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讻砖诇讬讞 爪讘讜专 讜讛专讗讛 诇讜 诇诪砖讛 住讚专 转驻诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 讞讜讟讗讬谉 讬注砖讜 诇驻谞讬 讻住讚专 讛讝讛 讜讗谞讬 诪讜讞诇 诇讛诐

搂 The verse states: 鈥淎nd the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed鈥 (Exodus 34:6). Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Were it not explicitly written in the verse, it would be impossible to say this, as it would be insulting to God鈥檚 honor. The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wrapped Himself in a prayer shawl like a prayer leader and showed Moses the structure of the order of the prayer. He said to him: Whenever the Jewish people sin, let them act before Me in accordance with this order. Let the prayer leader wrap himself in a prayer shawl and publicly recite the thirteen attributes of mercy, and I will forgive them.

讛壮 讛壮 讗谞讬 讛讜讗 拽讜讚诐 砖讬讞讟讗 讛讗讚诐 讜讗谞讬 讛讜讗 诇讗讞专 砖讬讞讟讗 讛讗讚诐 讜讬注砖讛 转砖讜讘讛 讗诇 专讞讜诐 讜讞谞讜谉

The verse continues: 鈥淭he Lord, the Lord,鈥 and it should be understood as follows: I am He before a person sins, and I am He after a person sins and performs repentance, as God does not recall for him his first sins, since He is always 鈥淕od, merciful and gracious鈥 (Exodus 34:6).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬转 讻专讜转讛 诇砖诇砖 注砖专讛 诪讚讜转 砖讗讬谞谉 讞讜讝专讜转 专讬拽诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讗谞讻讬 讻讜专转 讘专讬转

Rav Yehuda said: A covenant was made with the thirteen attributes that they will not return empty-handed, meaning that if one mentions them, he will certainly be answered, as it is stated in this regard: 鈥淏ehold, I make a covenant鈥 (Exodus 34:10).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讙讚讜诇讛 转砖讜讘讛 砖诪拽专注转 讙讝专 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛砖诪谉 诇讘 讛注诐 讛讝讛 讜讗讝谞讬讜 讛讻讘讚 讜注讬谞讬讜 讛砖注 驻谉 讬专讗讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 讜讘讗讝谞讬讜 讬砖诪注 讜诇讘讘讜 讬讘讬谉 讜砖讘 讜专驻讗 诇讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Great is repentance, for it tears up the sentence issued against a person, as it is stated: 鈥淢ake the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear over their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and they will return, and be healed鈥 (Isaiah 6:10), implying that if indeed they return and repent, they will be healed from all their sins.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讜讚诇诪讗 诇驻谞讬 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜专驻讗 诇讜 讻转讬讘 讗讬讝讛讜 讚讘专 砖爪专讬讱 专驻讜讗讛 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讙讝专 讚讬谉

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But perhaps this was said before the sentence was issued, but after one鈥檚 sentence has been decreed repentance no longer helps. Abaye said to him: It is written here: 鈥淎nd they will return and be healed鈥 (Isaiah 6:10). What requires healing? An illness does. Consequently, you must say that the reference here is to a sentence that has already been issued, and even so, after repentance, they will be healed.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛砖讘 讘讬谞转讬诐 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 诇讗 砖讘 讘讬谞转讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讛讘讬讗 讻诇 讗讬诇讬 谞讘讬讜转 砖讘注讜诇诐 讗讬谉 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讗 讘爪讘讜专

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If one repents in the meantime, between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, he is forgiven; if he does not repent in the meantime, then even if he later brings as offerings all the rams of Nebaioth in the world, which are of the best quality, they do not forgive him in the Heavenly court. This implies that once one鈥檚 sentence has been decreed, even repentance cannot alter it. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: Here, where repentance is effective only before the sentence on Yom Kippur, the baraita is referring to repentance of an individual; there, where forgiveness is granted even after a sentence is issued, it is referring to communal repentance.

诪讬转讬讘讬 注讬谞讬 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 讘讛 注转讬诐 诇讟讜讘讛 注转讬诐 诇专注讛 注转讬诐 诇讟讜讘讛 讻讬爪讚 讛专讬 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜驻住拽讜 诇讛诐 讙砖诪讬诐 诪讜注讟讬诐 诇住讜祝 讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 诇讛讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 讗讬 讗驻砖专 砖讻讘专 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝专讛 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜专讬讚谉 讘讝诪谞谉 注诇 讛讗专抓 讛爪专讬讻讛 诇讛谉 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛讗专抓

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎 land which the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). God鈥檚 constant providence over Eretz Yisrael is sometimes for the good and sometimes for the bad. Sometimes for the good; how so? If the Jews were wholly wicked on Rosh HaShana, so that only a meager amount of rain was decreed for them for the year, but in the end they repented, what can be done? To add rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes those sparse rains to fall at the appropriate times on land that needs it, e.g., fields, vineyards, and gardens, all according to requirements of the land, and those rains are just as effective as a lot of rain.

注转讬诐 诇专注讛 讻讬爪讚 讛专讬 砖讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜驻住拽讜 注诇讬讛谉 讙砖诪讬诐 诪专讜讘讬谉 诇住讜祝 讞讝专讜 讘讛谉 诇驻讞讜转 诪讛谉 讗讬 讗驻砖专 砖讻讘专 谞讙讝专讛 讙讝专讛 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜专讬讚谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞谉 注诇 讛讗专抓 砖讗讬谞讛 爪专讬讻讛 诇讛谉

Sometimes for bad; how so? If the Jewish people were wholly righteous on Rosh HaShana, so that much rain was decreed for them for that year, but in the end they regressed and sinned, what can be done? To reduce the amount of rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes the rain to fall not at the appropriate time, and on land that does not need it, e.g., forests and deserts, and the ample rain is no more beneficial than meager rain.

诇讟讜讘讛 诪讬讛讗 诇讬拽专注讬讛 诇讙讝专 讚讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜诇讜住讬祝 诇讛讜 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讗驻砖专 讘讛讻讬

The Gemara asks: When it is for good, however, let Him tear up their sentence and add to the rain that had originally been decreed for them. Since the baraita explains that God does not do so, it implies that an evil sentence cannot be rescinded, even if the entire community fully repents. The Gemara answers: It is different there, because it is possible to achieve the same result in this manner, by causing the rain to fall at the proper time and in the proper place, without rescinding the original sentence.

转讗 砖诪注 讬讜专讚讬 讛讬诐 讘讗谞讬讜转 注讜砖讬 诪诇讗讻讛 讘诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 讛诪讛 专讗讜 诪注砖讬 讛壮 讜讙讜壮 讜讬讗诪专 讜讬注诪讚 专讜讞 住注专讛 讜转专讜诪诐 讙诇讬讜 讬讞讜讙讜 讜讬谞讜注讜 讻砖讻讜专 讜讙讜壮 讜讬爪注拽讜 讗诇 讛壮 讘爪专 诇讛诐 讜讙讜壮 讬讜讚讜 诇讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讙讜壮

Come and hear a proof from a different baraita: The psalm states: 鈥淭hey that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these saw the works of the Lord, and His wonders in the deep鈥 (Psalms 107:23鈥24). The psalm continues: 鈥淔or He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, which lifted up the waves thereof鈥hey reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wits鈥 end鈥 (Psalms 107:25鈥27). It continues further: 鈥淭hen they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distresses鈥 (Psalms 107:28). And finally, 鈥淟et them give thanks to the Lord for His mercy, and for His wonderful works to the children of men鈥 (Psalms 107:31).

注砖讛 诇讛谉 住讬诪谞讬讜转 讻讗讻讬谉 讜专拽讬谉 砖讘转讜专讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 爪注拽讜 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 谞注谞讬谉 爪注拽讜 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讗讬谞谉 谞注谞讬谉

Markers were inserted here before each one of verses 23 through 28. These markers, which are the letter nun inverted, are similar in meaning to the words but and only in the Torah, to tell us that just as the Torah鈥檚 words are precise and cannot be changed, so too, these people cannot have their sentence changed. This tells you that if they cried out before the sentence was issued, they are answered, but if they cried out only after the sentence was issued, they are not answered.

讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讻讬讞讬讚讬谉 讚诪讜

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, for those who go down to the sea in ships are also considered like individuals. Even if there are many such people, they do not constitute an entire community but only a small defined group within it.

转讗 砖诪注 砖讗诇讛 讘诇讜专讬讗 讛讙讬讜专转 讗转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讻转讬讘 讘转讜专转讻诐 讗砖专 诇讗 讬砖讗 驻谞讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讬砖讗 讛壮 驻谞讬讜 讗诇讬讱

The Gemara continues: Come and hear: Beloreya the convert once asked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah: 鈥淭he great, mighty, and awesome God who favors no one鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:17), and elsewhere it is written: 鈥淭he Lord shall show favor to you and give you peace鈥 (Numbers 6: 26). How can this contradiction be resolved?

谞讟驻诇 诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讻讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖谞讜砖讛 讘讞讘讬专讜 诪谞讛 讜拽讘注 诇讜 讝诪谉 讘驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讜谞砖讘注 诇讜 讘讞讬讬 讛诪诇讱 讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 讜诇讗 驻专注讜 讘讗 诇驻讬讬住 讗转 讛诪诇讱 讜讗诪专 诇讜 注诇讘讜谞讬 诪讞讜诇 诇讱 诇讱 讜驻讬讬住 讗转 讞讘讬专讱 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讗谉 讘注讘讬专讜转 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讻讗谉 讘注讘讬专讜转 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜

Rabbi Yosei the priest joined the conversation with her and said: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a person who lent his friend one hundred dinars and fixed a time for repayment of the loan before the king, and the borrower took an oath by the life of the king that he would repay the money. The time arrived, and he did not repay the loan. The delinquent borrower came to appease the king for not fulfilling the oath that he had sworn by the life of the king, and the king said to him: For my insult I forgive you, but you must still go and appease your friend. Here also the same is true: Here, the verse that states: 鈥淭he Lord shall show favor to you,鈥 is referring to sins committed between man and God, which God will forgive; there, the verse that states: 鈥淕od favors no one,鈥 is referring to sins committed between a person and another, which God will not forgive until the offender appeases the one he hurt.

注讚 砖讘讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诇讬诪讚

This is how the contradiction had at first been resolved, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught as follows:

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