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Today's Daf Yomi

May 28, 2014 | 讻状讞 讘讗讬讬专 转砖注状讚

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 20

Study Guide Rosh Hashanah 20


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讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 诇注讜诇诐 讞住专 讗诪讗讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

But if you say that the Adar immediately preceding Nisan is always short, why should they desecrate Shabbat? The court can calculate the time of the New Moon without witnesses. The Gemara answers: Because it is a mitzva to sanctify the New Moon on the basis of the testimony of witnesses who actually saw the new moon and not rely on calculations or established practices.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗祝 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 转谞讬谞讗 注诇 砖谞讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 讗讬 讗诪专转 讘砖诇诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讞住专 诪砖讜诐 讛讻讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

Some say that Rav Na岣an said: We, too, learn in a mishna: Witnesses who saw the new moon may desecrate Shabbat to establish the New Moon for two months, for the month of Nisan and for the month of Tishrei. Granted, if you say that the Adar immediately preceding Nisan is always short, due to that reason the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat, because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month on the basis of the testimony of witnesses who actually saw the new moon.

讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 讝诪谞讬谉 诪诇讗 讝诪谞讬谉 讞住专 讗诪讗讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 谞注讘专讬讛 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讜谞拽讚砖讬讛 诇诪讞专

But if you say that the Adar immediately preceding Nisan is sometimes full and sometimes short, and there is no regularity to it, why should the witnesses desecrate Shabbat? Have the court add an extra day to the month now, since it can decide whether the thirtieth day or the thirty-first day is the beginning of the new month, and let the members of the court sanctify the next day as the New Moon.

讗讬 讚讗拽诇注 讬讜诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讘砖讘转 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讚讗拽诇注 讬讜诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

The Gemara rejects this argument: If the thirtieth of Adar falls on Shabbat, this is indeed what is done. The witnesses are not permitted to desecrate Shabbat. Rather, the month is made full and the next day is sanctified as the New Moon. Here we are dealing with a case where the thirty-first of Adar falls on Shabbat, and so the sanctification of the New Moon cannot be pushed off to the next day, as a month cannot be longer than thirty days. In that case, the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month based on testimony of witnesses who actually saw the new moon.

诪转讬讘 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻砖讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛拽专讘谉

Rav Kahana raised an objection from the continuation of the mishna, which teaches: When the Temple was standing, the witnesses would desecrate Shabbat for establishing the New Moon even for all the months, in order to rectify the offering of the New Moon, i.e., ensure that it is at the proper time.

诪讚讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛 谞讬住谉 讜转砖专讬 谞诪讬 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

From the fact that the reason that the witnesses are permitted to desecrate Shabbat for all the other months is not because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month based on testimony of witnesses who saw the new moon, the implication is that with regard to Nisan and Tishrei as well, the witnesses are permitted to desecrate Shabbat for another reason and not because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month based on the testimony of witnesses who saw the new moon.

讗讬 讗诪专转 讘砖诇诪讗 讝诪谞讬谉 诪诇讗 讜讝诪谞讬谉 讞住专 诪砖讜诐 讛讻讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 诇注讜诇诐 讞住专 讗诪讗讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 转讬讜讘转讗

Granted, if you say that Adar is sometimes full and sometimes short, due to that reason the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat. But if you say that Adar is always short, why should they desecrate Shabbat? The court knows in advance when will be the New Moon of Nisan. The Gemara concludes: This is indeed a conclusive refutation to the proof brought by Rav Na岣an.

讻讬 讗转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 注讘专讜讛 诇讗诇讜诇 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讬讚注讬 讞讘专讬谉 讘讘诇讗讬 诪讗讬 讟讬讘讜转讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜

搂 It is related that when Ulla came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: This year they added an extra day to the month of Elul. Ulla continued and said: Do our Babylonian colleagues understand what benefit we did for them? We pushed off Rosh HaShana for a day, so that the Festival would not occur adjacent to Shabbat.

诪讗讬 讟讬讘讜转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗

The Gemara asks: What is the benefit in having a weekday between Shabbat and a Festival? Ulla said: Due to the vegetables that would not be picked for two days and those picked beforehand that would no longer be fresh. Rabbi A岣 bar 岣nina said: Due to the dead who would not be buried for two days and consequently would begin to decompose.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 诪注讘专讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 诇讗讬诪转 拽讗 讘注讬 诇讛讜 诇讗讜专转讗 诇讗讜专转讗 讟专讞 讜诪讬讬转讬

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two concerns? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is in the case where Yom Kippur occurs directly after Shabbat. According to the one who said that the reason is due to the dead that would go unburied for two days, the court adds an extra day to Elul so that Yom Kippur will not occur on Sunday. But according to the one who said that the reason is due to the vegetables that would not be fresh, there is no need to add an extra day to Elul. When would he require the vegetables? Only in the evening following Yom Kippur; and if Yom Kippur falls on Sunday, he can go out in the evening after the fast and bring fresh vegetables.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 诇注讘专讬讛 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 讗诇讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讛住诪讜讱 诇砖讘转 讘讬谉 诪诇驻谞讬讛 讘讬谉 诪诇讗讞专讬讛 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 诪注讘专讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 讗驻砖专 讘注诪诪讬

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who says that the reason is due to vegetables, the court should still make Elul full due to the dead, as this is also an important consideration. Rather, the practical difference between them is with regard to the case where the Festival of Rosh HaShana occurs adjacent to Shabbat, either before it or after it. According to the one who said that the reason is due to the vegetables that would wither, the court adds an extra day to Elul. But according to the one who said that the reason is due to the dead that would go unburied, there is no reason to make Elul full, because on a Festival it is possible to arrange that the dead be buried by gentiles.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 诇注讘专讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 讗驻砖专 讘讞诪讬诪讬

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who said that the reason is due to the dead, the court should still add an extra day to Elul due to the vegetables. The Gemara answers: According to him this is not an important consideration, because it is possible to soak the withered vegetables in hot water and thereby restore their freshness.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诇讚讬讚谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讚讬讚讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讚讬讚谉 讞讘讬诇 诇谉 注诇诪讗 诇讚讬讚讛讜 诇讗 讞讘讬诇 诇讛讜 注诇诪讗

The Gemara asks: If so, what is different about those who live in Babylonia and those who live in Eretz Yisrael? Why did Ulla specifically say that adding an extra day to Elul was beneficial to us, in Babylonia; it was beneficial to them as well. The Gemara answers: For us in Babylonia the weather is very hot, and so vegetables wither and corpses decompose quickly. But for them in Eretz Yisrael, the weather is not as hot, and vegetables and corpses can be kept for two days.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬 专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪注讘专讬谉 讗转 讛砖谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讻讱 诪注讘专讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖 诇爪讜专讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 专讗砖 讞讚砖讬诐 讻讝讛 专讗讛 讜拽讚砖

搂 It was taught above that for various reasons a month can have an extra day added, even if the new moon was seen on the night before the thirtieth. The Gemara challenges this assumption: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabba bar Shmuel teach in a baraita: One might have thought that just as the court adds an extra month to a year for some pressing communal need, so too, the court adds an extra day to a month for some similar need. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淭his month shall be to you the beginning of months鈥 (Exodus 12:2). This teaches that when there is a moon like this, see it and sanctify the month. When the new moon is seen, the month must be sanctified without delay.

讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇注讘专讜 讻讗谉 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪注讘专讬谉 讗转 讛砖谞讛 讜讗转 讛讞讚砖 诇爪讜专讱 讻讱 诪拽讚砖讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖 诇爪讜专讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 讻讝讛 专讗讛 讜拽讚砖

Rava said: This is not difficult: Here it is speaking of adding an extra day to the month, although the new moon was seen on the thirtieth, which is permitted; whereas there it is speaking of sanctifying the month on the thirtieth, although the new moon was not yet seen, which is prohibited. And this is what the baraita is saying: One might have thought that just the court adds to a year or a month for some pressing communal need, so too, a month can be sanctified early on the thirtieth even without seeing the new moon. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淭his month shall be to you the beginning of months,鈥 which teaches: Only when the moon appears like this, see it and sanctify the month, but not before.

讜讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇注讘专讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜

The Gemara comments that this is like that which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The court may intimidate witnesses through rigorous and confusing examination, so that they will give inadmissible testimony about the new moon that was seen at its due time, the thirtieth of the month. This is so that the court can add an extra day to it, and the New Moon will be sanctified on the thirty-first day. But the court may not intimidate witnesses into giving testimony about the new moon that was not seen on its due time, in order that to sanctify the New Moon early, on the thirtieth.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 诇专讘讬 讗诪讬 讛讜讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 砖讻诇 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讬讛 诪诇诪讚谞讜 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 专讗讜讛讜 讬讗诪专讜 专讗讬谞讜

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehuda Nesia, who was the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, send a message to Rabbi Ami: Be aware that all the days of Rabbi Yo岣nan he would teach us that witnesses may be intimidated into giving testimony about the new moon that was not seen in its due time. This was done in order that the new month may be sanctified early, already on the thirtieth. Although the witnesses did not see the moon, they may say: We saw it.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘谞讬住谉 讜转砖专讬 讛讗 讘砖讗专 讬专讞讬

Abaye said: This is not difficult: This ruling is referring to Nisan and Tishrei, which may be sanctified early in order to set the Festivals that occur in those months; that ruling is referring to the other months, which may not be sanctified early, even for some other pressing need.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 讚转谞讬 专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讞专讬诐 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 注爪专转 诇注爪专转 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗诇讗 讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讘讚 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讞诪砖讛

Rava said: That which Rabba bar Shmuel taught, that the court may not lengthen or shorten the months for reason of communal need, follows the opinion of A岣rim, as it is taught in a baraita: A岣rim say: The difference between the festival of Shavuot of one year and the festival of Shavuot of the following year, and similarly, between Rosh HaShana of one year and Rosh HaShana of the following year, is only four days of the week. There are 354 days in a lunar year, which are divided into twelve alternating months, six months that are thirty days long and six months that are twenty-nine days long. Therefore, every year is fifty weeks and four days long. And if it was a leap year, in which case the year is comprised of 383 days, or fifty-four weeks and five days, there is a difference of five days between them.

专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 诪转谞讬 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇注讘专讜

Rav Dimi from Neharde鈥檃 taught the baraita in the opposite manner: The court may intimidate the witnesses into giving testimony about the new moon that was not seen in its due time in order that the new month may be sanctified early, already on the thirtieth. But the court may not intimidate witnesses so that they do not give acceptable testimony about the new moon that was seen in its due time, in order to add an extra day to the old month, so that the New Moon is sanctified on the thirty-first.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for Rav Dimi鈥檚 opinion? Intimidating witnesses into testifying about something that they did not see is worse than intimidating them to withhold testimony about something that they did see.

讛讗讬 诪讬讞讝讬 讻砖拽专讗 讛讗讬 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻砖拽专讗

In this case, where the witnesses withhold testimony about what they saw and the New Moon is pushed off to the next day, it looks like a lie, as the moon might have been seen by others as well, and people will wonder why the New Moon was not sanctified the previous day. In that case, where the witnesses testify about something that they did not see and the New Moon is a day early, it does not look like a lie, as everybody knows that it is possible that only a few people saw the new moon.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讻讬诇谞讗 诇转拽讜谞讬 诇讻讜诇讛 讙讜诇讛

Shmuel said: I am able to fix the calendar for the entire Diaspora without witnesses. Shmuel was an expert on the movement of the celestial bodies and on the principles governing leap years and additional days added to months.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讗 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讬讚注 诪专 讛讗讬 诪讬诇转讗 讚转谞讬讗 讘住讜讚 讛注讬讘讜专 谞讜诇讚 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讗讜 谞讜诇讚 讗讞专 讞爪讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讚讛讗 诇讗 讬讚注 诪专 讗讬讻讗 诪讬诇讬 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注 诪专

Abba, the father of Rabbi Simlai, said to Shmuel: Does the Master know the meaning of this statement, as it is taught in a baraita dealing with the secret of addition, which discusses calendric calculations: Differentiate between when the molad occurred before midday and when the molad occurred after midday? He said to him: No, I do not know what this means. He said to him: Since the Master does not know this, there are probably other matters that the Master does not know, and therefore you must not establish a calendar, relying upon calculations that were made based on faulty or insufficient knowledge.

讻讬 住诇讬拽 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 砖诇讞 诇讛讜 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 诇讬诇讛 讜讬讜诐 诪谉 讛讞讚砖

As for the meaning of this obscure baraita, when Rabbi Zeira went up from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael, he sent back a letter to his colleagues in Babylonia: In order for a day to be sanctified as the New Moon, it is necessary that both the night and the day be of the new month. That is to say, the molad must occur before the beginning of the night.

讜讝讜 砖讗诪专 讗讘讗 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 诪讞砖讘讬谉 讗转 转讜诇讚转讜 谞讜诇讚 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讘讬讚讜注 砖谞专讗讛 住诪讜讱 诇砖拽讬注转 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 谞讜诇讚 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讘讬讚讜注 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 住诪讜讱 诇砖拽讬注转 讛讞诪讛

And this is what Abba, the father of Rabbi Simlai, said: The baraita means as follows: They calculate the molad; if the molad occurred before midday, so that there are at least six more hours left of the day, it is known that the moon will be visible close to sunset. If, however, the molad did not occur before midday, so that there are fewer than six hours left of the day, it is known that the moon will not be visible close to sunset.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讗讻讞讜砖讬 住讛讚讬

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that this statement makes? In any case, the court is dependent upon the testimony of witnesses. Rav Ashi said: This information is used to refute the witnesses, as if the witnesses claim that they saw the new moon at a time when it was not visible according to the calculations, they are clearly false witnesses.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 砖注讬 诪讻住讬 住讬讛专讗 诇讚讬讚谉 砖讬转 诪注转讬拽讗 讜转诪谞讬 住专讬 诪讞讚转讗 诇讚讬讚讛讜 砖讬转 诪讞讚转讗 讜转诪谞讬 住专讬 诪注转讬拽讗

Rabbi Zeira said that Rav Na岣an said: For twenty-four hours the moon is covered, i.e., not visible. This occurs between the last sighting of the old moon and the first sighting of the new moon. For us, in Babylonia, it is not visible for six hours of the old moon and eighteen hours of the new; for them, in Eretz Yisrael, it is not visible for six hours of the new moon and eighteen hours of the old.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讗讻讞讜砖讬 住讛讚讬

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that this statement makes? Rav Ashi said: It is used to refute the witnesses, as if they testify that they saw two moons, the old and the new, within a single twenty-four hour period, they are certainly false witnesses.

讗诪专 诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 诇讬诇讛 讜讬讜诐 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 诪谞诇谉 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诪注专讘 注讚 注专讘

The Master said above: In order for a day to be sanctified as the New Moon, it is necessary that both the night and the day be of the new moon. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The verse states: 鈥淔rom evening to evening shall you celebrate your Shabbat鈥 (Leviticus 23:32). This teaches that the day follows the night for all the calculations pertaining to the Festivals and New Moons.

专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 注讚 讬讜诐 讛讗讞讚 讜注砖专讬诐 诇讞讚砖 讘注专讘

Reish Lakish said: It is derived from the verse that states: 鈥淚n the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at the evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at the evening鈥 (Exodus 12:18). This teaches that the Festival terminates at the end of the day, and a new day begins in the evening.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 诪砖诪注讜转 讚讜专砖讬谉 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two derivations? Abaye said: There is no practical difference between them. The interpretation of the meaning of the verse is the difference between them.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

Rava said: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the hours before midnight. According to Rabbi Yo岣nan, who derives the halakha from the verse: 鈥淔rom evening to evening,鈥 the previous day ends at nightfall. Therefore, if the new moon was seen only at the beginning of the night of the thirtieth, the thirtieth is not sanctified as the New Moon. However, according to Reish Lakish, who derives the halakha from the verse with regard to Passover: 鈥淯ntil the twenty-first day of the month at the evening,鈥 the moon may be sanctified if it was seen before midnight. Eating unleavened bread on Passover is an obligation only on the first night until midnight. After that time, it is optional. The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at the evening,鈥 implying that it is not obligatory but optional to eat unleavened bread. Since the optional time of eating unleavened bread begins at midnight, after the conclusion of the obligatory time, the conclusion of that time is also at midnight on the twenty-first day. This implies that there is a concept of a day beginning at midnight. Accordingly, if the new moon was seen at the beginning of the night of the thirtieth, the thirtieth can still be sanctified as the New Moon.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻诇 住驻讬拽讗 诇拽诪讬讛 砖讚讬谞谉 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讞诪讬住专 讜砖讬转住专 注讘讚讬谞谉 讗专讘讬住专 诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉

搂 With regard to the extra Festival day of that is observed in the Diaspora, Rabbi Zeira said that Rav Na岣an said: Any time that an extra Festival day is observed out of uncertainty with regard to the calendar, we cast it forward, i.e., it is observed on the following day and not on the preceding day. That is to say, owing to the uncertainty we observe Sukkot in the Diaspora on the fifteenth and the sixteenth of Tishrei, but not on the fourteenth.

讜诇讬注讘讚 谞诪讬 讗专讘讬住专 讚诇诪讗 讞住专讜讛 诇讗讘 讜讞住专讜讛 诇讗诇讜诇

The Gemara asks: But why not observe it also on the fourteenth, as perhaps both the month of Av and the month of Elul were made short? In that case, the day that is considered the fourteenth of Tishrei in the Diaspora would actually be the fifteenth of Tishrei, and therefore it should also be observed as Sukkot.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 20

讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 诇注讜诇诐 讞住专 讗诪讗讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

But if you say that the Adar immediately preceding Nisan is always short, why should they desecrate Shabbat? The court can calculate the time of the New Moon without witnesses. The Gemara answers: Because it is a mitzva to sanctify the New Moon on the basis of the testimony of witnesses who actually saw the new moon and not rely on calculations or established practices.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗祝 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 转谞讬谞讗 注诇 砖谞讬 讞讚砖讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 注诇 谞讬住谉 讜注诇 转砖专讬 讗讬 讗诪专转 讘砖诇诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讞住专 诪砖讜诐 讛讻讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

Some say that Rav Na岣an said: We, too, learn in a mishna: Witnesses who saw the new moon may desecrate Shabbat to establish the New Moon for two months, for the month of Nisan and for the month of Tishrei. Granted, if you say that the Adar immediately preceding Nisan is always short, due to that reason the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat, because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month on the basis of the testimony of witnesses who actually saw the new moon.

讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 讝诪谞讬谉 诪诇讗 讝诪谞讬谉 讞住专 讗诪讗讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 谞注讘专讬讛 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讜谞拽讚砖讬讛 诇诪讞专

But if you say that the Adar immediately preceding Nisan is sometimes full and sometimes short, and there is no regularity to it, why should the witnesses desecrate Shabbat? Have the court add an extra day to the month now, since it can decide whether the thirtieth day or the thirty-first day is the beginning of the new month, and let the members of the court sanctify the next day as the New Moon.

讗讬 讚讗拽诇注 讬讜诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讘砖讘转 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讚讗拽诇注 讬讜诐 砖诇砖讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

The Gemara rejects this argument: If the thirtieth of Adar falls on Shabbat, this is indeed what is done. The witnesses are not permitted to desecrate Shabbat. Rather, the month is made full and the next day is sanctified as the New Moon. Here we are dealing with a case where the thirty-first of Adar falls on Shabbat, and so the sanctification of the New Moon cannot be pushed off to the next day, as a month cannot be longer than thirty days. In that case, the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month based on testimony of witnesses who actually saw the new moon.

诪转讬讘 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻砖讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讻讜诇谉 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛拽专讘谉

Rav Kahana raised an objection from the continuation of the mishna, which teaches: When the Temple was standing, the witnesses would desecrate Shabbat for establishing the New Moon even for all the months, in order to rectify the offering of the New Moon, i.e., ensure that it is at the proper time.

诪讚讻讜诇讛讜 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛 谞讬住谉 讜转砖专讬 谞诪讬 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 讛专讗讬讬讛

From the fact that the reason that the witnesses are permitted to desecrate Shabbat for all the other months is not because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month based on testimony of witnesses who saw the new moon, the implication is that with regard to Nisan and Tishrei as well, the witnesses are permitted to desecrate Shabbat for another reason and not because it is a mitzva to sanctify the month based on the testimony of witnesses who saw the new moon.

讗讬 讗诪专转 讘砖诇诪讗 讝诪谞讬谉 诪诇讗 讜讝诪谞讬谉 讞住专 诪砖讜诐 讛讻讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 讗诇讗 讗讬 讗诪专转 诇注讜诇诐 讞住专 讗诪讗讬 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 转讬讜讘转讗

Granted, if you say that Adar is sometimes full and sometimes short, due to that reason the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat. But if you say that Adar is always short, why should they desecrate Shabbat? The court knows in advance when will be the New Moon of Nisan. The Gemara concludes: This is indeed a conclusive refutation to the proof brought by Rav Na岣an.

讻讬 讗转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 注讘专讜讛 诇讗诇讜诇 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讬讚注讬 讞讘专讬谉 讘讘诇讗讬 诪讗讬 讟讬讘讜转讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜

搂 It is related that when Ulla came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: This year they added an extra day to the month of Elul. Ulla continued and said: Do our Babylonian colleagues understand what benefit we did for them? We pushed off Rosh HaShana for a day, so that the Festival would not occur adjacent to Shabbat.

诪讗讬 讟讬讘讜转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 专讘讬 讗讞讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗

The Gemara asks: What is the benefit in having a weekday between Shabbat and a Festival? Ulla said: Due to the vegetables that would not be picked for two days and those picked beforehand that would no longer be fresh. Rabbi A岣 bar 岣nina said: Due to the dead who would not be buried for two days and consequently would begin to decompose.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 诪注讘专讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 诇讗讬诪转 拽讗 讘注讬 诇讛讜 诇讗讜专转讗 诇讗讜专转讗 讟专讞 讜诪讬讬转讬

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two concerns? The Gemara answers: The practical difference between them is in the case where Yom Kippur occurs directly after Shabbat. According to the one who said that the reason is due to the dead that would go unburied for two days, the court adds an extra day to Elul so that Yom Kippur will not occur on Sunday. But according to the one who said that the reason is due to the vegetables that would not be fresh, there is no need to add an extra day to Elul. When would he require the vegetables? Only in the evening following Yom Kippur; and if Yom Kippur falls on Sunday, he can go out in the evening after the fast and bring fresh vegetables.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 诇注讘专讬讛 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 讗诇讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讛住诪讜讱 诇砖讘转 讘讬谉 诪诇驻谞讬讛 讘讬谉 诪诇讗讞专讬讛 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 诪注讘专讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 讗驻砖专 讘注诪诪讬

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who says that the reason is due to vegetables, the court should still make Elul full due to the dead, as this is also an important consideration. Rather, the practical difference between them is with regard to the case where the Festival of Rosh HaShana occurs adjacent to Shabbat, either before it or after it. According to the one who said that the reason is due to the vegetables that would wither, the court adds an extra day to Elul. But according to the one who said that the reason is due to the dead that would go unburied, there is no reason to make Elul full, because on a Festival it is possible to arrange that the dead be buried by gentiles.

讜诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 诪转讬讗 诇注讘专讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讬专拽讬讗 讗驻砖专 讘讞诪讬诪讬

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who said that the reason is due to the dead, the court should still add an extra day to Elul due to the vegetables. The Gemara answers: According to him this is not an important consideration, because it is possible to soak the withered vegetables in hot water and thereby restore their freshness.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诇讚讬讚谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讚讬讚讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讚讬讚谉 讞讘讬诇 诇谉 注诇诪讗 诇讚讬讚讛讜 诇讗 讞讘讬诇 诇讛讜 注诇诪讗

The Gemara asks: If so, what is different about those who live in Babylonia and those who live in Eretz Yisrael? Why did Ulla specifically say that adding an extra day to Elul was beneficial to us, in Babylonia; it was beneficial to them as well. The Gemara answers: For us in Babylonia the weather is very hot, and so vegetables wither and corpses decompose quickly. But for them in Eretz Yisrael, the weather is not as hot, and vegetables and corpses can be kept for two days.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬 专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪注讘专讬谉 讗转 讛砖谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讻讱 诪注讘专讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖 诇爪讜专讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 专讗砖 讞讚砖讬诐 讻讝讛 专讗讛 讜拽讚砖

搂 It was taught above that for various reasons a month can have an extra day added, even if the new moon was seen on the night before the thirtieth. The Gemara challenges this assumption: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabba bar Shmuel teach in a baraita: One might have thought that just as the court adds an extra month to a year for some pressing communal need, so too, the court adds an extra day to a month for some similar need. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淭his month shall be to you the beginning of months鈥 (Exodus 12:2). This teaches that when there is a moon like this, see it and sanctify the month. When the new moon is seen, the month must be sanctified without delay.

讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇注讘专讜 讻讗谉 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪注讘专讬谉 讗转 讛砖谞讛 讜讗转 讛讞讚砖 诇爪讜专讱 讻讱 诪拽讚砖讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖 诇爪讜专讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 讻讝讛 专讗讛 讜拽讚砖

Rava said: This is not difficult: Here it is speaking of adding an extra day to the month, although the new moon was seen on the thirtieth, which is permitted; whereas there it is speaking of sanctifying the month on the thirtieth, although the new moon was not yet seen, which is prohibited. And this is what the baraita is saying: One might have thought that just the court adds to a year or a month for some pressing communal need, so too, a month can be sanctified early on the thirtieth even without seeing the new moon. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淭his month shall be to you the beginning of months,鈥 which teaches: Only when the moon appears like this, see it and sanctify the month, but not before.

讜讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇注讘专讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜

The Gemara comments that this is like that which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The court may intimidate witnesses through rigorous and confusing examination, so that they will give inadmissible testimony about the new moon that was seen at its due time, the thirtieth of the month. This is so that the court can add an extra day to it, and the New Moon will be sanctified on the thirty-first day. But the court may not intimidate witnesses into giving testimony about the new moon that was not seen on its due time, in order that to sanctify the New Moon early, on the thirtieth.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 砖诇讞 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 诇专讘讬 讗诪讬 讛讜讜 讬讜讚注讬谉 砖讻诇 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讬讛 诪诇诪讚谞讜 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 专讗讜讛讜 讬讗诪专讜 专讗讬谞讜

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehuda Nesia, who was the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, send a message to Rabbi Ami: Be aware that all the days of Rabbi Yo岣nan he would teach us that witnesses may be intimidated into giving testimony about the new moon that was not seen in its due time. This was done in order that the new month may be sanctified early, already on the thirtieth. Although the witnesses did not see the moon, they may say: We saw it.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘谞讬住谉 讜转砖专讬 讛讗 讘砖讗专 讬专讞讬

Abaye said: This is not difficult: This ruling is referring to Nisan and Tishrei, which may be sanctified early in order to set the Festivals that occur in those months; that ruling is referring to the other months, which may not be sanctified early, even for some other pressing need.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 讚转谞讬 专讘讛 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讞专讬诐 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 注爪专转 诇注爪专转 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗诇讗 讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讘讚 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讞诪砖讛

Rava said: That which Rabba bar Shmuel taught, that the court may not lengthen or shorten the months for reason of communal need, follows the opinion of A岣rim, as it is taught in a baraita: A岣rim say: The difference between the festival of Shavuot of one year and the festival of Shavuot of the following year, and similarly, between Rosh HaShana of one year and Rosh HaShana of the following year, is only four days of the week. There are 354 days in a lunar year, which are divided into twelve alternating months, six months that are thirty days long and six months that are twenty-nine days long. Therefore, every year is fifty weeks and four days long. And if it was a leap year, in which case the year is comprised of 383 days, or fifty-four weeks and five days, there is a difference of five days between them.

专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 诪转谞讬 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讗讬谉 诪讗讬讬诪讬谉 注诇 讛注讚讬诐 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇注讘专讜

Rav Dimi from Neharde鈥檃 taught the baraita in the opposite manner: The court may intimidate the witnesses into giving testimony about the new moon that was not seen in its due time in order that the new month may be sanctified early, already on the thirtieth. But the court may not intimidate witnesses so that they do not give acceptable testimony about the new moon that was seen in its due time, in order to add an extra day to the old month, so that the New Moon is sanctified on the thirty-first.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for Rav Dimi鈥檚 opinion? Intimidating witnesses into testifying about something that they did not see is worse than intimidating them to withhold testimony about something that they did see.

讛讗讬 诪讬讞讝讬 讻砖拽专讗 讛讗讬 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻砖拽专讗

In this case, where the witnesses withhold testimony about what they saw and the New Moon is pushed off to the next day, it looks like a lie, as the moon might have been seen by others as well, and people will wonder why the New Moon was not sanctified the previous day. In that case, where the witnesses testify about something that they did not see and the New Moon is a day early, it does not look like a lie, as everybody knows that it is possible that only a few people saw the new moon.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讻讬诇谞讗 诇转拽讜谞讬 诇讻讜诇讛 讙讜诇讛

Shmuel said: I am able to fix the calendar for the entire Diaspora without witnesses. Shmuel was an expert on the movement of the celestial bodies and on the principles governing leap years and additional days added to months.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讗 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讬讚注 诪专 讛讗讬 诪讬诇转讗 讚转谞讬讗 讘住讜讚 讛注讬讘讜专 谞讜诇讚 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讗讜 谞讜诇讚 讗讞专 讞爪讜转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讚讛讗 诇讗 讬讚注 诪专 讗讬讻讗 诪讬诇讬 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注 诪专

Abba, the father of Rabbi Simlai, said to Shmuel: Does the Master know the meaning of this statement, as it is taught in a baraita dealing with the secret of addition, which discusses calendric calculations: Differentiate between when the molad occurred before midday and when the molad occurred after midday? He said to him: No, I do not know what this means. He said to him: Since the Master does not know this, there are probably other matters that the Master does not know, and therefore you must not establish a calendar, relying upon calculations that were made based on faulty or insufficient knowledge.

讻讬 住诇讬拽 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 砖诇讞 诇讛讜 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 诇讬诇讛 讜讬讜诐 诪谉 讛讞讚砖

As for the meaning of this obscure baraita, when Rabbi Zeira went up from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael, he sent back a letter to his colleagues in Babylonia: In order for a day to be sanctified as the New Moon, it is necessary that both the night and the day be of the new month. That is to say, the molad must occur before the beginning of the night.

讜讝讜 砖讗诪专 讗讘讗 讗讘讜讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪诇讗讬 诪讞砖讘讬谉 讗转 转讜诇讚转讜 谞讜诇讚 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讘讬讚讜注 砖谞专讗讛 住诪讜讱 诇砖拽讬注转 讛讞诪讛 诇讗 谞讜诇讚 拽讜讚诐 讞爪讜转 讘讬讚讜注 砖诇讗 谞专讗讛 住诪讜讱 诇砖拽讬注转 讛讞诪讛

And this is what Abba, the father of Rabbi Simlai, said: The baraita means as follows: They calculate the molad; if the molad occurred before midday, so that there are at least six more hours left of the day, it is known that the moon will be visible close to sunset. If, however, the molad did not occur before midday, so that there are fewer than six hours left of the day, it is known that the moon will not be visible close to sunset.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讗讻讞讜砖讬 住讛讚讬

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that this statement makes? In any case, the court is dependent upon the testimony of witnesses. Rav Ashi said: This information is used to refute the witnesses, as if the witnesses claim that they saw the new moon at a time when it was not visible according to the calculations, they are clearly false witnesses.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 砖注讬 诪讻住讬 住讬讛专讗 诇讚讬讚谉 砖讬转 诪注转讬拽讗 讜转诪谞讬 住专讬 诪讞讚转讗 诇讚讬讚讛讜 砖讬转 诪讞讚转讗 讜转诪谞讬 住专讬 诪注转讬拽讗

Rabbi Zeira said that Rav Na岣an said: For twenty-four hours the moon is covered, i.e., not visible. This occurs between the last sighting of the old moon and the first sighting of the new moon. For us, in Babylonia, it is not visible for six hours of the old moon and eighteen hours of the new; for them, in Eretz Yisrael, it is not visible for six hours of the new moon and eighteen hours of the old.

诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 诇讗讻讞讜砖讬 住讛讚讬

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that this statement makes? Rav Ashi said: It is used to refute the witnesses, as if they testify that they saw two moons, the old and the new, within a single twenty-four hour period, they are certainly false witnesses.

讗诪专 诪专 爪专讬讱 砖讬讛讗 诇讬诇讛 讜讬讜诐 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 诪谞诇谉 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 诪注专讘 注讚 注专讘

The Master said above: In order for a day to be sanctified as the New Moon, it is necessary that both the night and the day be of the new moon. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The verse states: 鈥淔rom evening to evening shall you celebrate your Shabbat鈥 (Leviticus 23:32). This teaches that the day follows the night for all the calculations pertaining to the Festivals and New Moons.

专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 注讚 讬讜诐 讛讗讞讚 讜注砖专讬诐 诇讞讚砖 讘注专讘

Reish Lakish said: It is derived from the verse that states: 鈥淚n the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at the evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at the evening鈥 (Exodus 12:18). This teaches that the Festival terminates at the end of the day, and a new day begins in the evening.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 诪砖诪注讜转 讚讜专砖讬谉 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two derivations? Abaye said: There is no practical difference between them. The interpretation of the meaning of the verse is the difference between them.

专讘讗 讗诪专 讞爪讜转 诇讬诇讛 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

Rava said: There is a practical difference between them with regard to the hours before midnight. According to Rabbi Yo岣nan, who derives the halakha from the verse: 鈥淔rom evening to evening,鈥 the previous day ends at nightfall. Therefore, if the new moon was seen only at the beginning of the night of the thirtieth, the thirtieth is not sanctified as the New Moon. However, according to Reish Lakish, who derives the halakha from the verse with regard to Passover: 鈥淯ntil the twenty-first day of the month at the evening,鈥 the moon may be sanctified if it was seen before midnight. Eating unleavened bread on Passover is an obligation only on the first night until midnight. After that time, it is optional. The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at the evening,鈥 implying that it is not obligatory but optional to eat unleavened bread. Since the optional time of eating unleavened bread begins at midnight, after the conclusion of the obligatory time, the conclusion of that time is also at midnight on the twenty-first day. This implies that there is a concept of a day beginning at midnight. Accordingly, if the new moon was seen at the beginning of the night of the thirtieth, the thirtieth can still be sanctified as the New Moon.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻诇 住驻讬拽讗 诇拽诪讬讛 砖讚讬谞谉 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讞诪讬住专 讜砖讬转住专 注讘讚讬谞谉 讗专讘讬住专 诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉

搂 With regard to the extra Festival day of that is observed in the Diaspora, Rabbi Zeira said that Rav Na岣an said: Any time that an extra Festival day is observed out of uncertainty with regard to the calendar, we cast it forward, i.e., it is observed on the following day and not on the preceding day. That is to say, owing to the uncertainty we observe Sukkot in the Diaspora on the fifteenth and the sixteenth of Tishrei, but not on the fourteenth.

讜诇讬注讘讚 谞诪讬 讗专讘讬住专 讚诇诪讗 讞住专讜讛 诇讗讘 讜讞住专讜讛 诇讗诇讜诇

The Gemara asks: But why not observe it also on the fourteenth, as perhaps both the month of Av and the month of Elul were made short? In that case, the day that is considered the fourteenth of Tishrei in the Diaspora would actually be the fifteenth of Tishrei, and therefore it should also be observed as Sukkot.

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