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Today's Daf Yomi

May 30, 2014 | 讗壮 讘住讬讜谉 转砖注状讚

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 22

诪注砖讛 砖注讘专讜 讬讜转专 诪讗专讘注讬诐 讝讜讙 讜注讬讻讘谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 砖专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 注讬讻讘谉 讗诇讗 砖讝驻专 专讗砖讛 砖诇 讙讚专 注讬讻讘谉 讜砖诇讞 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛讜专讬讚讜讛讜 诪讙讚讜诇转讜

搂 It was taught in the mishna: There was once an incident where more than forty pairs of witnesses were passing through on their way to Jerusalem to testify about the new moon, and Rabbi Akiva detained them in Lod, telling them that there was no need for them to desecrate Shabbat for this purpose. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: Heaven forbid that Rabbi Akiva detained them, for he would certainly not have made such an error. Rather, it was that Zefer, the head of the city of Geder, detained them. And Rabban Gamliel sent and they removed him from his high office because he had acted inappropriately.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讘 讜讘谞讜 砖专讗讜 讗转 讛讞讚砖 讬诇讻讜 诇讗 砖诪爪讟专驻讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讗诇讗 砖讗诐 讬驻住诇 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讬爪讟专祝 讛砖谞讬 注诐 讗讞专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗讘 讜讘谞讜 讜讻诇 讛拽专讜讘讬谉 讻砖专讬谉 诇注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖

MISHNA: If a father and his son saw the new moon, they should both go to the court in Jerusalem. It is not that they can join together to give testimony, for close relatives are disqualified from testifying together, but they both go so that if one of them is disqualified, the second may join together with another witness to testify about the new moon. Rabbi Shimon says: A father and his son and all their relatives are fit to combine together as witnesses for testimony to determine the start of the month.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪注砖讛 讘讟讜讘讬讛 讛专讜驻讗 砖专讗讛 讗转 讛讞讚砖 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讜讗 讜讘谞讜 讜注讘讚讜 诪砖讜讞专专 讜拽讘诇讜 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讗讜转讜 讜讗转 讘谞讜 讜驻住诇讜 讗转 注讘讚讜 讜讻砖讘讗讜 诇驻谞讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 拽讘诇讜 讗讜转讜 讜讗转 注讘讚讜 讜驻住诇讜 讗转 讘谞讜

Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident with Toviyya the doctor. When he saw the new moon in Jerusalem, he and his son and his freed slave all went to testify. The priests accepted him and his son as witnesses and disqualified his slave, for they ruled stringently that the month may be sanctified only on the basis of the testimony of those of Jewish lineage. And when they came before the court, they accepted him and his slave as witnesses and disqualified his son, due to the familial relationship.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 诪砖讛 讜讗诇 讗讛专谉 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 诇讗诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 注讚讜转 讝讜 转讛讗 讻砖专讛 讘讻诐

GEMARA: Rabbi Levi said: What is the reason for Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 opinion permitting relatives to jointly testify about the new moon, despite the fact that relatives are generally disqualified from testifying together? It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:1鈥2). The words 鈥渢o you鈥 come to teach that this testimony concerning the new moon will be valid even when it is given by you two, i.e., Moses and Aaron, who are brothers and could not ordinarily testify together.

讜专讘谞谉 注讚讜转 讝讜 转讛讗 诪住讜专讛 诇讻诐

The Gemara asks: And with regard to the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Shimon and prohibit relatives from testifying together about the new moon, how do they understand this verse? The Gemara answers: They interpret the verse as follows: This testimony is given over to you and others like you. That is to say, the months are to be established by the most outstanding authorities of each generation.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪注砖讛 讘讟讜讘讬讛 讛专讜驻讗 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜诪注砖讛 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

搂 The mishna taught: Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident with Toviyya the doctor. When he saw the new moon in Jerusalem, he and his son and his freed slave all went to testify. Rav 岣nan bar Rava said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Relatives are permitted to testify together about the new moon. Rav Huna said to Rav 岣nan bar Rava: But Rabbi Yosei, whose position is usually accepted over those of his colleagues, ruled otherwise, and also, there was an incident in which the court actually ruled against Rabbi Shimon, and yet you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon?

讗诪专 诇讜 讜讛讗 讝诪谞讬谉 住讙讬讗讬谉 讗诪专讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讻讬 转谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讛讻讬 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讱 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 讟讘讬 讘专讬讛 讚诪专讬 讟讘讬 讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

Rav 岣nan bar Rava said to him: But many times I said before Rav that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon on this matter, and never did he say anything to me to indicate that he disagreed. Rav Huna said to him: How did you teach the mishna? Rav 岣nan bar Rava said to him: With the opposite attributions, that is say, the position that is attributed in the mishna to Rabbi Yosei, I would teach in the name of Rabbi Shimon. Rav Huna said to him: Due to that reason, he never said anything to you, for according to your version you ruled correctly. Tavi, son of Mari Tavi, said that Mar Ukva said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

诪转谞讬壮 讗诇讜 讛谉 讛驻住讜诇讬谉 讛诪砖讞拽 讘拽讜讘讬讗 讜诪诇讜讬 讘专讘讬转 讜诪驻专讬讞讬 讬讜谞讬诐 讜住讜讞专讬 砖讘讬注讬转 讜注讘讚讬诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 注讚讜转 砖讗讬谉 讛讗砖讛 讻砖讬专讛 诇讛 讗祝 讛谉 讗讬谞谉 讻砖讬专讬谉 诇讛

MISHNA: The following are unfit to give testimony, as they are considered thieves and robbers: One who plays with dice [kubbiyya] or other games of chance for money; and those who lend money with interest; and those who race pigeons and place wagers on the outcome; and merchants who deal in produce of the Sabbatical Year, which may be eaten, but may not be an object of commerce; and slaves. This is the principle: Any testimony for which a woman is unfit, these too are unfit. Although in certain cases a woman鈥檚 testimony is accepted, e.g., to testify to the death of someone鈥檚 husband, in the majority of cases her testimony is not valid.

讙诪壮 讛讗 讗砖讛 讻砖讬专讛 诇讛 讗祝 讛谉 讻砖讬专讬谉 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 讙讝诇谉 讚讚讘专讬讛诐 讻砖讬专讬谉 诇注讚讜转 讗砖讛

GEMARA: This implies that any testimony for which a woman is fit, these too are fit. Rav Ashi said: That is to say, one who is regarded as a robber by rabbinic law, i.e., one who illegally came into possession of money but did not actually steal it from another, is like those mentioned in the mishna. Although they are generally unfit to give testimony, they are fit to give testimony to enable a woman to remarry.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讬 砖专讗讛 讗转 讛讞讚砖 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛诇讱 诪讜诇讬讻讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讛讞诪讜专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪讟讛 讜讗诐 爪讜讚讛 诇讛诐 诇讜拽讞讬谉 讘讬讚谉 诪拽诇讜转

MISHNA: With regard to one who saw the new moon but is unable to go to Jerusalem by foot because he is sick or has difficulty walking, others may bring him on a donkey or even in a bed, even on Shabbat if necessary. And if the witnesses are concerned that bandits may be lying in wait for them along the road, they may take clubs or other weapons in their hands, even on Shabbat.

讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 讚专讱 专讞讜拽讛 诇讜拽讞讬谉 讘讬讚诐 诪讝讜谞讜转 砖注诇 诪讛诇讱 诇讬诇讛 讜讬讜诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 讜讬讜爪讗讬谉 诇注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗讜转诐 讘诪讜注讚诐

And if it was a long journey to Jerusalem, they may take sustenance with them, although it is ordinarily prohibited to carry on Shabbat, since for a distance of a walk of a night and a day, the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat and go out to give testimony to determine the start of the month. This is as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the Festivals of the Lord, sacred gatherings, which you shall declare in their seasons鈥 (Leviticus 23:4). This teaches that, in all cases, the Festivals must be fixed at their proper times, even if it entails the transgression of Torah prohibitions.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗专讘注讛 专讗砖讬 砖谞讬诐

 

诪转谞讬壮 讗诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪砖诇讞讬谉 注诪讜 讗讞专 诇讛注讬讚讜 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖 诪讻诇 讗讚诐 诪砖拽诇拽诇讜 讛讘讬讬转讜住讬诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛诪讻讬专讬谉

MISHNA: If the members of the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem are not familiar with that one who saw the new moon, i.e., that he is a valid witness, the members of his local court of twenty-three send another with him to testify about him. The mishna adds: Initially, the court would accept testimony to determine the start of the month from any person, as all are presumed to be qualified witnesses, absent any disqualifying factors. However, when the Boethusians, a sect whose members had their own opinions with regard to the establishment of the Festivals, corrupted the process by sending false witnesses to testify about the new moon, the Sages instituted that they would accept this testimony only from those men familiar to the Sanhedrin as valid witnesses.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗讞专 讞讚

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the statement in the mishna that another would be sent along to testify with regard to the qualification of the witness to the new moon? If it means that one other individual would be sent,

讜讞讚 诪讬 诪讛讬诪谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 砖讘讗 讛讜讗 讜注讚讬讜 注诪讜 诇讛注讬讚 注诇讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讗讞专 讝讜讙 讗讞专

but is one witness deemed credible? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident in which one potential witness came to testify, and his witnesses were with him, as they came to testify about him? The use of the plural indicates that two witnesses are required to establish someone as a valid eyewitness. Rav Pappa said: What is the meaning of the term: Another? It means another pair of witnesses.

讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪住转讘专讗 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讗讬 讗讜转讜 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗讜转讜 讞讚 讜讞讚 诪讬 诪讛讬诪谉 诪砖驻讟 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讜转讜 讗讜转讜 讛讝讜讙 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪讗讬 讗讞专 讝讜讙 讗讞专

The Gemara comments: This too stands to reason, for if you do not say so, then the opening statement of the mishna: If the members of the Great Sanhedrin are not familiar with that one, is problematic. What is the meaning of the term: That one? If we say it is referring to that one witness, is one witness deemed credible? The word: Judgment, is written with regard to the establishment of the New Moon and Rosh HaShana: 鈥淔or it is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Israel鈥 (Psalms 81:5), and judgments require two witnesses. Rather, what is the meaning of the term: That one? That pair of witnesses. So too here, what is the meaning of the term: Another? Another pair of witnesses.

讜讞讚 诇讗 诪讛讬诪谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 砖讛诇讱 讗爪诇 讛注讚 诇讛注讬讚 注诇讬讜 讘砖讘转 讘讗讜砖讗

The Gemara asks: And is one witness not deemed credible to testify about the eyewitness who saw the new moon? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Nehorai, who went with the witness to testify about him on Shabbat in Usha? Apparently, Rabbi Nehorai offered his testimony alone.

讗诪专讬 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 住讛讚讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讜讛 讘讛讚讬讛 讜讛讗 讚诇讗 讞砖讬讘 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 住讛讚讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讜讛 讘讗讜砖讗 讜讗讝诇 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 诇讗爪讟专讜驻讬 讘讛讚讬讛

The Sages say in explanation of this incident: In fact, two witnesses are necessary, and in the case of Rabbi Nehorai there was another witness with him. And the fact that he was not mentioned is due to the honor of Rabbi Nehorai, so as not to indicate that the other was his equal. Rav Ashi said: In the incident involving Rabbi Nehorai, there was already another witness waiting in Usha and Rabbi Nehorai went to join him.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诪讗讬 诇诪讬诪专讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪住驻讬拽讗 诇讗 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 砖讘转讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose of stating this incident at all? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that in a case of uncertainty one does not desecrate Shabbat, i.e., perhaps the witness in Usha would not be present that day, which would mean that Rabbi Nehorai desecrated Shabbat for no reason. Therefore, the Tosefta teaches us that for the important purpose of the New Moon, Shabbat may be desecrated even in a doubtful case.

讻讬 讗转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 拽讚砖讜讛 诇讬专讞讗 讘诪注专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 注讜诇讗 讚讙讘专讗 专讘讛 讛讜讗 讚诪讛讬诪谉 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注诇诪讗 谞诪讬 诪讛讬诪谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚注讘讬讚讗 诇讗讙诇讜讬讬 诇讗 诪砖拽专讬 讘讛 讗讬谞砖讬 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讘讗 讗讞讚 讘住讜祝 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗诪专 拽讚砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖 谞讗诪谉

When Ulla came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: They sanctified the New Moon on a certain date in the West, Eretz Yisrael. Although Ulla was the only witness, his testimony was accepted. Rav Kahana said: It is not necessary to say that Ulla, who is a great man, is deemed credible with regard to such testimony. Rather, even an ordinary person is deemed credible in this case, and there is no need for two witnesses. What is the reason for this? With regard to any matter that is likely to be revealed, people do not lie about it.The Gemara comments that this is also taught in a baraita: If one person comes from the other end of the world and says: The court sanctified the new month, he is deemed credible. There is no need for two witnesses.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖 诪讻诇 讗讚诐 讜讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讛 拽诇拽讜诇 拽诇拽诇讜 讛讘讬讬转讜住讬谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘拽砖讜 讘讬讬转讜住讬谉 诇讛讟注讜转 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐 砖讻专讜 砖谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讘讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讗讞讚 诪砖诇谞讜 讜讗讞讚 诪砖诇讛诐

The mishna taught: Initially, they would accept testimony to determine the start of the month from any person, and this continued until the Boethusians began to corrupt the process. The Sages taught a baraita that describes the decisive incident: What was the manner of the corruption in which the Boethusians engaged? Once, the Boethusians tried to mislead the Sages with regard to the day of the new moon. They hired two people for four hundred dinars to testify falsely that they had seen the new moon on the thirtieth day of the month. One of them was from our own, i.e., a member of the Pharisees and the Sages of Israel, and the other was one of theirs.

砖诇讛诐 讛注讬讚 注讚讜转讜 讜讬爪讗 砖诇谞讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗诪讜专 讻讬爪讚 专讗讬转 讗转 讛诇讘谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 注讜诇讛 讛讬讬转讬 讘诪注诇讛 讗讚讜诪讬诐 讜专讗讬转讬讜 砖讛讜讗 专讘讜抓 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 住诇注讬诐 专讗砖讜 讚讜诪讛 诇注讙诇 讗讝谞讬讜 讚讜诪讬谉 诇讙讚讬 拽专谞讬讜 讚讜诪讜转 诇爪讘讬 讜讝谞讘讜 诪讜谞讞转 诇讜 讘讬谉 讬专讻讜转讬讜 讜讛爪爪转讬 讘讜 讜谞专转注转讬 讜谞驻诇转讬 诇讗讞讜专讬 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 讗转诐 诪讗诪讬谞讬诐 诇讬 讛专讬 诪讗转讬诐 讝讜讝 爪专讜专讬谉 诇讬 讘住讚讬谞讬

When they went in to testify, their witness submitted his testimony that he had seen the new moon, and then he left. When our witness came to testify, they said to him, in the customary manner: Say how you saw the moon. He said to them: I was ascending in Ma鈥檃le Adumim and I saw that the new moon was crouched between two rocks. Its head was like that of a calf, its ears were like those of a kid, its horns were like those of a deer, and its tail was lying between its thighs. And I looked at it and was frightened and I fell backward. And if you do not believe me that this is what I saw, there are two hundred dinars wrapped in my cloak that were paid to me to deliver this testimony.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讬 讛讝拽讬拽讱 诇讻讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 砖诪注转讬 砖讘拽砖讜 讘讬讬转讜住讬诐 诇讛讟注讜转 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专转讬 讗诇讱 讗谞讬 讜讗讜讚讬注 诇讛诐 砖诪讗 讬讘讜讗讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞诐 诪讛讜讙谞讬谉 讜讬讟注讜 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐

Realizing that the testimony of the first witness was also false, the Sages said to him: Who persuaded you to act in this manner? He said to them: I heard that the Boethusians were seeking to mislead the Sages, and I said to myself: I will go and hire myself out to give false testimony, and I will inform the Sages of the truth, lest unworthy people come and mislead the Sages.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讗转讬诐 讝讜讝 谞转讜谞讬谉 诇讱 讘诪转谞讛 讜讛砖讜讻专讱 讬诪转讞 注诇 讛注诪讜讚 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛诪讻讬专讬谉

The Sages said to him: The two hundred dinars that you received from the Boethusians are given to you as a gift. Although you did not carry out your mission, the court is authorized to declare the money ownerless and award it to you. And the one who hired you shall be stretched out on the post for flogging. At that time the Sages instituted that they would accept testimony about the new moon only from those men who were familiar to the Great Sanhedrin as qualified witnesses.

诪转谞讬壮 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪砖拽诇拽诇讜 讛讻讜转讬诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉

MISHNA: Initially, after the court sanctified the new month they would light torches on the mountaintops, from one peak to another, to signal to the community in Babylonia that the month had been sanctified. After the Samaritans [Kutim] corrupted and ruined this method by lighting torches at the wrong times to confuse the Jews, the Sages instituted that messengers should go out to the Diaspora and inform them of the start of the month.

讻讬爪讚 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讜谞住讗讜转 砖诇 讗专讝 讗专讜讻讬谉 讜拽谞讬诐 讜注爪讬 砖诪谉 讜谞注讜专转 砖诇 驻砖转谉 讜讻讜专讱 讘诪砖讬讞讛 讜注讜诇讛 诇专讗砖 讛讛专 讜诪爪讬转 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讗讜专 讜诪讜诇讬讱 讜诪讘讬讗 讜诪注诇讛 讜诪讜专讬讚 注讚 砖讛讜讗 专讜讗讛 讗转 讞讘讬专讜 砖讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讻谉 讘专讗砖 讛讛专 讛砖谞讬 讜讻谉 讘专讗砖 讛讛专 讛砖诇讬砖讬

The mishna asks: How would they light the torches during that earlier period? They would bring items that burn well, e.g., long poles of cedar, reeds, pinewood, and beaten flax, and tie them together with a string. And someone would then ascend to the top of the mountain and light the torch on fire with them, and wave it back and forth and up and down, until he would see his colleague doing likewise on the top of the second mountain. In this manner he would know that the next messenger had received the message and passed it on. And similarly, the second torchbearer would wait for a signal from the one on the top of the third mountain, and so on. In this manner the message would reach the Diaspora.

讜诪讗讬谉 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪讛专 讛诪砖讞讛 诇住专讟讘讗 讜诪住专讟讘讗 诇讙专讜驻讬谞讗 讜诪讙专讜驻讬谞讗 诇讞讜讜专谉 讜诪讞讜讜专谉 诇讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 讜诪讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 诇讗 讝讝讜 诪砖诐 讗诇讗 诪讜诇讬讱 讜诪讘讬讗 讜诪注诇讛 讜诪讜专讬讚 注讚 砖讛讬讛 专讜讗讛 讻诇 讛讙讜诇讛 诇驻谞讬讜 讻诪讚讜专转 讛讗砖

And from which mountains would they light the torches? They would transmit the message from the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem to Sartava, and from Sartava to Gerofina, and from Gerofina to 岣vran, and from 岣vran to Beit Baltin. And from Beit Baltin they would not move to light torches in any other predetermined location. Rather, the one who was appointed for this task would wave the torch back and forth and up and down, until he would see the entire Diaspora before him alight like one large bonfire, as they would light torches to continue transmitting the message from place to place all the way to the farthest reaches of the Diaspora.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讬拽讜讚 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖讗诐 讚讜讚 讜讗谞砖讬讜 讜诪转专讙诪讬谞谉 讜讗讜拽讚讬谞谉 讚讜讚

GEMARA: The mishna taught that they would light torches [masi鈥檌n]. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that the term masi鈥檌n is an expression of burning? As it is written: 鈥Vayisa鈥檈m David and his men鈥 (II Samuel 5:21), and we translate the verse as: And David and his men burned them.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 讗诇讗 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讗讬诪转讬 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: Torches were lit only for a new month whose moon was seen at its proper time, i.e., on the thirtieth day of the outgoing month, to sanctify the upcoming New Moon on that date and declare the previous month as containing twenty-nine days. In this case, the thirtieth day would be declared the first day of the following month. And when would they light the torches? It was on the eve of its additional day, the one that would have been added had it been a full, thirty-day month, i.e., on the eve of the thirty-first day of the outgoing month.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讗讞住专 注讘讚讬谞谉 讗诪诇讗 诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讙讝讬专讛 诪砖讜诐 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讞住专 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬诪转 注讘讚讬 讘讗驻讜拽讬 砖讘转讗 讚讗讬 讗诪专转 谞注讘讬讚 谞诪讬 讗诪诇讗 讗转讜

The Gemara asks: Is this to say that for the conclusion of a deficient month of twenty-nine days one performs the sequence of lighting torches, but for a full month one does not perform it? What is the reason for this? Rabbi Zeira said: This is a rabbinic decree that was instituted due to the case of a New Moon following a deficient, twenty-nine-day month that occurs on Shabbat eve. In that case, when do they perform the lighting? At the conclusion of Shabbat, as it is prohibited to light a fire on Friday night. The reason for the decree is that if you say that one performs the lighting of torches for a full, thirty-day month as well, people might come

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 22

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 22

诪注砖讛 砖注讘专讜 讬讜转专 诪讗专讘注讬诐 讝讜讙 讜注讬讻讘谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 砖专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 注讬讻讘谉 讗诇讗 砖讝驻专 专讗砖讛 砖诇 讙讚专 注讬讻讘谉 讜砖诇讞 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讛讜专讬讚讜讛讜 诪讙讚讜诇转讜

搂 It was taught in the mishna: There was once an incident where more than forty pairs of witnesses were passing through on their way to Jerusalem to testify about the new moon, and Rabbi Akiva detained them in Lod, telling them that there was no need for them to desecrate Shabbat for this purpose. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: Heaven forbid that Rabbi Akiva detained them, for he would certainly not have made such an error. Rather, it was that Zefer, the head of the city of Geder, detained them. And Rabban Gamliel sent and they removed him from his high office because he had acted inappropriately.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讘 讜讘谞讜 砖专讗讜 讗转 讛讞讚砖 讬诇讻讜 诇讗 砖诪爪讟专驻讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讗诇讗 砖讗诐 讬驻住诇 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讬爪讟专祝 讛砖谞讬 注诐 讗讞专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗讘 讜讘谞讜 讜讻诇 讛拽专讜讘讬谉 讻砖专讬谉 诇注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖

MISHNA: If a father and his son saw the new moon, they should both go to the court in Jerusalem. It is not that they can join together to give testimony, for close relatives are disqualified from testifying together, but they both go so that if one of them is disqualified, the second may join together with another witness to testify about the new moon. Rabbi Shimon says: A father and his son and all their relatives are fit to combine together as witnesses for testimony to determine the start of the month.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪注砖讛 讘讟讜讘讬讛 讛专讜驻讗 砖专讗讛 讗转 讛讞讚砖 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讜讗 讜讘谞讜 讜注讘讚讜 诪砖讜讞专专 讜拽讘诇讜 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讗讜转讜 讜讗转 讘谞讜 讜驻住诇讜 讗转 注讘讚讜 讜讻砖讘讗讜 诇驻谞讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 拽讘诇讜 讗讜转讜 讜讗转 注讘讚讜 讜驻住诇讜 讗转 讘谞讜

Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident with Toviyya the doctor. When he saw the new moon in Jerusalem, he and his son and his freed slave all went to testify. The priests accepted him and his son as witnesses and disqualified his slave, for they ruled stringently that the month may be sanctified only on the basis of the testimony of those of Jewish lineage. And when they came before the court, they accepted him and his slave as witnesses and disqualified his son, due to the familial relationship.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 诪砖讛 讜讗诇 讗讛专谉 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 诇讗诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 注讚讜转 讝讜 转讛讗 讻砖专讛 讘讻诐

GEMARA: Rabbi Levi said: What is the reason for Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 opinion permitting relatives to jointly testify about the new moon, despite the fact that relatives are generally disqualified from testifying together? It is as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:1鈥2). The words 鈥渢o you鈥 come to teach that this testimony concerning the new moon will be valid even when it is given by you two, i.e., Moses and Aaron, who are brothers and could not ordinarily testify together.

讜专讘谞谉 注讚讜转 讝讜 转讛讗 诪住讜专讛 诇讻诐

The Gemara asks: And with regard to the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Shimon and prohibit relatives from testifying together about the new moon, how do they understand this verse? The Gemara answers: They interpret the verse as follows: This testimony is given over to you and others like you. That is to say, the months are to be established by the most outstanding authorities of each generation.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪注砖讛 讘讟讜讘讬讛 讛专讜驻讗 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜诪注砖讛 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

搂 The mishna taught: Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident with Toviyya the doctor. When he saw the new moon in Jerusalem, he and his son and his freed slave all went to testify. Rav 岣nan bar Rava said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. Relatives are permitted to testify together about the new moon. Rav Huna said to Rav 岣nan bar Rava: But Rabbi Yosei, whose position is usually accepted over those of his colleagues, ruled otherwise, and also, there was an incident in which the court actually ruled against Rabbi Shimon, and yet you say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon?

讗诪专 诇讜 讜讛讗 讝诪谞讬谉 住讙讬讗讬谉 讗诪专讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讻讬 转谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻讻讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讛讻讬 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讱 讜诇讗 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 讟讘讬 讘专讬讛 讚诪专讬 讟讘讬 讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

Rav 岣nan bar Rava said to him: But many times I said before Rav that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon on this matter, and never did he say anything to me to indicate that he disagreed. Rav Huna said to him: How did you teach the mishna? Rav 岣nan bar Rava said to him: With the opposite attributions, that is say, the position that is attributed in the mishna to Rabbi Yosei, I would teach in the name of Rabbi Shimon. Rav Huna said to him: Due to that reason, he never said anything to you, for according to your version you ruled correctly. Tavi, son of Mari Tavi, said that Mar Ukva said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.

诪转谞讬壮 讗诇讜 讛谉 讛驻住讜诇讬谉 讛诪砖讞拽 讘拽讜讘讬讗 讜诪诇讜讬 讘专讘讬转 讜诪驻专讬讞讬 讬讜谞讬诐 讜住讜讞专讬 砖讘讬注讬转 讜注讘讚讬诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 注讚讜转 砖讗讬谉 讛讗砖讛 讻砖讬专讛 诇讛 讗祝 讛谉 讗讬谞谉 讻砖讬专讬谉 诇讛

MISHNA: The following are unfit to give testimony, as they are considered thieves and robbers: One who plays with dice [kubbiyya] or other games of chance for money; and those who lend money with interest; and those who race pigeons and place wagers on the outcome; and merchants who deal in produce of the Sabbatical Year, which may be eaten, but may not be an object of commerce; and slaves. This is the principle: Any testimony for which a woman is unfit, these too are unfit. Although in certain cases a woman鈥檚 testimony is accepted, e.g., to testify to the death of someone鈥檚 husband, in the majority of cases her testimony is not valid.

讙诪壮 讛讗 讗砖讛 讻砖讬专讛 诇讛 讗祝 讛谉 讻砖讬专讬谉 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 讙讝诇谉 讚讚讘专讬讛诐 讻砖讬专讬谉 诇注讚讜转 讗砖讛

GEMARA: This implies that any testimony for which a woman is fit, these too are fit. Rav Ashi said: That is to say, one who is regarded as a robber by rabbinic law, i.e., one who illegally came into possession of money but did not actually steal it from another, is like those mentioned in the mishna. Although they are generally unfit to give testimony, they are fit to give testimony to enable a woman to remarry.

诪转谞讬壮 诪讬 砖专讗讛 讗转 讛讞讚砖 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛诇讱 诪讜诇讬讻讬诐 讗讜转讜 注诇 讛讞诪讜专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪讟讛 讜讗诐 爪讜讚讛 诇讛诐 诇讜拽讞讬谉 讘讬讚谉 诪拽诇讜转

MISHNA: With regard to one who saw the new moon but is unable to go to Jerusalem by foot because he is sick or has difficulty walking, others may bring him on a donkey or even in a bed, even on Shabbat if necessary. And if the witnesses are concerned that bandits may be lying in wait for them along the road, they may take clubs or other weapons in their hands, even on Shabbat.

讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 讚专讱 专讞讜拽讛 诇讜拽讞讬谉 讘讬讚诐 诪讝讜谞讜转 砖注诇 诪讛诇讱 诇讬诇讛 讜讬讜诐 诪讞诇诇讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 讜讬讜爪讗讬谉 诇注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗讜转诐 讘诪讜注讚诐

And if it was a long journey to Jerusalem, they may take sustenance with them, although it is ordinarily prohibited to carry on Shabbat, since for a distance of a walk of a night and a day, the witnesses may desecrate Shabbat and go out to give testimony to determine the start of the month. This is as it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the Festivals of the Lord, sacred gatherings, which you shall declare in their seasons鈥 (Leviticus 23:4). This teaches that, in all cases, the Festivals must be fixed at their proper times, even if it entails the transgression of Torah prohibitions.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗专讘注讛 专讗砖讬 砖谞讬诐

 

诪转谞讬壮 讗诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪砖诇讞讬谉 注诪讜 讗讞专 诇讛注讬讚讜 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖 诪讻诇 讗讚诐 诪砖拽诇拽诇讜 讛讘讬讬转讜住讬诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛诪讻讬专讬谉

MISHNA: If the members of the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem are not familiar with that one who saw the new moon, i.e., that he is a valid witness, the members of his local court of twenty-three send another with him to testify about him. The mishna adds: Initially, the court would accept testimony to determine the start of the month from any person, as all are presumed to be qualified witnesses, absent any disqualifying factors. However, when the Boethusians, a sect whose members had their own opinions with regard to the establishment of the Festivals, corrupted the process by sending false witnesses to testify about the new moon, the Sages instituted that they would accept this testimony only from those men familiar to the Sanhedrin as valid witnesses.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗讞专 讞讚

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the statement in the mishna that another would be sent along to testify with regard to the qualification of the witness to the new moon? If it means that one other individual would be sent,

讜讞讚 诪讬 诪讛讬诪谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 砖讘讗 讛讜讗 讜注讚讬讜 注诪讜 诇讛注讬讚 注诇讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讗讞专 讝讜讙 讗讞专

but is one witness deemed credible? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident in which one potential witness came to testify, and his witnesses were with him, as they came to testify about him? The use of the plural indicates that two witnesses are required to establish someone as a valid eyewitness. Rav Pappa said: What is the meaning of the term: Another? It means another pair of witnesses.

讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪住转讘专讗 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讗讬 讗讜转讜 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗讜转讜 讞讚 讜讞讚 诪讬 诪讛讬诪谉 诪砖驻讟 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讜转讜 讗讜转讜 讛讝讜讙 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪讗讬 讗讞专 讝讜讙 讗讞专

The Gemara comments: This too stands to reason, for if you do not say so, then the opening statement of the mishna: If the members of the Great Sanhedrin are not familiar with that one, is problematic. What is the meaning of the term: That one? If we say it is referring to that one witness, is one witness deemed credible? The word: Judgment, is written with regard to the establishment of the New Moon and Rosh HaShana: 鈥淔or it is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Israel鈥 (Psalms 81:5), and judgments require two witnesses. Rather, what is the meaning of the term: That one? That pair of witnesses. So too here, what is the meaning of the term: Another? Another pair of witnesses.

讜讞讚 诇讗 诪讛讬诪谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 砖讛诇讱 讗爪诇 讛注讚 诇讛注讬讚 注诇讬讜 讘砖讘转 讘讗讜砖讗

The Gemara asks: And is one witness not deemed credible to testify about the eyewitness who saw the new moon? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Nehorai, who went with the witness to testify about him on Shabbat in Usha? Apparently, Rabbi Nehorai offered his testimony alone.

讗诪专讬 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 住讛讚讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讜讛 讘讛讚讬讛 讜讛讗 讚诇讗 讞砖讬讘 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 住讛讚讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讜讛 讘讗讜砖讗 讜讗讝诇 专讘讬 谞讛讜专讗讬 诇讗爪讟专讜驻讬 讘讛讚讬讛

The Sages say in explanation of this incident: In fact, two witnesses are necessary, and in the case of Rabbi Nehorai there was another witness with him. And the fact that he was not mentioned is due to the honor of Rabbi Nehorai, so as not to indicate that the other was his equal. Rav Ashi said: In the incident involving Rabbi Nehorai, there was already another witness waiting in Usha and Rabbi Nehorai went to join him.

讗讬 讛讻讬 诪讗讬 诇诪讬诪专讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诪住驻讬拽讗 诇讗 诪讞诇诇讬谞谉 砖讘转讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks: If so, what is the purpose of stating this incident at all? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that in a case of uncertainty one does not desecrate Shabbat, i.e., perhaps the witness in Usha would not be present that day, which would mean that Rabbi Nehorai desecrated Shabbat for no reason. Therefore, the Tosefta teaches us that for the important purpose of the New Moon, Shabbat may be desecrated even in a doubtful case.

讻讬 讗转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 拽讚砖讜讛 诇讬专讞讗 讘诪注专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 注讜诇讗 讚讙讘专讗 专讘讛 讛讜讗 讚诪讛讬诪谉 讗诇讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注诇诪讗 谞诪讬 诪讛讬诪谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚注讘讬讚讗 诇讗讙诇讜讬讬 诇讗 诪砖拽专讬 讘讛 讗讬谞砖讬 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讘讗 讗讞讚 讘住讜祝 讛注讜诇诐 讜讗诪专 拽讚砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖 谞讗诪谉

When Ulla came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: They sanctified the New Moon on a certain date in the West, Eretz Yisrael. Although Ulla was the only witness, his testimony was accepted. Rav Kahana said: It is not necessary to say that Ulla, who is a great man, is deemed credible with regard to such testimony. Rather, even an ordinary person is deemed credible in this case, and there is no need for two witnesses. What is the reason for this? With regard to any matter that is likely to be revealed, people do not lie about it.The Gemara comments that this is also taught in a baraita: If one person comes from the other end of the world and says: The court sanctified the new month, he is deemed credible. There is no need for two witnesses.

讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注讚讜转 讛讞讚砖 诪讻诇 讗讚诐 讜讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讛 拽诇拽讜诇 拽诇拽诇讜 讛讘讬讬转讜住讬谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘拽砖讜 讘讬讬转讜住讬谉 诇讛讟注讜转 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐 砖讻专讜 砖谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讘讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 讝讜讝 讗讞讚 诪砖诇谞讜 讜讗讞讚 诪砖诇讛诐

The mishna taught: Initially, they would accept testimony to determine the start of the month from any person, and this continued until the Boethusians began to corrupt the process. The Sages taught a baraita that describes the decisive incident: What was the manner of the corruption in which the Boethusians engaged? Once, the Boethusians tried to mislead the Sages with regard to the day of the new moon. They hired two people for four hundred dinars to testify falsely that they had seen the new moon on the thirtieth day of the month. One of them was from our own, i.e., a member of the Pharisees and the Sages of Israel, and the other was one of theirs.

砖诇讛诐 讛注讬讚 注讚讜转讜 讜讬爪讗 砖诇谞讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗诪讜专 讻讬爪讚 专讗讬转 讗转 讛诇讘谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛诐 注讜诇讛 讛讬讬转讬 讘诪注诇讛 讗讚讜诪讬诐 讜专讗讬转讬讜 砖讛讜讗 专讘讜抓 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 住诇注讬诐 专讗砖讜 讚讜诪讛 诇注讙诇 讗讝谞讬讜 讚讜诪讬谉 诇讙讚讬 拽专谞讬讜 讚讜诪讜转 诇爪讘讬 讜讝谞讘讜 诪讜谞讞转 诇讜 讘讬谉 讬专讻讜转讬讜 讜讛爪爪转讬 讘讜 讜谞专转注转讬 讜谞驻诇转讬 诇讗讞讜专讬 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 讗转诐 诪讗诪讬谞讬诐 诇讬 讛专讬 诪讗转讬诐 讝讜讝 爪专讜专讬谉 诇讬 讘住讚讬谞讬

When they went in to testify, their witness submitted his testimony that he had seen the new moon, and then he left. When our witness came to testify, they said to him, in the customary manner: Say how you saw the moon. He said to them: I was ascending in Ma鈥檃le Adumim and I saw that the new moon was crouched between two rocks. Its head was like that of a calf, its ears were like those of a kid, its horns were like those of a deer, and its tail was lying between its thighs. And I looked at it and was frightened and I fell backward. And if you do not believe me that this is what I saw, there are two hundred dinars wrapped in my cloak that were paid to me to deliver this testimony.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讬 讛讝拽讬拽讱 诇讻讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 砖诪注转讬 砖讘拽砖讜 讘讬讬转讜住讬诐 诇讛讟注讜转 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专转讬 讗诇讱 讗谞讬 讜讗讜讚讬注 诇讛诐 砖诪讗 讬讘讜讗讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讗讬谞诐 诪讛讜讙谞讬谉 讜讬讟注讜 讗转 讞讻诪讬诐

Realizing that the testimony of the first witness was also false, the Sages said to him: Who persuaded you to act in this manner? He said to them: I heard that the Boethusians were seeking to mislead the Sages, and I said to myself: I will go and hire myself out to give false testimony, and I will inform the Sages of the truth, lest unworthy people come and mislead the Sages.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪讗转讬诐 讝讜讝 谞转讜谞讬谉 诇讱 讘诪转谞讛 讜讛砖讜讻专讱 讬诪转讞 注诇 讛注诪讜讚 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛诪讻讬专讬谉

The Sages said to him: The two hundred dinars that you received from the Boethusians are given to you as a gift. Although you did not carry out your mission, the court is authorized to declare the money ownerless and award it to you. And the one who hired you shall be stretched out on the post for flogging. At that time the Sages instituted that they would accept testimony about the new moon only from those men who were familiar to the Great Sanhedrin as qualified witnesses.

诪转谞讬壮 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪砖拽诇拽诇讜 讛讻讜转讬诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉

MISHNA: Initially, after the court sanctified the new month they would light torches on the mountaintops, from one peak to another, to signal to the community in Babylonia that the month had been sanctified. After the Samaritans [Kutim] corrupted and ruined this method by lighting torches at the wrong times to confuse the Jews, the Sages instituted that messengers should go out to the Diaspora and inform them of the start of the month.

讻讬爪讚 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讜谞住讗讜转 砖诇 讗专讝 讗专讜讻讬谉 讜拽谞讬诐 讜注爪讬 砖诪谉 讜谞注讜专转 砖诇 驻砖转谉 讜讻讜专讱 讘诪砖讬讞讛 讜注讜诇讛 诇专讗砖 讛讛专 讜诪爪讬转 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讗讜专 讜诪讜诇讬讱 讜诪讘讬讗 讜诪注诇讛 讜诪讜专讬讚 注讚 砖讛讜讗 专讜讗讛 讗转 讞讘讬专讜 砖讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讻谉 讘专讗砖 讛讛专 讛砖谞讬 讜讻谉 讘专讗砖 讛讛专 讛砖诇讬砖讬

The mishna asks: How would they light the torches during that earlier period? They would bring items that burn well, e.g., long poles of cedar, reeds, pinewood, and beaten flax, and tie them together with a string. And someone would then ascend to the top of the mountain and light the torch on fire with them, and wave it back and forth and up and down, until he would see his colleague doing likewise on the top of the second mountain. In this manner he would know that the next messenger had received the message and passed it on. And similarly, the second torchbearer would wait for a signal from the one on the top of the third mountain, and so on. In this manner the message would reach the Diaspora.

讜诪讗讬谉 讛讬讜 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诪讛专 讛诪砖讞讛 诇住专讟讘讗 讜诪住专讟讘讗 诇讙专讜驻讬谞讗 讜诪讙专讜驻讬谞讗 诇讞讜讜专谉 讜诪讞讜讜专谉 诇讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 讜诪讘讬转 讘诇转讬谉 诇讗 讝讝讜 诪砖诐 讗诇讗 诪讜诇讬讱 讜诪讘讬讗 讜诪注诇讛 讜诪讜专讬讚 注讚 砖讛讬讛 专讜讗讛 讻诇 讛讙讜诇讛 诇驻谞讬讜 讻诪讚讜专转 讛讗砖

And from which mountains would they light the torches? They would transmit the message from the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem to Sartava, and from Sartava to Gerofina, and from Gerofina to 岣vran, and from 岣vran to Beit Baltin. And from Beit Baltin they would not move to light torches in any other predetermined location. Rather, the one who was appointed for this task would wave the torch back and forth and up and down, until he would see the entire Diaspora before him alight like one large bonfire, as they would light torches to continue transmitting the message from place to place all the way to the farthest reaches of the Diaspora.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讬拽讜讚 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖讗诐 讚讜讚 讜讗谞砖讬讜 讜诪转专讙诪讬谞谉 讜讗讜拽讚讬谞谉 讚讜讚

GEMARA: The mishna taught that they would light torches [masi鈥檌n]. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that the term masi鈥檌n is an expression of burning? As it is written: 鈥Vayisa鈥檈m David and his men鈥 (II Samuel 5:21), and we translate the verse as: And David and his men burned them.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 讗诇讗 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讗讬诪转讬 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: Torches were lit only for a new month whose moon was seen at its proper time, i.e., on the thirtieth day of the outgoing month, to sanctify the upcoming New Moon on that date and declare the previous month as containing twenty-nine days. In this case, the thirtieth day would be declared the first day of the following month. And when would they light the torches? It was on the eve of its additional day, the one that would have been added had it been a full, thirty-day month, i.e., on the eve of the thirty-first day of the outgoing month.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讗讞住专 注讘讚讬谞谉 讗诪诇讗 诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讙讝讬专讛 诪砖讜诐 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讞住专 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗讬诪转 注讘讚讬 讘讗驻讜拽讬 砖讘转讗 讚讗讬 讗诪专转 谞注讘讬讚 谞诪讬 讗诪诇讗 讗转讜

The Gemara asks: Is this to say that for the conclusion of a deficient month of twenty-nine days one performs the sequence of lighting torches, but for a full month one does not perform it? What is the reason for this? Rabbi Zeira said: This is a rabbinic decree that was instituted due to the case of a New Moon following a deficient, twenty-nine-day month that occurs on Shabbat eve. In that case, when do they perform the lighting? At the conclusion of Shabbat, as it is prohibited to light a fire on Friday night. The reason for the decree is that if you say that one performs the lighting of torches for a full, thirty-day month as well, people might come

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