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Today's Daf Yomi

June 2, 2014 | 讚壮 讘住讬讜谉 转砖注状讚

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 25

讜注专讘讬转 讘诪注专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 注讚讬 砖拽专 讛诐 讻砖讘讗讜 诇讬讘谞讛 拽讬讘诇谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

and that same day we saw the new moon in the evening in the west. Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said: They are false witnesses, as it is impossible to see the new moon so soon after the last sighting of the waning moon. However, when they arrived in Yavne, Rabban Gamliel accepted them as witnesses without concern.

讜注讜讚 讘讗讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 讘讝诪谞讜 讜讘诇讬诇 注讬讘讜专讜 诇讗 谞专讗讛 讜拽讬讘诇谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

And there was another incident in which two witnesses came and said: We saw the new moon at its anticipated time, i.e., on the night of the thirtieth day of the previous month; however, on the following night, i.e., the start of the thirty-first, which is often the determinant of a full, thirty-day month, it was not seen. And nevertheless Rabban Gamliel accepted their testimony and established the New Moon on the thirtieth day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛讜专讻讬谞住 注讚讬 砖拽专 讛谉 讛讬讗讱 诪注讬讚讬诐 注诇 讛讗砖讛 砖讬诇讚讛 讜诇诪讞专 讻专讬住讛 讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 专讜讗讛 讗谞讬 讗转 讚讘专讬讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讙讜讝专谞讬 注诇讬讱 砖转讘讗 讗爪诇讬 讘诪拽诇讱 讜讘诪注讜转讬讱 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞砖讘讜谞讱

Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas disagreed and said: They are false witnesses; how can witnesses testify that a woman gave birth and the next day her belly is between her teeth, i.e., she is obviously still pregnant? If the new moon was already visible at its anticipated time, how could it not be seen a day later? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: I see the logic of your statement; the New Moon must be established a day later. Upon hearing that Rabbi Yehoshua had challenged his ruling, Rabban Gamliel sent a message to him: I decree against you that you must appear before me with your staff and with your money on the day on which Yom Kippur occurs according to your calculation; according to my calculation, that day is the eleventh of Tishrei, the day after Yom Kippur.

讛诇讱 讜诪爪讗讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讬爪专 讗诪专 诇讜 讬砖 诇讬 诇诇诪讜讚 砖讻诇 诪讛 砖注砖讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 注砖讜讬 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 诪拽专讗讬 拽讚砖 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗转诐 讘讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞谉 讗讬谉 诇讬 诪讜注讚讜转 讗诇讗 讗诇讜

Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. In an attempt to console him, Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I can learn from a verse that everything that Rabban Gamliel did in sanctifying the month is done, i.e., it is valid. As it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations, which you shall proclaim in their season鈥 (Leviticus 23:4). This verse indicates that whether you have proclaimed them at their proper time or whether you have declared them not at their proper time, I have only these Festivals as established by the representatives of the Jewish people.

讘讗 诇讜 讗爪诇 专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛讜专讻讬谞住 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讘讗讬谉 讗谞讜 诇讚讜谉 讗讞专 讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 爪专讬讻讬谉 讗谞讜 诇讚讜谉 讗讞专 讻诇 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖注诪讚 诪讬诪讜转 诪砖讛 讜注讚 注讻砖讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诇 诪砖讛 讜讗讛专谉 谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗 讜砖讘注讬诐 诪讝拽谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜诇诪讛 诇讗 谞转驻专砖讜 砖诪讜转谉 砖诇 讝拽谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诇诇诪讚 砖讻诇 砖诇砖讛 讜砖诇砖讛 砖注诪讚讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 诪砖讛

Rabbi Yehoshua then came to Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas, who said to him: If we come to debate and question the rulings of the court of Rabban Gamliel, we must debate and question the rulings of every court that has stood from the days of Moses until now. As it is stated: 鈥淭hen Moses went up, and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu, and seventy of the Elders of Israel鈥 (Exodus 24:9). But why were the names of these seventy Elders not specified? Rather, this comes to teach that every set of three judges that stands as a court over the Jewish people has the same status as the court of Moses. Since it is not revealed who sat on that court, apparently it is enough that they were official judges in a Jewish court.

谞讟诇 诪拽诇讜 讜诪注讜转讬讜 讘讬讚讜 讜讛诇讱 诇讬讘谞讛 讗爪诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘讬讜诐 砖讞诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞砖讘讜谞讜 注诪讚 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜谞砖拽讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讜讗 讘砖诇讜诐 专讘讬 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 讘讞讻诪讛 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 砖拽讘诇转 讗转 讚讘专讬

When Rabbi Yehoshua heard that even Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas maintained that they must submit to Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 decision, he took his staff and his money in his hand, and went to Yavne to Rabban Gamliel on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred according to his own calculation. Upon seeing him, Rabban Gamliel stood up and kissed him on his head. He said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student. You are my teacher in wisdom, as Rabbi Yehoshua was wiser than anyone else in his generation, and you are my student, as you accepted my statement, despite your disagreement.

讙诪壮 转谞讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讞讻诪讬诐 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 驻注诪讬诐 砖讘讗 讘讗专讜讻讛 讜驻注诪讬诐 砖讘讗 讘拽爪专讛

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages, in explanation of his opinion that it is possible for the new moon to be visible so soon after the last sighting of the waning moon: This is the tradition that I received from the house of my father鈥檚 father: Sometimes the moon comes by a long path and sometimes it comes by a short one.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讬专讞 诇诪讜注讚讬诐 砖诪砖 讬讚注 诪讘讜讗讜 砖诪砖 讛讜讗 讚讬讚注 诪讘讜讗讜 讬专讞 诇讗 讬讚注 诪讘讜讗讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the reason for the opinion of the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, i.e., the house of the heads of the Great Sanhedrin, the source of Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 ruling? As it is written: 鈥淲ho appointed the moon for seasons; the sun knows its going down鈥 (Psalms 104:19). This verse indicates that it is only the sun that knows its going down, i.e., its seasons and the times that it shines are the same every year. In contrast, the moon does not know its going down, as its course is not identical every month.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讞讝讬讬讗 诇住讬讛专讗 讚讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讘爪驻专讗 讚注砖专讬诐 讜转砖注讛 砖拽诇 拽诇讗 驻转拽 讘讬讛 讗诪专 诇讗讜专转讗 讘注讬谞谉 诇拽讚讜砖讬 讘讱 讜讗转 拽讬讬诪转 讛讻讗 讝讬诇 讗讬讻住讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诇专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讝讬诇 诇注讬谉 讟讘 讜拽讚砖讬讛 诇讬专讞讗 讜砖诇讞 诇讬 住讬诪谞讗 讚讜讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 讞讬 讜拽讬诐

搂 The Gemara relates that Rabbi 岣yya once saw the waning moon standing in the sky on the morning of the twenty-ninth of the month. He took a clump of earth and threw it at the moon, saying: This evening we need to sanctify you, i.e., the new moon must be visible tonight so that we may declare the thirtieth of the month as the New Moon, and you are still standing here? Go and cover yourself for now, so that the new moon will be seen only after nightfall. The Gemara further relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once said to Rabbi 岣yya: Go to a place called Ein Tav and sanctify the New Moon there, and send me a sign that you have sanctified it. The sign is: David, king of Israel, lives and endures.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞转拽砖专讜 砖诪讬诐 讘注讘讬诐 讜谞专讗讬转 讚诪讜转 诇讘谞讛 讘注砖专讬诐 讜转砖注讛 诇讞讚砖 讻住讘讜专讬诐 讛注诐 诇讜诪专 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讜讘拽砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诇拽讚砖讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 讗讬谉 讞讚讜砖讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 驻讞讜转讛 诪注砖专讬诐 讜转砖注讛 讬讜诐 讜诪讞爪讛 讜砖谞讬 砖诇讬砖讬 砖注讛 讜砖讘注讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 讞诇拽讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: Once the sky was covered with clouds, and the form of the moon was visible on the twenty-ninth of the month. The people thought to say that the day was the New Moon, and the court sought to sanctify it. However, Rabban Gamliel said to them: This is the tradition that I received from the house of my father鈥檚 father: The monthly cycle of the renewal of the moon takes no less than twenty-nine and a half days, plus two-thirds of an hour, plus seventy-three of the 1,080 subsections of an hour.

讜讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 诪转讛 讗诪讜 砖诇 讘谉 讝讝讗 讜讛住驻讬讚讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛住驻讚 讙讚讜诇 诇讗 诪驻谞讬 砖专讗讜讬讛 诇讻讱 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讚注讜 讛注诐 砖诇讗 拽讬讚砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖

The baraita continues: And on that day the mother of the Sage ben Zaza died, and Rabban Gamliel delivered a great eulogy on her behalf. He did this not because she was worthy of this honor; rather, he eulogized her so that the people would know that the court had not sanctified the month, as eulogies are prohibited on the New Moon.

讛诇讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诪爪讗讜 诪讬爪专 讻讜壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讬 诪讬爪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讬爪专 讗讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讬爪专 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讛诇讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诪爪讗讜 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讻砖讛讜讗 诪讬爪专 讗诪专 诇讜 [ 专讘讬] 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讬爪专 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 专讗讜讬 诇讜 砖讬驻讜诇 诇诪讟讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜讗诇 讬讙讝讜专 注诇讬讜 讙讝讬专讛 讝讜

搂 The mishna taught that Rabbi Akiva went and found him distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Who was distressed? Was Rabbi Akiva distressed or was Rabbi Yehoshua distressed? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua in a state of distress, and he said to him: My teacher, for what reason are you distressed? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Rabbi Akiva, it is fitting for one to fall sick in bed for twelve months, rather than to have this decree issued against him that he should have to desecrate Yom Kippur.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 转专砖讬谞讬 诇讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讱 讚讘专 讗讞讚 砖诇诪讚转谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诪讜专 讗诪专 诇讜 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗转诐 讗转诐 讗转诐 砖诇砖 驻注诪讬诐

Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one matter that you yourself once taught me. He said to him: Speak. He said to him: It states with respect to the Festivals: 鈥淭he appointed seasons of the Lord, which you shall proclaim them [otam] to be sacred convocations (Leviticus 23:2). And it is written: 鈥淭hese are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations; you shall proclaim them [otam] in their season鈥 (Leviticus 23:4). And it is written: 鈥淭hese are the appointed seasons of the Lord; you shall proclaim them [otam] to be sacred convocations鈥 (Leviticus 23:37). Three times the verses use the term: Them [otam], which can also be read as you [atem], in plural.

讗转诐 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讜讙讙讬谉 讗转诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讝讬讚讬谉 讗转诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讜讟注讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛 讗诪专 诇讜 注拽讬讘讗 谞讞诪转谞讬 谞讞诪转谞讬

This comes to teach: You [atem] are authorized to determine the date of the new month, even if you unwittingly establish the New Moon on the wrong day; you, even if you do so intentionally; you, even if you are misled by false witnesses. In all cases, once the court establishes the day as the New Moon, it is sanctified, and God grants His consent. After hearing this, Rabbi Yehoshua said to him in these words: Akiva, you have consoled me; you have consoled me.

讘讗 诇讜 讗爪诇 专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛讜专讻讬谞住 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇诪讛 诇讗 谞转驻专砖讜 砖诪讜转诐 砖诇 讝拽谞讬诐 讛诇诇讜 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 驻诇讜谞讬 讻诪砖讛 讜讗讛专谉 驻诇讜谞讬 讻谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗 驻诇讜谞讬 讻讗诇讚讚 讜诪讬讚讚

搂 The mishna taught that Rabbi Yehoshua next came to Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas, who proved to him that the court of Rabban Gamliel has the same legal status as the court of Moses. The Sages taught in a baraita: Why were the names of these seventy Elders who sat together with Moses on his court not specified? The reason is so that a person not say: Is so-and-so the judge in my time, like Moses and Aaron? Is so-and-so like Nadav and Avihu? Is so-and-so like Eldad and Medad? Therefore, the names of the other elders were not specified, so that there is no way of knowing the qualifications of the elders in the time of Moses to compare them to later judges.

讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗诇 讛注诐 讛壮 讗砖专 注砖讛 讗转 诪砖讛 讜讗转 讗讛专谉 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬砖诇讞 讛壮 讗转 讬专讜讘注诇 讜讗转 讘讚谉 讜讗转 讬驻转讞 讜讗转 砖诪讜讗诇 讬专讜讘注诇 讝讛 讙讚注讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讬专讜讘注诇 砖注砖讛 诪专讬讘讛 注诐 讛讘注诇 讘讚谉 讝讛 砖诪砖讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讘讚谉 讚讗转讬 诪讚谉 讬驻转讞 讻诪砖诪注讜

And similarly it says: 鈥淎nd Samuel said to the people: It is the Lord Who made Moses and Aaron鈥 (I Samuel 12:6). And it says further: 鈥淎nd the Lord sent Jerubaal and Bedan and Jephthah and Samuel鈥 (I Samuel 12:11). The Gemara explains: Jerubaal, this is Gideon. And why is he called Jerubaal? The reason is that he waged a quarrel against Baal. Bedan, this is Samson. And why is he called Bedan? As he came from the tribe of Dan. Jephthah, in accordance with its regular meaning, i.e., this is referring to Jephthah himself and is not a nickname.

讜讗讜诪专 诪砖讛 讜讗讛专谉 讘讻讛谞讬讜 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讘拽讜专讗讬 砖诪讜 砖拽诇 讛讻转讜讘 砖诇砖讛 拽诇讬 注讜诇诐 讻砖诇砖讛 讞诪讜专讬 注讜诇诐

And it says in another verse: 鈥淢oses and Aaron among His priests, and Samuel among those who call His name; they called upon the Lord, and He answered them鈥 (Psalms 99:6). This verse equates Samuel to Moses and Aaron. In this manner, the verse weighed three light ones of the world, i.e., it considered the three less distinguished figures of Gideon, Samson, and Jephthah as equal to three significant ones of the world, Moses, Aaron, and Samuel, three of the greatest leaders of the Jewish people.

诇讜诪专 诇讱 讬专讜讘注诇 讘讚讜专讜 讻诪砖讛 讘讚讜专讜 讘讚谉 讘讚讜专讜 讻讗讛专谉 讘讚讜专讜 讬驻转讞 讘讚讜专讜 讻砖诪讜讗诇 讘讚讜专讜 诇诇诪讚讱 砖讗驻讬诇讜 拽诇 砖讘拽诇讬谉 讜谞转诪谞讛 驻专谞住 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讗讘讬专 砖讘讗讘讬专讬诐

This comes to tell you that Jerubaal in his generation is worthy of being treated like Moses in his generation; Bedan in his generation is like Aaron in his generation; and Jephthah in his generation is like Samuel in his generation. This serves to teach you that even the lightest of the light, i.e., the least distinguished individual, once he has been appointed as a leader over the community, he must be treated like the greatest of the great, and all are required to heed him and obey his rulings.

讜讗讜诪专 讜讘讗转 讗诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诇 讛砖驻讟 讗砖专 讬讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诐 讜讻讬 转注诇讛 注诇 讚注转讱 砖讗讚诐 讛讜诇讱 讗爪诇 讛讚讬讬谉 砖诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬讜 讛讗 讗讬谉 诇讱 诇讬诇讱 讗诇讗 讗爪诇 砖讜驻讟 砖讘讬诪讬讜 讜讗讜诪专 讗诇 转讗诪专 诪讛 讛讬讛 砖讛讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讛讬讜 讟讜讘讬诐 诪讗诇讛

And it further says: 鈥淎nd you shall come to the priests, the Levites, and to the judge who shall be in those days鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:9). But can it enter your mind that a person can go to a judge that is not alive in his days? What, then, is the meaning of the phrase 鈥渋n those days鈥? It teaches that you need to go only to the judge in one鈥檚 days, i.e., he is authorized to judge and decide matters. And it also says: 鈥淒o not say: How was it that the former days were better than these? For it is not out of wisdom that you inquire concerning this鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:10). Instead, one must accept the rulings of the leaders of his generation.

谞讟诇 诪拽诇讜 讜诪注讜转讬讜 讘讬讚讜 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬讜谉 砖专讗讛 讗讜转讜 注诪讚 诪讻住讗讜 讜谞砖拽讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 注诇讬讱 专讘讬 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 砖诇诪讚转谞讬 转讜专讛 讘专讘讬诐 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 砖讗谞讬 讙讜讝专 注诇讬讱 讙讝讬专讛 讜讗转讛 诪拽讬讬诪讛 讻转诇诪讬讚 讗砖专讬 讛讚讜专 砖讛讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞砖诪注讬诐 诇拽讟谞讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 拽讟谞讬诐 诇讙讚讜诇讬诐

搂 The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehoshua took his staff and his money in his hand, and appeared before Rabban Gamliel on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred according to his calculation, as Rabban Gamliel had ordered him to do. The Sages taught in a baraita: When Rabban Gamliel saw Rabbi Yehoshua, he rose from his chair and kissed him on his head and said to him: Peace be on you, my teacher and my student. My teacher, as you have taught me Torah in public, and my student, as I issue a decree against you and you fulfill it like a student of mine. Fortunate is the generation in which the greater heed the lesser, and it is an a fortiori inference that the generation in which the lesser heed the greater is certainly fortunate as well.

拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讞讬讜讘讗 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讛讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞砖诪注讬诐 诇拽讟谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 拽讟谞讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪谉

The Gemara questions this last point: Is this derived by an a fortiori inference? This is incorrect, as it is an obligation for the lesser to heed those who are greater than them. Rather, Rabbi Gamliel meant the following: Since the greater heed the lesser, the lesser apply an a fortiori inference to themselves and heed the leaders of the generation.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讻讬专讬谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 谞讞拽专讜 讛注讚讬诐 讜诇讗 讛住驻讬拽讜 诇讜诪专 诪拽讜讚砖 注讚 砖讞砖讬讻讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪注讜讘专

MISHNA: If the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon, and the witnesses were interrogated, but the court did not manage to say: Sanctified, before nightfall, so that the thirtieth day already passed, the previous month is rendered a full, thirty-day month, and the following day is observed as the New Moon.

专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘诇讘讚 讬注诪讚讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪拽讜讚砖 诪拽讜讚砖 专讗讜讛讜 砖诇砖讛 讜讛谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬注诪讚讜 讛砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜砖讬讘讜 诪讞讘讬专讬讛诐 讗爪诇 讛讬讞讬讚 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪拽讜讚砖 诪拽讜讚砖 砖讗讬谉 讛讬讞讬讚 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讬讚讬 注爪诪讜

If the court alone saw the new moon, two members of the court should stand and testify before the others, and the court should say: Sanctified, sanctified. If three people saw the new moon, and they are themselves members of a court for this purpose, two of them should stand and seat two of their colleagues next to the individual who remains of the three, thereby forming a new court of three. The two standing judges should then testify before the three seated judges that they saw the new moon and the seated judges say: Sanctified, sanctified. This procedure is necessary because an individual is not authorized to declare the month sanctified by himself. Rather, a court of three is required.

讙诪壮 诇诪讛 诇讬 诇诪讬转谞讗 专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬爪讟专讬讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬驻专住诪讗 诇讛 讜诇讗 诇讬注讘专讜讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Why do I need the mishna to teach: If the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon? Merely stating that the court saw the moon would have sufficed, since its sanctification depends on them. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the mishna to teach that even in that case, the month is intercalated. As it might enter your mind to say that since the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon, it was publicized that it was the New Moon that day, and let them no longer intercalate the month. Therefore, the tanna of the mishna teaches us that even in the case where all the Jewish people saw the new moon, the New Moon must be declared by the court.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚转谞讗 诇讬讛 专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 谞讞拽专讜 讛注讚讬诐 诇诪讛 诇讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬 谞诪讬 谞讞拽专讜 讛注讚讬诐 讜诇讗 讛住驻讬拽讜 诇讜诪专 诪拽讜讚砖 注讚 砖讞砖讬讻讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪注讜讘专

The Gemara asks further: But once the mishna states: If the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon, why do I need it to say: And the witnesses were interrogated? Why are witnesses necessary if the new moon was already seen by the court? The Gemara answers that this is what the tanna is saying: Alternatively, if the witnesses were interrogated, but the court had no time to say: Sanctified, before nightfall, the previous month is intercalated and rendered a full month of thirty days.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚转谞讗 注讚 砖讞砖讬讻讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪注讜讘专 诇诪讛 诇讬 诇诪讬转谞讬讬讛 讞拽讬专转 讛注讚讬诐 讻诇诇

The Gemara raises another difficulty. But once the mishna taught: But the court did not manage to say: Sanctified, before nightfall, the previous month is rendered a full, thirty-day month, why do I need the mishna to teach about the interrogation of the witnesses? This halakha was already stated with regard to a case where the court itself saw the new moon.

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 转讬讛讜讬 讞拽讬专转 注讚讬诐 讻转讞讬诇转 讚讬谉 讜诪拽讜讚砖 诪拽讜讚砖 讻讙诪专 讚讬谉 讜诇拽讚砖讬 讘诇讬诇讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转 讚转谞谉 讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转 讚谞讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讜讙讜诪专讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诪拽讚砖讬谉 讘诇讬诇讬讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara explains: It was necessary, as it might enter your mind to say: Let the interrogation of the witnesses be regarded as the beginning of the judicial process, and let the declaration: Sanctified, sanctified, be regarded as the conclusion of the judicial process, and let them sanctify the month at night, because the process began during the day. This process would then be just as it is in cases of monetary law, as we learned in a mishna: In cases of monetary law, although they must be adjudicated during the day, the court may judge the majority of a case during the day, and complete the trial and issue the ruling at night. Here too, one might assume that the court may sanctify the month at night, as the process began during the day. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that the court may not do so.

讜讗讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘 讗讬诪转 讛讜讬 讞拽 讘讙诪专 讚讬谉 讜拽讗 拽专讬 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诪砖驻讟 诪讛 诪砖驻讟 讘讬讜诐 讗祝 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara raises another difficulty: Why not say that, indeed, the sanctification of the month should be treated like monetary cases? The Gemara answers: The verse states with regard to Rosh HaShana: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel, a judgment [mishpat] of the God of Jacob鈥 (Psalms 81:5). When does the sanctification of the month become a statute? At the end of the judicial process, and the Merciful One calls it a judgment as well, thereby teaching that just as the primary time of a judgment is during the day, here too, with regard to the sanctification of the New Moon, the process must take place during the day, and not at night.

专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬注诪讚讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讗诪讗讬 诇讗 转讛讗 砖诪讬注讛 讙讚讜诇讛 诪专讗讬讬讛

搂 The mishna continues: If the court alone saw the new moon, two members of the court should stand and testify before the others. The Gemara ponders: If the court saw the new moon, why is it necessary for two of its members to testify before the others? Hearing their testimony should not be greater than actually seeing the new moon.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讻讙讜谉 砖专讗讜讛讜 讘诇讬诇讛

The Gemara responds that Rabbi Zeira said: The mishna is addressing a case where the court saw the new moon at night. Because they saw it at night, their testimony is inadmissible at that time, as testimonies are admissible only during the day. They must therefore wait until the following day and testify as any ordinary person would.

专讗讜讛讜 砖诇砖讛 讜讛谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬注诪讚讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜砖讬讘讜 诪讞讘讬专讬讛诐 讗爪诇 讛讬讞讬讚 讗诪讗讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 谞讬诪讗 诇讗 转讛讗 砖诪讬注讛 讙讚讜诇讛 诪专讗讬讬讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讙讜谉 砖专讗讜讛讜 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讛讱

The mishna continues: If three people saw the new moon, and they are themselves members of a court for this purpose, two of them should stand and seat two of their colleagues next to the individual who remains of the three. The Gemara asks: Why is this necessary? Here too, let us say: Hearing their testimony should not be greater than actually seeing the new moon. And if you say that here too, the mishna is addressing a case where they saw the new moon at night, this case is identical to that previous one, and there would be no need for two separate rulings.

住讬驻讗 讗讬爪讟专讬讻讗 诇讬讛 讚讗讬谉 讛讬讞讬讚 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讬讚讬 注爪诪讜 讚住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转谞谉 讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转 讘砖诇砖讛 讜讗诐 讛讬讛 诪讜诪讞讛 诇专讘讬诐 讚谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 谞讬拽讚砖讬讛 讘讬讞讬讚讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach the last clause, which states: Because an individual is not deemed credible and authorized to declare the month sanctified by himself. For it might enter your mind to say that since we learned in a baraita: Cases of monetary law are adjudicated by a court of three judges, but if a person was a publicly recognized expert, he may judge monetary matters even individually, then here too, one judge should be authorized to sanctify the month individually if he is a recognized expert. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that this is not so, and that three judges are required for the sanctification of the month.

讜讗讬诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗讬谉 诇讱 诪讜诪讞讛 诇专讘讬诐 讘讬砖专讗诇 讬讜转专 诪诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注讚 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讛专谉 讘讛讚讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 诪砖讛 讜讗诇 讗讛专谉 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 诇讗诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐

The Gemara asks: But why not say that here too, a recognized expert can sanctify the month individually? The Gemara rejects this possibility: But certainly there was no publicly recognized expert among the Jewish people greater than our teacher Moses, and nevertheless the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: You may not sanctify the new month until Aaron is with you, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, this month shall be for you the beginning of months鈥 (Exodus 12:1鈥2), where the word 鈥測ou鈥 is in the plural form. And since, to avoid deadlock, a court cannot be composed of an even number of judges, another judge must be added. It is therefore apparent that three judges are required for the sanctification of the month by Torah law.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚注讚 谞注砖讛 讚讬讬谉 诇讬诪讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚转谞讬讗 住谞讛讚专讬谉 砖专讗讜 讗讞讚 砖讛专讙 讗转 讛谞驻砖

The Gemara asks: Is this to say that a witness becomes a judge, i.e., that one who witnessed an event can himself serve as a judge concerning the matter? Let us say that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, for it was taught in a baraita: If the Sanhedrin saw someone kill another person,

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

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Rosh Hashanah 25

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Rosh Hashanah 25

讜注专讘讬转 讘诪注专讘 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 注讚讬 砖拽专 讛诐 讻砖讘讗讜 诇讬讘谞讛 拽讬讘诇谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

and that same day we saw the new moon in the evening in the west. Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said: They are false witnesses, as it is impossible to see the new moon so soon after the last sighting of the waning moon. However, when they arrived in Yavne, Rabban Gamliel accepted them as witnesses without concern.

讜注讜讚 讘讗讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讗诪专讜 专讗讬谞讜讛讜 讘讝诪谞讜 讜讘诇讬诇 注讬讘讜专讜 诇讗 谞专讗讛 讜拽讬讘诇谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇

And there was another incident in which two witnesses came and said: We saw the new moon at its anticipated time, i.e., on the night of the thirtieth day of the previous month; however, on the following night, i.e., the start of the thirty-first, which is often the determinant of a full, thirty-day month, it was not seen. And nevertheless Rabban Gamliel accepted their testimony and established the New Moon on the thirtieth day.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛讜专讻讬谞住 注讚讬 砖拽专 讛谉 讛讬讗讱 诪注讬讚讬诐 注诇 讛讗砖讛 砖讬诇讚讛 讜诇诪讞专 讻专讬住讛 讘讬谉 砖讬谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 专讜讗讛 讗谞讬 讗转 讚讘专讬讱 砖诇讞 诇讜 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讙讜讝专谞讬 注诇讬讱 砖转讘讗 讗爪诇讬 讘诪拽诇讱 讜讘诪注讜转讬讱 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞砖讘讜谞讱

Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas disagreed and said: They are false witnesses; how can witnesses testify that a woman gave birth and the next day her belly is between her teeth, i.e., she is obviously still pregnant? If the new moon was already visible at its anticipated time, how could it not be seen a day later? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: I see the logic of your statement; the New Moon must be established a day later. Upon hearing that Rabbi Yehoshua had challenged his ruling, Rabban Gamliel sent a message to him: I decree against you that you must appear before me with your staff and with your money on the day on which Yom Kippur occurs according to your calculation; according to my calculation, that day is the eleventh of Tishrei, the day after Yom Kippur.

讛诇讱 讜诪爪讗讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讬爪专 讗诪专 诇讜 讬砖 诇讬 诇诇诪讜讚 砖讻诇 诪讛 砖注砖讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 注砖讜讬 砖谞讗诪专 讗诇讛 诪讜注讚讬 讛壮 诪拽专讗讬 拽讚砖 讗砖专 转拽专讗讜 讗转诐 讘讬谉 讘讝诪谞谉 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞谉 讗讬谉 诇讬 诪讜注讚讜转 讗诇讗 讗诇讜

Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. In an attempt to console him, Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yehoshua: I can learn from a verse that everything that Rabban Gamliel did in sanctifying the month is done, i.e., it is valid. As it is stated: 鈥淭hese are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations, which you shall proclaim in their season鈥 (Leviticus 23:4). This verse indicates that whether you have proclaimed them at their proper time or whether you have declared them not at their proper time, I have only these Festivals as established by the representatives of the Jewish people.

讘讗 诇讜 讗爪诇 专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛讜专讻讬谞住 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讘讗讬谉 讗谞讜 诇讚讜谉 讗讞专 讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 爪专讬讻讬谉 讗谞讜 诇讚讜谉 讗讞专 讻诇 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖注诪讚 诪讬诪讜转 诪砖讛 讜注讚 注讻砖讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬注诇 诪砖讛 讜讗讛专谉 谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗 讜砖讘注讬诐 诪讝拽谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜诇诪讛 诇讗 谞转驻专砖讜 砖诪讜转谉 砖诇 讝拽谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诇诇诪讚 砖讻诇 砖诇砖讛 讜砖诇砖讛 砖注诪讚讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 诪砖讛

Rabbi Yehoshua then came to Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas, who said to him: If we come to debate and question the rulings of the court of Rabban Gamliel, we must debate and question the rulings of every court that has stood from the days of Moses until now. As it is stated: 鈥淭hen Moses went up, and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu, and seventy of the Elders of Israel鈥 (Exodus 24:9). But why were the names of these seventy Elders not specified? Rather, this comes to teach that every set of three judges that stands as a court over the Jewish people has the same status as the court of Moses. Since it is not revealed who sat on that court, apparently it is enough that they were official judges in a Jewish court.

谞讟诇 诪拽诇讜 讜诪注讜转讬讜 讘讬讚讜 讜讛诇讱 诇讬讘谞讛 讗爪诇 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘讬讜诐 砖讞诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞砖讘讜谞讜 注诪讚 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜谞砖拽讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讜讗 讘砖诇讜诐 专讘讬 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 讘讞讻诪讛 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 砖拽讘诇转 讗转 讚讘专讬

When Rabbi Yehoshua heard that even Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas maintained that they must submit to Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 decision, he took his staff and his money in his hand, and went to Yavne to Rabban Gamliel on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred according to his own calculation. Upon seeing him, Rabban Gamliel stood up and kissed him on his head. He said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student. You are my teacher in wisdom, as Rabbi Yehoshua was wiser than anyone else in his generation, and you are my student, as you accepted my statement, despite your disagreement.

讙诪壮 转谞讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讞讻诪讬诐 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 驻注诪讬诐 砖讘讗 讘讗专讜讻讛 讜驻注诪讬诐 砖讘讗 讘拽爪专讛

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages, in explanation of his opinion that it is possible for the new moon to be visible so soon after the last sighting of the waning moon: This is the tradition that I received from the house of my father鈥檚 father: Sometimes the moon comes by a long path and sometimes it comes by a short one.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讬专讞 诇诪讜注讚讬诐 砖诪砖 讬讚注 诪讘讜讗讜 砖诪砖 讛讜讗 讚讬讚注 诪讘讜讗讜 讬专讞 诇讗 讬讚注 诪讘讜讗讜

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the reason for the opinion of the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, i.e., the house of the heads of the Great Sanhedrin, the source of Rabban Gamliel鈥檚 ruling? As it is written: 鈥淲ho appointed the moon for seasons; the sun knows its going down鈥 (Psalms 104:19). This verse indicates that it is only the sun that knows its going down, i.e., its seasons and the times that it shines are the same every year. In contrast, the moon does not know its going down, as its course is not identical every month.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讞讝讬讬讗 诇住讬讛专讗 讚讛讜讛 拽讗讬 讘爪驻专讗 讚注砖专讬诐 讜转砖注讛 砖拽诇 拽诇讗 驻转拽 讘讬讛 讗诪专 诇讗讜专转讗 讘注讬谞谉 诇拽讚讜砖讬 讘讱 讜讗转 拽讬讬诪转 讛讻讗 讝讬诇 讗讬讻住讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 诇专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讝讬诇 诇注讬谉 讟讘 讜拽讚砖讬讛 诇讬专讞讗 讜砖诇讞 诇讬 住讬诪谞讗 讚讜讚 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 讞讬 讜拽讬诐

搂 The Gemara relates that Rabbi 岣yya once saw the waning moon standing in the sky on the morning of the twenty-ninth of the month. He took a clump of earth and threw it at the moon, saying: This evening we need to sanctify you, i.e., the new moon must be visible tonight so that we may declare the thirtieth of the month as the New Moon, and you are still standing here? Go and cover yourself for now, so that the new moon will be seen only after nightfall. The Gemara further relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once said to Rabbi 岣yya: Go to a place called Ein Tav and sanctify the New Moon there, and send me a sign that you have sanctified it. The sign is: David, king of Israel, lives and endures.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞转拽砖专讜 砖诪讬诐 讘注讘讬诐 讜谞专讗讬转 讚诪讜转 诇讘谞讛 讘注砖专讬诐 讜转砖注讛 诇讞讚砖 讻住讘讜专讬诐 讛注诐 诇讜诪专 专讗砖 讞讚砖 讜讘拽砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 诇拽讚砖讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 讗讬谉 讞讚讜砖讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 驻讞讜转讛 诪注砖专讬诐 讜转砖注讛 讬讜诐 讜诪讞爪讛 讜砖谞讬 砖诇讬砖讬 砖注讛 讜砖讘注讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 讞诇拽讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: Once the sky was covered with clouds, and the form of the moon was visible on the twenty-ninth of the month. The people thought to say that the day was the New Moon, and the court sought to sanctify it. However, Rabban Gamliel said to them: This is the tradition that I received from the house of my father鈥檚 father: The monthly cycle of the renewal of the moon takes no less than twenty-nine and a half days, plus two-thirds of an hour, plus seventy-three of the 1,080 subsections of an hour.

讜讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 诪转讛 讗诪讜 砖诇 讘谉 讝讝讗 讜讛住驻讬讚讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛住驻讚 讙讚讜诇 诇讗 诪驻谞讬 砖专讗讜讬讛 诇讻讱 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讚注讜 讛注诐 砖诇讗 拽讬讚砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讗转 讛讞讚砖

The baraita continues: And on that day the mother of the Sage ben Zaza died, and Rabban Gamliel delivered a great eulogy on her behalf. He did this not because she was worthy of this honor; rather, he eulogized her so that the people would know that the court had not sanctified the month, as eulogies are prohibited on the New Moon.

讛诇讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诪爪讗讜 诪讬爪专 讻讜壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诪讬 诪讬爪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讬爪专 讗讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 诪讬爪专 转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讛诇讱 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诪爪讗讜 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讻砖讛讜讗 诪讬爪专 讗诪专 诇讜 [ 专讘讬] 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪讬爪专 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 专讗讜讬 诇讜 砖讬驻讜诇 诇诪讟讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讚砖 讜讗诇 讬讙讝讜专 注诇讬讜 讙讝讬专讛 讝讜

搂 The mishna taught that Rabbi Akiva went and found him distressed that the head of the Great Sanhedrin was forcing him to desecrate the day that he maintained was Yom Kippur. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Who was distressed? Was Rabbi Akiva distressed or was Rabbi Yehoshua distressed? The Gemara answers: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva went and found Rabbi Yehoshua in a state of distress, and he said to him: My teacher, for what reason are you distressed? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Rabbi Akiva, it is fitting for one to fall sick in bed for twelve months, rather than to have this decree issued against him that he should have to desecrate Yom Kippur.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 转专砖讬谞讬 诇讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讱 讚讘专 讗讞讚 砖诇诪讚转谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诪讜专 讗诪专 诇讜 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗转诐 讗转诐 讗转诐 砖诇砖 驻注诪讬诐

Rabbi Akiva said to him: My teacher, allow me to say before you one matter that you yourself once taught me. He said to him: Speak. He said to him: It states with respect to the Festivals: 鈥淭he appointed seasons of the Lord, which you shall proclaim them [otam] to be sacred convocations (Leviticus 23:2). And it is written: 鈥淭hese are the appointed seasons of the Lord, sacred convocations; you shall proclaim them [otam] in their season鈥 (Leviticus 23:4). And it is written: 鈥淭hese are the appointed seasons of the Lord; you shall proclaim them [otam] to be sacred convocations鈥 (Leviticus 23:37). Three times the verses use the term: Them [otam], which can also be read as you [atem], in plural.

讗转诐 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讜讙讙讬谉 讗转诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讝讬讚讬谉 讗转诐 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讜讟注讬谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛 讗诪专 诇讜 注拽讬讘讗 谞讞诪转谞讬 谞讞诪转谞讬

This comes to teach: You [atem] are authorized to determine the date of the new month, even if you unwittingly establish the New Moon on the wrong day; you, even if you do so intentionally; you, even if you are misled by false witnesses. In all cases, once the court establishes the day as the New Moon, it is sanctified, and God grants His consent. After hearing this, Rabbi Yehoshua said to him in these words: Akiva, you have consoled me; you have consoled me.

讘讗 诇讜 讗爪诇 专讘讬 讚讜住讗 讘谉 讛讜专讻讬谞住 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇诪讛 诇讗 谞转驻专砖讜 砖诪讜转诐 砖诇 讝拽谞讬诐 讛诇诇讜 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专 讗讚诐 驻诇讜谞讬 讻诪砖讛 讜讗讛专谉 驻诇讜谞讬 讻谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗 驻诇讜谞讬 讻讗诇讚讚 讜诪讬讚讚

搂 The mishna taught that Rabbi Yehoshua next came to Rabbi Dosa ben Horkinas, who proved to him that the court of Rabban Gamliel has the same legal status as the court of Moses. The Sages taught in a baraita: Why were the names of these seventy Elders who sat together with Moses on his court not specified? The reason is so that a person not say: Is so-and-so the judge in my time, like Moses and Aaron? Is so-and-so like Nadav and Avihu? Is so-and-so like Eldad and Medad? Therefore, the names of the other elders were not specified, so that there is no way of knowing the qualifications of the elders in the time of Moses to compare them to later judges.

讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗诇 讛注诐 讛壮 讗砖专 注砖讛 讗转 诪砖讛 讜讗转 讗讛专谉 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬砖诇讞 讛壮 讗转 讬专讜讘注诇 讜讗转 讘讚谉 讜讗转 讬驻转讞 讜讗转 砖诪讜讗诇 讬专讜讘注诇 讝讛 讙讚注讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讬专讜讘注诇 砖注砖讛 诪专讬讘讛 注诐 讛讘注诇 讘讚谉 讝讛 砖诪砖讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪讜 讘讚谉 讚讗转讬 诪讚谉 讬驻转讞 讻诪砖诪注讜

And similarly it says: 鈥淎nd Samuel said to the people: It is the Lord Who made Moses and Aaron鈥 (I Samuel 12:6). And it says further: 鈥淎nd the Lord sent Jerubaal and Bedan and Jephthah and Samuel鈥 (I Samuel 12:11). The Gemara explains: Jerubaal, this is Gideon. And why is he called Jerubaal? The reason is that he waged a quarrel against Baal. Bedan, this is Samson. And why is he called Bedan? As he came from the tribe of Dan. Jephthah, in accordance with its regular meaning, i.e., this is referring to Jephthah himself and is not a nickname.

讜讗讜诪专 诪砖讛 讜讗讛专谉 讘讻讛谞讬讜 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讘拽讜专讗讬 砖诪讜 砖拽诇 讛讻转讜讘 砖诇砖讛 拽诇讬 注讜诇诐 讻砖诇砖讛 讞诪讜专讬 注讜诇诐

And it says in another verse: 鈥淢oses and Aaron among His priests, and Samuel among those who call His name; they called upon the Lord, and He answered them鈥 (Psalms 99:6). This verse equates Samuel to Moses and Aaron. In this manner, the verse weighed three light ones of the world, i.e., it considered the three less distinguished figures of Gideon, Samson, and Jephthah as equal to three significant ones of the world, Moses, Aaron, and Samuel, three of the greatest leaders of the Jewish people.

诇讜诪专 诇讱 讬专讜讘注诇 讘讚讜专讜 讻诪砖讛 讘讚讜专讜 讘讚谉 讘讚讜专讜 讻讗讛专谉 讘讚讜专讜 讬驻转讞 讘讚讜专讜 讻砖诪讜讗诇 讘讚讜专讜 诇诇诪讚讱 砖讗驻讬诇讜 拽诇 砖讘拽诇讬谉 讜谞转诪谞讛 驻专谞住 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讗讘讬专 砖讘讗讘讬专讬诐

This comes to tell you that Jerubaal in his generation is worthy of being treated like Moses in his generation; Bedan in his generation is like Aaron in his generation; and Jephthah in his generation is like Samuel in his generation. This serves to teach you that even the lightest of the light, i.e., the least distinguished individual, once he has been appointed as a leader over the community, he must be treated like the greatest of the great, and all are required to heed him and obey his rulings.

讜讗讜诪专 讜讘讗转 讗诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诇 讛砖驻讟 讗砖专 讬讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诐 讜讻讬 转注诇讛 注诇 讚注转讱 砖讗讚诐 讛讜诇讱 讗爪诇 讛讚讬讬谉 砖诇讗 讛讬讛 讘讬诪讬讜 讛讗 讗讬谉 诇讱 诇讬诇讱 讗诇讗 讗爪诇 砖讜驻讟 砖讘讬诪讬讜 讜讗讜诪专 讗诇 转讗诪专 诪讛 讛讬讛 砖讛讬诪讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讛讬讜 讟讜讘讬诐 诪讗诇讛

And it further says: 鈥淎nd you shall come to the priests, the Levites, and to the judge who shall be in those days鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:9). But can it enter your mind that a person can go to a judge that is not alive in his days? What, then, is the meaning of the phrase 鈥渋n those days鈥? It teaches that you need to go only to the judge in one鈥檚 days, i.e., he is authorized to judge and decide matters. And it also says: 鈥淒o not say: How was it that the former days were better than these? For it is not out of wisdom that you inquire concerning this鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:10). Instead, one must accept the rulings of the leaders of his generation.

谞讟诇 诪拽诇讜 讜诪注讜转讬讜 讘讬讚讜 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬讜谉 砖专讗讛 讗讜转讜 注诪讚 诪讻住讗讜 讜谞砖拽讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诇讜诐 注诇讬讱 专讘讬 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 砖诇诪讚转谞讬 转讜专讛 讘专讘讬诐 讜转诇诪讬讚讬 砖讗谞讬 讙讜讝专 注诇讬讱 讙讝讬专讛 讜讗转讛 诪拽讬讬诪讛 讻转诇诪讬讚 讗砖专讬 讛讚讜专 砖讛讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞砖诪注讬诐 诇拽讟谞讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 拽讟谞讬诐 诇讙讚讜诇讬诐

搂 The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehoshua took his staff and his money in his hand, and appeared before Rabban Gamliel on the day on which Yom Kippur occurred according to his calculation, as Rabban Gamliel had ordered him to do. The Sages taught in a baraita: When Rabban Gamliel saw Rabbi Yehoshua, he rose from his chair and kissed him on his head and said to him: Peace be on you, my teacher and my student. My teacher, as you have taught me Torah in public, and my student, as I issue a decree against you and you fulfill it like a student of mine. Fortunate is the generation in which the greater heed the lesser, and it is an a fortiori inference that the generation in which the lesser heed the greater is certainly fortunate as well.

拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讞讬讜讘讗 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讛讙讚讜诇讬诐 谞砖诪注讬诐 诇拽讟谞讬诐 谞讜砖讗讬谉 拽讟谞讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪谉

The Gemara questions this last point: Is this derived by an a fortiori inference? This is incorrect, as it is an obligation for the lesser to heed those who are greater than them. Rather, Rabbi Gamliel meant the following: Since the greater heed the lesser, the lesser apply an a fortiori inference to themselves and heed the leaders of the generation.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讻讬专讬谉

 

诪转谞讬壮 专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 谞讞拽专讜 讛注讚讬诐 讜诇讗 讛住驻讬拽讜 诇讜诪专 诪拽讜讚砖 注讚 砖讞砖讬讻讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪注讜讘专

MISHNA: If the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon, and the witnesses were interrogated, but the court did not manage to say: Sanctified, before nightfall, so that the thirtieth day already passed, the previous month is rendered a full, thirty-day month, and the following day is observed as the New Moon.

专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘诇讘讚 讬注诪讚讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪拽讜讚砖 诪拽讜讚砖 专讗讜讛讜 砖诇砖讛 讜讛谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬注诪讚讜 讛砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜砖讬讘讜 诪讞讘讬专讬讛诐 讗爪诇 讛讬讞讬讚 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪拽讜讚砖 诪拽讜讚砖 砖讗讬谉 讛讬讞讬讚 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讬讚讬 注爪诪讜

If the court alone saw the new moon, two members of the court should stand and testify before the others, and the court should say: Sanctified, sanctified. If three people saw the new moon, and they are themselves members of a court for this purpose, two of them should stand and seat two of their colleagues next to the individual who remains of the three, thereby forming a new court of three. The two standing judges should then testify before the three seated judges that they saw the new moon and the seated judges say: Sanctified, sanctified. This procedure is necessary because an individual is not authorized to declare the month sanctified by himself. Rather, a court of three is required.

讙诪壮 诇诪讛 诇讬 诇诪讬转谞讗 专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬爪讟专讬讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬驻专住诪讗 诇讛 讜诇讗 诇讬注讘专讜讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Why do I need the mishna to teach: If the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon? Merely stating that the court saw the moon would have sufficed, since its sanctification depends on them. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the mishna to teach that even in that case, the month is intercalated. As it might enter your mind to say that since the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon, it was publicized that it was the New Moon that day, and let them no longer intercalate the month. Therefore, the tanna of the mishna teaches us that even in the case where all the Jewish people saw the new moon, the New Moon must be declared by the court.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚转谞讗 诇讬讛 专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 谞讞拽专讜 讛注讚讬诐 诇诪讛 诇讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬 谞诪讬 谞讞拽专讜 讛注讚讬诐 讜诇讗 讛住驻讬拽讜 诇讜诪专 诪拽讜讚砖 注讚 砖讞砖讬讻讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪注讜讘专

The Gemara asks further: But once the mishna states: If the court and all of the Jewish people saw the new moon, why do I need it to say: And the witnesses were interrogated? Why are witnesses necessary if the new moon was already seen by the court? The Gemara answers that this is what the tanna is saying: Alternatively, if the witnesses were interrogated, but the court had no time to say: Sanctified, before nightfall, the previous month is intercalated and rendered a full month of thirty days.

讜讻讬讜谉 讚转谞讗 注讚 砖讞砖讬讻讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪注讜讘专 诇诪讛 诇讬 诇诪讬转谞讬讬讛 讞拽讬专转 讛注讚讬诐 讻诇诇

The Gemara raises another difficulty. But once the mishna taught: But the court did not manage to say: Sanctified, before nightfall, the previous month is rendered a full, thirty-day month, why do I need the mishna to teach about the interrogation of the witnesses? This halakha was already stated with regard to a case where the court itself saw the new moon.

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 转讬讛讜讬 讞拽讬专转 注讚讬诐 讻转讞讬诇转 讚讬谉 讜诪拽讜讚砖 诪拽讜讚砖 讻讙诪专 讚讬谉 讜诇拽讚砖讬 讘诇讬诇讬讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转 讚转谞谉 讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转 讚谞讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讜讙讜诪专讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诪拽讚砖讬谉 讘诇讬诇讬讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara explains: It was necessary, as it might enter your mind to say: Let the interrogation of the witnesses be regarded as the beginning of the judicial process, and let the declaration: Sanctified, sanctified, be regarded as the conclusion of the judicial process, and let them sanctify the month at night, because the process began during the day. This process would then be just as it is in cases of monetary law, as we learned in a mishna: In cases of monetary law, although they must be adjudicated during the day, the court may judge the majority of a case during the day, and complete the trial and issue the ruling at night. Here too, one might assume that the court may sanctify the month at night, as the process began during the day. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that the court may not do so.

讜讗讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘 讗讬诪转 讛讜讬 讞拽 讘讙诪专 讚讬谉 讜拽讗 拽专讬 诇讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诪砖驻讟 诪讛 诪砖驻讟 讘讬讜诐 讗祝 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讬讜诐

The Gemara raises another difficulty: Why not say that, indeed, the sanctification of the month should be treated like monetary cases? The Gemara answers: The verse states with regard to Rosh HaShana: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel, a judgment [mishpat] of the God of Jacob鈥 (Psalms 81:5). When does the sanctification of the month become a statute? At the end of the judicial process, and the Merciful One calls it a judgment as well, thereby teaching that just as the primary time of a judgment is during the day, here too, with regard to the sanctification of the New Moon, the process must take place during the day, and not at night.

专讗讜讛讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬注诪讚讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 讜讗诪讗讬 诇讗 转讛讗 砖诪讬注讛 讙讚讜诇讛 诪专讗讬讬讛

搂 The mishna continues: If the court alone saw the new moon, two members of the court should stand and testify before the others. The Gemara ponders: If the court saw the new moon, why is it necessary for two of its members to testify before the others? Hearing their testimony should not be greater than actually seeing the new moon.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讻讙讜谉 砖专讗讜讛讜 讘诇讬诇讛

The Gemara responds that Rabbi Zeira said: The mishna is addressing a case where the court saw the new moon at night. Because they saw it at night, their testimony is inadmissible at that time, as testimonies are admissible only during the day. They must therefore wait until the following day and testify as any ordinary person would.

专讗讜讛讜 砖诇砖讛 讜讛谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬注诪讚讜 砖谞讬诐 讜讬讜砖讬讘讜 诪讞讘讬专讬讛诐 讗爪诇 讛讬讞讬讚 讗诪讗讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 谞讬诪讗 诇讗 转讛讗 砖诪讬注讛 讙讚讜诇讛 诪专讗讬讬讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讙讜谉 砖专讗讜讛讜 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讛讱

The mishna continues: If three people saw the new moon, and they are themselves members of a court for this purpose, two of them should stand and seat two of their colleagues next to the individual who remains of the three. The Gemara asks: Why is this necessary? Here too, let us say: Hearing their testimony should not be greater than actually seeing the new moon. And if you say that here too, the mishna is addressing a case where they saw the new moon at night, this case is identical to that previous one, and there would be no need for two separate rulings.

住讬驻讗 讗讬爪讟专讬讻讗 诇讬讛 讚讗讬谉 讛讬讞讬讚 谞讗诪谉 注诇 讬讚讬 注爪诪讜 讚住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜转谞谉 讚讬谞讬 诪诪讜谞讜转 讘砖诇砖讛 讜讗诐 讛讬讛 诪讜诪讞讛 诇专讘讬诐 讚谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 谞讬拽讚砖讬讛 讘讬讞讬讚讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara answers: It was necessary to teach the last clause, which states: Because an individual is not deemed credible and authorized to declare the month sanctified by himself. For it might enter your mind to say that since we learned in a baraita: Cases of monetary law are adjudicated by a court of three judges, but if a person was a publicly recognized expert, he may judge monetary matters even individually, then here too, one judge should be authorized to sanctify the month individually if he is a recognized expert. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that this is not so, and that three judges are required for the sanctification of the month.

讜讗讬诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讗讬谉 诇讱 诪讜诪讞讛 诇专讘讬诐 讘讬砖专讗诇 讬讜转专 诪诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 讜拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注讚 讚讗讬讻讗 讗讛专谉 讘讛讚讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 诪砖讛 讜讗诇 讗讛专谉 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 诇讗诪专 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐

The Gemara asks: But why not say that here too, a recognized expert can sanctify the month individually? The Gemara rejects this possibility: But certainly there was no publicly recognized expert among the Jewish people greater than our teacher Moses, and nevertheless the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: You may not sanctify the new month until Aaron is with you, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, this month shall be for you the beginning of months鈥 (Exodus 12:1鈥2), where the word 鈥測ou鈥 is in the plural form. And since, to avoid deadlock, a court cannot be composed of an even number of judges, another judge must be added. It is therefore apparent that three judges are required for the sanctification of the month by Torah law.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚注讚 谞注砖讛 讚讬讬谉 诇讬诪讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚转谞讬讗 住谞讛讚专讬谉 砖专讗讜 讗讞讚 砖讛专讙 讗转 讛谞驻砖

The Gemara asks: Is this to say that a witness becomes a judge, i.e., that one who witnessed an event can himself serve as a judge concerning the matter? Let us say that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, for it was taught in a baraita: If the Sanhedrin saw someone kill another person,

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