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Today's Daf Yomi

May 11, 2014 | 讬状讗 讘讗讬讬专 转砖注状讚

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 3

讜讬砖诪注 讛讻谞注谞讬 诪诇讱 注专讚 诪讛 砖诪讜注讛 砖诪注 砖诪注 砖诪转 讗讛专谉 讜谞住转诇拽讜 注谞谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讜讻住讘讜专 谞讬转谞讛 专砖讜转 诇讛诇讞诐 讘讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬专讗讜 讻诇 讛注讚讛 讻讬 讙讜注 讗讛专谉

鈥淎nd when the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel鈥 (Numbers 21:1). What report did he hear? He heard that Aaron had died, and that the clouds of glory had withdrawn from the Jewish people, and he thought that he had been granted permission to wage war against the Jewish people. And this is as it is written: 鈥淎nd all the congregation saw that [ki] Aaron was dead, and they wept for Aaron thirty days, all the house of Israel鈥 (Numbers 20:29).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讜讬专讗讜 讗诇讗 讜讬讬专讗讜 讻讚专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻讬 诪砖诪砖 讘讗专讘注 诇砖讜谞讜转 讗讬 讚讬诇诪讗 讗诇讗 讚讛讗

About this, Rabbi Abbahu said: Do not read the verse as: 鈥淎nd they saw [vayiru]鈥; rather, read it as: 鈥淎nd they were seen [vayeira鈥檜]鈥 by others, because the cover of the clouds of glory had been removed from them. And the next word, 鈥渢hat [ki],鈥 should be understood as meaning because, in accordance with the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: The word ki is used in the Bible in four senses: If, perhaps, but, and because. Therefore, the verse should be understood as follows: And all the congregation was seen, i.e., revealed, because Aaron had died. This shows that at the time of Aaron鈥檚 death Sihon was still alive; perforce, Moses鈥 oration, which was delivered after he had slain Sihon, must have occurred later.

诪讬 讚诪讬 讛转诐 讻谞注谉 讛讻讗 住讬讞讜谉 转谞讗 讛讜讗 住讬讞讜谉 讛讜讗 注专讚 讛讜讗 讻谞注谉 住讬讞讜谉 砖讚讜诪讛 诇住讬讬讞 讘诪讚讘专 讻谞注谉 注诇 砖诐 诪诇讻讜转讜 讜诪讛 砖诪讜 注专讚 砖诪讜 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 注专讚 砖讚讜诪讛 诇注专讜讚 讘诪讚讘专 讻谞注谉 注诇 砖诐 诪诇讻讜转讜 讜诪讛 砖诪讜 住讬讞讜谉 砖诪讜

The Gemara raises an objection against this proof: Is it comparable? There, the verse is speaking of Canaan, king of Arad, whereas here, the verse is speaking of Sihon. What proof, then, can be brought from the one with regard to the other? The Gemara explains: A Sage taught in a baraita: All three names are referring to the same person: He is Sihon, and he is Arad, and he is also Canaan. He was called Sihon because he was similar in his wildness to a foal [seyya岣] in the desert; and he was called Canaan after his kingdom, as he ruled over the Canaanite people; and what was his real name? Arad was his name. Some say an alternative explanation: He was called Arad because he was similar to a wild ass [arod] in the desert; and he was called Canaan after his kingdom; and what was his real name? Sihon was his name.

讜讗讬诪讗 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬讬专

The Gemara raises another question: Granted, when counting the years from the exodus from Egypt, Av and the following Shevat are both part of the same year, but it has not been established that the counting of years from the Exodus is specifically from Nisan. Say that the New Year for this purpose is in the following month, the month of Iyyar.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讛专讗砖讜谉 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讘讗讞讚 诇讞讚砖 讛讜拽诐 讛诪砖讻谉 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讘讞讚砖 讛砖谞讬 谞注诇讛 讛注谞谉 诪注诇 诪砖讻谉 讛注讚讜转 诪讚拽讗讬 讘谞讬住谉 讜拽专讬 诇讛 砖谞讛 砖谞讬转 讜拽讗讬 讘讗讬讬专 讜拽专讬 诇讛 砖谞讛 砖谞讬转 诪讻诇诇 讚专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讗讜 讗讬讬专 讛讜讗

The Gemara rejects this proposal: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was established鈥 (Exodus 40:17), and it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from over the Tabernacle of the testimony鈥 (Numbers 10:11). It may be argued as follows: From the fact that when the Bible speaks of Nisan, which is the first month, it calls it 鈥渢he second year,鈥 and when it speaks of the following Iyyar, which is the second month, it also calls it 鈥渢he second year,鈥 by inference, Rosh HaShana is not at the beginning of Iyyar. Were it the case that the New Year begins in Iyyar, Nisan and the following Iyyar would not occur in the same year, as the year would have changed in Iyyar.

讜讗讬诪讗 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 住讬讜谉 诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 诇爪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 诇爪讗转 讜讙讜壮 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks further: And say that the New Year for this purpose is in the third month, the month of Sivan. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淚n the third month, after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt, the same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai鈥 (Exodus 19:1). And if it is so that the New Year is the beginning of Sivan, the verse should have said: In the third month, in the second year after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt, as a new year had started.

讜讗讬诪讗 转诪讜讝 讜讗讬诪讗 讗讘 讜讗讬诪讗 讗讚专

The Gemara continues: But perhaps one could say that the New Year for counting the Exodus is in the fourth month, the month of Tammuz; or say that it is in the fifth month, the month of Av; or say that it is in the twelfth month, the month of Adar. There is no clear refutation that these months are not the New Year.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讛讻讗 讜讬讞诇 诇讘谞讜转 讘讞讚砖 讛砖谞讬 讘砖谞讬 讘砖谞转 讗专讘注 诇诪诇讻讜转讜 诪讗讬 砖谞讬 诇讗讜 砖谞讬 诇讬专讞 砖诪讜谞讬谉 讘讜 诇诪诇讻讜转讜

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: It is from here that it is derived that the years of a king鈥檚 rule are counted from Nisan, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he began to build in the second month, in the second, in the fourth year of his reign鈥 (II Chronicles 3:2). What is the meaning of the words 鈥渢he second鈥? Doesn鈥檛 it mean second to the month from which Solomon鈥檚 reign is counted? This is clear proof that the years of a king鈥檚 rule are counted from the first month, i.e., the month of Nisan.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讬诪讗 砖谞讬 讘讞讚砖 讗诐 讻谉 砖谞讬 讘讞讚砖 讘讛讚讬讛 讛讜讛 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛

Ravina strongly objects to this: Why not say that the words 鈥渢he second鈥 are referring to the second day of the month? The Gemara answers: If so, it should have explicitly stated: 鈥淥n the second of the month,鈥 as that is the formulation usually used in the Bible to refer to a specific day of the month.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讞讚讗 讚诇讗 讗砖讻讞谉 砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讚讻转讬讘 讜注讜讚 诪拽讬砖 砖谞讬 讘转专讗 诇砖谞讬 拽诪讗 诪讛 砖谞讬 拽诪讗 讞讚砖 讗祝 砖谞讬 讘转专讗 讞讚砖

The Gemara raises another objection: Why not say that the words 鈥渢he second鈥 are referring to the second day of the week? This argument is rejected for two reasons: First, we have not found the second day of the week ever being written; nowhere does the Bible give the day of the week on which a particular event transpired. And further, the verse juxtaposes the second instance of the word 鈥渟econd鈥 to the first instance of the word 鈥渟econd鈥: Just as the first 鈥渟econd鈥 is referring to a month, so too, the latter 鈥渟econd鈥 is referring to a month.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪谞讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讜谞讬谉 诇讛诐 诇诪诇讻讬诐 讗诇讗 诪谞讬住谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 砖谞讛 诇爪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬注诇 讗讛专谉 讛讻讛谉 讗诇 讛专 讛讛专 注诇 驻讬 讛壮 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讘注砖转讬 注砖专 讞讚砖

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan: From where is it derived that one counts the years of kings鈥 reigns only from the month of Nisan? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon鈥檚 reign over Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord鈥 (I Kings 6:1). And it is written: 鈥淎nd Aaron the priest went up to Mount Hor at the commandment of the Lord, and died there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first day of the month鈥 (Numbers 33:38). And it is later written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:3).

讜讻转讬讘 讗讞专讬 讛讻讜转讜 讗转 住讬讞讜谉 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬砖诪注 讛讻谞注谞讬 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬专讗讜 讻诇 讛注讚讛 讻讬 讙讜注 讗讛专谉 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讛专讗砖讜谉 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讜讙讜壮

And it is written: 鈥淎fter he had slain Sihon, the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:4). And it says: 鈥淎nd when the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard鈥 (Numbers 33:40). And it says: 鈥淎nd all the congregation saw that Aaron was dead, and they wept for Aaron thirty days鈥 (Numbers 20:29). And it says: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was established鈥 (Exodus 40:17).

讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讘讞讚砖 讛砖谞讬 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 诇爪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讞诇 诇讘谞讜转 讜讙讜壮

And it says: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from off the Tabernacle of the testimony鈥 (Numbers 10:11). And it says: 鈥淚n the third month, after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt, the same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai鈥 (Exodus 19:1). And it says: 鈥淎nd he began to build in the second month, in the second, in the fourth year of his reign鈥 (II Chronicles 3:2). This list of verses summarizes Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 explanation.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讘诇 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 诪转砖专讬 诪谞讬谞谉 砖谞讗诪专 讚讘专讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讘谉 讞讻诇讬讛 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讻住诇讬讜 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 谞讬住谉 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讜讙讜壮

Rav 岣sda said: They taught that the years of a king鈥檚 rule are counted from the first of Nisan only with regard to the Jewish kings of Israel, but the years of the kings of the gentile nations of the world are counted from Tishrei, as it is stated: 鈥淭he words of Nehemiah, son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month Kislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the capital鈥 (Nehemiah 1:1). And it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him, and I took up the wine, and gave it to the king鈥 (Nehemiah 2:1).

诪讚拽讗讬 讘讻住诇讬讜 讜拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 讜拽讗讬 讘谞讬住谉 讜拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诪讻诇诇 讚专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讗讜 谞讬住谉 讛讜讗

From the fact that when the Bible speaks of the month of Kislev it calls it the twentieth year, and when it speaks of the following Nisan it also calls it the twentieth year, by inference, the New Year for gentile kings does not begin in Nisan. Were it the case that the New Year did begin in Nisan, Kislev and the following Nisan would not occur in the same year.

讘砖诇诪讗 讛讬讗讱 诪驻专砖 讚诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讗诇讗 讛讗讬 诪诪讗讬 讚诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讚讬诇诪讗

The Gemara raises an objection: Granted, in this second verse it is explicitly stated that the count relates to the years of Artaxerxes. But as for that first verse, from where is it known that the count relates to the years of Artaxerxes? Perhaps

诇诪谞讬谞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诇讙讝讬专讛 砖讜讛 诪讛 讛转诐 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讗祝 讛讻讗 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗

it follows some other count. Rav Pappa said: The meaning of the first instance of the expression 鈥渢he twentieth year鈥 may be inferred from the second instance of the expression 鈥渢he twentieth year鈥 by way of a verbal analogy: Just as there the reference is to the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, so too, here the reference is to the twentieth year of Artaxerxes.

讜诪诪讗讬 讚诪注砖讛 讚讻住诇讬讜 拽讚讬诐 讚讬诇诪讗 诪注砖讛 讚谞讬住谉 拽讚讬诐

The Gemara raises another question: Even though those two events took place in the same year, from where is it known that the incident that occurred in Kislev took place first? Perhaps the incident that occurred in Nisan took place first, in which case it is possible that even the years of gentile kings are counted from Nisan.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚转谞讬讗 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗诪专 讞谞谞讬 诇谞讞诪讬讛 讘讻住诇讬讜 讗诪专谉 谞讞诪讬讛 诇诪诇讱 讘谞讬住谉

The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is taught in a baraita: The words that Hanani told Nehemiah in the month of Kislev, Nehemiah told the king in the month of Nisan.

讚讘专讬诐 砖讗诪专 讞谞谞讬 诇谞讞诪讬讛 讘讻住诇讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讚讘专讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讘谉 讞讻诇讬讛 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讻住诇讬讜 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 讜讗谞讬 讛讬讬转讬 讘砖讜砖谉 讛讘讬专讛 讜讬讘讗 讞谞谞讬 讗讞讚 诪讗讞讬 讛讜讗 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗砖讗诇诐 注诇 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讛驻诇讬讟讛 讗砖专 谞砖讗专讜 诪谉 讛砖讘讬 讜注诇 讬专讜砖诇诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇讬 讛谞砖讗专讬诐 讗砖专 谞砖讗专讜 诪谉 讛砖讘讬 砖诐 讘诪讚讬谞讛 讘专注讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讜讘讞专驻讛 讜讞讜诪转 讬专讜砖诇诐 诪驻讜专爪转 讜砖注专讬讛 谞爪转讜 讘讗砖

The baraita explains: The words that Hanani said to Nehemiah in Kislev are as it is stated: 鈥淭he words of Nehemiah, son of Hachaliah: And it came to pass in the month Kislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the capital, that Hanani, one of my brothers, came out of Judah, he and certain men; and I asked them concerning the Jews who had escaped, who were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem. And they said to me: The remnant who are left of the captivity there in the province suffer much hardship and insult; and the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates are burned with fire鈥 (Nehemiah 1:1鈥3).

讗诪专谉 谞讞诪讬讛 诇诪诇讱 讘谞讬住谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 谞讬住谉 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讛诪诇讱 讬讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讜讗砖讗 讗转 讛讬讬谉 讜讗转谞讛 诇诪诇讱 讜诇讗 讛讬讬转讬 专注 诇驻谞讬讜 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讛诪诇讱 诪讚讜注 驻谞讬讱 专注讬诐 讜讗转讛 讗讬谞讱 讞讜诇讛 讗讬谉 讝讛 讻讬 讗诐 专注 诇讘 讜讗讬专讗 讛专讘讛 诪讗讚 讜讗讜诪专 诇诪诇讱 讛诪诇讱 诇注讜诇诐 讬讞讬讛 诪讚讜注 诇讗 讬专注讜 驻谞讬 讗砖专 讛注讬专 讘讬转 拽讘专讜转 讗讘讜转讬 讞专讘讛 讜砖注专讬讛 讗讜讻诇讜 讘讗砖

Nehemiah told these words to the king in Nisan, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him, and I took up the wine and gave it to the king. Now I had not been before sad in his presence. And the king said to me: Why is your face sad, seeing that you are not sick? This is nothing else but sorrow of the heart. Then I was very much afraid, and I said to the king: Let the king live forever: Why should not my face be sad, when the city, the place of the tombs of my ancestors, lies waste, and its gates are consumed with fire?鈥 (Nehemiah 2:1鈥3).

讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讛诪诇讱 注诇 诪讛 讝讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讜讗转驻诇诇 讗诇 讗诇讛讬 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 诇诪诇讱 讗诐 注诇 讛诪诇讱 讟讜讘 讜讗诐 讬讬讟讘 注讘讚讱 诇驻谞讬讱 讗砖专 转砖诇讞谞讬 讗诇 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诇 注讬专 拽讘专讜转 讗讘讜转讬 讜讗讘谞谞讛 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讛诪诇讱 讜讛砖讙诇 讬讜砖讘转 讗爪诇讜 注讚 诪转讬 讬讛讬讛 诪讛诇讻讱 讜诪转讬 转砖讜讘 讜讬讬讟讘 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讜讬砖诇讞谞讬 讜讗转谞讛 诇讜 讝诪谉

鈥淭hen the king said to me: For what do you ask? So I prayed to the God of heaven. And I said to the king: If it please the king, and if your servant has found favor in your sight, that you would send me to Judea, to the city of the graves of my ancestors, that I may rebuild it. And the king said to me, the consort also sitting by him: For how long shall your journey be? And when will you return? So it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time鈥 (Nehemiah 2:4鈥6).

诪转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诇讞讚砖 讘砖砖讬 讘砖谞转 砖转讬诐 诇讚专讬讜砖 讜讻转讬讘 讘砖讘讬注讬 讘砖谞转 砖转讬诐 讘注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 诇讞讚砖 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 讘砖讘讬注讬 讘砖谞转 砖诇砖 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

Rav Yosef raised an objection against the rule established by Rav 岣sda that the years of gentile kings are counted from Tishrei from the verse that states: 鈥淥n the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king鈥 (Haggai 1:15), and it is written immediately afterward: 鈥淚n the seventh month, in the second year, on the twenty-first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the prophet Haggai, saying鈥 (Haggai 2:1). And if it were so that the years of gentile kings are counted from Tishrei, what the verse needed to state is: In the seventh month in the third year, as a new year had already started for him.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讻讜专砖 诪诇讱 讻砖专 讛讬讛 诇驻讬讻讱 诪谞讜 诇讜 讻诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇

Rabbi Abbahu said in answer to this objection: Cyrus was a virtuous king, and consequently Haggai counted the years of his reign like those of the kings of Israel, i.e., from Nisan.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讞讚讗 讚讗诐 讻谉 拽砖讜 拽专讗讬 讗讛讚讚讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖讬爪讬讗 讘讬转讗 讚谞讗 注讚 讬讜诐 转诇转讗 诇讬专讞 讗讚专 讚讬 讛讬讗 砖谞转 砖讬转 诇诪诇讻讜转 讚专讬讜砖 诪诇讻讗 讜转谞讬讗 讘讗讜转讜 讝诪谉 诇砖谞讛 讛讘讗讛 注诇讛 注讝专讗 诪讘讘诇 讜讙诇讜转讜 注诪讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讬专讜砖诇诐 讘讞讚砖 讛讞诪讬砖讬 讛讬讗 砖谞转 讛砖讘讬注讬转 诇诪诇讱 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 砖谞转 讛砖诪讬谞讬转 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this explanation for two reasons: One objection is that if this is so, the verses contradict each other, as it is written: 鈥淎nd this house was finished on the third of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king鈥 (Ezra 6:15), and it is taught in a baraita: At that same time in the following year Ezra went up from Babylonia together with his company of exiles. And it is written in the Bible: 鈥淎nd he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king鈥 (Ezra 7:8). And if it were so that this king鈥檚 years were counted like those of the kings of Israel, what the verse needed to state is: Which was in the eighth year of the king.

讜注讜讚 诪讬 讚诪讬 讛转诐 讻讜专砖 讛讻讗 讚专讬讜砖 转谞讗 讛讜讗 讻讜专砖 讛讜讗 讚专讬讜砖 讛讜讗 讗专转讞砖住转讗 讻讜专砖 砖诪诇讱 讻砖专 讛讬讛 讗专转讞砖住转讗 注诇 砖诐 诪诇讻讜转讜 讜诪讛 砖诪讜 讚专讬讜砖 砖诪讜

And further, a second objection: Are Rav Yosef鈥檚 objection and Rabbi Abbahu鈥檚 resolution comparable? There, Rabbi Abbahu speaks of Cyrus, whereas here, the verses speak of Darius, and it was never said about Darius that he was a virtuous king. The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as the Sages taught in a baraita: All three names are referring to the same person: He is Cyrus; he is Darius; and he is also Artaxerxes. He was called Cyrus [Koresh] because he was a virtuous [kasher] king; he was called Artaxerxes after his kingdom, i.e., this was his royal title; and what was his real name? Darius was his name.

诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 砖讛讞诪讬抓 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 砖讛讞诪讬抓

The Gemara notes: In any case, it is difficult, as in one place his years are counted from Nisan, whereas in another place they are counted from Tishrei. Rabbi Yitz岣k said: This is not difficult, as it can be explained as follows: Here, where his years are counted from Nisan like the kings of Israel, it speaks of him before he became corrupt, whereas there, where his years are counted from Tishrei, it speaks of him after he became corrupt.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讜诪讬 讛讞诪讬抓 讜讛讻转讬讘

Rav Kahana strongly objects to this explanation: Did he really become corrupt after Ezra went to Eretz Yisrael? But isn鈥檛 it written:

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Rosh Hashanah 3

讜讬砖诪注 讛讻谞注谞讬 诪诇讱 注专讚 诪讛 砖诪讜注讛 砖诪注 砖诪注 砖诪转 讗讛专谉 讜谞住转诇拽讜 注谞谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讜讻住讘讜专 谞讬转谞讛 专砖讜转 诇讛诇讞诐 讘讬砖专讗诇 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬专讗讜 讻诇 讛注讚讛 讻讬 讙讜注 讗讛专谉

鈥淎nd when the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel鈥 (Numbers 21:1). What report did he hear? He heard that Aaron had died, and that the clouds of glory had withdrawn from the Jewish people, and he thought that he had been granted permission to wage war against the Jewish people. And this is as it is written: 鈥淎nd all the congregation saw that [ki] Aaron was dead, and they wept for Aaron thirty days, all the house of Israel鈥 (Numbers 20:29).

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讜讬专讗讜 讗诇讗 讜讬讬专讗讜 讻讚专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻讬 诪砖诪砖 讘讗专讘注 诇砖讜谞讜转 讗讬 讚讬诇诪讗 讗诇讗 讚讛讗

About this, Rabbi Abbahu said: Do not read the verse as: 鈥淎nd they saw [vayiru]鈥; rather, read it as: 鈥淎nd they were seen [vayeira鈥檜]鈥 by others, because the cover of the clouds of glory had been removed from them. And the next word, 鈥渢hat [ki],鈥 should be understood as meaning because, in accordance with the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: The word ki is used in the Bible in four senses: If, perhaps, but, and because. Therefore, the verse should be understood as follows: And all the congregation was seen, i.e., revealed, because Aaron had died. This shows that at the time of Aaron鈥檚 death Sihon was still alive; perforce, Moses鈥 oration, which was delivered after he had slain Sihon, must have occurred later.

诪讬 讚诪讬 讛转诐 讻谞注谉 讛讻讗 住讬讞讜谉 转谞讗 讛讜讗 住讬讞讜谉 讛讜讗 注专讚 讛讜讗 讻谞注谉 住讬讞讜谉 砖讚讜诪讛 诇住讬讬讞 讘诪讚讘专 讻谞注谉 注诇 砖诐 诪诇讻讜转讜 讜诪讛 砖诪讜 注专讚 砖诪讜 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 注专讚 砖讚讜诪讛 诇注专讜讚 讘诪讚讘专 讻谞注谉 注诇 砖诐 诪诇讻讜转讜 讜诪讛 砖诪讜 住讬讞讜谉 砖诪讜

The Gemara raises an objection against this proof: Is it comparable? There, the verse is speaking of Canaan, king of Arad, whereas here, the verse is speaking of Sihon. What proof, then, can be brought from the one with regard to the other? The Gemara explains: A Sage taught in a baraita: All three names are referring to the same person: He is Sihon, and he is Arad, and he is also Canaan. He was called Sihon because he was similar in his wildness to a foal [seyya岣] in the desert; and he was called Canaan after his kingdom, as he ruled over the Canaanite people; and what was his real name? Arad was his name. Some say an alternative explanation: He was called Arad because he was similar to a wild ass [arod] in the desert; and he was called Canaan after his kingdom; and what was his real name? Sihon was his name.

讜讗讬诪讗 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讬讬专

The Gemara raises another question: Granted, when counting the years from the exodus from Egypt, Av and the following Shevat are both part of the same year, but it has not been established that the counting of years from the Exodus is specifically from Nisan. Say that the New Year for this purpose is in the following month, the month of Iyyar.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讛专讗砖讜谉 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讘讗讞讚 诇讞讚砖 讛讜拽诐 讛诪砖讻谉 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讘讞讚砖 讛砖谞讬 谞注诇讛 讛注谞谉 诪注诇 诪砖讻谉 讛注讚讜转 诪讚拽讗讬 讘谞讬住谉 讜拽专讬 诇讛 砖谞讛 砖谞讬转 讜拽讗讬 讘讗讬讬专 讜拽专讬 诇讛 砖谞讛 砖谞讬转 诪讻诇诇 讚专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讗讜 讗讬讬专 讛讜讗

The Gemara rejects this proposal: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was established鈥 (Exodus 40:17), and it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from over the Tabernacle of the testimony鈥 (Numbers 10:11). It may be argued as follows: From the fact that when the Bible speaks of Nisan, which is the first month, it calls it 鈥渢he second year,鈥 and when it speaks of the following Iyyar, which is the second month, it also calls it 鈥渢he second year,鈥 by inference, Rosh HaShana is not at the beginning of Iyyar. Were it the case that the New Year begins in Iyyar, Nisan and the following Iyyar would not occur in the same year, as the year would have changed in Iyyar.

讜讗讬诪讗 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 住讬讜谉 诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚讻转讬讘 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 诇爪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 诇爪讗转 讜讙讜壮 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks further: And say that the New Year for this purpose is in the third month, the month of Sivan. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is written: 鈥淚n the third month, after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt, the same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai鈥 (Exodus 19:1). And if it is so that the New Year is the beginning of Sivan, the verse should have said: In the third month, in the second year after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt, as a new year had started.

讜讗讬诪讗 转诪讜讝 讜讗讬诪讗 讗讘 讜讗讬诪讗 讗讚专

The Gemara continues: But perhaps one could say that the New Year for counting the Exodus is in the fourth month, the month of Tammuz; or say that it is in the fifth month, the month of Av; or say that it is in the twelfth month, the month of Adar. There is no clear refutation that these months are not the New Year.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讛讻讗 讜讬讞诇 诇讘谞讜转 讘讞讚砖 讛砖谞讬 讘砖谞讬 讘砖谞转 讗专讘注 诇诪诇讻讜转讜 诪讗讬 砖谞讬 诇讗讜 砖谞讬 诇讬专讞 砖诪讜谞讬谉 讘讜 诇诪诇讻讜转讜

Rather, Rabbi Elazar said: It is from here that it is derived that the years of a king鈥檚 rule are counted from Nisan, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he began to build in the second month, in the second, in the fourth year of his reign鈥 (II Chronicles 3:2). What is the meaning of the words 鈥渢he second鈥? Doesn鈥檛 it mean second to the month from which Solomon鈥檚 reign is counted? This is clear proof that the years of a king鈥檚 rule are counted from the first month, i.e., the month of Nisan.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讬诪讗 砖谞讬 讘讞讚砖 讗诐 讻谉 砖谞讬 讘讞讚砖 讘讛讚讬讛 讛讜讛 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛

Ravina strongly objects to this: Why not say that the words 鈥渢he second鈥 are referring to the second day of the month? The Gemara answers: If so, it should have explicitly stated: 鈥淥n the second of the month,鈥 as that is the formulation usually used in the Bible to refer to a specific day of the month.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讞讚讗 讚诇讗 讗砖讻讞谉 砖谞讬 讘砖讘转 讚讻转讬讘 讜注讜讚 诪拽讬砖 砖谞讬 讘转专讗 诇砖谞讬 拽诪讗 诪讛 砖谞讬 拽诪讗 讞讚砖 讗祝 砖谞讬 讘转专讗 讞讚砖

The Gemara raises another objection: Why not say that the words 鈥渢he second鈥 are referring to the second day of the week? This argument is rejected for two reasons: First, we have not found the second day of the week ever being written; nowhere does the Bible give the day of the week on which a particular event transpired. And further, the verse juxtaposes the second instance of the word 鈥渟econd鈥 to the first instance of the word 鈥渟econd鈥: Just as the first 鈥渟econd鈥 is referring to a month, so too, the latter 鈥渟econd鈥 is referring to a month.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪谞讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讜谞讬谉 诇讛诐 诇诪诇讻讬诐 讗诇讗 诪谞讬住谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 砖谞讛 诇爪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬注诇 讗讛专谉 讛讻讛谉 讗诇 讛专 讛讛专 注诇 驻讬 讛壮 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讘注砖转讬 注砖专 讞讚砖

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan: From where is it derived that one counts the years of kings鈥 reigns only from the month of Nisan? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon鈥檚 reign over Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord鈥 (I Kings 6:1). And it is written: 鈥淎nd Aaron the priest went up to Mount Hor at the commandment of the Lord, and died there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first day of the month鈥 (Numbers 33:38). And it is later written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, that Moses spoke to the children of Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:3).

讜讻转讬讘 讗讞专讬 讛讻讜转讜 讗转 住讬讞讜谉 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬砖诪注 讛讻谞注谞讬 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬专讗讜 讻诇 讛注讚讛 讻讬 讙讜注 讗讛专谉 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讛专讗砖讜谉 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讜讙讜壮

And it is written: 鈥淎fter he had slain Sihon, the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:4). And it says: 鈥淎nd when the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard鈥 (Numbers 33:40). And it says: 鈥淎nd all the congregation saw that Aaron was dead, and they wept for Aaron thirty days鈥 (Numbers 20:29). And it says: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was established鈥 (Exodus 40:17).

讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘砖谞讛 讛砖谞讬转 讘讞讚砖 讛砖谞讬 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 诇爪讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讞诇 诇讘谞讜转 讜讙讜壮

And it says: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from off the Tabernacle of the testimony鈥 (Numbers 10:11). And it says: 鈥淚n the third month, after the children of Israel were gone out of the land of Egypt, the same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai鈥 (Exodus 19:1). And it says: 鈥淎nd he began to build in the second month, in the second, in the fourth year of his reign鈥 (II Chronicles 3:2). This list of verses summarizes Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 explanation.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讘诇 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 诪转砖专讬 诪谞讬谞谉 砖谞讗诪专 讚讘专讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讘谉 讞讻诇讬讛 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讻住诇讬讜 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 谞讬住谉 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讜讙讜壮

Rav 岣sda said: They taught that the years of a king鈥檚 rule are counted from the first of Nisan only with regard to the Jewish kings of Israel, but the years of the kings of the gentile nations of the world are counted from Tishrei, as it is stated: 鈥淭he words of Nehemiah, son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month Kislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the capital鈥 (Nehemiah 1:1). And it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him, and I took up the wine, and gave it to the king鈥 (Nehemiah 2:1).

诪讚拽讗讬 讘讻住诇讬讜 讜拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 讜拽讗讬 讘谞讬住谉 讜拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诪讻诇诇 讚专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讗讜 谞讬住谉 讛讜讗

From the fact that when the Bible speaks of the month of Kislev it calls it the twentieth year, and when it speaks of the following Nisan it also calls it the twentieth year, by inference, the New Year for gentile kings does not begin in Nisan. Were it the case that the New Year did begin in Nisan, Kislev and the following Nisan would not occur in the same year.

讘砖诇诪讗 讛讬讗讱 诪驻专砖 讚诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讗诇讗 讛讗讬 诪诪讗讬 讚诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讚讬诇诪讗

The Gemara raises an objection: Granted, in this second verse it is explicitly stated that the count relates to the years of Artaxerxes. But as for that first verse, from where is it known that the count relates to the years of Artaxerxes? Perhaps

诇诪谞讬谞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诇讙讝讬专讛 砖讜讛 诪讛 讛转诐 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讗祝 讛讻讗 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗

it follows some other count. Rav Pappa said: The meaning of the first instance of the expression 鈥渢he twentieth year鈥 may be inferred from the second instance of the expression 鈥渢he twentieth year鈥 by way of a verbal analogy: Just as there the reference is to the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, so too, here the reference is to the twentieth year of Artaxerxes.

讜诪诪讗讬 讚诪注砖讛 讚讻住诇讬讜 拽讚讬诐 讚讬诇诪讗 诪注砖讛 讚谞讬住谉 拽讚讬诐

The Gemara raises another question: Even though those two events took place in the same year, from where is it known that the incident that occurred in Kislev took place first? Perhaps the incident that occurred in Nisan took place first, in which case it is possible that even the years of gentile kings are counted from Nisan.

诇讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚转谞讬讗 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗诪专 讞谞谞讬 诇谞讞诪讬讛 讘讻住诇讬讜 讗诪专谉 谞讞诪讬讛 诇诪诇讱 讘谞讬住谉

The Gemara answers: It should not enter your mind to say this, as it is taught in a baraita: The words that Hanani told Nehemiah in the month of Kislev, Nehemiah told the king in the month of Nisan.

讚讘专讬诐 砖讗诪专 讞谞谞讬 诇谞讞诪讬讛 讘讻住诇讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讚讘专讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讘谉 讞讻诇讬讛 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 讻住诇讬讜 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 讜讗谞讬 讛讬讬转讬 讘砖讜砖谉 讛讘讬专讛 讜讬讘讗 讞谞谞讬 讗讞讚 诪讗讞讬 讛讜讗 讜讗谞砖讬诐 诪讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗砖讗诇诐 注诇 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讛驻诇讬讟讛 讗砖专 谞砖讗专讜 诪谉 讛砖讘讬 讜注诇 讬专讜砖诇诐 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇讬 讛谞砖讗专讬诐 讗砖专 谞砖讗专讜 诪谉 讛砖讘讬 砖诐 讘诪讚讬谞讛 讘专注讛 讙讚讜诇讛 讜讘讞专驻讛 讜讞讜诪转 讬专讜砖诇诐 诪驻讜专爪转 讜砖注专讬讛 谞爪转讜 讘讗砖

The baraita explains: The words that Hanani said to Nehemiah in Kislev are as it is stated: 鈥淭he words of Nehemiah, son of Hachaliah: And it came to pass in the month Kislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the capital, that Hanani, one of my brothers, came out of Judah, he and certain men; and I asked them concerning the Jews who had escaped, who were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem. And they said to me: The remnant who are left of the captivity there in the province suffer much hardship and insult; and the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates are burned with fire鈥 (Nehemiah 1:1鈥3).

讗诪专谉 谞讞诪讬讛 诇诪诇讱 讘谞讬住谉 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘讞讚砖 谞讬住谉 砖谞转 注砖专讬诐 诇讗专转讞砖住转讗 讛诪诇讱 讬讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讜讗砖讗 讗转 讛讬讬谉 讜讗转谞讛 诇诪诇讱 讜诇讗 讛讬讬转讬 专注 诇驻谞讬讜 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讛诪诇讱 诪讚讜注 驻谞讬讱 专注讬诐 讜讗转讛 讗讬谞讱 讞讜诇讛 讗讬谉 讝讛 讻讬 讗诐 专注 诇讘 讜讗讬专讗 讛专讘讛 诪讗讚 讜讗讜诪专 诇诪诇讱 讛诪诇讱 诇注讜诇诐 讬讞讬讛 诪讚讜注 诇讗 讬专注讜 驻谞讬 讗砖专 讛注讬专 讘讬转 拽讘专讜转 讗讘讜转讬 讞专讘讛 讜砖注专讬讛 讗讜讻诇讜 讘讗砖

Nehemiah told these words to the king in Nisan, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him, and I took up the wine and gave it to the king. Now I had not been before sad in his presence. And the king said to me: Why is your face sad, seeing that you are not sick? This is nothing else but sorrow of the heart. Then I was very much afraid, and I said to the king: Let the king live forever: Why should not my face be sad, when the city, the place of the tombs of my ancestors, lies waste, and its gates are consumed with fire?鈥 (Nehemiah 2:1鈥3).

讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讛诪诇讱 注诇 诪讛 讝讛 讗转讛 诪讘拽砖 讜讗转驻诇诇 讗诇 讗诇讛讬 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讗讜诪专 诇诪诇讱 讗诐 注诇 讛诪诇讱 讟讜讘 讜讗诐 讬讬讟讘 注讘讚讱 诇驻谞讬讱 讗砖专 转砖诇讞谞讬 讗诇 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诇 注讬专 拽讘专讜转 讗讘讜转讬 讜讗讘谞谞讛 讜讬讗诪专 诇讬 讛诪诇讱 讜讛砖讙诇 讬讜砖讘转 讗爪诇讜 注讚 诪转讬 讬讛讬讛 诪讛诇讻讱 讜诪转讬 转砖讜讘 讜讬讬讟讘 诇驻谞讬 讛诪诇讱 讜讬砖诇讞谞讬 讜讗转谞讛 诇讜 讝诪谉

鈥淭hen the king said to me: For what do you ask? So I prayed to the God of heaven. And I said to the king: If it please the king, and if your servant has found favor in your sight, that you would send me to Judea, to the city of the graves of my ancestors, that I may rebuild it. And the king said to me, the consort also sitting by him: For how long shall your journey be? And when will you return? So it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time鈥 (Nehemiah 2:4鈥6).

诪转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讘讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诇讞讚砖 讘砖砖讬 讘砖谞转 砖转讬诐 诇讚专讬讜砖 讜讻转讬讘 讘砖讘讬注讬 讘砖谞转 砖转讬诐 讘注砖专讬诐 讜讗讞讚 诇讞讚砖 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 讘砖讘讬注讬 讘砖谞转 砖诇砖 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

Rav Yosef raised an objection against the rule established by Rav 岣sda that the years of gentile kings are counted from Tishrei from the verse that states: 鈥淥n the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king鈥 (Haggai 1:15), and it is written immediately afterward: 鈥淚n the seventh month, in the second year, on the twenty-first day of the month, the word of the Lord came by the prophet Haggai, saying鈥 (Haggai 2:1). And if it were so that the years of gentile kings are counted from Tishrei, what the verse needed to state is: In the seventh month in the third year, as a new year had already started for him.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讻讜专砖 诪诇讱 讻砖专 讛讬讛 诇驻讬讻讱 诪谞讜 诇讜 讻诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇

Rabbi Abbahu said in answer to this objection: Cyrus was a virtuous king, and consequently Haggai counted the years of his reign like those of the kings of Israel, i.e., from Nisan.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讞讚讗 讚讗诐 讻谉 拽砖讜 拽专讗讬 讗讛讚讚讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖讬爪讬讗 讘讬转讗 讚谞讗 注讚 讬讜诐 转诇转讗 诇讬专讞 讗讚专 讚讬 讛讬讗 砖谞转 砖讬转 诇诪诇讻讜转 讚专讬讜砖 诪诇讻讗 讜转谞讬讗 讘讗讜转讜 讝诪谉 诇砖谞讛 讛讘讗讛 注诇讛 注讝专讗 诪讘讘诇 讜讙诇讜转讜 注诪讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讬专讜砖诇诐 讘讞讚砖 讛讞诪讬砖讬 讛讬讗 砖谞转 讛砖讘讬注讬转 诇诪诇讱 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 砖谞转 讛砖诪讬谞讬转 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

Rav Yosef strongly objects to this explanation for two reasons: One objection is that if this is so, the verses contradict each other, as it is written: 鈥淎nd this house was finished on the third of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king鈥 (Ezra 6:15), and it is taught in a baraita: At that same time in the following year Ezra went up from Babylonia together with his company of exiles. And it is written in the Bible: 鈥淎nd he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king鈥 (Ezra 7:8). And if it were so that this king鈥檚 years were counted like those of the kings of Israel, what the verse needed to state is: Which was in the eighth year of the king.

讜注讜讚 诪讬 讚诪讬 讛转诐 讻讜专砖 讛讻讗 讚专讬讜砖 转谞讗 讛讜讗 讻讜专砖 讛讜讗 讚专讬讜砖 讛讜讗 讗专转讞砖住转讗 讻讜专砖 砖诪诇讱 讻砖专 讛讬讛 讗专转讞砖住转讗 注诇 砖诐 诪诇讻讜转讜 讜诪讛 砖诪讜 讚专讬讜砖 砖诪讜

And further, a second objection: Are Rav Yosef鈥檚 objection and Rabbi Abbahu鈥檚 resolution comparable? There, Rabbi Abbahu speaks of Cyrus, whereas here, the verses speak of Darius, and it was never said about Darius that he was a virtuous king. The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as the Sages taught in a baraita: All three names are referring to the same person: He is Cyrus; he is Darius; and he is also Artaxerxes. He was called Cyrus [Koresh] because he was a virtuous [kasher] king; he was called Artaxerxes after his kingdom, i.e., this was his royal title; and what was his real name? Darius was his name.

诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 砖讛讞诪讬抓 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 砖讛讞诪讬抓

The Gemara notes: In any case, it is difficult, as in one place his years are counted from Nisan, whereas in another place they are counted from Tishrei. Rabbi Yitz岣k said: This is not difficult, as it can be explained as follows: Here, where his years are counted from Nisan like the kings of Israel, it speaks of him before he became corrupt, whereas there, where his years are counted from Tishrei, it speaks of him after he became corrupt.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讜诪讬 讛讞诪讬抓 讜讛讻转讬讘

Rav Kahana strongly objects to this explanation: Did he really become corrupt after Ezra went to Eretz Yisrael? But isn鈥檛 it written:

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