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June 11, 2014 | ื™ืดื’ ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื“

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 34

Study Guide Rosh Hashanah 34


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ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื–ื” ื›ื–ื”

Since there is no need for the verse to state: โ€œOf the seventh month,โ€ as it already states: โ€œOn the Day of Atonement,โ€ what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œOf the seventh monthโ€? This serves to teach that all soundings of the shofar of the seventh month must be similar to one another.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉ ืฉืœืฉ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื

And from where is it derived that there must be three sets of three blasts each? The verse states: โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [shofar terua]โ€(Leviticus 25:9); and another verse states: โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ (Leviticus 23:24); and a third verse states: โ€œIt is a day of sounding [terua] the shofar to youโ€ (Numbers 29:1). Terua is mentioned three times in these verses, and a terua is always preceded and followed by a tekia.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืืช ื”ืืžื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ื•ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืœื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื”

Since one of these verses deals with Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, while two of them deal with Rosh HaShana, the Gemara asks: From where is it derived to apply what is said about that verse to this one, and what is said about this verse to that one? With regard to Rosh HaShana, the verse states: โ€œOf the seventh monthโ€ (Leviticus 25:9), and with regard to Yom Kippur the verse likewise states: โ€œIn the seventh monthโ€ (Leviticus 23:24). It is derived by verbal analogy that any shofar blasts sounded on one of these days must also be sounded on the other. Consequently, on each day one must sound three sets of tekia-terua-tekia.

ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื”ืŸ ืชืฉืข ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ื›ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื›ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื

How so? How does one actually perform the sounding of the shofar? One sounds three sets of three blasts each, which altogether are nine separate blasts. The length of a tekia is equal to the length of a terua, and the length of a terua is equal to the length of three shevarim.

ื”ืื™ ืชื ื ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ื”ื™ืงื™ืฉื ื•ื”ืฉืชื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื™ ืœืื• ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ื”ื•ื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ื ืœื” ื‘ื”ื™ืงื™ืฉื ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืชื™ื ื‘ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ื”ื™ืงื™ืฉื ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. This tanna initially derives his halakha from juxtaposition, based on the phrase: โ€œOf the seventh month,โ€ which teaches that every sounding of the shofar in the seventh month must be alike. And now he derives this halakha that one sounds three tekiateruatekia sets by verbal analogy from the recurrence of the term โ€œseventh.โ€ How can the tanna change his method of derivation in the very same baraita? The Gemara explains that this is what the tanna is saying: If there were no verbal analogy, I would have derived this halakha by juxtaposition. Now that it is derived through a verbal analogy, the juxtaposition is not necessary.

ื•ื”ืื™ ืชื ื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ืžืžื“ื‘ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชืงื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืชืงื™ืขื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื”ืงื”ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ืชืชืงืขื• ื•ืœื ืชืจื™ืขื• ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื”

The Gemara comments: And the following tanna derives this halakha by verbal analogy from the sounding of the shofar in the wilderness, as it is taught in a baraita that the verse: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utekatem] a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:5), indicates that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound. Do you say that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound? Or perhaps is it only that a tekia and a terua are one and the same, i.e., the two terms are synonymous? When it says: โ€œBut when the assembly is to be gathered together, you shall sound a tekia [titkeโ€™u], but you shall not sound a terua [tariโ€™u]โ€ (Numbers 10:7), you must say that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ืชืงืขื•

And from where is it derived that a terua is preceded by a straight blast, i.e., a tekia? The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utekatem] a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:5), which indicates that one must first sound a tekia and then a terua. And from where is it derived that a terua is followed by a straight blast? The verse states: โ€œA terua you shall sound [titkeโ€™u]โ€ (Numbers 10:6), i.e., first a terua and then a tekia.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉื ื™ืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ืช ื•ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ืช ื–ื” ื‘ื ื” ืื‘ ืฉื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชื”ื ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ืœื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื”

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka, says: This derivation is not necessary, as the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utekatem] a terua a second timeโ€ (Numbers 10:6). As there is no need for the verse to state: โ€œA second time,โ€ since it is clear from the context that this is the second terua, what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œA second time?โ€ This is a paradigm of the principle that in all places where it is stated terua, a tekia should be second to it. I have derived this halakha only in the wilderness. From where do I derive that the same applies to Rosh HaShana? The verse states โ€œteruaโ€ with regard to the wilderness, and the verse states โ€œteruaโ€ with regard to Rosh HaShana. This comes to teach by verbal analogy that the halakha of one applies to the other.

ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืชืจื•ืขื•ืช ื ืืžืจื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืฉืชื™ ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืื—ืช

And three teruot are stated with regard to Rosh HaShana: โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ (Leviticus 23:24); โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to youโ€ (Numbers 29:1); โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]โ€ (Leviticus 25:9). And there are two tekiot for each and every one of the teruot, one before and one after.

ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืœืžื“ื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืชืจื•ืขื•ืช ื•ืฉืฉ ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื ืืžืจื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืฉืชื™ื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืื—ืช ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ืœืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื‘ื

Consequently, we are found to have learned that three teruot and six tekiot are stated with regard to Rosh HaShana. Two of the teruot are required by the statement of the Torah and one by the statement of the Sages, i.e., based on the verses but not derived directly from them. How so? โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ and โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]โ€; these apply by Torah law. However, the verse โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to youโ€ comes for its own statement, i.e., for the verbal analogy, which teaches that the halakhot of the wilderness apply to Rosh HaShana as well. Consequently, the third terua is merely alluded to in that verse and its obligation applies by rabbinic law.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืื—ืช ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ืœืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื‘ื

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One terua applies by Torah law, and two apply by rabbinic law: โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]โ€ applies by Torah law. However, the verses: โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ and โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to youโ€; these two phrases come for their own statement.

ืžืื™ ืœืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื‘ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื”

The Gemara asks: What does Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani mean when he says that the verse: โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to you,โ€ comes for its own statement? What other halakha is derived from this verse? The Gemara explains: It is required to teach that the shofar must be sounded during the day and not at night, as indicated by the phrase: โ€œA day of sounding the shofar.โ€

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, who does not derive this halakha from this verse, from where does he learn that the shofar must be sounded during the day and not at night? The Gemara answers: He derives it from that which is stated with regard to the Jubilee Year: โ€œOn the Day of Atonementโ€ (Leviticus 25:9), which indicates that the shofar must be sounded during the day, not at night.

ืื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื™ืœื™ืฃ ื ื’ืžื•ืจ ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืœืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืชืขื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื ืžืฉืžืข ืœื”ื•

The Gemara asks: If that tanna derives this halakha from the phrase: โ€œOn the Day of Atonement,โ€ let us also derive from it that one must sound a straight blast of a tekia before each terua and a straight one after it. Since he derives one halakha from the verses that deal with Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, why not derive this halakha from there as well? In that case, he would not need to derive it from the verses that deal with the wilderness. The Gemara answers: The phrases โ€œThen you shall make proclamation [vehaโ€™avarta]โ€ (Leviticus 25:9) and โ€œYou shall make proclamation [taโ€™aviru]โ€ from the same verse do not indicate a tekia according to him, as they come to teach a different matter.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉื™ ื‘ื”ื• ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื›ื“ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื“ืจืš ื”ืขื‘ืจืชื• ืชืขื‘ื™ืจื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“

The Gemara asks: Rather, what does he learn from those phrases? The Gemara answers: He expounds: โ€œVehaโ€™avarta,โ€ in accordance with the opinion of Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said: โ€œVehaโ€™avarta,โ€ which literally means: And you shall carry, indicates that the shofar must be shaped in the same way that the animal carries it on its head while alive, i.e., the natural narrow end must be maintained. One should not widen that side and narrow the naturally wide end. And the word โ€œtaโ€™aviruโ€ teaches that the Merciful One states it so that one should not mistakenly explain as follows: Let us merely carry the shofar by hand throughout the land rather than sounding it.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื“ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ืžื“ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And from where does the other tanna derive these halakhot, as he used this verse to learn that the terua must be preceded by a tekia. The Gemara answers: He derives the halakha of Rav Mattana from the fact that the verse changed its normal language. It employs the term โ€œtaโ€™aviruโ€ instead of titkeโ€™u, the more common expression for sounding the shofar.

ืชืขื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื™ื“ ืœื ืžืฆื™ืช ืืžืจืช ื“ื’ืžืจ ืขื‘ืจื” ืขื‘ืจื” ืžืžืฉื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ื™ืฆื• ืžืฉื” ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ืœ ื‘ืžื—ื ื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืœ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืœ

As for the concern that one might think the verse means: You shall merely carry the shofar by hand and not sound it, you cannot in any event say that, as that tanna derives by verbal analogy between the root avara used here and the same root avara that is found with regard to Moses. It is written here: โ€œThen you shall make proclamation [vehaโ€™avarta] with the blast of the shofar,โ€ and it is written elsewhere: โ€œAnd Moses commanded, and they caused to be proclaimed [vayaโ€™aviru] throughout the campโ€ (Exodus 36:6). Just as there, with regard to Moses, they proclaimed with a sound, so too here, the proclamation must be with a sound.

ื•ืœื”ืื™ ืชื ื ื“ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ืžืžื“ื‘ืจ ืื™ ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ืฆื•ืฆืจื•ืช ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื—ืฆื•ืฆืจื•ืช

The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of this tanna, who derives the halakha that each terua of Rosh HaShana must be preceded by a tekia from the sounding of the shofar in the wilderness at the time of the gathering of the assembly, one can argue as follows: If so, just as there, in the wilderness, there was sounding of trumpets, so too, here, on Rosh HaShana, there must be sounding of trumpets.

ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืงืขื• ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื•ืคืจ ื‘ื›ืกื” ืœื™ื•ื ื—ื’ื ื• ืื™ ื–ื”ื• ื—ื’ ืฉื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืžืชื›ืกื” ื‘ื• ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืงืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืฉื•ืคืจ

Therefore, the verse states: โ€œSound the shofar at the New Moon, at the full moon [keseh] for our feast dayโ€ (Psalms 81:4). Which is the Festival on which the month, i.e., the moon, is covered [mitkaseh]? You must say that this is Rosh HaShana, the only Festival that coincides with the new moon, which cannot be seen. And the Merciful One states: โ€œSound the shofar at the New Moon,โ€ which indicates that on Rosh HaShana one sounds a shofar and nothing else.

ืืชืงื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื‘ืงืกืจื™ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชืงื™ืขื” ืžื” ื ืคืฉืš ืื™ ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื™ืœ ืœืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื•ืื™ ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื’ื ื— ืœืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืชืงื™ืขื”

ยง Rabbi Abbahu instituted in Caesarea the following order of sounding of the shofar: First a tekia, a simple uninterrupted sound; next three shevarim, broken sounds; followed by a terua, a series of short blasts; and, finally, another tekia. The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, this is difficult. If, according to the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, the sound the Torah calls a terua is a whimpering, i.e., short, consecutive sounds, one should perform tekiateruatekia set. And if he holds that a terua is moaning, i.e., longer, broken sounds, he should sound a set as follows: Tekia, followed by three shevarim, and then another tekia. Why include both a terua and a shevarim?

ืžืกืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื’ื ื— ืื™ ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื™ืœ ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื•ื“ืœืžื ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืงื ืžืคืกื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืœืชืงื™ืขื” ื“ื”ื“ืจ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ื“ืœืžื ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืงื ืžืคืกืงื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ืœืชืงื™ืขื” ื“ื”ื“ืจ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉื‘ืจื ืชืงื™ืขื”

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu was uncertain whether a terua means moaning or whimpering, and he therefore instituted that both types of sound should be included, to ensure that one fulfills his obligation. Rav Avira strongly objects to this: But perhaps a terua is whimpering, and the addition of three shevarim interrupts between the terua and the initial tekia, which disqualifies the entire set. The Gemara answers: That is why one then performs a tekiateruatekia set, to account for this possibility. Ravina strongly objects to this: But perhaps a terua is moaning, and the terua interrupts between the shevarim and the final tekia, once again disqualifying the entire set. The Gemara likewise answers: That is why one then performs a tekiashevarimtekia set, to cover this possibility as well.

ืืœื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืžืื™ ืืชืงื™ืŸ ืื™ ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื’ื ื— ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื” ืื™ ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื™ืœ ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื” ืžืกืคืงื ืœื™ื” ื“ืœืžื ื’ื ื— ื•ื™ืœื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: But if in any case one must perform the two sets of blasts, for what purpose did Rabbi Abbahu institute that one should perform a tekiashevarimteruatekia set? If a terua is moaning, one already did it; if it is whimpering, one already did this, too. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu was uncertain, and he thought that perhaps a terua consists of moaning followed by whimpering. Consequently, all three sets are necessary.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืœื™ืขื‘ื“ ื ืžื™ ืื™ืคื›ื ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื“ืœืžื ื™ืœื™ืœ ื•ื’ื ื— ืกืชืžื ื“ืžื™ืœืชื ื›ื™ ืžืชืจืข ื‘ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืžื™ืœืชื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื’ื ื— ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื™ืœื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: If so, let one perform the opposite set as well: Tekia, terua, three shevarim, tekia, as perhaps a terua consists of whimpering and then moaning. The Gemara answers: The normal way of things is that when a person experiences a bad event, he first moans and then whimpers, but not the reverse.

ืชืงืข ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืžืฉืš ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืฉืชื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฉืžืข

ยง The mishna taught: If one sounded the first tekia and then extended the second tekia of that series to the length of two tekiot, so that it should count as both the second tekia of the first set and the first tekia of the second set, it is considered as only one tekia, and one must begin the second set with a new tekia. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: If one heard

ืชืฉืข ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืชืฉืข ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืฆื

the requisite nine shofar blasts at nine different times of the day, he has fulfilled his obligation, as the blasts need not be heard in immediate succession.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืฉืžืข ืชืฉืข ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืชืฉืข ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืฆื ืžืชืฉืขื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื›ืื—ื“ ืœื ื™ืฆื ืชืงื™ืขื” ืžื–ื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ืžื–ื” ื™ืฆื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืกื™ืจื•ื’ื™ืŸ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื•

This is also taught in a baraita: If one heard nine shofar blasts at nine different times of the day, he has fulfilled his obligation. If one heard the blasts from nine different people simultaneously, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If one heard a tekia from this one and afterward he heard a terua from this other one, he has fulfilled his obligation, as one does not have to hear all the blasts from the same individual. And this is true even if one heard the blasts from the different individuals at intervals, and even if it took the course of the entire day.

ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ืฆื“ืง ื‘ื”ืœืœ ื•ื‘ืžื’ื™ืœื” ืื ืฉื”ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืจืืฉ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yoแธฅanan actually say this? Didnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan say in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: During the reading of hallel or the Megilla of Esther, if one paused long enough to complete all of it, he must return to the beginning, as it must be read in one session? Why is the halakha different in the case of the shofar? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this ruling with regard to the shofar is his own opinion, and that case of hallel and the Megilla is his teacherโ€™s opinion. It is Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak who holds that one may not pause in the middle of sounding the shofar.

ื•ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ืœื ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ืฉืงื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื” ืงืจื™ ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœืžื‘ื•ืื•ืช ืžื˜ื•ื ืคื•ืช ืื™ืฉืชื™ืง ื‘ืชืจ ื“ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื”ื• ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ืฉื”ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืœืจืืฉ

The Gemara asks: And is this not also his own opinion as well? Wasnโ€™t Rabbi Abbahu once walking after Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, and Rabbi Abbahu was reciting Shema as he walked? When he reached alleyways that were filthy with human excrement, where it is prohibited to utter words of Torah, he fell silent and stopped reciting Shema. After he passed through, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: What is the halakha with regard to completing Shema from where I left off? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said to him: If you remained in the alleyway for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and start again. This shows that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan himself holds that if one takes an extended break, he must start again from the beginning.

ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ ืœื“ื™ื“ืš ื“ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœืš ืื ืฉื”ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืœืจืืฉ

The Gemara answers: This is no proof, as it is possible that this is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: I myself do not hold that one must start again after a long pause; however, according to you, as you hold that a delay is a problem, the halakha is that if you paused for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, you must return to the beginning.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช ื–ื• ืืช ื–ื• ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช ื–ื• ืืช ื–ื• ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: The various trumpet blasts on a fast day do not invalidate one another, i.e., if one was omitted, this does not invalidate the other blasts. Similarly, the additional blessings that are inserted into the Amida prayer on a fast day do not invalidate one another. However, the shofar blasts and additional blessings of Rosh HaShana and of Yom Kippur do invalidate one another.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืžืจื• ืœืคื ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืžืœื›ื™ื•ืช ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืฉื•ืคืจื•ืช ืžืœื›ื™ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืžืœื™ื›ื•ื ื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ื ืœืคื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื™ื›ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ื‘ืฉื•ืคืจ

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that all the blasts and blessings are indispensable on Rosh HaShana? Rabba said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Recite before Me on Rosh HaShana Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofarot. Kingship, so that you will crown Me as King over you; Remembrances, so that your remembrance will rise before Me for good. And with what? With the shofar. Since these blessings constitute a single unit, one who did not recite them all has not fulfilled his obligation.

ืžื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืจืš ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื ืชืžื ื” ืœื• ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชื•ืงืข ื•ืžืจื™ืข ื•ืชื•ืงืข ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืฉื•ืคืจ ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื”ื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืฉื•ืคืจ ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื›ื™ ืฉืžืข ืœื”ื• ืืกื“ืจ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืฉืžืข ืœื”ื•

ยง The mishna taught: In the case of one who recited the blessings of the additional prayer and only afterward a shofar became available to him, he sounds a tekia, sounds a terua and sounds a tekia; this is a set that he repeats three times. The Gemara explains: The reason that he may do this is that he did not have a shofar at the outset. This indicates that if he had a shofar at the outset, when he hears the blasts he must hear them by the order of the blessings, i.e., one set must be sounded after each special blessing.

ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืงื ืœืฆืœื•ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืฉืžืขื™ื” ื›ื™ ื ื”ื™ืจื ื ืœืš ืชืงืข ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ื”ืœื ืืžืจื• ืืœื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจ ืขื™ืจ

The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa bar Shmuel once rose to pray on Rosh HaShana. He said to his attendant: When I signal to you that I have finished each of the blessings, sound the shofar for me. Rava said to him: They said that the shofar must be sounded after each blessing only where there is a quorum of ten [แธฅever ir], not when it is sounded for an individual.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉื•ืžืขืŸ ืฉื•ืžืขืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื•ืขืœ ืกื“ืจ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจ ืขื™ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืฉืœื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจ ืขื™ืจ ืฉื•ืžืขืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื•ืฉืœื ืขืœ ืกื“ืจ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืœื ืชืงืข ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืชื•ืงืข ืœื• ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืœื ื‘ื™ืจืš ืื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžื‘ืจืš ืขืœื™ื•

This is also taught in a baraita: When one hears the shofar blasts, he must hear them in order, i.e., a tekiateruatekia set, and upon the order of the blessings. In what case is this statement said? Where there is a quorum of ten [แธฅever ir]. However, where there is not a แธฅever ir, one must hear them in order, but he need not hear them upon the order of the blessings. And in the case of an individual who has not sounded the shofar, another may sound it for him. But with regard to an individual who has not recited the blessings, another may not recite the blessings for him.

ื•ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืชื•ืงืขื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืฉืชื™ ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืื—ืช ืชื•ืงืขื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื—ืช ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ืŸ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืชื•ืงืขื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ืŸ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืžื‘ืจื›ื™ืŸ

And if one has to choose between hearing the shofar and reciting the blessings, the mitzva to be among those who sound the shofar is more important than the mitzva to be among those who recite the blessings. How so? If there are two towns, in one there are those who know how to sound the shofar, and in the other there are individuals who know how to recite the blessings, one should go to the place where they sound the shofar, and one does not go to the place where they know how to recite the blessings.

ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื”ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ื”ื ื•ื“ืื™ ื•ื”ื ืกืคืง

The Gemara asks: This halakha is obvious. Sounding the shofar is a mitzva by Torah law, whereas the additional prayer applies by rabbinic law. A mitzva that applies by Torah law is clearly more important. The Gemara answers: No; this seemingly superfluous ruling is necessary to teach that although in this town it is certain that the additional prayer will be recited and in this other town it is uncertain whether or not the shofar will be sounded, one should still go to the place where they know how to sound the shofar rather than the location where they know how to recite the blessings.

ื›ืฉื ืฉืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื›ืš ื›ืœ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืœืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ืœืžื” ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืžืชืคืœืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืกื“ื™ืจ ืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืชืคืœืชื•

ยง The mishna states: Just as the prayer leader is obligated in the prayers of Rosh HaShana, so too, every individual is obligated in these prayers. Rabban Gamliel says: The prayer leader fulfills the obligation on behalf of the many. It is taught in a baraita that the Rabbis said to Rabban Gamliel: According to your statement, why does the congregation recite the silent Amida prayer beforehand? He said to them: In order that the prayer leader should have time to prepare and arrange his prayer.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื›ื ืœืžื” ืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื›ืฉื ืฉืžื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืงื™ ื›ืš ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ื‘ืงื™

Rabban Gamliel said to the Rabbis: According to your statement, that the prayer leader does not fulfill the obligation on behalf of the many, why does the prayer leader descend before the ark and recite the Amida prayer? They said to him: He does so to fulfill the obligation of one who is not an expert in prayer. Rabban Gamliel said to them: Just as he can fulfill the obligation of one who is not an expert in prayer, so too, he can fulfill the obligation of the expert.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืœืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ืฉืžืขื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืื–ืœ ืืžืจื” ืœืฉืžืขืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉืžืขืชื ืืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื•ืืžืจ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช

With regard to this baraita, Rabba bar bar แธคana said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Ultimately, the Rabbis concede to the opinion of Rabban Gamliel. But Rav said: It is still a dispute that remains unresolved. The Gemara relates that Rabbi แธคiyya, son of Rabba bar Naแธฅmani, heard this and went and stated this halakha before Rav Dimi bar แธคinnana. He said to him that this is what Rav said: It is still a dispute. Rav Dimi bar แธคinnana said to him: This is what Rabba bar bar แธคana also said: When Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said this halakha, that the Rabbis concede to the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, Reish Lakish disagreed with him and said: It is still a dispute.

ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื” ืฆื™ืคื•ืจืื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืคืœื™ื’ื™

The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yoแธฅanan actually say this? Didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคana from the city of Tzippori say that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel? From the fact that he said: The halakha, one can conclude by inference that the Rabbis still disagree. The very fact that he issued a ruling in favor of Rabban Gamliel shows that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan maintains that the Sages do not accept this opinion.

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Rosh Hashanah 34

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 34

ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื•ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉื™ื”ื• ื›ืœ ืชืจื•ืขื•ืช ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ื–ื” ื›ื–ื”

Since there is no need for the verse to state: โ€œOf the seventh month,โ€ as it already states: โ€œOn the Day of Atonement,โ€ what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œOf the seventh monthโ€? This serves to teach that all soundings of the shofar of the seventh month must be similar to one another.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉืœ ืฉืœืฉ ืฉืœืฉ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื

And from where is it derived that there must be three sets of three blasts each? The verse states: โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [shofar terua]โ€(Leviticus 25:9); and another verse states: โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ (Leviticus 23:24); and a third verse states: โ€œIt is a day of sounding [terua] the shofar to youโ€ (Numbers 29:1). Terua is mentioned three times in these verses, and a terua is always preceded and followed by a tekia.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืืช ื”ืืžื•ืจ ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ื•ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืœื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื”

Since one of these verses deals with Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, while two of them deal with Rosh HaShana, the Gemara asks: From where is it derived to apply what is said about that verse to this one, and what is said about this verse to that one? With regard to Rosh HaShana, the verse states: โ€œOf the seventh monthโ€ (Leviticus 25:9), and with regard to Yom Kippur the verse likewise states: โ€œIn the seventh monthโ€ (Leviticus 23:24). It is derived by verbal analogy that any shofar blasts sounded on one of these days must also be sounded on the other. Consequently, on each day one must sound three sets of tekia-terua-tekia.

ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื”ืŸ ืชืฉืข ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ื›ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื›ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื

How so? How does one actually perform the sounding of the shofar? One sounds three sets of three blasts each, which altogether are nine separate blasts. The length of a tekia is equal to the length of a terua, and the length of a terua is equal to the length of three shevarim.

ื”ืื™ ืชื ื ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ื”ื™ืงื™ืฉื ื•ื”ืฉืชื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื™ ืœืื• ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ื”ื•ื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ื ืœื” ื‘ื”ื™ืงื™ืฉื ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืชื™ื ื‘ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ื”ื™ืงื™ืฉื ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. This tanna initially derives his halakha from juxtaposition, based on the phrase: โ€œOf the seventh month,โ€ which teaches that every sounding of the shofar in the seventh month must be alike. And now he derives this halakha that one sounds three tekiateruatekia sets by verbal analogy from the recurrence of the term โ€œseventh.โ€ How can the tanna change his method of derivation in the very same baraita? The Gemara explains that this is what the tanna is saying: If there were no verbal analogy, I would have derived this halakha by juxtaposition. Now that it is derived through a verbal analogy, the juxtaposition is not necessary.

ื•ื”ืื™ ืชื ื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ืžืžื“ื‘ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชืงื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืชืงื™ืขื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื”ืงื”ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ืชืชืงืขื• ื•ืœื ืชืจื™ืขื• ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื”

The Gemara comments: And the following tanna derives this halakha by verbal analogy from the sounding of the shofar in the wilderness, as it is taught in a baraita that the verse: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utekatem] a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:5), indicates that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound. Do you say that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound? Or perhaps is it only that a tekia and a terua are one and the same, i.e., the two terms are synonymous? When it says: โ€œBut when the assembly is to be gathered together, you shall sound a tekia [titkeโ€™u], but you shall not sound a terua [tariโ€™u]โ€ (Numbers 10:7), you must say that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ืชืงืขื•

And from where is it derived that a terua is preceded by a straight blast, i.e., a tekia? The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utekatem] a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:5), which indicates that one must first sound a tekia and then a terua. And from where is it derived that a terua is followed by a straight blast? The verse states: โ€œA terua you shall sound [titkeโ€™u]โ€ (Numbers 10:6), i.e., first a terua and then a tekia.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืงื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉื ื™ืช ืฉืื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ืช ื•ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ืช ื–ื” ื‘ื ื” ืื‘ ืฉื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชื”ื ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉื ื™ื” ืœื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ืœื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืฉื•ื”

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Beroka, says: This derivation is not necessary, as the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utekatem] a terua a second timeโ€ (Numbers 10:6). As there is no need for the verse to state: โ€œA second time,โ€ since it is clear from the context that this is the second terua, what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œA second time?โ€ This is a paradigm of the principle that in all places where it is stated terua, a tekia should be second to it. I have derived this halakha only in the wilderness. From where do I derive that the same applies to Rosh HaShana? The verse states โ€œteruaโ€ with regard to the wilderness, and the verse states โ€œteruaโ€ with regard to Rosh HaShana. This comes to teach by verbal analogy that the halakha of one applies to the other.

ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืชืจื•ืขื•ืช ื ืืžืจื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืฉืชื™ ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืื—ืช

And three teruot are stated with regard to Rosh HaShana: โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ (Leviticus 23:24); โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to youโ€ (Numbers 29:1); โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]โ€ (Leviticus 25:9). And there are two tekiot for each and every one of the teruot, one before and one after.

ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืœืžื“ื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืชืจื•ืขื•ืช ื•ืฉืฉ ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื ืืžืจื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืฉืชื™ื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืื—ืช ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ืœืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื‘ื

Consequently, we are found to have learned that three teruot and six tekiot are stated with regard to Rosh HaShana. Two of the teruot are required by the statement of the Torah and one by the statement of the Sages, i.e., based on the verses but not derived directly from them. How so? โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ and โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]โ€; these apply by Torah law. However, the verse โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to youโ€ comes for its own statement, i.e., for the verbal analogy, which teaches that the halakhot of the wilderness apply to Rosh HaShana as well. Consequently, the third terua is merely alluded to in that verse and its obligation applies by rabbinic law.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื ืชืŸ ืื—ืช ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืกื•ืคืจื™ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื›ืจื•ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื™ื•ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ืœืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื‘ื

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One terua applies by Torah law, and two apply by rabbinic law: โ€œThen you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]โ€ applies by Torah law. However, the verses: โ€œA solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]โ€ and โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to youโ€; these two phrases come for their own statement.

ืžืื™ ืœืชืœืžื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื‘ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื”

The Gemara asks: What does Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani mean when he says that the verse: โ€œIt is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to you,โ€ comes for its own statement? What other halakha is derived from this verse? The Gemara explains: It is required to teach that the shofar must be sounded during the day and not at night, as indicated by the phrase: โ€œA day of sounding the shofar.โ€

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, who does not derive this halakha from this verse, from where does he learn that the shofar must be sounded during the day and not at night? The Gemara answers: He derives it from that which is stated with regard to the Jubilee Year: โ€œOn the Day of Atonementโ€ (Leviticus 25:9), which indicates that the shofar must be sounded during the day, not at night.

ืื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื™ืœื™ืฃ ื ื’ืžื•ืจ ื ืžื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืœืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืชืขื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื ืžืฉืžืข ืœื”ื•

The Gemara asks: If that tanna derives this halakha from the phrase: โ€œOn the Day of Atonement,โ€ let us also derive from it that one must sound a straight blast of a tekia before each terua and a straight one after it. Since he derives one halakha from the verses that deal with Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, why not derive this halakha from there as well? In that case, he would not need to derive it from the verses that deal with the wilderness. The Gemara answers: The phrases โ€œThen you shall make proclamation [vehaโ€™avarta]โ€ (Leviticus 25:9) and โ€œYou shall make proclamation [taโ€™aviru]โ€ from the same verse do not indicate a tekia according to him, as they come to teach a different matter.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉื™ ื‘ื”ื• ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื›ื“ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ื“ืจืš ื”ืขื‘ืจืชื• ืชืขื‘ื™ืจื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื ืขื‘ืจื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“

The Gemara asks: Rather, what does he learn from those phrases? The Gemara answers: He expounds: โ€œVehaโ€™avarta,โ€ in accordance with the opinion of Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said: โ€œVehaโ€™avarta,โ€ which literally means: And you shall carry, indicates that the shofar must be shaped in the same way that the animal carries it on its head while alive, i.e., the natural narrow end must be maintained. One should not widen that side and narrow the naturally wide end. And the word โ€œtaโ€™aviruโ€ teaches that the Merciful One states it so that one should not mistakenly explain as follows: Let us merely carry the shofar by hand throughout the land rather than sounding it.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื“ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ืžื“ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And from where does the other tanna derive these halakhot, as he used this verse to learn that the terua must be preceded by a tekia. The Gemara answers: He derives the halakha of Rav Mattana from the fact that the verse changed its normal language. It employs the term โ€œtaโ€™aviruโ€ instead of titkeโ€™u, the more common expression for sounding the shofar.

ืชืขื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื™ื“ ืœื ืžืฆื™ืช ืืžืจืช ื“ื’ืžืจ ืขื‘ืจื” ืขื‘ืจื” ืžืžืฉื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ื”ืขื‘ืจืช ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ื™ืฆื• ืžืฉื” ื•ื™ืขื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ืœ ื‘ืžื—ื ื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืœ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืœ

As for the concern that one might think the verse means: You shall merely carry the shofar by hand and not sound it, you cannot in any event say that, as that tanna derives by verbal analogy between the root avara used here and the same root avara that is found with regard to Moses. It is written here: โ€œThen you shall make proclamation [vehaโ€™avarta] with the blast of the shofar,โ€ and it is written elsewhere: โ€œAnd Moses commanded, and they caused to be proclaimed [vayaโ€™aviru] throughout the campโ€ (Exodus 36:6). Just as there, with regard to Moses, they proclaimed with a sound, so too here, the proclamation must be with a sound.

ื•ืœื”ืื™ ืชื ื ื“ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื” ืžืžื“ื‘ืจ ืื™ ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ืฆื•ืฆืจื•ืช ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื—ืฆื•ืฆืจื•ืช

The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of this tanna, who derives the halakha that each terua of Rosh HaShana must be preceded by a tekia from the sounding of the shofar in the wilderness at the time of the gathering of the assembly, one can argue as follows: If so, just as there, in the wilderness, there was sounding of trumpets, so too, here, on Rosh HaShana, there must be sounding of trumpets.

ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชืงืขื• ื‘ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื•ืคืจ ื‘ื›ืกื” ืœื™ื•ื ื—ื’ื ื• ืื™ ื–ื”ื• ื—ื’ ืฉื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืžืชื›ืกื” ื‘ื• ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืงืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืฉื•ืคืจ

Therefore, the verse states: โ€œSound the shofar at the New Moon, at the full moon [keseh] for our feast dayโ€ (Psalms 81:4). Which is the Festival on which the month, i.e., the moon, is covered [mitkaseh]? You must say that this is Rosh HaShana, the only Festival that coincides with the new moon, which cannot be seen. And the Merciful One states: โ€œSound the shofar at the New Moon,โ€ which indicates that on Rosh HaShana one sounds a shofar and nothing else.

ืืชืงื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื‘ืงืกืจื™ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ืชืจื•ืขื” ืชืงื™ืขื” ืžื” ื ืคืฉืš ืื™ ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื™ืœ ืœืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื•ืื™ ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื’ื ื— ืœืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืชืงื™ืขื”

ยง Rabbi Abbahu instituted in Caesarea the following order of sounding of the shofar: First a tekia, a simple uninterrupted sound; next three shevarim, broken sounds; followed by a terua, a series of short blasts; and, finally, another tekia. The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, this is difficult. If, according to the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, the sound the Torah calls a terua is a whimpering, i.e., short, consecutive sounds, one should perform tekiateruatekia set. And if he holds that a terua is moaning, i.e., longer, broken sounds, he should sound a set as follows: Tekia, followed by three shevarim, and then another tekia. Why include both a terua and a shevarim?

ืžืกืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื’ื ื— ืื™ ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื™ืœ ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ื•ื“ืœืžื ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืงื ืžืคืกื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืขื” ืœืชืงื™ืขื” ื“ื”ื“ืจ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ื“ืœืžื ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืงื ืžืคืกืงื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ืœืชืงื™ืขื” ื“ื”ื“ืจ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืฉื‘ืจื ืชืงื™ืขื”

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu was uncertain whether a terua means moaning or whimpering, and he therefore instituted that both types of sound should be included, to ensure that one fulfills his obligation. Rav Avira strongly objects to this: But perhaps a terua is whimpering, and the addition of three shevarim interrupts between the terua and the initial tekia, which disqualifies the entire set. The Gemara answers: That is why one then performs a tekiateruatekia set, to account for this possibility. Ravina strongly objects to this: But perhaps a terua is moaning, and the terua interrupts between the shevarim and the final tekia, once again disqualifying the entire set. The Gemara likewise answers: That is why one then performs a tekiashevarimtekia set, to cover this possibility as well.

ืืœื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืžืื™ ืืชืงื™ืŸ ืื™ ื’ื ื•ื—ื™ ื’ื ื— ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื” ืื™ ื™ืœื•ืœื™ ื™ืœื™ืœ ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื” ืžืกืคืงื ืœื™ื” ื“ืœืžื ื’ื ื— ื•ื™ืœื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: But if in any case one must perform the two sets of blasts, for what purpose did Rabbi Abbahu institute that one should perform a tekiashevarimteruatekia set? If a terua is moaning, one already did it; if it is whimpering, one already did this, too. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu was uncertain, and he thought that perhaps a terua consists of moaning followed by whimpering. Consequently, all three sets are necessary.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืœื™ืขื‘ื“ ื ืžื™ ืื™ืคื›ื ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื“ืœืžื ื™ืœื™ืœ ื•ื’ื ื— ืกืชืžื ื“ืžื™ืœืชื ื›ื™ ืžืชืจืข ื‘ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืžื™ืœืชื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื’ื ื— ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื™ืœื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: If so, let one perform the opposite set as well: Tekia, terua, three shevarim, tekia, as perhaps a terua consists of whimpering and then moaning. The Gemara answers: The normal way of things is that when a person experiences a bad event, he first moans and then whimpers, but not the reverse.

ืชืงืข ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืžืฉืš ื‘ืฉื ื™ื” ื›ืฉืชื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฉืžืข

ยง The mishna taught: If one sounded the first tekia and then extended the second tekia of that series to the length of two tekiot, so that it should count as both the second tekia of the first set and the first tekia of the second set, it is considered as only one tekia, and one must begin the second set with a new tekia. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: If one heard

ืชืฉืข ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืชืฉืข ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืฆื

the requisite nine shofar blasts at nine different times of the day, he has fulfilled his obligation, as the blasts need not be heard in immediate succession.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืฉืžืข ืชืฉืข ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืชืฉืข ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืฆื ืžืชืฉืขื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื›ืื—ื“ ืœื ื™ืฆื ืชืงื™ืขื” ืžื–ื” ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ืžื–ื” ื™ืฆื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืกื™ืจื•ื’ื™ืŸ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ื•ืœื•

This is also taught in a baraita: If one heard nine shofar blasts at nine different times of the day, he has fulfilled his obligation. If one heard the blasts from nine different people simultaneously, he has not fulfilled his obligation. If one heard a tekia from this one and afterward he heard a terua from this other one, he has fulfilled his obligation, as one does not have to hear all the blasts from the same individual. And this is true even if one heard the blasts from the different individuals at intervals, and even if it took the course of the entire day.

ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ืฆื“ืง ื‘ื”ืœืœ ื•ื‘ืžื’ื™ืœื” ืื ืฉื”ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืจืืฉ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yoแธฅanan actually say this? Didnโ€™t Rabbi Yoแธฅanan say in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: During the reading of hallel or the Megilla of Esther, if one paused long enough to complete all of it, he must return to the beginning, as it must be read in one session? Why is the halakha different in the case of the shofar? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this ruling with regard to the shofar is his own opinion, and that case of hallel and the Megilla is his teacherโ€™s opinion. It is Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak who holds that one may not pause in the middle of sounding the shofar.

ื•ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ืœื ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ืฉืงื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ื” ืงืจื™ ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœืžื‘ื•ืื•ืช ืžื˜ื•ื ืคื•ืช ืื™ืฉืชื™ืง ื‘ืชืจ ื“ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื”ื• ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ืฉื”ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืœืจืืฉ

The Gemara asks: And is this not also his own opinion as well? Wasnโ€™t Rabbi Abbahu once walking after Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, and Rabbi Abbahu was reciting Shema as he walked? When he reached alleyways that were filthy with human excrement, where it is prohibited to utter words of Torah, he fell silent and stopped reciting Shema. After he passed through, Rabbi Abbahu said to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: What is the halakha with regard to completing Shema from where I left off? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said to him: If you remained in the alleyway for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, return to the beginning and start again. This shows that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan himself holds that if one takes an extended break, he must start again from the beginning.

ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ ืœื“ื™ื“ืš ื“ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœืš ืื ืฉื”ื™ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื›ื•ืœื” ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืœืจืืฉ

The Gemara answers: This is no proof, as it is possible that this is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: I myself do not hold that one must start again after a long pause; however, according to you, as you hold that a delay is a problem, the halakha is that if you paused for an interval sufficient to complete the entire Shema, you must return to the beginning.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช ื–ื• ืืช ื–ื• ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช ื–ื• ืืช ื–ื• ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืฉืœ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: The various trumpet blasts on a fast day do not invalidate one another, i.e., if one was omitted, this does not invalidate the other blasts. Similarly, the additional blessings that are inserted into the Amida prayer on a fast day do not invalidate one another. However, the shofar blasts and additional blessings of Rosh HaShana and of Yom Kippur do invalidate one another.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืžืจื• ืœืคื ื™ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืžืœื›ื™ื•ืช ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืฉื•ืคืจื•ืช ืžืœื›ื™ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืžืœื™ื›ื•ื ื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื‘ื ืœืคื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื•ื ื™ื›ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืžื” ื‘ืฉื•ืคืจ

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that all the blasts and blessings are indispensable on Rosh HaShana? Rabba said that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Recite before Me on Rosh HaShana Kingship, Remembrances, and Shofarot. Kingship, so that you will crown Me as King over you; Remembrances, so that your remembrance will rise before Me for good. And with what? With the shofar. Since these blessings constitute a single unit, one who did not recite them all has not fulfilled his obligation.

ืžื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืจืš ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื ืชืžื ื” ืœื• ืฉื•ืคืจ ืชื•ืงืข ื•ืžืจื™ืข ื•ืชื•ืงืข ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืฉื•ืคืจ ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื”ื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืฉื•ืคืจ ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื›ื™ ืฉืžืข ืœื”ื• ืืกื“ืจ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืฉืžืข ืœื”ื•

ยง The mishna taught: In the case of one who recited the blessings of the additional prayer and only afterward a shofar became available to him, he sounds a tekia, sounds a terua and sounds a tekia; this is a set that he repeats three times. The Gemara explains: The reason that he may do this is that he did not have a shofar at the outset. This indicates that if he had a shofar at the outset, when he hears the blasts he must hear them by the order of the blessings, i.e., one set must be sounded after each special blessing.

ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืงื ืœืฆืœื•ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืฉืžืขื™ื” ื›ื™ ื ื”ื™ืจื ื ืœืš ืชืงืข ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ื”ืœื ืืžืจื• ืืœื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจ ืขื™ืจ

The Gemara relates: Rav Pappa bar Shmuel once rose to pray on Rosh HaShana. He said to his attendant: When I signal to you that I have finished each of the blessings, sound the shofar for me. Rava said to him: They said that the shofar must be sounded after each blessing only where there is a quorum of ten [แธฅever ir], not when it is sounded for an individual.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืฉื•ืžืขืŸ ืฉื•ืžืขืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื•ืขืœ ืกื“ืจ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจ ืขื™ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืฉืœื ื‘ื—ื‘ืจ ืขื™ืจ ืฉื•ืžืขืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืกื“ืจ ื•ืฉืœื ืขืœ ืกื“ืจ ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืœื ืชืงืข ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืชื•ืงืข ืœื• ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืฉืœื ื‘ื™ืจืš ืื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžื‘ืจืš ืขืœื™ื•

This is also taught in a baraita: When one hears the shofar blasts, he must hear them in order, i.e., a tekiateruatekia set, and upon the order of the blessings. In what case is this statement said? Where there is a quorum of ten [แธฅever ir]. However, where there is not a แธฅever ir, one must hear them in order, but he need not hear them upon the order of the blessings. And in the case of an individual who has not sounded the shofar, another may sound it for him. But with regard to an individual who has not recited the blessings, another may not recite the blessings for him.

ื•ืžืฆื•ื” ื‘ืชื•ืงืขื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืฉืชื™ ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืื—ืช ืชื•ืงืขื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื—ืช ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ืŸ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืชื•ืงืขื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ืŸ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืžื‘ืจื›ื™ืŸ

And if one has to choose between hearing the shofar and reciting the blessings, the mitzva to be among those who sound the shofar is more important than the mitzva to be among those who recite the blessings. How so? If there are two towns, in one there are those who know how to sound the shofar, and in the other there are individuals who know how to recite the blessings, one should go to the place where they sound the shofar, and one does not go to the place where they know how to recite the blessings.

ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื”ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ื”ื ื•ื“ืื™ ื•ื”ื ืกืคืง

The Gemara asks: This halakha is obvious. Sounding the shofar is a mitzva by Torah law, whereas the additional prayer applies by rabbinic law. A mitzva that applies by Torah law is clearly more important. The Gemara answers: No; this seemingly superfluous ruling is necessary to teach that although in this town it is certain that the additional prayer will be recited and in this other town it is uncertain whether or not the shofar will be sounded, one should still go to the place where they know how to sound the shofar rather than the location where they know how to recite the blessings.

ื›ืฉื ืฉืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ื›ืš ื›ืœ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืœืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ืš ืœืžื” ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืžืชืคืœืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืกื“ื™ืจ ืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืชืคืœืชื•

ยง The mishna states: Just as the prayer leader is obligated in the prayers of Rosh HaShana, so too, every individual is obligated in these prayers. Rabban Gamliel says: The prayer leader fulfills the obligation on behalf of the many. It is taught in a baraita that the Rabbis said to Rabban Gamliel: According to your statement, why does the congregation recite the silent Amida prayer beforehand? He said to them: In order that the prayer leader should have time to prepare and arrange his prayer.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื›ื ืœืžื” ืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื™ื•ืจื“ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื• ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืงื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื›ืฉื ืฉืžื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืงื™ ื›ืš ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ื‘ืงื™

Rabban Gamliel said to the Rabbis: According to your statement, that the prayer leader does not fulfill the obligation on behalf of the many, why does the prayer leader descend before the ark and recite the Amida prayer? They said to him: He does so to fulfill the obligation of one who is not an expert in prayer. Rabban Gamliel said to them: Just as he can fulfill the obligation of one who is not an expert in prayer, so too, he can fulfill the obligation of the expert.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืœืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ืฉืžืขื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืื–ืœ ืืžืจื” ืœืฉืžืขืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉืžืขืชื ืืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื•ืืžืจ ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื—ืœื•ืงืช

With regard to this baraita, Rabba bar bar แธคana said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Ultimately, the Rabbis concede to the opinion of Rabban Gamliel. But Rav said: It is still a dispute that remains unresolved. The Gemara relates that Rabbi แธคiyya, son of Rabba bar Naแธฅmani, heard this and went and stated this halakha before Rav Dimi bar แธคinnana. He said to him that this is what Rav said: It is still a dispute. Rav Dimi bar แธคinnana said to him: This is what Rabba bar bar แธคana also said: When Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said this halakha, that the Rabbis concede to the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, Reish Lakish disagreed with him and said: It is still a dispute.

ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื” ืฆื™ืคื•ืจืื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืคืœื™ื’ื™

The Gemara asks: And did Rabbi Yoแธฅanan actually say this? Didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคana from the city of Tzippori say that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel? From the fact that he said: The halakha, one can conclude by inference that the Rabbis still disagree. The very fact that he issued a ruling in favor of Rabban Gamliel shows that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan maintains that the Sages do not accept this opinion.

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