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Today's Daf Yomi

June 23, 2014 | 讻状讛 讘住讬讜谉 转砖注状讚

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Taanit 12

Study Guide Taanit 12


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讛讗 讚讗诪专转 诪转注谞讬谉 诇砖注讜转 讜讛讜讗 砖诇讗 讟注诐 讻诇讜诐 注讚 讛注专讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讛讗 转注谞讬转 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讛讬讗 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讚讗讬诪诇讱 讗讬诪诇讜讻讬

The halakha is that which you said, that one may fast for a few hours, provided that one took a fast of a few hours upon himself, and that he fasted and did not taste anything until the evening. Abaye said to Rav 岣sda: This ruling is obvious, since it is a full-fledged fast, as one ultimately fasts the entire day. Rav 岣sda answered: No, it is necessary to say this halakha in a case where he changed his mind, i.e., he began the day without intending to fast, but for various reasons he did not eat, and halfway through the day he decided to continue fasting for another few hours until nightfall. Rav 岣sda maintains that this kind of fasting for hours is considered a fast.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 转注谞讬转 砖诇讗 砖拽注讛 注诇讬讜 讞诪讛 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 转注谞讬转 诪讬转讬讘讬 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讛转诐 诇爪注讜专讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讘注诇诪讗 讛讜讗

And Rav 岣sda said: Any fast upon which the sun does not set, i.e., when one eats in the middle of the day, it is not called a fast at all. The Gemara raises an objection: The members of the priestly watch, the priests and Levites who are serving in the Temple that week, fast on a communal fast, like the members of the non-priestly watch who are attached to specific groups of priests, but they do not complete the fast with the rest of the community. This indicates that even a fast lasting only a few hours is called a fast. The Gemara explains: There they abstained from food merely to cause themselves distress, as an act of solidarity with the rest of the community, but this was not considered a full-fledged fast.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讗谞讬 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 住谞讗讛 讘谉 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讜驻注诐 讗讞转 讞诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讜讚讞讬谞讜讛讜 诇讗讞专 讛砖讘转 讜讛转注谞讬谞讜 讘讜 讜诇讗 讛砖诇诪谞讜讛讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖诇谞讜 讛讜讗 讛转诐 谞诪讬 诇爪注讜专讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讘注诇诪讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara cites another proof: Come and hear, as Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said: I am a descendant of Senaah, son of the tribe of Benjamin, and once the Ninth of Av occurred on Shabbat, and we postponed the fast until after Shabbat, as Shabbat supersedes the fast of the Ninth of Av. And we fasted on that day, but we did not complete the fast, due to the fact that the tenth of Av is a holiday of ours, a private holiday for our family (26a), and one does not fast on holidays. This proves that a fast of only a few hours is nevertheless called a fast. The Gemara rejects this claim: There too, they did so merely to cause themselves distress.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讛讗 讘转注谞讬转 注讚 砖讗讘讜讗 诇讘讬转讬 讛转诐 诇砖诪讜讟讬讛 谞驻砖讬讛 诪讘讬 谞砖讬讗讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚

The Gemara again attempts to disprove the opinion of Rav 岣sda, this time by citing a custom of Rabbi Yo岣nan: Come and hear, as Rabbi Yo岣nan occasionally said: I shall be in observance of a fast until I come to my house. This indicates that one can take a fast upon himself even for just a few hours. The Gemara rejects this proof as well: There he did this to excuse himself from the household of the Nasi. At times, Rabbi Yo岣nan received an invitation to dine at the house of the Nasi, but wanted to decline. To avoid insulting the Nasi, he would say that he had taken a fast upon himself, and afterward he would eat at home. Since this was not a real fast, it is not proof of the legitimacy of a partial-day fast.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 转注谞讬转 砖诇讗 拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 诇讗讜 砖诪讬讛 转注谞讬转 讜讗讬 讬转讬讘 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讚诪讬 诇诪驻讜讞讗 讚诪诇讬讗 讝讬拽讗

Shmuel said: Any fast that one did not take upon himself while it was still day is not called a fast. The Gemara asks: And if one happened to sit in observance of a fast that day, what is that considered? Rabba bar Sheila said: He is likened to a bellows that is full of air. His behavior does not constitute a fast, as he is merely a container full of air, without food.

讗讬诪转 诪拽讘讬诇 诇讬讛 专讘 讗诪专 讘诪谞讞讛 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讘转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 诪住转讘专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 诇讛谉 讻诇 讗讬谞讬砖 讚讬讬转讬 注诇讜讛讬 诪拽讚诪转 讚谞讗 讬讬住专

搂 The Gemara asks: When does one take a fast upon himself? Rav said: One takes a fast upon himself in the afternoon of the day preceding the fast, from midday onward. And Shmuel said: One must take a fast upon himself for the following day at the end of the afternoon prayer. Rav Yosef said: It stands to reason that the halakha should be in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, as it is written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, after a list of all of the Festivals established by the Sages in commemoration of various events throughout Jewish history: Therefore, whoever has bound himself beforehand with an obligation to fast on one of these commemorative days, he will be bound.

诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讬讬住专 注爪诪讜 讘爪诇讜 诇讗 讬讗住专 注爪诪讜

The Gemara explains the apparent proof from the text of Megillat Ta鈥檃nit. What, is it not the case that this means that he binds himself to the obligation at the time of prayer, and if he did not do so at that point in time his fast does not go into effect? The Gemara rejects this explanation: No; the text should be amended by one letter so that it does not read yeisar, he shall bind himself, but yei鈥檃ser, he shall render himself prohibited from transgressing these instructions. In other words, the text is explaining that despite a prior vow to fast, it is prohibited for one to do so on the commemorative days enumerated in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit.

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讬讬住专 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讬讗住专 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬讬住专 讻讚讗诪专讬谞谉 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬讗住专 诪讗讬 讛讬讗

The Gemara comments: Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, disagree with regard to this dispute. One of them said that the text of Megillat Ta鈥檃nit reads: He will be bound, and the other one said that it reads: He will be prohibited. The one who said: He will be bound, this is as we just say. However, according to the one who said: He will be prohibited, what does it mean?

讚转谞讬讗 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讻诇 讗讬谞讬砖 讚讬讬转讬 注诇讜讛讬 诪拽讚诪转 讚谞讗 讬讗住专 讻讬爪讚 讬讞讬讚 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 砖诇 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讗讬专注讜 讘诐 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讻转讜讘讬谉 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讗诐 谞讚专讜 拽讜讚诐 诇讙讝专转谞讜 讬讘讟讬诇 谞讚专讜 讗转 讙讝专转谞讜 讜讗诐 讙讝专转谞讜 拽讜讚诪转 诇谞讚专讜 转讘讟诇 讙讝专转谞讜 讗转 谞讚专讜

The Gemara explains: This is as it is taught in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit: Whoever has taken upon himself beforehand to fast on one of these Festivals days, he will be prohibited to eat and drink. How so? With regard to an individual who took upon himself to fast on each Monday, Thursday, and Monday series of the entire year, and the commemorative holidays written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit occurred on these days, if his vow preceded our decree, i.e., the decree of the Sages establishing these commemorative days, his vow annuls our decree and he must fast, but if our decree preceded his vow, our decree annuls his vow and he may not fast on those days.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注讚 诪转讬 讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 注讚 拽专讜转 讛讙讘专 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讙诪专 住注讜讚转讜 讗讘诇 讙诪专 住注讜讚转讜 讗讬谞讜 讗讜讻诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: Until when may one eat and drink on communal fasts, when one fasts during the day but not the preceding evening? Until dawn. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: Until the call of the rooster, which is before dawn. Abaye said: They taught this ruling, that one may eat all night, only if he has not finished his evening meal, as he may continue eating the same meal all night. However, if he has finished his meal, he may not eat any more.

讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘讗 讙诪专 讜注诪讚 讛专讬 讝讛 讗讜讻诇 讛转诐 讻砖诇讗 住讬诇拽 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讻砖诇讗 讬砖谉 讗讘诇 讬砖谉 讗讬谞讜 讗讜讻诇 讗讬转讬讘讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讬砖谉 讜注诪讚 讛专讬 讝讛 讗讜讻诇 讛转诐 讘诪转谞诪谞诐

Rava raised an objection to Abaye from a baraita: If one finished his meal and stood up, nevertheless, he may eat more. This shows that one may in fact eat throughout the night, even if he has finished his meal. Abaye answered: There the baraita is referring to a situation where he has not yet removed or cleared the table, and therefore it is as though he has not yet finished his meal. Some say a slightly different version of this discussion. Rava said: They taught this ruling only if he did not sleep after eating, but if he slept he may not eat anything else that night. Abaye raised an objection to Rava from a baraita: If one slept and arose from his sleep during the night, he may eat. Rava explained: There the baraita is referring to one who was merely dozing, and was not fully asleep.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 诪转谞诪谞诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of dozing? Rav Ashi said:

谞讬诐 讜诇讗 谞讬诐 转讬专 讜诇讗 转讬专 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 讜注谞讬 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讗讛讚讜专讬 住讘专讗 讜讻讬 诪讚讻专讬 诇讬讛 诪讚讻专

One is asleep but not fully asleep, awake but not fully awake. This means that if they call him he will answer, but he cannot give a coherent reason. And when we remind him of something that just happened he remembers it.

讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讞讬讚 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 转注谞讬转 讗住讜专 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 砖诪讗 转注谞讬转 爪讘讜专 拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 讛讬讻讬 诇讬注讘讚 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 诇诪讞专 讗讛讗 诇驻谞讬讱 讘转注谞讬转 讬讞讬讚

Rav Kahana said that Rav said: An individual who took a fast upon himself is prohibited to engage in the wearing of shoes on the day of his fast. The reason is that we are concerned that perhaps he took a communal fast upon himself, and wearing shoes is prohibited on communal fast days. The Gemara asks: How should one act, to avoid this problem? Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: Let him recite this formula: Tomorrow I shall be before You in the observance of an individual fast.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘 砖砖转 讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 专讘谞谉 讚诪住讬讬诪讬 诪住谞讬讬讛讜 讜讗转讜 诇讘讬 转注谞讬转讗 讗讬拽驻讚 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讚诇诪讗 诪讬讻诇 谞诪讬 讗讻讜诇

The Gemara relates: The Sages said to Rav Sheshet, who was blind: We see Sages who wear their shoes and go to the study house on a communal fast day. This shows that there is no need to be concerned about this prohibition. Rav Sheshet became angry and said to them: Perhaps they even ate, if you saw them treating the fast lightly.

讗讘讬讬 讜专讘讗 诪注讬讬诇讬 讻讬 诪住讬讬诪讬 讗驻谞转讗 诪专讬诪专 讜诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪讞诇驻讬 讚讬诪讬谞讗 诇砖诪讗诇讗 讜讚砖诪讗诇讗 诇讬诪讬谞讗 专讘谞谉 讚讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 谞驻拽讬 讻讬 讗讜专讞讬讬讛讜 住讘专讬 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬谉 转注谞讬转 爪讘讜专 讘讘讘诇 讗诇讗 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘诇讘讚

The Gemara further relates: Abaye and Rava would enter the synagogue while wearing sandals on the leather [apanta] of their shoes, i.e., they would wear their shoes upside down. Mareimar and Mar Zutra would switch the right shoe for the left and the left for the right. By contrast, the Sages of the school of Rav Ashi would go out wearing shoes in their usual manner. They hold in accordance with that which Shmuel said: The only completely stringent communal fast in Babylonia is the Ninth of Av alone. Therefore, in Babylonia there is no need to be concerned that one might have taken a communal fast upon himself.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讜讛 讗讚诐 转注谞讬转讜 讜驻讜专注 讻讬 讗诪专讬转讛 拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬 讜讻讬 谞讚专 拽讘诇 注诇讬讛 讚诇讗 住讙讬 讚诇讗 诪砖诇诐 诇爪注讜专讬 谞驻砖讬讛 拽讘讬诇 注诇讬讛 讗讬 诪爪讬 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛 讗讬 诇讗 诪爪讬 诇讗 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛

The Gemara discusses another topic related to fasts. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person may borrow his fast and repay, i.e., if one is unable to fast on the specific day he intended to fast, he may annul his fast for that day and fast on another day instead. Rav Yehuda related: When I said this halakha before Shmuel, he said to me: And did he take a vow upon himself, which would mean that it is not possible for him not to repay it? He took upon himself to cause himself discomfort on that day. If he is able, he must cause himself discomfort; if he is unable, he does not need to cause himself discomfort, in which case he need not repay the fast.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讜讛 讗讚诐 转注谞讬转讜 讜驻讜专注 讻讬 讗诪专讬转讛 拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讗 讬讛讗 讗诇讗 谞讚专 谞讚专 诪讬 诇讗 诪爪讬 讘注讬 诇砖诇讜诪讬 讜诪讬讝诇 诇诪讞专 讜诇讬讜诪讗 讗讞专讬谞讗

Some say a different version of this discussion. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One may borrow his fast and repay. When I said this halakha before Shmuel, he said to me: This is obvious. Let it be considered only a vow; even so, is he not required to repay a vow on the next day or on another day? Since a commitment to fast is a type of vow, he is obligated to repay it at some point in time.

专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 讗住讬 注讘讚讜 诇讬讛 注讙诇讗 转讬诇转讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬讟注讜诐 诪专 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘转注谞讬转讗 讬转讬讘谞讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讜诇讜讝讬祝 诪专 讜诇讬驻专注 诇讗 住讘专 诪专 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讜讛 讗讚诐 转注谞讬转讜 讜驻讜专注 讗诪专 诇讛讜 转注谞讬转 讞诇讜诐 讛讜讗

The Gemara relates: Rav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, happened to visit the house of Rav Asi. They prepared a third-born calf, whose meat is high quality, for him. They said to him: Let the Master taste something. He said to them: I am sitting in the observance of a fast and may not eat. They said to him: And let the Master borrow and repay the fast. Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with this halakha that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person may borrow his fast and repay? Rav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, said to them: It is a fast for a dream. He was fasting to rectify the negative effects of a bad dream he had experienced the night before.

讜讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬驻讛 转注谞讬转 诇讞诇讜诐 讻讗砖 诇谞注讜专转 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘转 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬转讬讘 转注谞讬转讗 诇转注谞讬转讗

The Gemara explains the relevance of this last comment. And Rabba bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: A fast is effective to neutralize a bad dream like fire is effective for burning chaff. Rav 岣sda said: The fast is effective specifically on that day that one dreamed. And Rav Yosef said: And one suffering from a bad dream is permitted to fast even on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the remedy for one who has denigrated Shabbat by fasting? Let him sit in observance of another fast, on another day, to atone for his fast on Shabbat.

诪转谞讬壮 注讘专讜 讗诇讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讗讞专讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 讜讗住讜专讬谉 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讜谞讜注诇讬谉 讗转 讛诪专讞爪讗讜转

MISHNA: If these three regular fasts have passed and they have not been answered with rain, the court decrees three other fasts upon the community. These are severe fasts, in which one may eat and drink only while it is still day, before the beginning of the night of the fast, and on the day of the fast itself they are prohibited to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing with oil, in wearing shoes, and in marital relations; and they lock the bathhouses so that no one should come to bathe on that day.

注讘专讜 讗诇讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讚 砖讘注 砖讛谉 砖诇讜砖 注砖专讛 转注谞讬讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讛专讬 讗诇讜 讬转专讜转 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖讘讗诇讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 讜谞讜注诇讬谉 讗转 讛讞谞讜讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 诪讟讬谉 注诐 讞砖讬讻讛 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讜转专讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转

If these three fasts have passed and they still have not been answered, the court decrees on them another seven fasts, which are a total of thirteen fasts, upon the community, not including the first three fasts observed by individuals. These seven fast days are more severe than the first ones, as on these days, in addition to all the earlier stringencies, they sound the alarm, as will be explained in the Gemara, and they lock the stores. Although shops must remained closed most of the time on these days, on Monday they open them a little at nightfall to allow people to purchase food for breaking their fast, and on Thursday they are permitted to open the stores all day in deference to Shabbat, so that people may purchase food for the sacred day.

注讘专讜 讗诇讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讜 诪诪注讟讬谉 讘诪砖讗 讜诪转谉 讘讘谞讬谉 讜讘谞讟讬注讛 讘讗讬专讜住讬谉 讜讘谞讬砖讜讗讬谉 讜讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讻讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛谞讝讜驻讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 讛讬讞讬讚讬诐 讞讜讝专讬谉 讜诪转注谞讬谉 注讚 砖讬爪讗 谞讬住谉 讬爪讗 谞讬住谉 讜讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 住讬诪谉 拽诇诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛诇讜讗 拽爪讬专 讞讟讬诐 讛讬讜诐 讜讙讜壮

If these fasts have passed and they have not been answered the court does not decree additional fasts, but the entire community observes the customs of mourning. They decrease their engagement in business transactions, in building and planting, in betrothals and marriages, and in greetings between each person and his fellow, like people who have been rebuked by God. The individuals, i.e., Torah scholars, resume fasting every Monday and Thursday until the month of Nisan ends. After this date they no longer pray for rain, since if Nisan has ended and rains subsequently fall, they are a sign of a curse, as it is stated: 鈥淚s not the wheat harvest today? I will call to the Lord that He may send thunder and rain, and you will know and see that your wickedness is great鈥 (I聽Samuel 12:17). The wheat harvest is around the time of Shavuot, well after Nisan.

讙诪壮 讘砖诇诪讗 讻讜诇讛讜 讗讬转 讘讛讜 转注谞讜讙 专讞讬爪讛 讜住讬讻讛 讜转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讗讘诇 诪诇讗讻讛 爪注专 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 拽讚砖讜 爪讜诐 拽专讗讜 注爪专讛 讗住驻讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讻注爪专转 诪讛 注爪专转 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗祝 转注谞讬转 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛

GEMARA: The Gemara discusses the activities that are prohibited on a communal fast day: Granted, all of the other actions are prohibited, as they provide pleasure, namely, bathing, smearing, and marital relations. However, working is a cause of suffering. Why was it decreed that one must refrain from working? Rav 岣sda said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said as that the verse states: 鈥淪anctify a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders鈥 (Joel 1:14), this indicates that a fast day is like a day of assembly. Just as on a day of assembly, i.e., a Festival, it is prohibited to engage in working, so too, on a fast it is prohibited to engage in working.

讗讬 诪讛 注爪专转 诪讗讜专转讗 讗祝 转注谞讬转 谞诪讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讚讬讚讬 诪讬驻专砖讗 诇讬 诪讬谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讗住驻讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讚讜诪讬讗 讚讗住讬驻转 讝拽谞讬诐 诪讛 讗住讬驻转 讝拽谞讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗祝 爪讜诐 谞诪讬 讘讬讜诐 讜讗讬诪讗 诪讟讬讛专讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 诪爪驻专讗 讻讬谞讜驻讬讗

The Gemara asks: If so, one could say: Just as on a day of assembly it is prohibited to work from the previous evening, so too, on a fast it should be prohibited to work from the evening. Rabbi Zeira said: This was explained to me by Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba himself: The verse states: 鈥淪anctify a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders,鈥 indicating that a fast is similar to a gathering of elders: Just as the gathering of elders is performed by day, so too, the time for a fast is also by day. The Gemara asks: But if so, one can say that the fast should begin from noon. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: This supports the opinion of Rav Huna, who said: The public gathering on fast days occurs in the hours of the morning.

讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪爪驻专讗 注讚 驻诇讙讗 讚讬讜诪讗 诪注讬讬谞讬谞谉 讘诪讬诇讬 讚诪转讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 专讘注讗 讚讬讜诪讗 拽专讬谞谉 讘住驻专讗 讜讗驻讟专转讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讘注讬谞谉 专讞诪讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽讜诪讜 注诇 注诪讚诐 讜讬拽专讗讜 讘住驻专 转讜专转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讛诐 专讘注讬转 讛讬讜诐 讜专讘注讬转 诪转讜讚讬诐 讜诪砖转讞讜讬诐 诇讛壮 讗诇讛讬讛诐

The Gemara asks: How do they act on a fast day? Abaye said: From the morning until the middle of the day they examine the affairs of the town by checking if there are any deficiencies or corruptions in the city, moral or otherwise, and attempt to fix them, as these problems may have been the cause of the Divine punishment. From this point forward, for a quarter of the day they read a portion from the Torah and a portion from the Prophets [haftara]. From this point forward, they pray and petition for mercy, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they stood up in their place and they read in the book of the Torah of the Lord their God a fourth part of the day; and another fourth part they confessed, and prostrated themselves before the Lord their God鈥 (Nehemiah 9:3).

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Taanit 12

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Taanit 12

讛讗 讚讗诪专转 诪转注谞讬谉 诇砖注讜转 讜讛讜讗 砖诇讗 讟注诐 讻诇讜诐 注讚 讛注专讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讛讗 转注谞讬转 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讛讬讗 诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讚讗讬诪诇讱 讗讬诪诇讜讻讬

The halakha is that which you said, that one may fast for a few hours, provided that one took a fast of a few hours upon himself, and that he fasted and did not taste anything until the evening. Abaye said to Rav 岣sda: This ruling is obvious, since it is a full-fledged fast, as one ultimately fasts the entire day. Rav 岣sda answered: No, it is necessary to say this halakha in a case where he changed his mind, i.e., he began the day without intending to fast, but for various reasons he did not eat, and halfway through the day he decided to continue fasting for another few hours until nightfall. Rav 岣sda maintains that this kind of fasting for hours is considered a fast.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻诇 转注谞讬转 砖诇讗 砖拽注讛 注诇讬讜 讞诪讛 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 转注谞讬转 诪讬转讬讘讬 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讛转诐 诇爪注讜专讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讘注诇诪讗 讛讜讗

And Rav 岣sda said: Any fast upon which the sun does not set, i.e., when one eats in the middle of the day, it is not called a fast at all. The Gemara raises an objection: The members of the priestly watch, the priests and Levites who are serving in the Temple that week, fast on a communal fast, like the members of the non-priestly watch who are attached to specific groups of priests, but they do not complete the fast with the rest of the community. This indicates that even a fast lasting only a few hours is called a fast. The Gemara explains: There they abstained from food merely to cause themselves distress, as an act of solidarity with the rest of the community, but this was not considered a full-fledged fast.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讗谞讬 诪讘谞讬 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 住谞讗讛 讘谉 讘谞讬诪讬谉 讜驻注诐 讗讞转 讞诇 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讜讚讞讬谞讜讛讜 诇讗讞专 讛砖讘转 讜讛转注谞讬谞讜 讘讜 讜诇讗 讛砖诇诪谞讜讛讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖诇谞讜 讛讜讗 讛转诐 谞诪讬 诇爪注讜专讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讘注诇诪讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara cites another proof: Come and hear, as Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said: I am a descendant of Senaah, son of the tribe of Benjamin, and once the Ninth of Av occurred on Shabbat, and we postponed the fast until after Shabbat, as Shabbat supersedes the fast of the Ninth of Av. And we fasted on that day, but we did not complete the fast, due to the fact that the tenth of Av is a holiday of ours, a private holiday for our family (26a), and one does not fast on holidays. This proves that a fast of only a few hours is nevertheless called a fast. The Gemara rejects this claim: There too, they did so merely to cause themselves distress.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讛讗 讘转注谞讬转 注讚 砖讗讘讜讗 诇讘讬转讬 讛转诐 诇砖诪讜讟讬讛 谞驻砖讬讛 诪讘讬 谞砖讬讗讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚

The Gemara again attempts to disprove the opinion of Rav 岣sda, this time by citing a custom of Rabbi Yo岣nan: Come and hear, as Rabbi Yo岣nan occasionally said: I shall be in observance of a fast until I come to my house. This indicates that one can take a fast upon himself even for just a few hours. The Gemara rejects this proof as well: There he did this to excuse himself from the household of the Nasi. At times, Rabbi Yo岣nan received an invitation to dine at the house of the Nasi, but wanted to decline. To avoid insulting the Nasi, he would say that he had taken a fast upon himself, and afterward he would eat at home. Since this was not a real fast, it is not proof of the legitimacy of a partial-day fast.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 转注谞讬转 砖诇讗 拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 诇讗讜 砖诪讬讛 转注谞讬转 讜讗讬 讬转讬讘 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 砖讬诇讗 讚诪讬 诇诪驻讜讞讗 讚诪诇讬讗 讝讬拽讗

Shmuel said: Any fast that one did not take upon himself while it was still day is not called a fast. The Gemara asks: And if one happened to sit in observance of a fast that day, what is that considered? Rabba bar Sheila said: He is likened to a bellows that is full of air. His behavior does not constitute a fast, as he is merely a container full of air, without food.

讗讬诪转 诪拽讘讬诇 诇讬讛 专讘 讗诪专 讘诪谞讞讛 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 讘转驻诇转 讛诪谞讞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 诪住转讘专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 诇讛谉 讻诇 讗讬谞讬砖 讚讬讬转讬 注诇讜讛讬 诪拽讚诪转 讚谞讗 讬讬住专

搂 The Gemara asks: When does one take a fast upon himself? Rav said: One takes a fast upon himself in the afternoon of the day preceding the fast, from midday onward. And Shmuel said: One must take a fast upon himself for the following day at the end of the afternoon prayer. Rav Yosef said: It stands to reason that the halakha should be in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, as it is written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, after a list of all of the Festivals established by the Sages in commemoration of various events throughout Jewish history: Therefore, whoever has bound himself beforehand with an obligation to fast on one of these commemorative days, he will be bound.

诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讬讬住专 注爪诪讜 讘爪诇讜 诇讗 讬讗住专 注爪诪讜

The Gemara explains the apparent proof from the text of Megillat Ta鈥檃nit. What, is it not the case that this means that he binds himself to the obligation at the time of prayer, and if he did not do so at that point in time his fast does not go into effect? The Gemara rejects this explanation: No; the text should be amended by one letter so that it does not read yeisar, he shall bind himself, but yei鈥檃ser, he shall render himself prohibited from transgressing these instructions. In other words, the text is explaining that despite a prior vow to fast, it is prohibited for one to do so on the commemorative days enumerated in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit.

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讞讚 讗诪专 讬讬住专 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讬讗住专 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬讬住专 讻讚讗诪专讬谞谉 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬讗住专 诪讗讬 讛讬讗

The Gemara comments: Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, disagree with regard to this dispute. One of them said that the text of Megillat Ta鈥檃nit reads: He will be bound, and the other one said that it reads: He will be prohibited. The one who said: He will be bound, this is as we just say. However, according to the one who said: He will be prohibited, what does it mean?

讚转谞讬讗 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讻诇 讗讬谞讬砖 讚讬讬转讬 注诇讜讛讬 诪拽讚诪转 讚谞讗 讬讗住专 讻讬爪讚 讬讞讬讚 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 砖诇 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讻讜诇讛 讜讗讬专注讜 讘诐 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讻转讜讘讬谉 讘诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讗诐 谞讚专讜 拽讜讚诐 诇讙讝专转谞讜 讬讘讟讬诇 谞讚专讜 讗转 讙讝专转谞讜 讜讗诐 讙讝专转谞讜 拽讜讚诪转 诇谞讚专讜 转讘讟诇 讙讝专转谞讜 讗转 谞讚专讜

The Gemara explains: This is as it is taught in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit: Whoever has taken upon himself beforehand to fast on one of these Festivals days, he will be prohibited to eat and drink. How so? With regard to an individual who took upon himself to fast on each Monday, Thursday, and Monday series of the entire year, and the commemorative holidays written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit occurred on these days, if his vow preceded our decree, i.e., the decree of the Sages establishing these commemorative days, his vow annuls our decree and he must fast, but if our decree preceded his vow, our decree annuls his vow and he may not fast on those days.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注讚 诪转讬 讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 注讚 拽专讜转 讛讙讘专 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讙诪专 住注讜讚转讜 讗讘诇 讙诪专 住注讜讚转讜 讗讬谞讜 讗讜讻诇

The Sages taught in a baraita: Until when may one eat and drink on communal fasts, when one fasts during the day but not the preceding evening? Until dawn. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: Until the call of the rooster, which is before dawn. Abaye said: They taught this ruling, that one may eat all night, only if he has not finished his evening meal, as he may continue eating the same meal all night. However, if he has finished his meal, he may not eat any more.

讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘讗 讙诪专 讜注诪讚 讛专讬 讝讛 讗讜讻诇 讛转诐 讻砖诇讗 住讬诇拽 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讻砖诇讗 讬砖谉 讗讘诇 讬砖谉 讗讬谞讜 讗讜讻诇 讗讬转讬讘讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讬砖谉 讜注诪讚 讛专讬 讝讛 讗讜讻诇 讛转诐 讘诪转谞诪谞诐

Rava raised an objection to Abaye from a baraita: If one finished his meal and stood up, nevertheless, he may eat more. This shows that one may in fact eat throughout the night, even if he has finished his meal. Abaye answered: There the baraita is referring to a situation where he has not yet removed or cleared the table, and therefore it is as though he has not yet finished his meal. Some say a slightly different version of this discussion. Rava said: They taught this ruling only if he did not sleep after eating, but if he slept he may not eat anything else that night. Abaye raised an objection to Rava from a baraita: If one slept and arose from his sleep during the night, he may eat. Rava explained: There the baraita is referring to one who was merely dozing, and was not fully asleep.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 诪转谞诪谞诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of dozing? Rav Ashi said:

谞讬诐 讜诇讗 谞讬诐 转讬专 讜诇讗 转讬专 讚拽专讜 诇讬讛 讜注谞讬 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讗讛讚讜专讬 住讘专讗 讜讻讬 诪讚讻专讬 诇讬讛 诪讚讻专

One is asleep but not fully asleep, awake but not fully awake. This means that if they call him he will answer, but he cannot give a coherent reason. And when we remind him of something that just happened he remembers it.

讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讞讬讚 砖拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 转注谞讬转 讗住讜专 讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 砖诪讗 转注谞讬转 爪讘讜专 拽讬讘诇 注诇讬讜 讛讬讻讬 诇讬注讘讚 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 砖讬诇讗 诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 诇诪讞专 讗讛讗 诇驻谞讬讱 讘转注谞讬转 讬讞讬讚

Rav Kahana said that Rav said: An individual who took a fast upon himself is prohibited to engage in the wearing of shoes on the day of his fast. The reason is that we are concerned that perhaps he took a communal fast upon himself, and wearing shoes is prohibited on communal fast days. The Gemara asks: How should one act, to avoid this problem? Rabba bar Rav Sheila said: Let him recite this formula: Tomorrow I shall be before You in the observance of an individual fast.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘 砖砖转 讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 专讘谞谉 讚诪住讬讬诪讬 诪住谞讬讬讛讜 讜讗转讜 诇讘讬 转注谞讬转讗 讗讬拽驻讚 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讚诇诪讗 诪讬讻诇 谞诪讬 讗讻讜诇

The Gemara relates: The Sages said to Rav Sheshet, who was blind: We see Sages who wear their shoes and go to the study house on a communal fast day. This shows that there is no need to be concerned about this prohibition. Rav Sheshet became angry and said to them: Perhaps they even ate, if you saw them treating the fast lightly.

讗讘讬讬 讜专讘讗 诪注讬讬诇讬 讻讬 诪住讬讬诪讬 讗驻谞转讗 诪专讬诪专 讜诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪讞诇驻讬 讚讬诪讬谞讗 诇砖诪讗诇讗 讜讚砖诪讗诇讗 诇讬诪讬谞讗 专讘谞谉 讚讘讬 专讘 讗砖讬 谞驻拽讬 讻讬 讗讜专讞讬讬讛讜 住讘专讬 讻讬 讛讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬谉 转注谞讬转 爪讘讜专 讘讘讘诇 讗诇讗 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讘诇讘讚

The Gemara further relates: Abaye and Rava would enter the synagogue while wearing sandals on the leather [apanta] of their shoes, i.e., they would wear their shoes upside down. Mareimar and Mar Zutra would switch the right shoe for the left and the left for the right. By contrast, the Sages of the school of Rav Ashi would go out wearing shoes in their usual manner. They hold in accordance with that which Shmuel said: The only completely stringent communal fast in Babylonia is the Ninth of Av alone. Therefore, in Babylonia there is no need to be concerned that one might have taken a communal fast upon himself.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讜讛 讗讚诐 转注谞讬转讜 讜驻讜专注 讻讬 讗诪专讬转讛 拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬 讜讻讬 谞讚专 拽讘诇 注诇讬讛 讚诇讗 住讙讬 讚诇讗 诪砖诇诐 诇爪注讜专讬 谞驻砖讬讛 拽讘讬诇 注诇讬讛 讗讬 诪爪讬 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛 讗讬 诇讗 诪爪讬 诇讗 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛

The Gemara discusses another topic related to fasts. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person may borrow his fast and repay, i.e., if one is unable to fast on the specific day he intended to fast, he may annul his fast for that day and fast on another day instead. Rav Yehuda related: When I said this halakha before Shmuel, he said to me: And did he take a vow upon himself, which would mean that it is not possible for him not to repay it? He took upon himself to cause himself discomfort on that day. If he is able, he must cause himself discomfort; if he is unable, he does not need to cause himself discomfort, in which case he need not repay the fast.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讜讛 讗讚诐 转注谞讬转讜 讜驻讜专注 讻讬 讗诪专讬转讛 拽诪讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讬 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讗 讬讛讗 讗诇讗 谞讚专 谞讚专 诪讬 诇讗 诪爪讬 讘注讬 诇砖诇讜诪讬 讜诪讬讝诇 诇诪讞专 讜诇讬讜诪讗 讗讞专讬谞讗

Some say a different version of this discussion. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One may borrow his fast and repay. When I said this halakha before Shmuel, he said to me: This is obvious. Let it be considered only a vow; even so, is he not required to repay a vow on the next day or on another day? Since a commitment to fast is a type of vow, he is obligated to repay it at some point in time.

专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘 讗住讬 注讘讚讜 诇讬讛 注讙诇讗 转讬诇转讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讬讟注讜诐 诪专 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘转注谞讬转讗 讬转讬讘谞讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讜诇讜讝讬祝 诪专 讜诇讬驻专注 诇讗 住讘专 诪专 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇讜讛 讗讚诐 转注谞讬转讜 讜驻讜专注 讗诪专 诇讛讜 转注谞讬转 讞诇讜诐 讛讜讗

The Gemara relates: Rav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, happened to visit the house of Rav Asi. They prepared a third-born calf, whose meat is high quality, for him. They said to him: Let the Master taste something. He said to them: I am sitting in the observance of a fast and may not eat. They said to him: And let the Master borrow and repay the fast. Doesn鈥檛 the Master hold in accordance with this halakha that Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person may borrow his fast and repay? Rav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, said to them: It is a fast for a dream. He was fasting to rectify the negative effects of a bad dream he had experienced the night before.

讜讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 诪讞住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞诪讗 讘专 讙讜专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬驻讛 转注谞讬转 诇讞诇讜诐 讻讗砖 诇谞注讜专转 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘转 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬转讬讘 转注谞讬转讗 诇转注谞讬转讗

The Gemara explains the relevance of this last comment. And Rabba bar Me岣sseya said that Rav 岣ma bar Gurya said that Rav said: A fast is effective to neutralize a bad dream like fire is effective for burning chaff. Rav 岣sda said: The fast is effective specifically on that day that one dreamed. And Rav Yosef said: And one suffering from a bad dream is permitted to fast even on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the remedy for one who has denigrated Shabbat by fasting? Let him sit in observance of another fast, on another day, to atone for his fast on Shabbat.

诪转谞讬壮 注讘专讜 讗诇讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讗讞专讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 讜讗住讜专讬谉 讘诪诇讗讻讛 讜讘专讞讬爪讛 讜讘住讬讻讛 讜讘谞注讬诇转 讛住谞讚诇 讜讘转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讜谞讜注诇讬谉 讗转 讛诪专讞爪讗讜转

MISHNA: If these three regular fasts have passed and they have not been answered with rain, the court decrees three other fasts upon the community. These are severe fasts, in which one may eat and drink only while it is still day, before the beginning of the night of the fast, and on the day of the fast itself they are prohibited to engage in the performance of work, in bathing, in smearing with oil, in wearing shoes, and in marital relations; and they lock the bathhouses so that no one should come to bathe on that day.

注讘专讜 讗诇讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讚 砖讘注 砖讛谉 砖诇讜砖 注砖专讛 转注谞讬讜转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讛专讬 讗诇讜 讬转专讜转 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖讘讗诇讜 诪转专讬注讬谉 讜谞讜注诇讬谉 讗转 讛讞谞讜讬讜转 讘砖谞讬 诪讟讬谉 注诐 讞砖讬讻讛 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讜转专讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转

If these three fasts have passed and they still have not been answered, the court decrees on them another seven fasts, which are a total of thirteen fasts, upon the community, not including the first three fasts observed by individuals. These seven fast days are more severe than the first ones, as on these days, in addition to all the earlier stringencies, they sound the alarm, as will be explained in the Gemara, and they lock the stores. Although shops must remained closed most of the time on these days, on Monday they open them a little at nightfall to allow people to purchase food for breaking their fast, and on Thursday they are permitted to open the stores all day in deference to Shabbat, so that people may purchase food for the sacred day.

注讘专讜 讗诇讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讜 诪诪注讟讬谉 讘诪砖讗 讜诪转谉 讘讘谞讬谉 讜讘谞讟讬注讛 讘讗讬专讜住讬谉 讜讘谞讬砖讜讗讬谉 讜讘砖讗讬诇转 砖诇讜诐 讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讻讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讛谞讝讜驻讬谉 诇诪拽讜诐 讛讬讞讬讚讬诐 讞讜讝专讬谉 讜诪转注谞讬谉 注讚 砖讬爪讗 谞讬住谉 讬爪讗 谞讬住谉 讜讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 住讬诪谉 拽诇诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛诇讜讗 拽爪讬专 讞讟讬诐 讛讬讜诐 讜讙讜壮

If these fasts have passed and they have not been answered the court does not decree additional fasts, but the entire community observes the customs of mourning. They decrease their engagement in business transactions, in building and planting, in betrothals and marriages, and in greetings between each person and his fellow, like people who have been rebuked by God. The individuals, i.e., Torah scholars, resume fasting every Monday and Thursday until the month of Nisan ends. After this date they no longer pray for rain, since if Nisan has ended and rains subsequently fall, they are a sign of a curse, as it is stated: 鈥淚s not the wheat harvest today? I will call to the Lord that He may send thunder and rain, and you will know and see that your wickedness is great鈥 (I聽Samuel 12:17). The wheat harvest is around the time of Shavuot, well after Nisan.

讙诪壮 讘砖诇诪讗 讻讜诇讛讜 讗讬转 讘讛讜 转注谞讜讙 专讞讬爪讛 讜住讬讻讛 讜转砖诪讬砖 讛诪讟讛 讗讘诇 诪诇讗讻讛 爪注专 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 拽讚砖讜 爪讜诐 拽专讗讜 注爪专讛 讗住驻讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讻注爪专转 诪讛 注爪专转 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗祝 转注谞讬转 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛

GEMARA: The Gemara discusses the activities that are prohibited on a communal fast day: Granted, all of the other actions are prohibited, as they provide pleasure, namely, bathing, smearing, and marital relations. However, working is a cause of suffering. Why was it decreed that one must refrain from working? Rav 岣sda said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said as that the verse states: 鈥淪anctify a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders鈥 (Joel 1:14), this indicates that a fast day is like a day of assembly. Just as on a day of assembly, i.e., a Festival, it is prohibited to engage in working, so too, on a fast it is prohibited to engage in working.

讗讬 诪讛 注爪专转 诪讗讜专转讗 讗祝 转注谞讬转 谞诪讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇讚讬讚讬 诪讬驻专砖讗 诇讬 诪讬谞讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讗住驻讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讚讜诪讬讗 讚讗住讬驻转 讝拽谞讬诐 诪讛 讗住讬驻转 讝拽谞讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗祝 爪讜诐 谞诪讬 讘讬讜诐 讜讗讬诪讗 诪讟讬讛专讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 诪爪驻专讗 讻讬谞讜驻讬讗

The Gemara asks: If so, one could say: Just as on a day of assembly it is prohibited to work from the previous evening, so too, on a fast it should be prohibited to work from the evening. Rabbi Zeira said: This was explained to me by Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba himself: The verse states: 鈥淪anctify a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders,鈥 indicating that a fast is similar to a gathering of elders: Just as the gathering of elders is performed by day, so too, the time for a fast is also by day. The Gemara asks: But if so, one can say that the fast should begin from noon. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: This supports the opinion of Rav Huna, who said: The public gathering on fast days occurs in the hours of the morning.

讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪爪驻专讗 注讚 驻诇讙讗 讚讬讜诪讗 诪注讬讬谞讬谞谉 讘诪讬诇讬 讚诪转讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 专讘注讗 讚讬讜诪讗 拽专讬谞谉 讘住驻专讗 讜讗驻讟专转讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讘注讬谞谉 专讞诪讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬拽讜诪讜 注诇 注诪讚诐 讜讬拽专讗讜 讘住驻专 转讜专转 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讛诐 专讘注讬转 讛讬讜诐 讜专讘注讬转 诪转讜讚讬诐 讜诪砖转讞讜讬诐 诇讛壮 讗诇讛讬讛诐

The Gemara asks: How do they act on a fast day? Abaye said: From the morning until the middle of the day they examine the affairs of the town by checking if there are any deficiencies or corruptions in the city, moral or otherwise, and attempt to fix them, as these problems may have been the cause of the Divine punishment. From this point forward, for a quarter of the day they read a portion from the Torah and a portion from the Prophets [haftara]. From this point forward, they pray and petition for mercy, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they stood up in their place and they read in the book of the Torah of the Lord their God a fourth part of the day; and another fourth part they confessed, and prostrated themselves before the Lord their God鈥 (Nehemiah 9:3).

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