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Today's Daf Yomi

June 26, 2014 | 讻状讞 讘住讬讜谉 转砖注状讚

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Taanit 15

Study Guide Taanit 15


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诇讘讝讛 谞驻砖 诇诪转注讘 讙讜讬 诇注讘讚 诪砖诇讬诐 诪诇讻讬诐 讬专讗讜 讜拽诪讜 讜砖专讬诐 讘讛砖转讞讜讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 砖专讬诐 讜讬砖转讞讜讜 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗讬 讛讜讛 讻转讬讘 讜砖专讬诐 讬砖转讞讜讜 讻讚拽讗诪专转 讛砖转讗 讚讻转讬讘 砖专讬诐 讜讬砖转讞讜讜 讛讗 讜讛讗 注讘讜讚

to he who is despised of men, to he who is abhorred of nations, to a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise鈥 (Isaiah 49:7); and ministers by bowing, as it is written, in the same verse: 鈥淢inisters, and they shall bow.鈥 Rabbi Zeira strongly objects to this interpretation, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani who objected. Had the verse written: And ministers shall bow, the meaning would have been as you said. However, now that it is written: 鈥淢inisters, and they shall bow,鈥 this indicates that ministers will do this and that, i.e., they will both arise and bow.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗祝 讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讛讻诇 诇讗讜专讛 讜诇讗 讛讻诇 诇砖诪讞讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇讗讜专讛 讜讬砖专讬诐 诇砖诪讞讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇讗讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜专 讝专注 诇爪讚讬拽 讜诇讬砖专讬诐 砖诪讞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇讬砖专讬 诇讘 砖诪讞讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: I too say a similar idea. Not all are fit for light, and not all are fit for gladness. The righteous are fit to be rewarded with light, and the upright are fit to be rewarded with gladness. The righteous are fit to be rewarded with light, as it is written: 鈥淟ight is sown for the righteous鈥 (Psalms 97:11), and the upright are fit to be rewarded with gladness, as it is written, in the same verse: 鈥淎nd gladness for the upright in heart.鈥

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讗讬诪转讬

 

诪转谞讬壮 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讻讬爪讚 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛转讬讘讛 诇专讞讜讘讛 砖诇 注讬专 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讘专讗砖 讛谞砖讬讗 讜讘专讗砖 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜

MISHNA: What is the customary order of fast days? Normally the sacred ark in the synagogue, which was mobile, was kept in a locked room. However, on fast days they remove the ark to the main city square and place burnt ashes upon the ark, as a sign of mourning. And they also place ashes on the head of the Nasi, and on the head of the deputy Nasi, and each and every member of the community likewise places ashes upon his head.

讛讝拽谉 砖讘讛谉 讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 讻讘讜砖讬谉 讗讞讬谞讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讗谞砖讬 谞讬谞讜讛 讜讬专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 砖拽诐 讜讗转 转注谞讬转诐 讗诇讗 讜讬专讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 诪注砖讬讛诐 讻讬 砖讘讜 诪讚专讻诐 讛专注讛 讜讘拽讘诇讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜拽专注讜 诇讘讘讻诐 讜讗诇 讘讙讚讬讻诐

The eldest member of the community says to the congregation statements of reproof, for example: Our brothers, it is not stated with regard to the people of Nineveh: And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting. Rather, the verse says: 鈥淎nd God saw their deeds, that they had turned from their evil way鈥 (Jonah 3:10). And in the Prophets it says: 鈥淎nd rend your hearts and not your garments, and return to the Lord your God鈥 (Joel 2:13). This teaches that prayer and fasting are insufficient, as one must also repent and amend his ways in practice.

注诪讚讜 讘转驻诇讛 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讝拽谉 讜专讙讬诇 讜讬砖 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讜讘讬转讜 专讬拽诐 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讗 诇讘讜 砖诇诐 讘转驻诇讛

They stood for prayer. The congregation appoints an elder, who is experienced in leading prayer, to descend before the ark as communal prayer leader. And this prayer leader must have children and must have an empty house, i.e., he must be poor, so that his heart will be fully concentrated on the prayer for the needs of his community.

讜讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讛谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注 讘专讻讜转 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 砖讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜诪讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讚 砖砖 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讜砖讜驻专讜转 讗诇 讛壮 讘爪专转讛 诇讬 拽专讗转讬 讜讬注谞谞讬 讗砖讗 注讬谞讬 讗诇 讛讛专讬诐 讜讙讜壮 诪诪注诪拽讬诐 拽专讗转讬讱 讛壮 转驻诇讛 诇注谞讬 讻讬 讬注讟祝

And he recites twenty-four blessings before the congregation: The eighteen blessings of the everyday Amida prayer, to which he adds another six blessings, and they are as follows: The special series of blessings recited on Rosh HaShana, the Remembrances and Shofarot; and the sections of Psalms that begin with the verses: 鈥淚n my distress I called to the Lord and He answered me鈥 (Psalms 120:1), 鈥淚 will lift up my eyes to the mountains; from where will my help come鈥 (Psalms 121:1), 鈥淥ut of the depths I have called You, O Lord鈥 (Psalms 130:1), and 鈥淎 prayer of the afflicted, when he faints鈥 (Psalms 102:1).

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讛讬讛 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讜砖讜驻专讜转 讗诇讗 讗讜诪专 转讞转讬讛谉 专注讘 讻讬 讬讛讬讛 讘讗专抓 讚讘专 讻讬 讬讛讬讛 讗砖专 讛讬讛 讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇 讬专诪讬讛讜 注诇 讚讘专讬 讛讘爪专讜转

Rabbi Yehuda says: The prayer leader did not need to recite the Remembrances and Shofarot passages. Rather, he recites instead of them the passage beginning with: 鈥淚f there be famine in the land, if there be pestilence鈥 (I Kings 8:37), followed by the verse 鈥淭he word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah concerning the droughts鈥 (Jeremiah 14:1).

讜讗讜诪专 讞讜转诪讬讛谉 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐 讘讛专 讛诪讜专讬讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讙讜讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 注诇 讛砖谞讬讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 注诇 讬诐 住讜祝 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讝讜讻专 讛谞砖讻讞讜转

And he recites at the end of all of these six blessing their unique conclusions. For the conclusion of the first blessing: Redeemer of Israel, he recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah (see Genesis 22:11鈥18), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Redeemer of Israel. For the second blessing, to which he adds the verses of Remembrances, he recites: He Who answered our forefathers at the Red Sea (see Exodus 14:15鈥31), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who remembers the forgotten.

注诇 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讬讛讜砖注 讘讙诇讙诇 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 转专讜注讛 注诇 讛专讘讬注讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 砖诪讜讗诇 讘诪爪驻讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 爪注拽讛 注诇 讛讞诪讬砖讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗诇讬讛讜 讘讛专 讛讻专诪诇 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛

For the third blessing, which includes the verses of Shofarot, he recites: He Who answered Joshua at Gilgal, when they sounded the shofar in Jericho (see Joshua 5:6), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who hears the terua. For the fourth blessing, he recites: He Who answered Samuel in Mizpah (see I聽Samuel, chapter 7), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who hears cries. For the fifth he recites: He Who answered Elijah on Mount Carmel (see I聽Kings, chapter 18), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who hears prayer.

注诇 讛砖砖讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讬讜谞讛 诪诪注讬 讛讚讙讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛注讜谞讛 讘注转 爪专讛 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讚讜讚 讜讗转 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛诪专讞诐 注诇 讛讗专抓

For the sixth blessing he recites: He Who answered Jonah from within the innards of the fish (see Jonah 2:2鈥11), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who answers in a time of trouble. For the conclusion of the seventh blessing, which is actually the sixth additional blessing, as the first blessing listed here is an expanded version of a regular weekday blessing, he recites: He Who answered David and Solomon his son in Jerusalem (see I聽Kings 8:12鈥53), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who has mercy on the Land.

诪注砖讛

The mishna relates: An incident occurred

讘讬诪讬 专讘讬 讞诇驻转讗 讜专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讘谉 转专讚讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讞讚 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讙诪专 讗转 讛讘专讻讛 讻讜诇讛 讜诇讗 注谞讜 讗讞专讬讜 讗诪谉 转拽注讜 讛讻讛谞讬诐 转拽注讜 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 讘讛专 讛诪讜专讬讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讛专讬注讜 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讛专讬注讜 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 注诇 讬诐 住讜祝 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛

in the days of Rabbi 岣lafta and Rabbi 岣nanya ben Teradyon, that someone passed before the ark as prayer leader and finished the entire blessing of the fast day, but the congregation did not answer amen after him. Instead, the attendant of the synagogue said: Sound the聽shofar with a long, unwavering sound, priests, blow the shofar. The prayer leader continued: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Once again, the attendant announced: Blast the shofar, with a wavering sound, sons of Aaron, blast. The prayer leader resumed: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day, and continued in this way.

讜讻砖讘讗 讚讘专 讗爪诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙讬谉 讻谉 讗诇讗 讘砖注专 诪讝专讞 讜讘讛专 讛讘讬转

And when this matter came before the Sages, and they heard the custom of Rabbi 岣lafta and Rabbi 岣nanya ben Teradyon, they said: They would act in accordance with this custom only at the Eastern Gate of the Temple and on the Temple Mount. However, this ceremony is never performed outside the Temple.

砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讻诇诇 砖诇砖 砖谞讬讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

搂 On the first three fasts, the members of the priestly watch, who are in charge of the Temple service that week, fast but do not complete their fast. And the members of the patrilineal family, who perform the Temple service on that particular day, did not fast at all. On the second set of three fast days, the members of the priestly watch fast and complete the fast, and the members of the patrilineal family fast but do not complete their fasts. On the final seven fasts, both groups fast and complete the fasts. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讻诇诇 砖诇砖 砖谞讬讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讻诇诇 砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉

And the Rabbis say: On the first three fasts, the members of both groups do not fast at all. On the second three fast days, the members of the priestly watch fast and do not complete their fast, and the members of the patrilineal family do not fast at all. On the final seven, the members of the priestly watch fast and complete the fast, and the members of the patrilineal family fast but do not complete their fast.

讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪讜转专讬谉 诇砖转讜转 讬讬谉 讘诇讬诇讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘讬诪讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讜诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 讜讗谞砖讬 诪注诪讚 讗住讜专讬谉 诪诇住驻专 讜诪诇讻讘住 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讜转专讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转

The mishna mentions another difference between the members of the priestly watch and the patrilineal family: The members of the priestly watch were permitted to drink wine during the nights, but not during the days, as they might be called upon to assist in the Temple service, which may not be performed after drinking wine. And the members of the patrilineal family, who performed the Temple service, were not permitted to drink wine, neither at night nor during the day, as their tasks were performed at night as well. It is prohibited for both the members of the priestly watch and the members of the non-priestly watch to cut their hair or launder their garments throughout the week, but on Thursday it is permitted for them to cut their hair and launder their clothes in deference to Shabbat.

讻诇 讛讻转讜讘 讘诪讙诇转 转注谞讬转 讚诇讗 诇诪住驻讚 诇驻谞讬讜 讗住讜专 诇讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜 讗住讜专

搂 The mishna returns to the issue of fasting: Any day concerning which it is written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit not to eulogize on that day, it is also prohibited to eulogize on the day before, but it is permitted to do so on the following day. Rabbi Yosei says: It is prohibited to eulogize both on the day before and on the following day.

讚诇讗 诇讛转注谞讗讛 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 讗住讜专 诇讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专

The mishna continues: With regard to those days concerning which it is written only not to fast, it is permitted to fast on the day before and on the following day. Rabbi Yosei says: Fasting the day before is prohibited, but on the following day it is permitted to fast.

讗讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 转注谞讬转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讞诪讬砖讬 砖诇讗 诇讛驻拽讬注 讛砖注专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 讜砖诇砖 砖谞讬讜转 讞诪讬砖讬 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讻砖诐 砖讗讬谉 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讻讱 诇讗 砖谞讬讜转 讜诇讗 讗讞专讜谞讜转

The mishna continues: One may not decree a fast on the community starting on a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. If the first of a series of fasts is on a Thursday, then on Friday everyone will come to purchase their food for after the fast and for Shabbat, which will allow the storeowners to take advantage of the crowds and raise their prices. Rather, the first set of three fasts is on a Monday, Thursday, and the following Monday, and the second set of three is on a Thursday, Monday, and the following Thursday. Rabbi Yosei says: Just as the first three fasts do not begin on Thursday, so too, neither the second set nor the last set starts on a Thursday. Instead, all the series of fasts begin on a Monday.

讗讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 转注谞讬转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讞谞讜讻讛 讜讘驻讜专讬诐 讜讗诐 讛转讞讬诇讜 讗讬谉 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讬谉 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 诪讜讚讛 讛讬讛 砖讗讬谉 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讻谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转

The mishna further states: One may not decree a fast on the community on New Moons, on Hanukkah, or on Purim. And if they decreed and began a set of fasts, and only afterward realized that one of the fasts would occur on one of these days, they do not interrupt the sequence. This is the statement of Rabban Gamliel. Rabbi Meir said: Although Rabban Gamliel said that they do not interrupt the sequence, he concedes that on these days, which are days with special observances, they do not complete the fast. And similarly, when the Ninth of Av occurs on Shabbat eve, the fast is not completed and one eats before the start of Shabbat, so as not to enter Shabbat while fasting.

讙诪壮 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讻讬爪讚 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛转讬讘讛 讻讜壮 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘拽诪讬讬转讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 专讗砖讜谞讜转 讜砖谞讬讜转 谞讻谞住讬诐 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讜诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讻讚专讱 砖诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讻讜诇讛

GEMARA: The mishna teaches: What is the order of fast days? They remove the ark. The Gemara asks: And is this ritual performed even on the first set of fasts? And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: On the first and second sets of three fasts, everyone enters the synagogue and they pray in the manner that they pray throughout the entire year.

讜讘砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛转讬讘讛 诇专讞讜讘讛 砖诇 注讬专 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 讗驻专 注诇 讙讘讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讘专讗砖 讛谞砖讬讗 讜讘专讗砖 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜讟诇 讜谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 讛谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讻讬 转谞谉 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 转谞谉

The baraita continues: And on the final seven fasts they remove the ark to the main city square and place ashes upon the ark, and on the head of the Nasi, and on the head of the deputy Nasi, and each and every member of the community takes ashes and places them upon his head. Rabbi Natan says: They would bring specifically burnt ashes. This baraita indicates that the full ritual is performed only on the final set of fasts. Rav Pappa said in explanation: When we taught the mishna as well, it was taught only with regard to the final set of seven fasts, not the earlier series of fasts.

讜讘专讗砖 讛谞砖讬讗 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜 讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

And the mishna further states that ashes are placed on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the deputy Nasi. And then it teaches that each and every member of the community places ashes upon his head. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Is this the proper order? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: With regard to matters of greatness, where it is a mark of honor and distinction to be treated first, one begins with the greatest member of the group, but for any matter involving a curse or dishonor, one begins with the least important member of the group.

讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 诪砖讛 讗诇 讗讛专谉 讜诇讗诇注讝专 讜诇讗讬转诪专 讜讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 砖讘转讞诇讛 谞转拽诇诇 谞讞砖 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞转拽诇诇讛 讞讜讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞转拽诇诇 讗讚诐

The Gemara cites a baraita which provides the sources for this principle. With regard to matters of greatness one begins with the greatest member, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Moses said to Aaron, and to Elazar and to Itamar, his sons鈥 (Leviticus 10:6). Moses first addresses the most important person, Aaron, and this was a matter of distinction, as the verse continues: 鈥淔or the anointing oil of the Lord is upon you鈥 (Leviticus 10:7). And for any matter involving a curse, one begins with the least important member of a group, as the serpent was cursed first, and afterward Eve was cursed and afterward Adam was cursed.

讛讗 讞砖讬讘讜转讗 诇讚讬讚讛讜 讚讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 讗转讜谉 讞砖讬讘讬转讜 诇诪讬讘注讬 注诇谉 专讞诪讬 讗讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗

Why, then, are the leaders of the community, its most important members, the first to perform these fast day expressions of mourning, which are a response to a curse? The Gemara answers: The reason is that this leadership role in the performance of these acts is considered a distinction and an honor for them, as it is as though the community is saying to them: You are worthy of requesting compassion on behalf of everyone.

讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜 谞砖讬讗 讜讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞诪讬 谞砖拽诇讜 讗讬谞讛讜 讜谞讬谞讞讜 讘专讗砖讬讬讛讜 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚砖拽讬诇 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜诪谞讞 诇讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讚诪谉 拽住专讬 讗讬谞讜 讚讜诪讛 诪转讘讬讬砖 诪注爪诪讜

搂 The mishna teaches: Each and every member of the community places ashes upon his head. The Gemara asks: Let the Nasi and the deputy Nasi also take ashes themselves and place them upon their own heads. What is different with regard to them, that someone else takes the ashes and places them on their heads? Rabbi Abba of Caesarea said: This is done intentionally, as one who humiliates himself, in this case by placing ashes upon his own head, is not similar to

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Taanit 15

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Taanit 15

诇讘讝讛 谞驻砖 诇诪转注讘 讙讜讬 诇注讘讚 诪砖诇讬诐 诪诇讻讬诐 讬专讗讜 讜拽诪讜 讜砖专讬诐 讘讛砖转讞讜讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 砖专讬诐 讜讬砖转讞讜讜 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗讬 讛讜讛 讻转讬讘 讜砖专讬诐 讬砖转讞讜讜 讻讚拽讗诪专转 讛砖转讗 讚讻转讬讘 砖专讬诐 讜讬砖转讞讜讜 讛讗 讜讛讗 注讘讜讚

to he who is despised of men, to he who is abhorred of nations, to a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise鈥 (Isaiah 49:7); and ministers by bowing, as it is written, in the same verse: 鈥淢inisters, and they shall bow.鈥 Rabbi Zeira strongly objects to this interpretation, and some say it was Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani who objected. Had the verse written: And ministers shall bow, the meaning would have been as you said. However, now that it is written: 鈥淢inisters, and they shall bow,鈥 this indicates that ministers will do this and that, i.e., they will both arise and bow.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗祝 讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讛讻诇 诇讗讜专讛 讜诇讗 讛讻诇 诇砖诪讞讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇讗讜专讛 讜讬砖专讬诐 诇砖诪讞讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇讗讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜专 讝专注 诇爪讚讬拽 讜诇讬砖专讬诐 砖诪讞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇讬砖专讬 诇讘 砖诪讞讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: I too say a similar idea. Not all are fit for light, and not all are fit for gladness. The righteous are fit to be rewarded with light, and the upright are fit to be rewarded with gladness. The righteous are fit to be rewarded with light, as it is written: 鈥淟ight is sown for the righteous鈥 (Psalms 97:11), and the upright are fit to be rewarded with gladness, as it is written, in the same verse: 鈥淎nd gladness for the upright in heart.鈥

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讗讬诪转讬

 

诪转谞讬壮 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讻讬爪讚 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛转讬讘讛 诇专讞讜讘讛 砖诇 注讬专 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 注诇 讙讘讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讘专讗砖 讛谞砖讬讗 讜讘专讗砖 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜

MISHNA: What is the customary order of fast days? Normally the sacred ark in the synagogue, which was mobile, was kept in a locked room. However, on fast days they remove the ark to the main city square and place burnt ashes upon the ark, as a sign of mourning. And they also place ashes on the head of the Nasi, and on the head of the deputy Nasi, and each and every member of the community likewise places ashes upon his head.

讛讝拽谉 砖讘讛谉 讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 讻讘讜砖讬谉 讗讞讬谞讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讗谞砖讬 谞讬谞讜讛 讜讬专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 砖拽诐 讜讗转 转注谞讬转诐 讗诇讗 讜讬专讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 诪注砖讬讛诐 讻讬 砖讘讜 诪讚专讻诐 讛专注讛 讜讘拽讘诇讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讜拽专注讜 诇讘讘讻诐 讜讗诇 讘讙讚讬讻诐

The eldest member of the community says to the congregation statements of reproof, for example: Our brothers, it is not stated with regard to the people of Nineveh: And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting. Rather, the verse says: 鈥淎nd God saw their deeds, that they had turned from their evil way鈥 (Jonah 3:10). And in the Prophets it says: 鈥淎nd rend your hearts and not your garments, and return to the Lord your God鈥 (Joel 2:13). This teaches that prayer and fasting are insufficient, as one must also repent and amend his ways in practice.

注诪讚讜 讘转驻诇讛 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讝拽谉 讜专讙讬诇 讜讬砖 诇讜 讘谞讬诐 讜讘讬转讜 专讬拽诐 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讗 诇讘讜 砖诇诐 讘转驻诇讛

They stood for prayer. The congregation appoints an elder, who is experienced in leading prayer, to descend before the ark as communal prayer leader. And this prayer leader must have children and must have an empty house, i.e., he must be poor, so that his heart will be fully concentrated on the prayer for the needs of his community.

讜讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讛谉 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注 讘专讻讜转 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 砖讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜诪讜住讬祝 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讚 砖砖 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讜砖讜驻专讜转 讗诇 讛壮 讘爪专转讛 诇讬 拽专讗转讬 讜讬注谞谞讬 讗砖讗 注讬谞讬 讗诇 讛讛专讬诐 讜讙讜壮 诪诪注诪拽讬诐 拽专讗转讬讱 讛壮 转驻诇讛 诇注谞讬 讻讬 讬注讟祝

And he recites twenty-four blessings before the congregation: The eighteen blessings of the everyday Amida prayer, to which he adds another six blessings, and they are as follows: The special series of blessings recited on Rosh HaShana, the Remembrances and Shofarot; and the sections of Psalms that begin with the verses: 鈥淚n my distress I called to the Lord and He answered me鈥 (Psalms 120:1), 鈥淚 will lift up my eyes to the mountains; from where will my help come鈥 (Psalms 121:1), 鈥淥ut of the depths I have called You, O Lord鈥 (Psalms 130:1), and 鈥淎 prayer of the afflicted, when he faints鈥 (Psalms 102:1).

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讛讬讛 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讜砖讜驻专讜转 讗诇讗 讗讜诪专 转讞转讬讛谉 专注讘 讻讬 讬讛讬讛 讘讗专抓 讚讘专 讻讬 讬讛讬讛 讗砖专 讛讬讛 讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇 讬专诪讬讛讜 注诇 讚讘专讬 讛讘爪专讜转

Rabbi Yehuda says: The prayer leader did not need to recite the Remembrances and Shofarot passages. Rather, he recites instead of them the passage beginning with: 鈥淚f there be famine in the land, if there be pestilence鈥 (I Kings 8:37), followed by the verse 鈥淭he word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah concerning the droughts鈥 (Jeremiah 14:1).

讜讗讜诪专 讞讜转诪讬讛谉 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐 讘讛专 讛诪讜专讬讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讙讜讗诇 讬砖专讗诇 注诇 讛砖谞讬讛 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 注诇 讬诐 住讜祝 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讝讜讻专 讛谞砖讻讞讜转

And he recites at the end of all of these six blessing their unique conclusions. For the conclusion of the first blessing: Redeemer of Israel, he recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah (see Genesis 22:11鈥18), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Redeemer of Israel. For the second blessing, to which he adds the verses of Remembrances, he recites: He Who answered our forefathers at the Red Sea (see Exodus 14:15鈥31), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who remembers the forgotten.

注诇 讛砖诇讬砖讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讬讛讜砖注 讘讙诇讙诇 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 转专讜注讛 注诇 讛专讘讬注讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 砖诪讜讗诇 讘诪爪驻讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 爪注拽讛 注诇 讛讞诪讬砖讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗诇讬讛讜 讘讛专 讛讻专诪诇 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛

For the third blessing, which includes the verses of Shofarot, he recites: He Who answered Joshua at Gilgal, when they sounded the shofar in Jericho (see Joshua 5:6), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who hears the terua. For the fourth blessing, he recites: He Who answered Samuel in Mizpah (see I聽Samuel, chapter 7), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who hears cries. For the fifth he recites: He Who answered Elijah on Mount Carmel (see I聽Kings, chapter 18), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who hears prayer.

注诇 讛砖砖讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讬讜谞讛 诪诪注讬 讛讚讙讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛注讜谞讛 讘注转 爪专讛 注诇 讛砖讘讬注讬转 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讚讜讚 讜讗转 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛诪专讞诐 注诇 讛讗专抓

For the sixth blessing he recites: He Who answered Jonah from within the innards of the fish (see Jonah 2:2鈥11), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who answers in a time of trouble. For the conclusion of the seventh blessing, which is actually the sixth additional blessing, as the first blessing listed here is an expanded version of a regular weekday blessing, he recites: He Who answered David and Solomon his son in Jerusalem (see I聽Kings 8:12鈥53), He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed are You, Lord, Who has mercy on the Land.

诪注砖讛

The mishna relates: An incident occurred

讘讬诪讬 专讘讬 讞诇驻转讗 讜专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讘谉 转专讚讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讞讚 诇驻谞讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讙诪专 讗转 讛讘专讻讛 讻讜诇讛 讜诇讗 注谞讜 讗讞专讬讜 讗诪谉 转拽注讜 讛讻讛谞讬诐 转拽注讜 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 讘讛专 讛诪讜专讬讛 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 讛专讬注讜 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讛专讬注讜 诪讬 砖注谞讛 讗转 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 注诇 讬诐 住讜祝 讛讜讗 讬注谞讛 讗转讻诐 讜讬砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 爪注拽转讻诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛

in the days of Rabbi 岣lafta and Rabbi 岣nanya ben Teradyon, that someone passed before the ark as prayer leader and finished the entire blessing of the fast day, but the congregation did not answer amen after him. Instead, the attendant of the synagogue said: Sound the聽shofar with a long, unwavering sound, priests, blow the shofar. The prayer leader continued: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Once again, the attendant announced: Blast the shofar, with a wavering sound, sons of Aaron, blast. The prayer leader resumed: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day, and continued in this way.

讜讻砖讘讗 讚讘专 讗爪诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙讬谉 讻谉 讗诇讗 讘砖注专 诪讝专讞 讜讘讛专 讛讘讬转

And when this matter came before the Sages, and they heard the custom of Rabbi 岣lafta and Rabbi 岣nanya ben Teradyon, they said: They would act in accordance with this custom only at the Eastern Gate of the Temple and on the Temple Mount. However, this ceremony is never performed outside the Temple.

砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讻诇诇 砖诇砖 砖谞讬讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注

搂 On the first three fasts, the members of the priestly watch, who are in charge of the Temple service that week, fast but do not complete their fast. And the members of the patrilineal family, who perform the Temple service on that particular day, did not fast at all. On the second set of three fast days, the members of the priestly watch fast and complete the fast, and the members of the patrilineal family fast but do not complete their fasts. On the final seven fasts, both groups fast and complete the fasts. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讻诇诇 砖诇砖 砖谞讬讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讜 诪转注谞讬谉 讻诇诇 砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诪转注谞讬谉 讜诇讗 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉

And the Rabbis say: On the first three fasts, the members of both groups do not fast at all. On the second three fast days, the members of the priestly watch fast and do not complete their fast, and the members of the patrilineal family do not fast at all. On the final seven, the members of the priestly watch fast and complete the fast, and the members of the patrilineal family fast but do not complete their fast.

讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 诪讜转专讬谉 诇砖转讜转 讬讬谉 讘诇讬诇讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘讬诪讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讘讬转 讗讘 诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讜诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 讗谞砖讬 诪砖诪专 讜讗谞砖讬 诪注诪讚 讗住讜专讬谉 诪诇住驻专 讜诪诇讻讘住 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讜转专讬谉 诪驻谞讬 讻讘讜讚 讛砖讘转

The mishna mentions another difference between the members of the priestly watch and the patrilineal family: The members of the priestly watch were permitted to drink wine during the nights, but not during the days, as they might be called upon to assist in the Temple service, which may not be performed after drinking wine. And the members of the patrilineal family, who performed the Temple service, were not permitted to drink wine, neither at night nor during the day, as their tasks were performed at night as well. It is prohibited for both the members of the priestly watch and the members of the non-priestly watch to cut their hair or launder their garments throughout the week, but on Thursday it is permitted for them to cut their hair and launder their clothes in deference to Shabbat.

讻诇 讛讻转讜讘 讘诪讙诇转 转注谞讬转 讚诇讗 诇诪住驻讚 诇驻谞讬讜 讗住讜专 诇讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜 讗住讜专

搂 The mishna returns to the issue of fasting: Any day concerning which it is written in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit not to eulogize on that day, it is also prohibited to eulogize on the day before, but it is permitted to do so on the following day. Rabbi Yosei says: It is prohibited to eulogize both on the day before and on the following day.

讚诇讗 诇讛转注谞讗讛 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 讗住讜专 诇讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专

The mishna continues: With regard to those days concerning which it is written only not to fast, it is permitted to fast on the day before and on the following day. Rabbi Yosei says: Fasting the day before is prohibited, but on the following day it is permitted to fast.

讗讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 转注谞讬转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讞诪讬砖讬 砖诇讗 诇讛驻拽讬注 讛砖注专讬诐 讗诇讗 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讜砖谞讬 讜砖诇砖 砖谞讬讜转 讞诪讬砖讬 砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讻砖诐 砖讗讬谉 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讻讱 诇讗 砖谞讬讜转 讜诇讗 讗讞专讜谞讜转

The mishna continues: One may not decree a fast on the community starting on a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. If the first of a series of fasts is on a Thursday, then on Friday everyone will come to purchase their food for after the fast and for Shabbat, which will allow the storeowners to take advantage of the crowds and raise their prices. Rather, the first set of three fasts is on a Monday, Thursday, and the following Monday, and the second set of three is on a Thursday, Monday, and the following Thursday. Rabbi Yosei says: Just as the first three fasts do not begin on Thursday, so too, neither the second set nor the last set starts on a Thursday. Instead, all the series of fasts begin on a Monday.

讗讬谉 讙讜讝专讬谉 转注谞讬转 注诇 讛爪讘讜专 讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讞谞讜讻讛 讜讘驻讜专讬诐 讜讗诐 讛转讞讬诇讜 讗讬谉 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讬谉 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 诪讜讚讛 讛讬讛 砖讗讬谉 诪砖诇讬诪讬谉 讜讻谉 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转

The mishna further states: One may not decree a fast on the community on New Moons, on Hanukkah, or on Purim. And if they decreed and began a set of fasts, and only afterward realized that one of the fasts would occur on one of these days, they do not interrupt the sequence. This is the statement of Rabban Gamliel. Rabbi Meir said: Although Rabban Gamliel said that they do not interrupt the sequence, he concedes that on these days, which are days with special observances, they do not complete the fast. And similarly, when the Ninth of Av occurs on Shabbat eve, the fast is not completed and one eats before the start of Shabbat, so as not to enter Shabbat while fasting.

讙诪壮 住讚专 转注谞讬讜转 讻讬爪讚 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛转讬讘讛 讻讜壮 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘拽诪讬讬转讗 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 砖诇砖 转注谞讬讜转 专讗砖讜谞讜转 讜砖谞讬讜转 谞讻谞住讬诐 诇讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讜诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讻讚专讱 砖诪转驻诇诇讬谉 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讻讜诇讛

GEMARA: The mishna teaches: What is the order of fast days? They remove the ark. The Gemara asks: And is this ritual performed even on the first set of fasts? And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: On the first and second sets of three fasts, everyone enters the synagogue and they pray in the manner that they pray throughout the entire year.

讜讘砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛转讬讘讛 诇专讞讜讘讛 砖诇 注讬专 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 讗驻专 注诇 讙讘讬 讛转讬讘讛 讜讘专讗砖 讛谞砖讬讗 讜讘专讗砖 讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜讟诇 讜谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗驻专 诪拽诇讛 讛谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讻讬 转谞谉 谞诪讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗砖讘注 讗讞专讜谞讜转 转谞谉

The baraita continues: And on the final seven fasts they remove the ark to the main city square and place ashes upon the ark, and on the head of the Nasi, and on the head of the deputy Nasi, and each and every member of the community takes ashes and places them upon his head. Rabbi Natan says: They would bring specifically burnt ashes. This baraita indicates that the full ritual is performed only on the final set of fasts. Rav Pappa said in explanation: When we taught the mishna as well, it was taught only with regard to the final set of seven fasts, not the earlier series of fasts.

讜讘专讗砖 讛谞砖讬讗 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜 讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 讜讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉

And the mishna further states that ashes are placed on the head of the Nasi and on the head of the deputy Nasi. And then it teaches that each and every member of the community places ashes upon his head. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Is this the proper order? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: With regard to matters of greatness, where it is a mark of honor and distinction to be treated first, one begins with the greatest member of the group, but for any matter involving a curse or dishonor, one begins with the least important member of the group.

讘讙讚讜诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讗诪专 诪砖讛 讗诇 讗讛专谉 讜诇讗诇注讝专 讜诇讗讬转诪专 讜讘拽诇诇讛 诪转讞讬诇讬谉 诪谉 讛拽讟谉 砖讘转讞诇讛 谞转拽诇诇 谞讞砖 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞转拽诇诇讛 讞讜讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 谞转拽诇诇 讗讚诐

The Gemara cites a baraita which provides the sources for this principle. With regard to matters of greatness one begins with the greatest member, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Moses said to Aaron, and to Elazar and to Itamar, his sons鈥 (Leviticus 10:6). Moses first addresses the most important person, Aaron, and this was a matter of distinction, as the verse continues: 鈥淔or the anointing oil of the Lord is upon you鈥 (Leviticus 10:7). And for any matter involving a curse, one begins with the least important member of a group, as the serpent was cursed first, and afterward Eve was cursed and afterward Adam was cursed.

讛讗 讞砖讬讘讜转讗 诇讚讬讚讛讜 讚讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 讗转讜谉 讞砖讬讘讬转讜 诇诪讬讘注讬 注诇谉 专讞诪讬 讗讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗

Why, then, are the leaders of the community, its most important members, the first to perform these fast day expressions of mourning, which are a response to a curse? The Gemara answers: The reason is that this leadership role in the performance of these acts is considered a distinction and an honor for them, as it is as though the community is saying to them: You are worthy of requesting compassion on behalf of everyone.

讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讘专讗砖讜 谞砖讬讗 讜讗讘 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞诪讬 谞砖拽诇讜 讗讬谞讛讜 讜谞讬谞讞讜 讘专讗砖讬讬讛讜 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚砖拽讬诇 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜诪谞讞 诇讛讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讚诪谉 拽住专讬 讗讬谞讜 讚讜诪讛 诪转讘讬讬砖 诪注爪诪讜

搂 The mishna teaches: Each and every member of the community places ashes upon his head. The Gemara asks: Let the Nasi and the deputy Nasi also take ashes themselves and place them upon their own heads. What is different with regard to them, that someone else takes the ashes and places them on their heads? Rabbi Abba of Caesarea said: This is done intentionally, as one who humiliates himself, in this case by placing ashes upon his own head, is not similar to

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