Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

July 2, 2014 | 讚壮 讘转诪讜讝 转砖注状讚

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Taanit 21

诪砖讜诐 讚谞驻讬砖讬 讘谞讬 讞讬诇讗 讚诪讞讜讝讗

due to the fact that there are many soldiers in the city of Me岣za, and if I let them all eat, they will take all the food I own.

讗讬诇驻讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讜讜 讙专住讬 讘讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚讞讬拽讗 诇讛讜 诪讬诇转讗 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专讬 谞讬拽讜诐 讜谞讬讝讬诇 讜谞讬注讘讚 注讬住拽讗 讜谞拽讬讬诐 讘谞驻砖讬谉 讗驻住 讻讬 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 讘讱 讗讘讬讜谉 讗讝诇讜 讗讜转讘讬 转讜转讬 讙讜讚讗 专注讬注讗 讛讜讜 拽讗 讻专讻讬 专讬驻转讗 讗转讜 转专讬 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转

搂 The Gemara relates another story that involves an unstable wall. Ilfa and Rabbi Yo岣nan studied Torah together, and as a result they became very hard-pressed for money. They said: Let us get up and go and engage in commerce, and we will fulfill, with regard to ourselves, the verse: 鈥淎lthough there should be no needy among you鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:4), as we will no longer be complete paupers. They went and sat under a dilapidated wall and were eating bread, when two ministering angels arrived.

砖诪注讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 讞讚 诇讞讘专讬讛 谞讬砖讚讬 注诇讬讬讛讜 讛讗讬 讙讜讚讗 讜谞拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 砖诪谞讬讞讬谉 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘讞讬讬 砖注讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讚讱 砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讚讗讬讻讗 讘讛讜 讞讚 讚拽讬讬诪讗 诇讬讛 砖注转讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诪注 讗讬诇驻讗 诇讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗讬诇驻讗 砖诪注 诪专 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诪讚砖诪注讬 讗谞讗 讜讗讬诇驻讗 诇讗 砖诪注 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇讚讬讚讬 拽讬讬诪讗 诇讬 砖注转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan heard that one angel said to the other: Let us knock this wall down upon them and kill them, as they abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The other angel said to him: Leave them, as there is one of them whose time of achievement stands before him, i.e., his time has yet to come. Rabbi Yo岣nan heard all this, but Ilfa did not hear the angels鈥 conversation. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to Ilfa: Did the Master hear anything? Ilfa said to him: No. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to himself: Since I heard the angels and Ilfa did not hear, I can learn from this that it is I whose time of achievement stands before me.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讛讚专 讜讗讜拽讬 讘谞驻砖讗讬 讻讬 诇讗 讬讞讚诇 讗讘讬讜谉 诪拽专讘 讛讗专抓 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讚专 讗讬诇驻讗 诇讗 讛讚专 注讚 讚讗转讗 讗讬诇驻讗 诪诇讬讱 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉

Rabbi Yo岣nan said to Ilfa: I will return home and fulfill with regard to myself the contrary verse: 鈥淔or the poor shall never cease out of the land鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:11). Rabbi Yo岣nan returned to the study hall, and Ilfa did not return, but went to engage in business instead. By the time that Ilfa came back from his business travels, Rabbi Yo岣nan had been appointed head of the academy, and his financial situation had improved.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬 讗转讬讘 诪专 讜讙专讬住 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪诇讬讱 诪专 讗讝诇 转诇讗 谞驻砖讬讛 讘讗住拽专讬讗 讚住驻讬谞转讗 讗诪专 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚砖讗讬诇 诇讬 讘诪转谞讬转讗 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讜诇讗 驻砖讟讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诪诪转谞讬转讬谉 谞驻讬诇谞讗 诪讗住拽专讬讗 讚住驻讬谞转讗 讜讟讘注谞讗

His colleagues said to Ilfa: If the Master had sat and studied, instead of going off to his business ventures, wouldn鈥檛 the Master have been appointed head of the academy? Ilfa went and suspended himself from the mast [askariya] of a ship, saying: If there is anyone who can ask me a question concerning a baraita of Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Oshaya, and I do not resolve his problem from a mishna, I will fall from the mast of this ship and be drowned. Ilfa sought to demonstrate that despite the time he had spent in business, he still retained his extensive Torah knowledge.

讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 转谞讗 诇讬讛 讛讗讜诪专 转谞讜 砖拽诇 诇讘谞讬讬 讘砖讘转 讜讛谉 专讗讜讬讬谉 诇转转 诇讛诐 住诇注 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讛诐 住诇注 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讗诇 转转谞讜 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 砖拽诇 讗讬谉 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 砖拽诇

A certain old man came and taught a baraita before him: If there is a man who, upon his deathbed, says in his will: Give a shekel to my sons every week, but this is a situation where, based on their needs, they are fit for the court to give them a sela, i.e., double the amount, they give them a sela. When the dying man mentioned a shekel, he presumably meant that they should be given a sum in accordance with their actual requirements, not that specific amount. But if he said: Give them only a shekel, the court gives them only a shekel and no more.

讗诐 讗诪专 讗诐 诪转讜 讬专砖讜 讗讞专讬诐 转讞转讬讛诐 讘讬谉 砖讗诪专 转谞讜 讘讬谉 砖讗诪专 讗诇 转转谞讜 讗讬谉 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 砖拽诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 诪爪讜讛 诇拽讬讬诐 讚讘专讬 讛诪转

The baraita further states that if one said: If my sons die, others should inherit their portion in their stead, regardless of whether he said: Give them a shekel, or whether he said: Give them only a shekel, then the court gives his sons only a shekel per week, as their father clearly stated that he wishes to give his sons only a specific stipend and that he intends to leave the bulk of his property to others. Ilfa said to the old man: In accordance with whose opinion is this ruling? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who said: It is a mitzva to fulfill the statement of the dead. This entire baraita can be explained based on a principle that appears in a mishna: In all cases, one should try to execute the wishes of the deceased.

讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 注诇 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诐 讝讜 砖讛讬讛 住讜诪讗 诪砖转讬 注讬谞讬讜 讙讚诐 诪砖转讬 讬讚讬讜 拽讬讟注 诪砖转讬 专讙诇讬讜 讜讻诇 讙讜驻讜 诪诇讗 砖讞讬谉 讜讛讬讛 诪讜讟诇 讘讘讬转 专注讜注 讜专讙诇讬 诪讟转讜 诪讜谞讞讬谉 讘住驻诇讬谉 砖诇 诪讬诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 注诇讬讜 谞诪诇讬诐 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘拽砖讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 诇驻谞讜转 诪讟转讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诇驻谞讜转 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬讬 驻谞讜 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 驻谞讜 讗转 诪讟转讬 砖诪讜讘讟讞 诇讻诐 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗谞讬 讘讘讬转 讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 谞讜驻诇 驻讬谞讜 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 驻讬谞讜 讗转 诪讟转讜 讜谞驻诇 讛讘讬转

搂 The Gemara relates another story about a rundown building. They said about Na岣m of Gam Zu that he was blind in both eyes, both his arms were amputated, both his legs were amputated, and his entire body was covered in boils. And he was lying in a dilapidated house, and legs of his bed were placed in buckets of water so that ants should not climb onto him, as he was unable to keep them off in any other manner. Once his students sought to remove his bed from the house and afterward remove his other vessels. He said to them: My sons, remove the vessels first, and afterward remove my bed, as I can guarantee you that as long as I am in the house, the house will not fall. Indeed they removed the vessels and afterward they removed his bed, and immediately the house collapsed.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 专讘讬 讜讻讬 诪讗讞专 砖爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讗转讛 诇诪讛 注诇转讛 诇讱 讻讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬讬 讗谞讬 讙专诪转讬 诇注爪诪讬 砖驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讬转讬 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 诇讘讬转 讞诪讬 讜讛讬讛 注诪讬 诪砖讜讬 砖诇砖讛 讞诪讜专讬诐 讗讞讚 砖诇 诪讗讻诇 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 诪砖转讛 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讙讚讬诐 讘讗 注谞讬 讗讞讚 讜注诪讚 诇讬 讘讚专讱 讜讗诪专 诇讬 专讘讬 驻专谞住谞讬 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 讛诪转谉 注讚 砖讗驻专讜拽 诪谉 讛讞诪讜专 诇讗 讛住驻拽转讬 诇驻专讜拽 诪谉 讛讞诪讜专 注讚 砖讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转讜

His students said to him: Rabbi, since you are evidently a wholly righteous man, as we have just seen that as long as you were in your house it did not fall, why has this suffering befallen you? He said to them: My sons, I brought it upon myself. Na岣m of Gam Zu related to them the following: As once I was traveling along the road to my father-in-law鈥檚 house, and I had with me a load distributed among three donkeys, one of food, one of drink, and one of delicacies. A poor person came and stood before me in the road, saying: My rabbi, sustain me. I said to him: Wait until I unload the donkey, after which I will give you something to eat. However, I had not managed to unload the donkey before his soul left his body.

讛诇讻转讬 讜谞驻诇转讬 注诇 驻谞讬讜 讜讗诪专转讬 注讬谞讬 砖诇讗 讞住讜 注诇 注讬谞讬讱 讬住讜诪讜 讬讚讬讬 砖诇讗 讞住讜 注诇 讬讚讬讱 讬转讙讚诪讜 专讙诇讬 砖诇讗 讞住讜 注诇 专讙诇讬讱 讬转拽讟注讜 讜诇讗 谞转拽专专讛 讚注转讬 注讚 砖讗诪专转讬 讻诇 讙讜驻讬 讬讛讗 诪诇讗 砖讞讬谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讜讬 诇谞讜 砖专讗讬谞讜讱 讘讻讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗讜讬 诇讬 讗诐 诇讗 专讗讬转讜谞讬 讘讻讱

I went and fell upon his face and said: May my eyes, which had no compassion on your eyes, be blinded; may my hands, which had no compassion on your hands, be amputated; may my legs, which had no compassion on your legs, be amputated. And my mind did not rest until I said: May my whole body be covered in boils. Na岣m of Gam Zu prayed that his suffering might atone for his failure. His students said to him: Even so, woe to us that we have seen you in this state. He said to them: Woe is me if you had not seen me in this state, as this suffering atones for me.

讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诐 讝讜 讚讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚讛讜讛 住诇拽讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 讙诐 讝讜 诇讟讜讘讛 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讘注讜 诇砖讚讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讚讜专讜谉 诇讘讬 拽讬住专 讗诪专讜 诪讗谉 讬讬讝讬诇 讬讬讝讬诇 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诐 讝讜 讚诪诇讜诪讚 讘谞讬住讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讚专讜 讘讬讚讬讛 诪诇讗 住讬驻讟讗 讚讗讘谞讬诐 讟讜讘讜转 讜诪专讙诇讬讜转 讗讝诇 讘转 讘讛讛讜讗 讚讬专讗 讘诇讬诇讬讗 拽诪讜 讛谞讱 讚讬讜专讗讬 讜砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诇住讬驻讟讬讛 讜诪诇讜谞讛讜 注驻专讗

The Gemara inquires: And why did they call him Na岣m of Gam Zu? The reason is that with regard to any matter that occurred to him, he would say: This too is for the good [gam zu letova]. Once, the Jews wished to send a gift [doron] to the house of the emperor. They said: Who should go and present this gift? Let Na岣m of Gam Zu go, as he is accustomed to miracles. They sent with him a chest [sifta] full of jewels and pearls, and he went and spent the night in a certain inn. During the night, these residents of the inn arose and took all of the precious jewels and pearls from the chest, and filled it with earth. The next day, when he saw what had happened, Na岣m of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good.

讻讬 诪讟讗 讛转诐 砖专讬谞讛讜 诇住讬驻讟讗 讞讝谞讛讜 讚诪诇讜 注驻专讗 讘注讗 诪诇讻讗 诇诪拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讗诪专 拽讗 诪讞讬讬讻讜 讘讬 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗诪专 讙诐 讝讜 诇讟讜讘讛 讗转讗 讗诇讬讛讜 讗讚诪讬 诇讬讛 讻讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诇诪讗 讛讗 注驻专讗 诪注驻专讗 讚讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讜讛讜谉 讛讜讗 讚讻讬 讛讜讛 砖讚讬 注驻专讗 讛讜讜 住讬讬驻讬讛 讙讬诇讬 讛讜讜 讙讬专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬转谉 讻注驻专 讞专讘讜 讻拽砖 谞讚祝 拽砖转讜

When he arrived there, at the ruler鈥檚 palace, they opened the chest and saw that it was filled with earth. The king wished to put all the Jewish emissaries to death. He said: The Jews are mocking me. Na岣m of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good. Elijah the Prophet came and appeared before the ruler as one of his ministers. He said to the ruler: Perhaps this earth is from the earth of their father Abraham. As when he threw earth, it turned into swords, and when he threw stubble, it turned into arrows, as it is written in a prophecy that the Sages interpreted this verse as a reference to Abraham: 鈥淗is sword makes them as the dust, his bow as the driven stubble鈥 (Isaiah 41:2).

讛讜讬讗 讞讚讗 诪讚讬谞转讗 讚诇讗 诪爪讜 诇诪讬讻讘砖讛 讘讚拽讜 诪讬谞讬讛 讜讻讘砖讜讛 注讬讬诇讜 诇讘讬 讙谞讝讬讛 讜诪诇讜讛讜 诇住讬驻讟讬讛 讗讘谞讬诐 讟讜讘讜转 讜诪专讙诇讬讜转 讜砖讚专讜讛讜 讘讬拽专讗 专讘讛

There was one province that the Romans were unable to conquer. They took some of this earth, tested it by throwing it at their enemies, and conquered that province. When the ruler saw that this earth indeed had miraculous powers, his servants entered his treasury and filled Na岣m of Gam Zu鈥檚 chest with precious jewels and pearls and sent him off with great honor.

讻讬 讗转讜 讘讬转讜 讘讛讛讜讗 讚讬讜专讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗讬讬转讬转 讘讛讚讱 讚注讘讚讬 诇讱 讬拽专讗 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讗讬 讚砖拽诇讬 诪讛讻讗 讗诪讟讬 诇讛转诐 住转专讜 诇讚讬专讬讬讛讜 讜讗诪讟讬谞讛讜 诇讘讬 诪诇讻讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讛讗讬 注驻专讗 讚讗讬讬转讬 讛讻讗 诪讚讬讚谉 讛讜讗 讘讚拽讜讛 讜诇讗 讗砖讻讞讜讛 讜拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 诇讛谞讱 讚讬讜专讗讬

When Na岣m of Gam Zu came to spend the night at that same inn, the residents said to him: What did you bring with you to the emperor that he bestowed upon you such great honor? He said to them: That which I took from here, I brought there. When they heard this, the residents of the inn thought that the soil upon which their house stood had miraculous powers. They tore down their inn and brought the soil underneath to the king鈥檚 palace. They said to him: That earth that was brought here was from our property. The miracle had been performed only in the merit of Na岣m of Gam Zu. The emperor tested the inn鈥檚 soil in battle, and it was not found to have miraculous powers, and he had these residents of the inn put to death.

讗讬 讝讜 讛讬讗 讚讘专 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讗诇祝 专讙诇讬 讻驻专 注讻讜 讜讬爪讗讜 讛讬诪谞讛 转砖注讛 诪转讬诐 讘砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讘专

搂 The mishna taught: What is considered a plague of pestilence? If it is a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, one dead per day, this is a plague of pestilence. The Sages taught: If a city that sends out fifteen hundred infantrymen, i.e., one that has a population of at least fifteen hundred men, e.g., the village of Akko, and nine dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, i.e., three dead per day, this is considered a plague of pestilence.

讘讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讜 讘讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讬谉 讝讛 讚讘专 讜注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讻讙讜谉 讻驻专 注诪讬拽讜 讜讬爪讗讜 讛讬诪谞讛 砖诇砖讛 诪转讬诐 讘砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讘专

If all nine died on a single day, while none died on the other days, or if the nine died over a period of four days, this is not a plague of pestilence. And a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, for example, the village of Amiko, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, this is a plague of pestilence.

讘讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讜 讘讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讬谉 讝讛 讚讘专

If all three died on one day or over four days, this is not a plague of pestilence.

讚专讜拽专转 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讛讜讛 讜讬爪讗讜 诪诪谞讛 砖诇砖讛 诪转讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讙讝专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

In explanation of the counterintuitive ruling that many deaths in one day is not indicative of a plague, the Gemara relates: Drokart was a city that sent out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead were removed from it on one day. Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda decreed a fast on account of the plague. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: In accordance with whose opinion did you declare this fast? It must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

讚讗诪专 专讬讞拽 谞讙讬讞讜转讬讜 讞讬讬讘 拽讬专讘 谞讙讬讞讜转讬讜 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

This is related to the definition of a forewarned ox, an animal that has gored enough times to be considered a dangerous beast that requires careful supervision, as Rabbi Meir said: The owner of an ox is liable to pay full damages if its acts of goring were separated, i.e., if it gored three times on three consecutive days, as claimed by the Rabbis. If its acts of goring were near each other, performed on a single day, is it not all the more so that this animal should be classified as a forewarned ox? However, Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k continued, this represents a minority opinion. Just as Rabbi Meir鈥檚 reasoning is rejected for halakha in the case of an ox, so too it is rejected with regard to a plague.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讬拽讜诐 诪专 诇讬转讬 诇讙讘谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讬谞讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 诪拽讜诪讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诪讻讘讚讜 讗诇讗 讗讚诐 诪讻讘讚 讗转 诪拽讜诪讜 砖讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讘讛专 住讬谞讬 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖专讜讬讛 注诇讬讜 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讙诐 讛爪讗谉 讜讛讘拽专 讗诇 讬专注讜 讗诇 诪讜诇 讛讛专 讛讛讜讗 谞住转诇拽讛 砖讻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讘诪砖讱 讛讬讘诇 讛诪讛 讬注诇讜 讘讛专

Upon hearing this impressive argument, Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda said to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k: Let the Master arise and come to live with us as our community leader. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said to him: We already learned in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: It is not the place of a person that honors him; rather, the person honors his place, as we found with regard to Mount Sinai, that as long as the Divine Presence rested upon it, the Torah said: 鈥淣either let the flocks nor the herds feed before that mount鈥 (Exodus 34:3). Once the Divine Presence departed from the mountain, the Torah said: 鈥淲hen the shofar sounds long they shall come up to the mount鈥 (Exodus 19:13). This indicates that the sanctity was not inherent to the place but was due to the Divine Presence resting there.

讜讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讘讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 砖讘诪讚讘专 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讛讜讗 谞讟讜讬 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讜讬砖诇讞讜 诪谉 讛诪讞谞讛 讻诇 爪专讜注 讛讜讙诇诇讜 讛驻专讜讻转 讛讜转专讜 讝讘讬谉 讜讛诪爪讜专注讬诐 诇讬讻谞住 砖诐

And we likewise found with regard to the Tent of Meeting that was in the wilderness, that whenever it was erected, the Torah said: 鈥淭hat they put out of the camp every leper鈥 (Numbers 5:2). Once the curtain was rolled up and the Tent of Meeting was prepared for travel, zavim and lepers were permitted to enter the place where it had stood. The place itself had no intrinsic sanctity; rather, it was sacred only because the Divine Presence was there. Accordingly, Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k maintained that there is no reason for him to move places to receive honor.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讛讻讬 谞讬拽讜诐 讗谞讗 诇讙讘讬 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讜讟讘 讬讘讗 诪谞讛 讘谉 驻专住 讗爪诇 诪谞讛 讘谉 诪谞讛 讜讗诇 讬讘讗 诪谞讛 讘谉 诪谞讛 讗爪诇 诪谞讛 讘谉 驻专住

Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda said to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k: If so, let me arise and come to the Master, to learn Torah from you. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said to him: It is better that one hundred dinars that is the son of a peras, fifty dinars, should come to one hundred dinars that is the son of one hundred dinars; but one hundred dinars that is the son of one hundred dinars, should not come to one hundred dinars that is the son of a peras. In other words, although Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k was a learned scholar, comparable to one hundred dinars, it was nevertheless more appropriate for him to come to Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda. Whereas Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k was the son of a peras, an ordinary man, Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda was the son of a scholar.

讘住讜专讗 讛讜讜转 讚讘专转讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘 诇讗 讛讜讜转 讚讘专转讗 住讘专讜 诪讬谞讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讝讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讚谞驻讬砖 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讛讜 讘讞讬诇诪讗 专讘 讚谞驻讬砖讗 讝讻讜转讬讛 讟讜讘讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讝讜讟专讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚砖讬讬诇 诪专讗 讜讝讘讬诇讗 诇拽讘讜专讛

The Gemara relates another story involving a plague: Once there was a plague of pestilence in Sura, but in the neighborhood of Rav there was no pestilence. The people therefore thought that this was due to Rav鈥檚 great merit. However, it was revealed to them in a dream that Rav鈥檚 merit was too great and this matter too small for the merit of Rav to be involved. Rather, his neighborhood was spared due to the acts of kindness of a certain man, who would lend his hoe [mara] and shovel [zevila] to prepare sites for burial.

讘讚专讜拽专转 讛讜讜转 讚诇讬拽转讗 讜讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 讛讜讜转 讚诇讬拽转讗 住讘讜专 诪讬谞讛 讘讝讻讜转讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚谞驻讬砖 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讛讜 讘讞讬诇诪讗 讛讗讬 讝讜讟专讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讛讛讬讗 讗讬转转讗 讚诪讞诪诪转 转谞讜专讗 讜诪砖讬讬诇讬 诇砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛

The Gemara relates a similar incident. In Drokart there was a fire, but in the neighborhood of Rav Huna there was no fire. The people therefore thought that this was due to Rav Huna鈥檚 great merit. It was revealed to them in a dream that this matter was too small for the merit of Rav Huna to have played a role. Rather, it was due to a certain woman who heats her oven and lends it, i.e., the use of her oven, to her neighbors.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗转讜 拽诪爪讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讗 拽讗 诪驻住讚谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讝讜讜讚讗 讗讬讬转讜 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜

They said to Rav Yehuda: Locusts have come to our region. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. They said to him: They are not destroying anything, as they are eating only a little. He said to them: Have they brought provisions with them, that they have something else to eat? Even if they are not damaging your crops now, they will certainly eat them soon.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讞讝讬专讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 谞讬诪讗 拽住讘专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讻讛 诪砖讜诇讞转 诪诪讬谉 讗讞讚 诪砖讜诇讞转 诪讻诇 讛诪讬谞讬谉 诇讗 砖讗谞讬 讞讝讬专讬 讚讚诪讬讬谉 诪注讬讬讛讜 诇讘谞讬 讗讬谞砖讬

On another occasion, they said to Rav Yehuda: There is pestilence among the pigs. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. The Gemara asks: Let us say that Rav Yehuda maintains that a plague affecting one species will come to affect all species, and that is why he decreed a fast. The Gemara answers: No, in other cases there is no cause for concern. However, pigs are different, as their intestines are similar to those of humans. Consequently, their disease might spread to people.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讬 讞讜讝讗讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 诪专讞拽 讗诪专 诇讬讻讗 诪注讘专讗 讛讻讗 讚驻住讬拽 诇讬讛

They said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in the region of Bei 岣zai, which is quite a distance from Babylonia. Shmuel decreed a fast. They said to him: But it is far from here. He said: There is no crossing here that will stop the pestilence, and therefore there is cause for concern that it will reach us.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专 讗诐 讙讘讬专讛 诇讜拽讛 砖驻讞讛 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

They said to Rav Na岣an: There is pestilence in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Na岣an decreed a fast in Babylonia, saying: If the lady of the house, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, is afflicted, is it not all the more so that the maidservant, Babylonia, will be afflicted?

讟注诪讗 讚讙讘讬专讛 讜砖驻讞讛 讛讗 砖驻讞讛 讜砖驻讞讛 诇讗 讜讛讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讬 讞讜讝讗讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 砖讬讬专转讗 讚诇讜讜讬 讜讗转讬讗 讘讛讚讬讛

The Gemara asks: The reason for this ruling is apparently only because Eretz Yisrael is a lady in comparison to the Diaspora, which is likened to a maidservant. It may be inferred from this that in a case involving a maidservant and a maidservant, i.e., two places in the Diaspora, there is no reason to fast. But in the previous story, when they said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in the region of Bei 岣zai, he decreed a fast in Neharde鈥檃, despite the fact that Neharde鈥檃 is not considered a lady with respect to Bei 岣zai. The Gemara answers: It is different there. Since there are caravans that regularly travel from Bei 岣zai to Neharde鈥檃, the pestilence will join and accompany them in the caravans.

讗讘讗 讗讜诪谞讗 讛讜讛 讗转讬 诇讬讛 砖诇诪讗 诪诪转讬讘转讗 讚专拽讬注讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讜诇讗讘讬讬 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚砖讘转讗 诇专讘讗 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻讬驻讜专讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇砖讗 讚注转讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讘讗 讗讜诪谞讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讗 诪爪讬转 诇诪讬注讘讚 讻注讜讘讚讬讛

搂 Apropos the above stories that deal with the merits of ordinary people, the Gemara relates: Abba the Bloodletter would receive greetings from the yeshiva on High every day, and Abaye would receive these greetings every Shabbat eve, and Rava would receive greetings only once a year on Yom Kippur eve. Abaye was distressed due to Abba the Bloodletter, as he did not understand why Abba received greater honor than he did. They said to him: You are unable to perform what he does, and therefore you do not merit the same honor.

讜诪讗讬 讛讜讜 注讜讘讚讬讛 讚讗讘讗 讗讜诪谞讗 讚讻讬 讛讜讛 注讘讬讚 诪讬诇转讗 讛讜讛 诪讞讬转 讙讘专讬 诇讞讜讚 讜谞砖讬 诇讞讜讚 讜讗讬转 诇讬讛 诇讘讜砖讗 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 拽专谞讗 讚讛讜讜转 讘讝讬注讗 讻讬 讻讜住讬诇转讗 讻讬 讛讜讜转 讗转讬讗 诇讬讛 讗讬转转讗 讛讜讛 诪诇讘讬砖 诇讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 谞讬住转讻诇 讘讛 讜讗讬转 诇讬讛 讚讜讻转讗 讚爪谞讬注讗 讚砖讚讬 讘讬讛 驻砖讬讟讬 讚砖拽讬诇 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 砖讚讬 讘讬讛 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 诇讗 诪讬讻住讬祝

The Gemara asks: And what were these righteous deeds of Abba the Bloodletter? The Gemara explains that when he would perform a matter of bloodletting, he would bring in men separately from women, for reasons of modesty. And he had a special garment that had a slit in the place of the incision [kusilta] where the bloodletting instrument was inserted. When a woman came to him, he would have her dress in that garment, so that he would not see her exposed. And furthermore, he had a hidden place where he worked, where customers would place the coins [peshitei] that he would take as his fee. In this manner, one who had money would throw it there, while one who did not have money was not embarrassed.

讻讬 讛讜讛 讗转专诪讬 诇讬讛 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讗讙专讗 诪讬谞讬讛 诇讗 砖拽讬诇 讜讘转专 讚拽讗讬 讬讛讬讘 诇讬讛 驻砖讬讟讬 讜讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讘专讬讗 谞驻砖讱 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖讚专 讗讘讬讬 讝讜讙讗 讚专讘谞谉 诇诪讬讘讚拽讬讛 讗讜转讘讬谞讛讜 讜讗讻诇讬谞讛讜 讜讗砖拽讬谞讛讜 讜诪讱 诇讛讜 讘讬住转专拽讬 讘诇讬诇讬讗

When a Torah scholar came to him for bloodletting, he would take no pay from him, and after the scholar arose, Abba would give him money and say to him: Go and purchase food with this money to heal yourself, as it is important to eat healthy food after bloodletting. One day, Abaye sent a pair of Sages to investigate the extent of Abba the Bloodletter鈥檚 righteousness. Abba the Bloodletter sat them down, and gave them food to eat, and gave them something to drink. And at night he spread out mats [bistarkei] for them to sleep on.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Taanit: 19-25 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

The third chapter of Masechet Taanit describes numerous reasons the Rabbis would institute a fast: famine, locusts, wild animals, invaders...

Taanit 21

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Taanit 21

诪砖讜诐 讚谞驻讬砖讬 讘谞讬 讞讬诇讗 讚诪讞讜讝讗

due to the fact that there are many soldiers in the city of Me岣za, and if I let them all eat, they will take all the food I own.

讗讬诇驻讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讜讜 讙专住讬 讘讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚讞讬拽讗 诇讛讜 诪讬诇转讗 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专讬 谞讬拽讜诐 讜谞讬讝讬诇 讜谞讬注讘讚 注讬住拽讗 讜谞拽讬讬诐 讘谞驻砖讬谉 讗驻住 讻讬 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 讘讱 讗讘讬讜谉 讗讝诇讜 讗讜转讘讬 转讜转讬 讙讜讚讗 专注讬注讗 讛讜讜 拽讗 讻专讻讬 专讬驻转讗 讗转讜 转专讬 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转

搂 The Gemara relates another story that involves an unstable wall. Ilfa and Rabbi Yo岣nan studied Torah together, and as a result they became very hard-pressed for money. They said: Let us get up and go and engage in commerce, and we will fulfill, with regard to ourselves, the verse: 鈥淎lthough there should be no needy among you鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:4), as we will no longer be complete paupers. They went and sat under a dilapidated wall and were eating bread, when two ministering angels arrived.

砖诪注讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 讞讚 诇讞讘专讬讛 谞讬砖讚讬 注诇讬讬讛讜 讛讗讬 讙讜讚讗 讜谞拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 砖诪谞讬讞讬谉 讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜注讜住拽讬谉 讘讞讬讬 砖注讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬讚讱 砖讘拽讬谞讛讜 讚讗讬讻讗 讘讛讜 讞讚 讚拽讬讬诪讗 诇讬讛 砖注转讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诪注 讗讬诇驻讗 诇讗 砖诪注 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗讬诇驻讗 砖诪注 诪专 诪讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 讗诪专 诪讚砖诪注讬 讗谞讗 讜讗讬诇驻讗 诇讗 砖诪注 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇讚讬讚讬 拽讬讬诪讗 诇讬 砖注转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan heard that one angel said to the other: Let us knock this wall down upon them and kill them, as they abandon eternal life of Torah study and engage in temporal life for their own sustenance. The other angel said to him: Leave them, as there is one of them whose time of achievement stands before him, i.e., his time has yet to come. Rabbi Yo岣nan heard all this, but Ilfa did not hear the angels鈥 conversation. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to Ilfa: Did the Master hear anything? Ilfa said to him: No. Rabbi Yo岣nan said to himself: Since I heard the angels and Ilfa did not hear, I can learn from this that it is I whose time of achievement stands before me.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬讛讚专 讜讗讜拽讬 讘谞驻砖讗讬 讻讬 诇讗 讬讞讚诇 讗讘讬讜谉 诪拽专讘 讛讗专抓 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讚专 讗讬诇驻讗 诇讗 讛讚专 注讚 讚讗转讗 讗讬诇驻讗 诪诇讬讱 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉

Rabbi Yo岣nan said to Ilfa: I will return home and fulfill with regard to myself the contrary verse: 鈥淔or the poor shall never cease out of the land鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:11). Rabbi Yo岣nan returned to the study hall, and Ilfa did not return, but went to engage in business instead. By the time that Ilfa came back from his business travels, Rabbi Yo岣nan had been appointed head of the academy, and his financial situation had improved.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讬 讗转讬讘 诪专 讜讙专讬住 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪诇讬讱 诪专 讗讝诇 转诇讗 谞驻砖讬讛 讘讗住拽专讬讗 讚住驻讬谞转讗 讗诪专 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚砖讗讬诇 诇讬 讘诪转谞讬转讗 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讜专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讜诇讗 驻砖讟讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诪诪转谞讬转讬谉 谞驻讬诇谞讗 诪讗住拽专讬讗 讚住驻讬谞转讗 讜讟讘注谞讗

His colleagues said to Ilfa: If the Master had sat and studied, instead of going off to his business ventures, wouldn鈥檛 the Master have been appointed head of the academy? Ilfa went and suspended himself from the mast [askariya] of a ship, saying: If there is anyone who can ask me a question concerning a baraita of Rabbi 岣yya and Rabbi Oshaya, and I do not resolve his problem from a mishna, I will fall from the mast of this ship and be drowned. Ilfa sought to demonstrate that despite the time he had spent in business, he still retained his extensive Torah knowledge.

讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 转谞讗 诇讬讛 讛讗讜诪专 转谞讜 砖拽诇 诇讘谞讬讬 讘砖讘转 讜讛谉 专讗讜讬讬谉 诇转转 诇讛诐 住诇注 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讛诐 住诇注 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讗诇 转转谞讜 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 砖拽诇 讗讬谉 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 砖拽诇

A certain old man came and taught a baraita before him: If there is a man who, upon his deathbed, says in his will: Give a shekel to my sons every week, but this is a situation where, based on their needs, they are fit for the court to give them a sela, i.e., double the amount, they give them a sela. When the dying man mentioned a shekel, he presumably meant that they should be given a sum in accordance with their actual requirements, not that specific amount. But if he said: Give them only a shekel, the court gives them only a shekel and no more.

讗诐 讗诪专 讗诐 诪转讜 讬专砖讜 讗讞专讬诐 转讞转讬讛诐 讘讬谉 砖讗诪专 转谞讜 讘讬谉 砖讗诪专 讗诇 转转谞讜 讗讬谉 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讛诐 讗诇讗 砖拽诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 诪爪讜讛 诇拽讬讬诐 讚讘专讬 讛诪转

The baraita further states that if one said: If my sons die, others should inherit their portion in their stead, regardless of whether he said: Give them a shekel, or whether he said: Give them only a shekel, then the court gives his sons only a shekel per week, as their father clearly stated that he wishes to give his sons only a specific stipend and that he intends to leave the bulk of his property to others. Ilfa said to the old man: In accordance with whose opinion is this ruling? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who said: It is a mitzva to fulfill the statement of the dead. This entire baraita can be explained based on a principle that appears in a mishna: In all cases, one should try to execute the wishes of the deceased.

讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 注诇 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诐 讝讜 砖讛讬讛 住讜诪讗 诪砖转讬 注讬谞讬讜 讙讚诐 诪砖转讬 讬讚讬讜 拽讬讟注 诪砖转讬 专讙诇讬讜 讜讻诇 讙讜驻讜 诪诇讗 砖讞讬谉 讜讛讬讛 诪讜讟诇 讘讘讬转 专注讜注 讜专讙诇讬 诪讟转讜 诪讜谞讞讬谉 讘住驻诇讬谉 砖诇 诪讬诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 注诇讬讜 谞诪诇讬诐 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘拽砖讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 诇驻谞讜转 诪讟转讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诇驻谞讜转 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬讬 驻谞讜 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 驻谞讜 讗转 诪讟转讬 砖诪讜讘讟讞 诇讻诐 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讗谞讬 讘讘讬转 讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 谞讜驻诇 驻讬谞讜 讗转 讛讻诇讬诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 驻讬谞讜 讗转 诪讟转讜 讜谞驻诇 讛讘讬转

搂 The Gemara relates another story about a rundown building. They said about Na岣m of Gam Zu that he was blind in both eyes, both his arms were amputated, both his legs were amputated, and his entire body was covered in boils. And he was lying in a dilapidated house, and legs of his bed were placed in buckets of water so that ants should not climb onto him, as he was unable to keep them off in any other manner. Once his students sought to remove his bed from the house and afterward remove his other vessels. He said to them: My sons, remove the vessels first, and afterward remove my bed, as I can guarantee you that as long as I am in the house, the house will not fall. Indeed they removed the vessels and afterward they removed his bed, and immediately the house collapsed.

讗诪专讜 诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 专讘讬 讜讻讬 诪讗讞专 砖爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讗转讛 诇诪讛 注诇转讛 诇讱 讻讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬讬 讗谞讬 讙专诪转讬 诇注爪诪讬 砖驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讬转讬 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 诇讘讬转 讞诪讬 讜讛讬讛 注诪讬 诪砖讜讬 砖诇砖讛 讞诪讜专讬诐 讗讞讚 砖诇 诪讗讻诇 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 诪砖转讛 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讙讚讬诐 讘讗 注谞讬 讗讞讚 讜注诪讚 诇讬 讘讚专讱 讜讗诪专 诇讬 专讘讬 驻专谞住谞讬 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 讛诪转谉 注讚 砖讗驻专讜拽 诪谉 讛讞诪讜专 诇讗 讛住驻拽转讬 诇驻专讜拽 诪谉 讛讞诪讜专 注讚 砖讬爪转讛 谞砖诪转讜

His students said to him: Rabbi, since you are evidently a wholly righteous man, as we have just seen that as long as you were in your house it did not fall, why has this suffering befallen you? He said to them: My sons, I brought it upon myself. Na岣m of Gam Zu related to them the following: As once I was traveling along the road to my father-in-law鈥檚 house, and I had with me a load distributed among three donkeys, one of food, one of drink, and one of delicacies. A poor person came and stood before me in the road, saying: My rabbi, sustain me. I said to him: Wait until I unload the donkey, after which I will give you something to eat. However, I had not managed to unload the donkey before his soul left his body.

讛诇讻转讬 讜谞驻诇转讬 注诇 驻谞讬讜 讜讗诪专转讬 注讬谞讬 砖诇讗 讞住讜 注诇 注讬谞讬讱 讬住讜诪讜 讬讚讬讬 砖诇讗 讞住讜 注诇 讬讚讬讱 讬转讙讚诪讜 专讙诇讬 砖诇讗 讞住讜 注诇 专讙诇讬讱 讬转拽讟注讜 讜诇讗 谞转拽专专讛 讚注转讬 注讚 砖讗诪专转讬 讻诇 讙讜驻讬 讬讛讗 诪诇讗 砖讞讬谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗讜讬 诇谞讜 砖专讗讬谞讜讱 讘讻讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗讜讬 诇讬 讗诐 诇讗 专讗讬转讜谞讬 讘讻讱

I went and fell upon his face and said: May my eyes, which had no compassion on your eyes, be blinded; may my hands, which had no compassion on your hands, be amputated; may my legs, which had no compassion on your legs, be amputated. And my mind did not rest until I said: May my whole body be covered in boils. Na岣m of Gam Zu prayed that his suffering might atone for his failure. His students said to him: Even so, woe to us that we have seen you in this state. He said to them: Woe is me if you had not seen me in this state, as this suffering atones for me.

讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诐 讝讜 讚讻诇 诪讬诇转讗 讚讛讜讛 住诇拽讗 诇讬讛 讗诪专 讙诐 讝讜 诇讟讜讘讛 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讘注讜 诇砖讚讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讚讜专讜谉 诇讘讬 拽讬住专 讗诪专讜 诪讗谉 讬讬讝讬诇 讬讬讝讬诇 谞讞讜诐 讗讬砖 讙诐 讝讜 讚诪诇讜诪讚 讘谞讬住讬谉 讛讜讗 砖讚专讜 讘讬讚讬讛 诪诇讗 住讬驻讟讗 讚讗讘谞讬诐 讟讜讘讜转 讜诪专讙诇讬讜转 讗讝诇 讘转 讘讛讛讜讗 讚讬专讗 讘诇讬诇讬讗 拽诪讜 讛谞讱 讚讬讜专讗讬 讜砖拽诇讬谞讛讜 诇住讬驻讟讬讛 讜诪诇讜谞讛讜 注驻专讗

The Gemara inquires: And why did they call him Na岣m of Gam Zu? The reason is that with regard to any matter that occurred to him, he would say: This too is for the good [gam zu letova]. Once, the Jews wished to send a gift [doron] to the house of the emperor. They said: Who should go and present this gift? Let Na岣m of Gam Zu go, as he is accustomed to miracles. They sent with him a chest [sifta] full of jewels and pearls, and he went and spent the night in a certain inn. During the night, these residents of the inn arose and took all of the precious jewels and pearls from the chest, and filled it with earth. The next day, when he saw what had happened, Na岣m of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good.

讻讬 诪讟讗 讛转诐 砖专讬谞讛讜 诇住讬驻讟讗 讞讝谞讛讜 讚诪诇讜 注驻专讗 讘注讗 诪诇讻讗 诇诪拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讗诪专 拽讗 诪讞讬讬讻讜 讘讬 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗诪专 讙诐 讝讜 诇讟讜讘讛 讗转讗 讗诇讬讛讜 讗讚诪讬 诇讬讛 讻讞讚 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚诇诪讗 讛讗 注驻专讗 诪注驻专讗 讚讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讜讛讜谉 讛讜讗 讚讻讬 讛讜讛 砖讚讬 注驻专讗 讛讜讜 住讬讬驻讬讛 讙讬诇讬 讛讜讜 讙讬专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬转谉 讻注驻专 讞专讘讜 讻拽砖 谞讚祝 拽砖转讜

When he arrived there, at the ruler鈥檚 palace, they opened the chest and saw that it was filled with earth. The king wished to put all the Jewish emissaries to death. He said: The Jews are mocking me. Na岣m of Gam Zu said: This too is for the good. Elijah the Prophet came and appeared before the ruler as one of his ministers. He said to the ruler: Perhaps this earth is from the earth of their father Abraham. As when he threw earth, it turned into swords, and when he threw stubble, it turned into arrows, as it is written in a prophecy that the Sages interpreted this verse as a reference to Abraham: 鈥淗is sword makes them as the dust, his bow as the driven stubble鈥 (Isaiah 41:2).

讛讜讬讗 讞讚讗 诪讚讬谞转讗 讚诇讗 诪爪讜 诇诪讬讻讘砖讛 讘讚拽讜 诪讬谞讬讛 讜讻讘砖讜讛 注讬讬诇讜 诇讘讬 讙谞讝讬讛 讜诪诇讜讛讜 诇住讬驻讟讬讛 讗讘谞讬诐 讟讜讘讜转 讜诪专讙诇讬讜转 讜砖讚专讜讛讜 讘讬拽专讗 专讘讛

There was one province that the Romans were unable to conquer. They took some of this earth, tested it by throwing it at their enemies, and conquered that province. When the ruler saw that this earth indeed had miraculous powers, his servants entered his treasury and filled Na岣m of Gam Zu鈥檚 chest with precious jewels and pearls and sent him off with great honor.

讻讬 讗转讜 讘讬转讜 讘讛讛讜讗 讚讬讜专讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗讬讬转讬转 讘讛讚讱 讚注讘讚讬 诇讱 讬拽专讗 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讗讬 讚砖拽诇讬 诪讛讻讗 讗诪讟讬 诇讛转诐 住转专讜 诇讚讬专讬讬讛讜 讜讗诪讟讬谞讛讜 诇讘讬 诪诇讻讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讛讗讬 注驻专讗 讚讗讬讬转讬 讛讻讗 诪讚讬讚谉 讛讜讗 讘讚拽讜讛 讜诇讗 讗砖讻讞讜讛 讜拽讟诇讬谞讛讜 诇讛谞讱 讚讬讜专讗讬

When Na岣m of Gam Zu came to spend the night at that same inn, the residents said to him: What did you bring with you to the emperor that he bestowed upon you such great honor? He said to them: That which I took from here, I brought there. When they heard this, the residents of the inn thought that the soil upon which their house stood had miraculous powers. They tore down their inn and brought the soil underneath to the king鈥檚 palace. They said to him: That earth that was brought here was from our property. The miracle had been performed only in the merit of Na岣m of Gam Zu. The emperor tested the inn鈥檚 soil in battle, and it was not found to have miraculous powers, and he had these residents of the inn put to death.

讗讬 讝讜 讛讬讗 讚讘专 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讻讜壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 讜讗诇祝 专讙诇讬 讻驻专 注讻讜 讜讬爪讗讜 讛讬诪谞讛 转砖注讛 诪转讬诐 讘砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讘专

搂 The mishna taught: What is considered a plague of pestilence? If it is a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, one dead per day, this is a plague of pestilence. The Sages taught: If a city that sends out fifteen hundred infantrymen, i.e., one that has a population of at least fifteen hundred men, e.g., the village of Akko, and nine dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, i.e., three dead per day, this is considered a plague of pestilence.

讘讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讜 讘讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讬谉 讝讛 讚讘专 讜注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讻讙讜谉 讻驻专 注诪讬拽讜 讜讬爪讗讜 讛讬诪谞讛 砖诇砖讛 诪转讬诐 讘砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讘专

If all nine died on a single day, while none died on the other days, or if the nine died over a period of four days, this is not a plague of pestilence. And a city that sends out five hundred infantrymen, for example, the village of Amiko, and three dead are removed from it on three consecutive days, this is a plague of pestilence.

讘讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗讜 讘讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讬谉 讝讛 讚讘专

If all three died on one day or over four days, this is not a plague of pestilence.

讚专讜拽专转 注讬专 讛诪讜爪讬讗讛 讞诪砖 诪讗讜转 专讙诇讬 讛讜讛 讜讬爪讗讜 诪诪谞讛 砖诇砖讛 诪转讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讙讝专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

In explanation of the counterintuitive ruling that many deaths in one day is not indicative of a plague, the Gemara relates: Drokart was a city that sent out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead were removed from it on one day. Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda decreed a fast on account of the plague. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: In accordance with whose opinion did you declare this fast? It must be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

讚讗诪专 专讬讞拽 谞讙讬讞讜转讬讜 讞讬讬讘 拽讬专讘 谞讙讬讞讜转讬讜 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

This is related to the definition of a forewarned ox, an animal that has gored enough times to be considered a dangerous beast that requires careful supervision, as Rabbi Meir said: The owner of an ox is liable to pay full damages if its acts of goring were separated, i.e., if it gored three times on three consecutive days, as claimed by the Rabbis. If its acts of goring were near each other, performed on a single day, is it not all the more so that this animal should be classified as a forewarned ox? However, Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k continued, this represents a minority opinion. Just as Rabbi Meir鈥檚 reasoning is rejected for halakha in the case of an ox, so too it is rejected with regard to a plague.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讬拽讜诐 诪专 诇讬转讬 诇讙讘谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转谞讬谞讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 诪拽讜诪讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诪讻讘讚讜 讗诇讗 讗讚诐 诪讻讘讚 讗转 诪拽讜诪讜 砖讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讘讛专 住讬谞讬 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 砖专讜讬讛 注诇讬讜 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讙诐 讛爪讗谉 讜讛讘拽专 讗诇 讬专注讜 讗诇 诪讜诇 讛讛专 讛讛讜讗 谞住转诇拽讛 砖讻讬谞讛 诪诪谞讜 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讘诪砖讱 讛讬讘诇 讛诪讛 讬注诇讜 讘讛专

Upon hearing this impressive argument, Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda said to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k: Let the Master arise and come to live with us as our community leader. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said to him: We already learned in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: It is not the place of a person that honors him; rather, the person honors his place, as we found with regard to Mount Sinai, that as long as the Divine Presence rested upon it, the Torah said: 鈥淣either let the flocks nor the herds feed before that mount鈥 (Exodus 34:3). Once the Divine Presence departed from the mountain, the Torah said: 鈥淲hen the shofar sounds long they shall come up to the mount鈥 (Exodus 19:13). This indicates that the sanctity was not inherent to the place but was due to the Divine Presence resting there.

讜讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讘讗讛诇 诪讜注讚 砖讘诪讚讘专 砖讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讛讜讗 谞讟讜讬 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讜讬砖诇讞讜 诪谉 讛诪讞谞讛 讻诇 爪专讜注 讛讜讙诇诇讜 讛驻专讜讻转 讛讜转专讜 讝讘讬谉 讜讛诪爪讜专注讬诐 诇讬讻谞住 砖诐

And we likewise found with regard to the Tent of Meeting that was in the wilderness, that whenever it was erected, the Torah said: 鈥淭hat they put out of the camp every leper鈥 (Numbers 5:2). Once the curtain was rolled up and the Tent of Meeting was prepared for travel, zavim and lepers were permitted to enter the place where it had stood. The place itself had no intrinsic sanctity; rather, it was sacred only because the Divine Presence was there. Accordingly, Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k maintained that there is no reason for him to move places to receive honor.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讛讻讬 谞讬拽讜诐 讗谞讗 诇讙讘讬 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讜讟讘 讬讘讗 诪谞讛 讘谉 驻专住 讗爪诇 诪谞讛 讘谉 诪谞讛 讜讗诇 讬讘讗 诪谞讛 讘谉 诪谞讛 讗爪诇 诪谞讛 讘谉 驻专住

Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda said to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k: If so, let me arise and come to the Master, to learn Torah from you. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said to him: It is better that one hundred dinars that is the son of a peras, fifty dinars, should come to one hundred dinars that is the son of one hundred dinars; but one hundred dinars that is the son of one hundred dinars, should not come to one hundred dinars that is the son of a peras. In other words, although Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k was a learned scholar, comparable to one hundred dinars, it was nevertheless more appropriate for him to come to Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda. Whereas Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k was the son of a peras, an ordinary man, Rav Na岣an bar Rav 岣sda was the son of a scholar.

讘住讜专讗 讛讜讜转 讚讘专转讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘 诇讗 讛讜讜转 讚讘专转讗 住讘专讜 诪讬谞讬讛 诪砖讜诐 讝讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讚谞驻讬砖 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讛讜 讘讞讬诇诪讗 专讘 讚谞驻讬砖讗 讝讻讜转讬讛 讟讜讘讗 讛讗 诪讬诇转讗 讝讜讟专讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚砖讬讬诇 诪专讗 讜讝讘讬诇讗 诇拽讘讜专讛

The Gemara relates another story involving a plague: Once there was a plague of pestilence in Sura, but in the neighborhood of Rav there was no pestilence. The people therefore thought that this was due to Rav鈥檚 great merit. However, it was revealed to them in a dream that Rav鈥檚 merit was too great and this matter too small for the merit of Rav to be involved. Rather, his neighborhood was spared due to the acts of kindness of a certain man, who would lend his hoe [mara] and shovel [zevila] to prepare sites for burial.

讘讚专讜拽专转 讛讜讜转 讚诇讬拽转讗 讜讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 讛讜讜转 讚诇讬拽转讗 住讘讜专 诪讬谞讛 讘讝讻讜转讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚谞驻讬砖 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讛讜 讘讞讬诇诪讗 讛讗讬 讝讜讟专讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讛讛讬讗 讗讬转转讗 讚诪讞诪诪转 转谞讜专讗 讜诪砖讬讬诇讬 诇砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛

The Gemara relates a similar incident. In Drokart there was a fire, but in the neighborhood of Rav Huna there was no fire. The people therefore thought that this was due to Rav Huna鈥檚 great merit. It was revealed to them in a dream that this matter was too small for the merit of Rav Huna to have played a role. Rather, it was due to a certain woman who heats her oven and lends it, i.e., the use of her oven, to her neighbors.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗转讜 拽诪爪讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讗 拽讗 诪驻住讚谉 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讝讜讜讚讗 讗讬讬转讜 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜

They said to Rav Yehuda: Locusts have come to our region. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. They said to him: They are not destroying anything, as they are eating only a little. He said to them: Have they brought provisions with them, that they have something else to eat? Even if they are not damaging your crops now, they will certainly eat them soon.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讞讝讬专讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 谞讬诪讗 拽住讘专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讻讛 诪砖讜诇讞转 诪诪讬谉 讗讞讚 诪砖讜诇讞转 诪讻诇 讛诪讬谞讬谉 诇讗 砖讗谞讬 讞讝讬专讬 讚讚诪讬讬谉 诪注讬讬讛讜 诇讘谞讬 讗讬谞砖讬

On another occasion, they said to Rav Yehuda: There is pestilence among the pigs. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. The Gemara asks: Let us say that Rav Yehuda maintains that a plague affecting one species will come to affect all species, and that is why he decreed a fast. The Gemara answers: No, in other cases there is no cause for concern. However, pigs are different, as their intestines are similar to those of humans. Consequently, their disease might spread to people.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讬 讞讜讝讗讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 诪专讞拽 讗诪专 诇讬讻讗 诪注讘专讗 讛讻讗 讚驻住讬拽 诇讬讛

They said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in the region of Bei 岣zai, which is quite a distance from Babylonia. Shmuel decreed a fast. They said to him: But it is far from here. He said: There is no crossing here that will stop the pestilence, and therefore there is cause for concern that it will reach us.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 讗诪专 讗诐 讙讘讬专讛 诇讜拽讛 砖驻讞讛 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

They said to Rav Na岣an: There is pestilence in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Na岣an decreed a fast in Babylonia, saying: If the lady of the house, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, is afflicted, is it not all the more so that the maidservant, Babylonia, will be afflicted?

讟注诪讗 讚讙讘讬专讛 讜砖驻讞讛 讛讗 砖驻讞讛 讜砖驻讞讛 诇讗 讜讛讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬讻讗 诪讜转谞讗 讘讬 讞讜讝讗讬 讙讝专 转注谞讬转讗 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 砖讬讬专转讗 讚诇讜讜讬 讜讗转讬讗 讘讛讚讬讛

The Gemara asks: The reason for this ruling is apparently only because Eretz Yisrael is a lady in comparison to the Diaspora, which is likened to a maidservant. It may be inferred from this that in a case involving a maidservant and a maidservant, i.e., two places in the Diaspora, there is no reason to fast. But in the previous story, when they said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in the region of Bei 岣zai, he decreed a fast in Neharde鈥檃, despite the fact that Neharde鈥檃 is not considered a lady with respect to Bei 岣zai. The Gemara answers: It is different there. Since there are caravans that regularly travel from Bei 岣zai to Neharde鈥檃, the pestilence will join and accompany them in the caravans.

讗讘讗 讗讜诪谞讗 讛讜讛 讗转讬 诇讬讛 砖诇诪讗 诪诪转讬讘转讗 讚专拽讬注讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讜诇讗讘讬讬 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚砖讘转讗 诇专讘讗 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻讬驻讜专讬 讛讜讛 拽讗 讞诇砖讗 讚注转讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讘讗 讗讜诪谞讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讗 诪爪讬转 诇诪讬注讘讚 讻注讜讘讚讬讛

搂 Apropos the above stories that deal with the merits of ordinary people, the Gemara relates: Abba the Bloodletter would receive greetings from the yeshiva on High every day, and Abaye would receive these greetings every Shabbat eve, and Rava would receive greetings only once a year on Yom Kippur eve. Abaye was distressed due to Abba the Bloodletter, as he did not understand why Abba received greater honor than he did. They said to him: You are unable to perform what he does, and therefore you do not merit the same honor.

讜诪讗讬 讛讜讜 注讜讘讚讬讛 讚讗讘讗 讗讜诪谞讗 讚讻讬 讛讜讛 注讘讬讚 诪讬诇转讗 讛讜讛 诪讞讬转 讙讘专讬 诇讞讜讚 讜谞砖讬 诇讞讜讚 讜讗讬转 诇讬讛 诇讘讜砖讗 讚讗讬转 讘讬讛 拽专谞讗 讚讛讜讜转 讘讝讬注讗 讻讬 讻讜住讬诇转讗 讻讬 讛讜讜转 讗转讬讗 诇讬讛 讗讬转转讗 讛讜讛 诪诇讘讬砖 诇讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 谞讬住转讻诇 讘讛 讜讗讬转 诇讬讛 讚讜讻转讗 讚爪谞讬注讗 讚砖讚讬 讘讬讛 驻砖讬讟讬 讚砖拽讬诇 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 砖讚讬 讘讬讛 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 诇讗 诪讬讻住讬祝

The Gemara asks: And what were these righteous deeds of Abba the Bloodletter? The Gemara explains that when he would perform a matter of bloodletting, he would bring in men separately from women, for reasons of modesty. And he had a special garment that had a slit in the place of the incision [kusilta] where the bloodletting instrument was inserted. When a woman came to him, he would have her dress in that garment, so that he would not see her exposed. And furthermore, he had a hidden place where he worked, where customers would place the coins [peshitei] that he would take as his fee. In this manner, one who had money would throw it there, while one who did not have money was not embarrassed.

讻讬 讛讜讛 讗转专诪讬 诇讬讛 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讗讙专讗 诪讬谞讬讛 诇讗 砖拽讬诇 讜讘转专 讚拽讗讬 讬讛讬讘 诇讬讛 驻砖讬讟讬 讜讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讬诇 讘专讬讗 谞驻砖讱 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖讚专 讗讘讬讬 讝讜讙讗 讚专讘谞谉 诇诪讬讘讚拽讬讛 讗讜转讘讬谞讛讜 讜讗讻诇讬谞讛讜 讜讗砖拽讬谞讛讜 讜诪讱 诇讛讜 讘讬住转专拽讬 讘诇讬诇讬讗

When a Torah scholar came to him for bloodletting, he would take no pay from him, and after the scholar arose, Abba would give him money and say to him: Go and purchase food with this money to heal yourself, as it is important to eat healthy food after bloodletting. One day, Abaye sent a pair of Sages to investigate the extent of Abba the Bloodletter鈥檚 righteousness. Abba the Bloodletter sat them down, and gave them food to eat, and gave them something to drink. And at night he spread out mats [bistarkei] for them to sleep on.

Scroll To Top