Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

November 21, 2014 | ื›ืดื— ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื”

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Yevamot 48

Study Guide Yevamot 48


If the lesson doesn't play, click "Download"

ื•ืžื•ืชืจ ื‘ื” ืžื™ื“

And he is permitted to marry her immediately afterward, without the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah. The fact that the Rabbis do not suggest this course of action is evidently because they hold that even if she were to be rendered a slave and then immersed for the sake of emancipation, she would become Jewish only if she also accepted upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. Rav Sheshet assumes that the Rabbis would similarly rule that a regular slave who was immersed for the sake of emancipation becomes Jewish only if he also accepts upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืžืงื ืช ื›ืกืฃ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืืฉื” ืืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืืชื” ืžืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื• ื•ืื™ ืืชื” ืžืœ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื•

Rava said: What is the rationale for Rabbi Shimon ben Elazarโ€™s opinion? As it is written with regard to the Paschal lamb: โ€œEvery slave of a man that is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat of itโ€ (Exodus 12:44). Could the use of the phrase โ€œslave of a man,โ€ rather than just: Slave, possibly indicate that the verse applies only to a manโ€™s slave but not a womanโ€™s slave? Certainly not; rather, the phrase โ€œslave of a manโ€ means that the slave himself is a man, i.e., an adult, and teaches that a slave who is a man you may circumcise against his will, and there is no need for him to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot, but you may not circumcise a gentileโ€™s son who is a man, i.e., an adult who is not a slave, against his will.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ื›ืฉื ืฉืื™ ืืชื” ืžืœ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื• ื›ืš ืื™ ืืชื” ืžืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื• ื•ืืœื ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ

The Gemara asks: And how would the Rabbis counter this argument? Ulla said that the Rabbis reason that just as you may not circumcise a son who is a man against his will, so too, you may not circumcise a slave who is a man against his will. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œEvery slave of a manโ€? The Gemara explains: The Rabbis require that verse for that which Shmuel said.

ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืžืคืงื™ืจ ืขื‘ื“ื• ื™ืฆื ืœื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื’ื˜ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืžืงื ืช ื›ืกืฃ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืืฉื” ืืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืงืจื•ื™ ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืื™ืŸ ืงืจื•ื™ ืขื‘ื“

As Shmuel said: With regard to one who renounces ownership of his slave, the slave is emancipated, and he does not even require a bill of emancipation, as it is stated: โ€œBut every slave of a man that is bought for money.โ€ Could the use of the phrase โ€œslave of a man,โ€ rather than just: Slave, possibly indicate that the verse applies only to a manโ€™s slave but not a womanโ€™s slave? Certainly not; rather, the use of the phrase indicates that only a slave whose master has possession of him, and can rightfully be described as: a slave of a man, is called a slave, but a slave whose master does not have possession of him is not called a slave, and therefore he is considered a freeman and does not require a bill of emancipation.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืฉืžืขืช ืœื”ื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืคืช ืชื•ืืจ ื“ืœื ืฉื™ื™ื›ื ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ื“ืฉื™ื™ืš ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื•

Rav Pappa strongly objects to Rav Sheshetโ€™s claim that the Rabbis of the baraita would hold that a regular slave who was immersed for the sake of emancipation becomes Jewish only if he also accepts upon himself the yoke of mitzvot: Say that you heard that the Rabbis insist on the acceptance of the yoke of mitzvot with regard to the case of a beautiful female prisoner of war, who was not involved in any mitzvot before being emancipated; however, with regard to a slave, who was initially involved in mitzvot before his emancipation, since as a slave he was obligated to observe certain mitzvot, perhaps even the Rabbis would agree that there is no need for the slave to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื—ื“ ื’ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ื ืœื•ืงื— ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ

As it is taught in a baraita: Both in the case of a convert and in the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile whom he is now emancipating, the convert and the slave need to accept upon themselves the yoke of mitzvot in order to become Jewish. The Gemara infers: The baraita states the need to accept the yoke of mitzvot only in the case where one purchases a slave from a gentile, but if one purchases a slave from a Jew, then the slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot, since he was involved in mitzvot before his emancipation.

ืžื ื™ ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื”ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื— ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื ืžื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืœื ืœืื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืœื•ืงื— ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื‘ืœ ืœื•ืงื— ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ

In accordance with whose opinion is this taught? If one suggests that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, that is incorrect because didnโ€™t he say that also in the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile, the slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot? Rather, must it not be in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis? And so, conclude from this baraita that in the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile, the slave needs to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot, but in the case of one who purchases a slave from a Jew, the slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

ื•ืืœื ืงืฉื™ื ืื—ื“ ื’ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ ืขื‘ื“ ืžืฉื•ื—ืจืจ ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ืชื ื™ื

The Gemara asks: But if so, it is difficult to understand the meaning of the baraita cited above: This applies both for a convert and for an emancipated slave. That phrase appears to refer to the need for both a convert and an emancipated slave to accept the yoke of mitzvot, which is mentioned in the baraita beforehand. The Gemara explains: When that clause is taught, it is taught only with regard to the matter of immersion, which is mentioned immediately beforehand, but not with regard to the need to accept the yoke of mitzvot that is mentioned prior to that.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื’ืœื—ื” ืืช ืจืืฉื” ื•ืขืฉืชื” ืืช ืฆืคืจื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืงื•ืฅ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชื’ื“ื™ืœ

ยง Having cited it above, the Gemara focuses on the case of the beautiful female prisoner of war: The Sages taught: The verse states: โ€œAnd she shall shave her head and do her nailsโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:12). The phrase โ€œdo her nailsโ€ is ambiguous. Rabbi Eliezer says: It means she cuts her nails. Rabbi Akiva says: It means she grows them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื ืืžืจื” ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื ืืžืจื” ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืฆืคืจื ื™ื ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื ืืžืจ ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืฆืคืจื ื™ื ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื ื™ื•ื•ืœ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื ื™ื•ื•ืœ

Each tanna explains the basis of his opinion: Rabbi Eliezer said: An act of doing is stated with regard to the head, that she should shave it, and an act of doing is stated with regard to the nails; just as there, with regard to the hair on her head, the Torah requires its removal, so too, here, with regard to her nails, the Torah requires their removal. Rabbi Akiva says: An act of doing is stated with regard to the head, that she should shave it, and an act of doing is stated with regard to the nails; just as there, with regard to the hair on her head, the Torah requires that she do something that makes her repulsive, so too, here, with regard to her nails, the Torah requires she do something that makes her repulsive, i.e., allowing them to grow.

ื•ืจืื™ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื•ืžืคื‘ืฉืช ื‘ืŸ ืฉืื•ืœ ื™ืจื“ ืœืงืจืืช ื”ืžืœืš ืœื ืขืฉื” ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื•ืœื ืขืฉื” ืฉืคืžื• ืžืื™ ืขืฉื™ื” ื”ืขื‘ืจื”

And a proof for the statement of Rabbi Eliezer may be adduced from the verse that states: โ€œAnd Mephibosheth, the son of Saul, came down to meet the king; and he had neither done his feet nor done his mustacheโ€ (IIย Samuel 19:25). What is the meaning of doing in that context? Clearly it means the removal of his toenails and his mustache.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื‘ื›ืชื” ืืช ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ืืช ืืžื”

The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œAnd she shall bewail her father and her mother a month of days and after that you may come to herโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:13).

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื” ืžืžืฉ ืืžื” ืืžื” ืžืžืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ืืžื” ื–ื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืขืฅ ืื‘ื™ ืืชื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rabbi Eliezer says: โ€œHer fatherโ€ means her actual father and โ€œher motherโ€ means her actual mother. Rabbi Akiva says: Her father and her mother; this is referring to the idolatrous deity that she had worshiped but will no longer be able to worship, and so it says: โ€œThey say to a tree: You are my father, and to a stone: You have given birth to usโ€ (Jeremiah 2:27).

ื™ืจื— ื™ืžื™ื ื™ืจื— ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืฉืขื™ื ื™ื•ื ื™ืจื— ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื™ื

The verses states: โ€œA month of days and after that you may come to herโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:13). This means a thirty-day month. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: She must wait ninety days. This is derived as follows: The phrase โ€œa monthโ€ connotes thirty days; the word โ€œdaysโ€ adds another thirty days; and the words โ€œafter thatโ€ indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, i.e., a further thirty days.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืื™ืžื ื™ืจื— ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื™ ืงืฉื™ื

Ravina strongly objects to this: If the words โ€œafter thatโ€ indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, then one should say: The phrase โ€œa monthโ€ connotes thirty days; the word โ€œdaysโ€ adds another thirty days; and then the words โ€œafter thatโ€ add another period which is equal to the total sum of all those days she has already waited, i.e., an additional sixty days. The Gemara concedes: Indeed, this is difficult.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžืœื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžืฉื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืœื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: One may maintain slaves that are not circumcised under oneโ€™s control; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: One may not maintain such slaves, even for a moment. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: But it says with regard to Shabbat: โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshedโ€ (Exodus 23:12). The verse prohibits a Jewish master from allowing his slave to perform labor on Shabbat. The Gemara will explain that this is referring to an uncircumcised slave. It is therefore apparent that it is permitted to keep such a slave. Rabbi Akiva said to him: The verse speaks of one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat and therefore does not have the opportunity to circumcise him before the onset of Shabbat.

ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืžื™ื”ืช ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืžื”ื•ืœ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ื ื•ื— ืขื‘ื“ืš ื•ืืžืชืš ื›ืžื•ืš ื”ืจื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืžื”ื•ืœ ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ

The Gemara notes: In any event, in the opinion of everyone the verse: โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshed,โ€ is written with regard to an uncircumcised slave. From where is this inferred? As it is taught in a baraita: โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshedโ€; the verse speaks of an uncircumcised slave. Do you say it speaks of an uncircumcised slave, or perhaps it is speaking only of a circumcised slave? When it says elsewhere: โ€œAnd the seventh day is a Shabbat to the Lord your God, you shall not do any labor, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your slave, and your maidservantโ€ฆso that your slave and your maidservant may rest like youโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:13), a circumcised slave is already mentioned; how, then, do I uphold the verse โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshedโ€? It must refer to an uncircumcised slave.

ื•ื”ื’ืจ ื–ื” ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื’ืจ ืฆื“ืง ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื’ืจืš ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฉืขืจื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ื’ืจ ืฆื“ืง ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื’ืจ ื–ื” ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘

The verse continues: โ€œAnd the stranger [ger]โ€ (Exodus 23:12). This is referring to a gentile who observes certain mitzvot [ger toshav]. Do you say that this is a ger toshav, or perhaps it is only a righteous convert [ger tzedek], who is a Jew in every sense? When it says elsewhere: โ€œAnd your stranger [ger] that is within your gatesโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:13), a righteous convert is already mentioned. How, then, do I uphold the verse โ€œAnd the stranger [ger]โ€? It must be that this is a ger toshav.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื”ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื” ืœืžื•ืœ ืžื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื• ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœื ืžืœ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื• ืœื’ื•ื™ื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile and the slave does not wish to be circumcised, he abides with him up to twelve months. If, after this period, he will still not be circumcised, he then sells him on to gentiles.

ืืžืจื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืคืกืงื ืœืžื™ืœืชื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืคืกืงื ืœืžื™ืœืชื™ื” ืคืกืงื

The Sages said this halakha before Rav Pappa and asked: In accordance with whose opinion is it? It seems that it is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, didnโ€™t he say: One may not maintain an uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa said to them: You can even say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, since perhaps that halakha of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi applies only where the slave did not make his refusal to be circumcised explicit; however, where he did make his refusal to be circumcised explicit, since he has made it explicit, it is prohibited to maintain him, as Rabbi Akiva rules.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืืžืจื™ืชื ืœืฉืžืขืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืžื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžืฉื•ืช ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื—ื“ื ืžืชืจื™ ื˜ืขืžื™ ืงืืžืจ

Rav Kahana said: I said this halakha before Rav Zevid from Nehardeโ€™a. He said to me: If so, that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may temporarily maintain a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised, then when Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave is referring to one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat, let him instead answer him that the verse is referring to this case of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva said only one out of two possible reasons why it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave.

ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขืื™ ื•ื›ืœ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ ืžืฉืžื• ืื™ื–ื”ื• ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืงื™ื™ืžื• ื–ื” ืฉืœืงื—ื• ืจื‘ื• ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉืœื ืœืžื•ืœื• ืืžืจื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืืชื ื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืืชื ื™ ืืชื ื™

Ravin sent a message citing a halakha in the name of Rabbi Ilai: And all of my teachers said to me in his name: What is the case of an uncircumcised slave whom it is permitted to maintain? This is one whose master purchased him on condition not to circumcise him. The Sages said this halakha before Rav Pappa and asked: In accordance with whose opinion is it? It seems that it is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, didnโ€™t he say: One may not maintain an uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa said to them: You can even say it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, since perhaps that ruling of Rabbi Akiva applies only where the master did not make a condition with regard to the slave that he would not be circumcised; however, where he did make such a condition, since he made a condition, even Rabbi Akiva would concede it is permitted to maintain him.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืืžืจื™ืชื ืœืฉืžืขืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืžื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื•ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžืฉื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืœื• ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ื

Rav Kahana said: I said this halakha before Rav Zevid from Nehardeโ€™a and he said to me: If so, that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may maintain a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised, then when Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave is referring to one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat and therefore does not have the opportunity to circumcise him before the onset of Shabbat, let him instead answer him that the verse is referring to this case of a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised.

ื•ืœื™ื˜ืขืžื™ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ืš ืืœื ื—ื“ ืžืชืจื™ ื•ืชืœืช ื˜ืขืžื™ ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara responds: But even according to your reasoning that Rabbi Akiva disagrees, since you do agree with Rav Pappaโ€™s resolution of Rabbi Akivaโ€™s opinion with the halakha of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, let Rabbi Akiva answer him that the verse is referring to that case of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva said only one out of two or three possible reasons that it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave.

ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืืงื™ืœืขื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ื•ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื•ืงืืžืจื™ ืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ื” ืœืžื•ืœ ื•ื’ืœื’ืœื• ืขืžื”ื ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ื•ืžื›ืจื•ื ืœื’ื•ื™ื ื›ืžืืŸ

Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappi, and Rabbi Ami, and Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa were sitting in the courtyard of Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa. They were sitting and saying: There was one city in Eretz Yisrael whose slaves did not wish to be circumcised. Their masters abided with them until twelve months had passed and then sold them to gentiles. In accordance with whose opinion did they act?

ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ืชื ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื” ืœืžื•ืœ ืžื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื• ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœื ืžืœ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื• ืœื’ื•ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื”ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืคืกื“ ื˜ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืกืคืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื”ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื›ืœ ืขื™ืงืจ ืฉืžื ื™ืฉืžืข ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืœืš ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ืจื• ื’ื•ื™

It is in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile and the slave does not wish to be circumcised, the master abides with him for up to twelve months. If, after this period, the slave will still not be circumcised, the master then sells him to gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One may not allow him to remain in Eretz Yisrael due to the loss of ritually pure items he could cause. As long as the slave remains uncircumcised, he is considered to be a gentile; therefore, by rabbinic decree, ritually pure items that he touches are considered to be impure. And in a city that is near to the border he may not be allowed to remain at all, lest he hear some secret matter concerning security and go and say it over to his fellow gentile in an enemy country. However, once he has been circumcised and accepted the yoke of mitzvot, this concern no longer exists.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื ื™ื ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืžืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฆื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื’ืจ ืฉื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ื›ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื“ืžื™ ืืœื ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืžืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื™ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืงื“ื•ืงื™ ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ื ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžืื”ื‘ื” ืืœื ืžื™ืจืื”

ยง It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi แธคananya, son of Rabban Gamliel, says: For what reason are converts at the present time tormented and hardships come upon them? It is because when they were gentiles they did not observe the seven Noahide mitzvot. Rabbi Yosei says: They would not be punished for their deeds prior to their conversion because a convert who just converted is like a child just born in that he retains no connection to his past life. Rather, for what reason are they tormented? It is because they are not as well-versed in the intricacies of the mitzvot as a born Jew, and consequently they often inadvertently transgress mitzvot. Abba แธคanan says in the name of Rabbi Elazar: It is because they observe mitzvot not out of love of God, but only out of fear of the punishments for failing to observe them.

ืื—ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื”ื• ืขืฆืžื ืœื”ื›ื ืก ืชื—ืช ื›ื ืคื™ ื”ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืžืื™ ืงืจืื” ื™ืฉืœื ื”ืณ ืคืขืœืš ื•ืชื”ื™ ืžืฉื›ืจืชืš ืฉืœืžื” ืžืขื ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืช ืœื—ืกื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืžืจ

Others say: It is because they waited before entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, i.e., they are punished for not converting sooner than they did. Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was Rabbi แธคanina who said: What is the verse from which it is derived that one should convert at the earliest opportunity? Boaz said to Ruth: โ€œThe Lord shall recompense your work, and your reward shall be complete from the Lord, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refugeโ€ (Ruth 2:12).

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Yevamot: 44-50 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week the Gemara describes different prohibited relationships that the resulting child is considered a Mamzer. This has ramifications on...

Yevamot 48

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Yevamot 48

ื•ืžื•ืชืจ ื‘ื” ืžื™ื“

And he is permitted to marry her immediately afterward, without the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah. The fact that the Rabbis do not suggest this course of action is evidently because they hold that even if she were to be rendered a slave and then immersed for the sake of emancipation, she would become Jewish only if she also accepted upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. Rav Sheshet assumes that the Rabbis would similarly rule that a regular slave who was immersed for the sake of emancipation becomes Jewish only if he also accepts upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืžืงื ืช ื›ืกืฃ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืืฉื” ืืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืืชื” ืžืœ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื• ื•ืื™ ืืชื” ืžืœ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื•

Rava said: What is the rationale for Rabbi Shimon ben Elazarโ€™s opinion? As it is written with regard to the Paschal lamb: โ€œEvery slave of a man that is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat of itโ€ (Exodus 12:44). Could the use of the phrase โ€œslave of a man,โ€ rather than just: Slave, possibly indicate that the verse applies only to a manโ€™s slave but not a womanโ€™s slave? Certainly not; rather, the phrase โ€œslave of a manโ€ means that the slave himself is a man, i.e., an adult, and teaches that a slave who is a man you may circumcise against his will, and there is no need for him to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot, but you may not circumcise a gentileโ€™s son who is a man, i.e., an adult who is not a slave, against his will.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ื›ืฉื ืฉืื™ ืืชื” ืžืœ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื• ื›ืš ืื™ ืืชื” ืžืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื• ื•ืืœื ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ

The Gemara asks: And how would the Rabbis counter this argument? Ulla said that the Rabbis reason that just as you may not circumcise a son who is a man against his will, so too, you may not circumcise a slave who is a man against his will. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œEvery slave of a manโ€? The Gemara explains: The Rabbis require that verse for that which Shmuel said.

ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืžืคืงื™ืจ ืขื‘ื“ื• ื™ืฆื ืœื—ื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื’ื˜ ืฉื—ืจื•ืจ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ืžืงื ืช ื›ืกืฃ ืขื‘ื“ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืืฉื” ืืœื ืขื‘ื“ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืงืจื•ื™ ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืจืฉื•ืช ืœืจื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืื™ืŸ ืงืจื•ื™ ืขื‘ื“

As Shmuel said: With regard to one who renounces ownership of his slave, the slave is emancipated, and he does not even require a bill of emancipation, as it is stated: โ€œBut every slave of a man that is bought for money.โ€ Could the use of the phrase โ€œslave of a man,โ€ rather than just: Slave, possibly indicate that the verse applies only to a manโ€™s slave but not a womanโ€™s slave? Certainly not; rather, the use of the phrase indicates that only a slave whose master has possession of him, and can rightfully be described as: a slave of a man, is called a slave, but a slave whose master does not have possession of him is not called a slave, and therefore he is considered a freeman and does not require a bill of emancipation.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืฉืžืขืช ืœื”ื• ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืคืช ืชื•ืืจ ื“ืœื ืฉื™ื™ื›ื ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืขื‘ื“ ื“ืฉื™ื™ืš ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื•

Rav Pappa strongly objects to Rav Sheshetโ€™s claim that the Rabbis of the baraita would hold that a regular slave who was immersed for the sake of emancipation becomes Jewish only if he also accepts upon himself the yoke of mitzvot: Say that you heard that the Rabbis insist on the acceptance of the yoke of mitzvot with regard to the case of a beautiful female prisoner of war, who was not involved in any mitzvot before being emancipated; however, with regard to a slave, who was initially involved in mitzvot before his emancipation, since as a slave he was obligated to observe certain mitzvot, perhaps even the Rabbis would agree that there is no need for the slave to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื—ื“ ื’ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ ื”ื ืœื•ืงื— ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ

As it is taught in a baraita: Both in the case of a convert and in the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile whom he is now emancipating, the convert and the slave need to accept upon themselves the yoke of mitzvot in order to become Jewish. The Gemara infers: The baraita states the need to accept the yoke of mitzvot only in the case where one purchases a slave from a gentile, but if one purchases a slave from a Jew, then the slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot, since he was involved in mitzvot before his emancipation.

ืžื ื™ ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื”ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื— ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื ืžื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืœื ืœืื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืœื•ืงื— ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื‘ืœ ืœื•ืงื— ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืงื‘ืœ

In accordance with whose opinion is this taught? If one suggests that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, that is incorrect because didnโ€™t he say that also in the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile, the slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot? Rather, must it not be in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis? And so, conclude from this baraita that in the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile, the slave needs to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot, but in the case of one who purchases a slave from a Jew, the slave does not need to accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.

ื•ืืœื ืงืฉื™ื ืื—ื“ ื’ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ ืขื‘ื“ ืžืฉื•ื—ืจืจ ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ืชื ื™ื

The Gemara asks: But if so, it is difficult to understand the meaning of the baraita cited above: This applies both for a convert and for an emancipated slave. That phrase appears to refer to the need for both a convert and an emancipated slave to accept the yoke of mitzvot, which is mentioned in the baraita beforehand. The Gemara explains: When that clause is taught, it is taught only with regard to the matter of immersion, which is mentioned immediately beforehand, but not with regard to the need to accept the yoke of mitzvot that is mentioned prior to that.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื’ืœื—ื” ืืช ืจืืฉื” ื•ืขืฉืชื” ืืช ืฆืคืจื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืงื•ืฅ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืชื’ื“ื™ืœ

ยง Having cited it above, the Gemara focuses on the case of the beautiful female prisoner of war: The Sages taught: The verse states: โ€œAnd she shall shave her head and do her nailsโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:12). The phrase โ€œdo her nailsโ€ is ambiguous. Rabbi Eliezer says: It means she cuts her nails. Rabbi Akiva says: It means she grows them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื ืืžืจื” ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื ืืžืจื” ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืฆืคืจื ื™ื ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื”ืขื‘ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื ืืžืจ ืขืฉื™ื” ื‘ืฆืคืจื ื™ื ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื ื™ื•ื•ืœ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื ื™ื•ื•ืœ

Each tanna explains the basis of his opinion: Rabbi Eliezer said: An act of doing is stated with regard to the head, that she should shave it, and an act of doing is stated with regard to the nails; just as there, with regard to the hair on her head, the Torah requires its removal, so too, here, with regard to her nails, the Torah requires their removal. Rabbi Akiva says: An act of doing is stated with regard to the head, that she should shave it, and an act of doing is stated with regard to the nails; just as there, with regard to the hair on her head, the Torah requires that she do something that makes her repulsive, so too, here, with regard to her nails, the Torah requires she do something that makes her repulsive, i.e., allowing them to grow.

ื•ืจืื™ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื•ืžืคื‘ืฉืช ื‘ืŸ ืฉืื•ืœ ื™ืจื“ ืœืงืจืืช ื”ืžืœืš ืœื ืขืฉื” ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื•ืœื ืขืฉื” ืฉืคืžื• ืžืื™ ืขืฉื™ื” ื”ืขื‘ืจื”

And a proof for the statement of Rabbi Eliezer may be adduced from the verse that states: โ€œAnd Mephibosheth, the son of Saul, came down to meet the king; and he had neither done his feet nor done his mustacheโ€ (IIย Samuel 19:25). What is the meaning of doing in that context? Clearly it means the removal of his toenails and his mustache.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื‘ื›ืชื” ืืช ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ืืช ืืžื”

The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œAnd she shall bewail her father and her mother a month of days and after that you may come to herโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:13).

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื” ืžืžืฉ ืืžื” ืืžื” ืžืžืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ืืžื” ื–ื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืขืฅ ืื‘ื™ ืืชื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rabbi Eliezer says: โ€œHer fatherโ€ means her actual father and โ€œher motherโ€ means her actual mother. Rabbi Akiva says: Her father and her mother; this is referring to the idolatrous deity that she had worshiped but will no longer be able to worship, and so it says: โ€œThey say to a tree: You are my father, and to a stone: You have given birth to usโ€ (Jeremiah 2:27).

ื™ืจื— ื™ืžื™ื ื™ืจื— ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืชืฉืขื™ื ื™ื•ื ื™ืจื— ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื™ื

The verses states: โ€œA month of days and after that you may come to herโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:13). This means a thirty-day month. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: She must wait ninety days. This is derived as follows: The phrase โ€œa monthโ€ connotes thirty days; the word โ€œdaysโ€ adds another thirty days; and the words โ€œafter thatโ€ indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, i.e., a further thirty days.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืื™ืžื ื™ืจื— ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ื ื™ ืงืฉื™ื

Ravina strongly objects to this: If the words โ€œafter thatโ€ indicate another period equal to one previously mentioned, then one should say: The phrase โ€œa monthโ€ connotes thirty days; the word โ€œdaysโ€ adds another thirty days; and then the words โ€œafter thatโ€ add another period which is equal to the total sum of all those days she has already waited, i.e., an additional sixty days. The Gemara concedes: Indeed, this is difficult.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืžืœื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžืฉื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืœื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: One may maintain slaves that are not circumcised under oneโ€™s control; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: One may not maintain such slaves, even for a moment. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: But it says with regard to Shabbat: โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshedโ€ (Exodus 23:12). The verse prohibits a Jewish master from allowing his slave to perform labor on Shabbat. The Gemara will explain that this is referring to an uncircumcised slave. It is therefore apparent that it is permitted to keep such a slave. Rabbi Akiva said to him: The verse speaks of one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat and therefore does not have the opportunity to circumcise him before the onset of Shabbat.

ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืžื™ื”ืช ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืžื”ื•ืœ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžืขืŸ ื™ื ื•ื— ืขื‘ื“ืš ื•ืืžืชืš ื›ืžื•ืš ื”ืจื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืžื”ื•ืœ ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื•ื™ื ืคืฉ ื‘ืŸ ืืžืชืš ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ

The Gemara notes: In any event, in the opinion of everyone the verse: โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshed,โ€ is written with regard to an uncircumcised slave. From where is this inferred? As it is taught in a baraita: โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshedโ€; the verse speaks of an uncircumcised slave. Do you say it speaks of an uncircumcised slave, or perhaps it is speaking only of a circumcised slave? When it says elsewhere: โ€œAnd the seventh day is a Shabbat to the Lord your God, you shall not do any labor, you, and your son, and your daughter, and your slave, and your maidservantโ€ฆso that your slave and your maidservant may rest like youโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:13), a circumcised slave is already mentioned; how, then, do I uphold the verse โ€œAnd the son of your maidservant will be refreshedโ€? It must refer to an uncircumcised slave.

ื•ื”ื’ืจ ื–ื” ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื’ืจ ืฆื“ืง ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื’ืจืš ืืฉืจ ื‘ืฉืขืจื™ืš ื”ืจื™ ื’ืจ ืฆื“ืง ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื’ืจ ื–ื” ื’ืจ ืชื•ืฉื‘

The verse continues: โ€œAnd the stranger [ger]โ€ (Exodus 23:12). This is referring to a gentile who observes certain mitzvot [ger toshav]. Do you say that this is a ger toshav, or perhaps it is only a righteous convert [ger tzedek], who is a Jew in every sense? When it says elsewhere: โ€œAnd your stranger [ger] that is within your gatesโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:13), a righteous convert is already mentioned. How, then, do I uphold the verse โ€œAnd the stranger [ger]โ€? It must be that this is a ger toshav.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื”ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื” ืœืžื•ืœ ืžื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื• ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœื ืžืœ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื• ืœื’ื•ื™ื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile and the slave does not wish to be circumcised, he abides with him up to twelve months. If, after this period, he will still not be circumcised, he then sells him on to gentiles.

ืืžืจื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืคืกืงื ืœืžื™ืœืชื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืคืกืงื ืœืžื™ืœืชื™ื” ืคืกืงื

The Sages said this halakha before Rav Pappa and asked: In accordance with whose opinion is it? It seems that it is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, didnโ€™t he say: One may not maintain an uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa said to them: You can even say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, since perhaps that halakha of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi applies only where the slave did not make his refusal to be circumcised explicit; however, where he did make his refusal to be circumcised explicit, since he has made it explicit, it is prohibited to maintain him, as Rabbi Akiva rules.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืืžืจื™ืชื ืœืฉืžืขืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืžื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžืฉื•ืช ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ื ื—ื“ื ืžืชืจื™ ื˜ืขืžื™ ืงืืžืจ

Rav Kahana said: I said this halakha before Rav Zevid from Nehardeโ€™a. He said to me: If so, that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may temporarily maintain a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised, then when Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave is referring to one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat, let him instead answer him that the verse is referring to this case of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva said only one out of two possible reasons why it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave.

ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขืื™ ื•ื›ืœ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ ืžืฉืžื• ืื™ื–ื”ื• ืขื‘ื“ ืขืจืœ ืฉืžื•ืชืจ ืœืงื™ื™ืžื• ื–ื” ืฉืœืงื—ื• ืจื‘ื• ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉืœื ืœืžื•ืœื• ืืžืจื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืงื™ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืคื™ืœื• ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืœื ืืชื ื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืืชื ื™ ืืชื ื™

Ravin sent a message citing a halakha in the name of Rabbi Ilai: And all of my teachers said to me in his name: What is the case of an uncircumcised slave whom it is permitted to maintain? This is one whose master purchased him on condition not to circumcise him. The Sages said this halakha before Rav Pappa and asked: In accordance with whose opinion is it? It seems that it is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, didnโ€™t he say: One may not maintain an uncircumcised slave even for a moment? Rav Pappa said to them: You can even say it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, since perhaps that ruling of Rabbi Akiva applies only where the master did not make a condition with regard to the slave that he would not be circumcised; however, where he did make such a condition, since he made a condition, even Rabbi Akiva would concede it is permitted to maintain him.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืืžืจื™ืชื ืœืฉืžืขืชื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ืžื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื•ืืžืจ ืœื™ ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื‘ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืžืฉื•ืช ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœืžื•ืœื• ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ื

Rav Kahana said: I said this halakha before Rav Zevid from Nehardeโ€™a and he said to me: If so, that Rabbi Akiva agrees that one may maintain a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised, then when Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Yishmael that the verse with regard to an uncircumcised slave is referring to one who purchases a slave at twilight on the eve of Shabbat and therefore does not have the opportunity to circumcise him before the onset of Shabbat, let him instead answer him that the verse is referring to this case of a slave who was purchased on condition that he would not be circumcised.

ื•ืœื™ื˜ืขืžื™ืš ืœื™ืฉื ื™ ืœื™ื” ื”ืš ืืœื ื—ื“ ืžืชืจื™ ื•ืชืœืช ื˜ืขืžื™ ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara responds: But even according to your reasoning that Rabbi Akiva disagrees, since you do agree with Rav Pappaโ€™s resolution of Rabbi Akivaโ€™s opinion with the halakha of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, let Rabbi Akiva answer him that the verse is referring to that case of a slave who has not explicitly refused to be circumcised. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva said only one out of two or three possible reasons that it would be permitted to be in possession of such a slave.

ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืืงื™ืœืขื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ื•ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื•ืงืืžืจื™ ืขื™ืจ ืื—ืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ื” ืœืžื•ืœ ื•ื’ืœื’ืœื• ืขืžื”ื ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ื•ืžื›ืจื•ื ืœื’ื•ื™ื ื›ืžืืŸ

Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappi, and Rabbi Ami, and Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa were sitting in the courtyard of Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa. They were sitting and saying: There was one city in Eretz Yisrael whose slaves did not wish to be circumcised. Their masters abided with them until twelve months had passed and then sold them to gentiles. In accordance with whose opinion did they act?

ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ืชื ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืœื•ืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ืžืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืœื ืจืฆื” ืœืžื•ืœ ืžื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื• ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœื ืžืœ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื• ืœื’ื•ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื”ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืคืกื“ ื˜ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ืกืžื•ื›ื” ืœืกืคืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืฉื”ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื›ืœ ืขื™ืงืจ ืฉืžื ื™ืฉืžืข ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืœืš ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœื—ื‘ืจื• ื’ื•ื™

It is in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of one who purchases a slave from a gentile and the slave does not wish to be circumcised, the master abides with him for up to twelve months. If, after this period, the slave will still not be circumcised, the master then sells him to gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One may not allow him to remain in Eretz Yisrael due to the loss of ritually pure items he could cause. As long as the slave remains uncircumcised, he is considered to be a gentile; therefore, by rabbinic decree, ritually pure items that he touches are considered to be impure. And in a city that is near to the border he may not be allowed to remain at all, lest he hear some secret matter concerning security and go and say it over to his fellow gentile in an enemy country. However, once he has been circumcised and accepted the yoke of mitzvot, this concern no longer exists.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื ื™ื ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืžืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฆื•ืช ื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื’ืจ ืฉื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ื›ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื“ืžื™ ืืœื ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืžืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื™ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืงื“ื•ืงื™ ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ื ื—ื ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžืื”ื‘ื” ืืœื ืžื™ืจืื”

ยง It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi แธคananya, son of Rabban Gamliel, says: For what reason are converts at the present time tormented and hardships come upon them? It is because when they were gentiles they did not observe the seven Noahide mitzvot. Rabbi Yosei says: They would not be punished for their deeds prior to their conversion because a convert who just converted is like a child just born in that he retains no connection to his past life. Rather, for what reason are they tormented? It is because they are not as well-versed in the intricacies of the mitzvot as a born Jew, and consequently they often inadvertently transgress mitzvot. Abba แธคanan says in the name of Rabbi Elazar: It is because they observe mitzvot not out of love of God, but only out of fear of the punishments for failing to observe them.

ืื—ืจื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื”ื• ืขืฆืžื ืœื”ื›ื ืก ืชื—ืช ื›ื ืคื™ ื”ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืžืื™ ืงืจืื” ื™ืฉืœื ื”ืณ ืคืขืœืš ื•ืชื”ื™ ืžืฉื›ืจืชืš ืฉืœืžื” ืžืขื ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืฉืจ ื‘ืืช ืœื—ืกื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืžืจ

Others say: It is because they waited before entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, i.e., they are punished for not converting sooner than they did. Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say it was Rabbi แธคanina who said: What is the verse from which it is derived that one should convert at the earliest opportunity? Boaz said to Ruth: โ€œThe Lord shall recompense your work, and your reward shall be complete from the Lord, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refugeโ€ (Ruth 2:12).

Scroll To Top