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Today's Daf Yomi

December 5, 2014 | ื™ืดื’ ื‘ื›ืกืœื• ืชืฉืขืดื”

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Yevamot 62

Study Guide Yevamot 62


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ืžืฉืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ื ืžื™ ืœื™ืœืคื• ืžืžืฉื” ืืžืจื™ ืœืš ืžืฉื” ืžื“ืขืชื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืขื‘ื“ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืฉื” ืžืฉื” ืžื“ืขืชื• ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืคื™ืจืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืืฉื” ื•ืฉื™ื‘ืจ ื”ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ื•ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“

from one that is not possible. Mankind was initially created with a male and female because otherwise reproduction would not have been possible. However, this fact cannot serve as a source that the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled only once one has a son and a daughter. The Gemara asks: And Beit Hillel, let them also learn from Moses. Beit Hillel could say to you: Moses acted based on his own perception when he separated from his wife, but this does not mean that a man is permitted to neglect the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply after fathering two males, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent: He separated from his wife, he broke the tablets, and he added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai.

ืคื™ืจืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืืฉื” ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉ ืืžืจ ื•ืžื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืœื ื“ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื”ื ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืืœื ืœืคื™ ืฉืขื” ื•ืงื‘ืข ืœื”ื ื–ืžืŸ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืืœ ืชื’ืฉื• ืืœ ืืฉื” ืื ื™ ืฉืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื“ื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืขื” ื•ืฉืขื” ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืข ืœื™ ื–ืžืŸ ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœืš ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ื‘ื• ืœื›ื ืœืื”ืœื™ื›ื ื•ืืชื” ืคื” ืขืžื•ื“ ืขืžื“ื™

The Gemara clarifies: When Moses separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He said: If in the case of Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only temporarily and for whom God set a specific time for revelation, the Torah stated: โ€œDo not approach a womanโ€ (Exodus 19:15), I, Moses, who am set aside for divine speech all the time and for whom God did not set a specific time, all the more so I must separate from my wife. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is stated after the revelation at Sinai: โ€œGo say to them: Return to your tents; and you, stand here with Meโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:26โ€“27). This indicates that whereas others could return to their homes and normal married life after the revelation at Sinai, Moses was to stay with God and not return to his wife.

ืฉื™ื‘ืจ ืืช ื”ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉ ืืžืจ ื•ืžื” ืคืกื— ืฉื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉ ืžืื•ืช ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฆื•ืช ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœ ื‘ืŸ ื ื›ืจ ืœื ื™ืื›ืœ ื‘ื• ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฉื•ืžื“ื™ื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

Moses broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: If in the case of the Paschal lamb, which is only one of 613 mitzvot, the Torah states: โ€œNo alien shall eat of itโ€ (Exodus 12:43), excluding not only gentiles but apostate Jews as well, then here, in the case of the Golden Calf, where the tablets represent the entire Torah and where the Jewish people are apostates, as they are worshipping the calf, all the more so must they be excluded from receiving them.

ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฉืจ ืฉื‘ืจืช ื•ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืžืฉื” ื™ื™ืฉืจ ื›ื—ืš ืฉืฉื‘ืจืช

And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is written: โ€œThe first tablets that you broke [asher shibbarta]โ€ (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be true [yishar koแธฅakha] that you broke the tablets.

ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžื“ืขืชื• ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ืžื—ืจ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืžื—ืจ ืžื” ืžื—ืจ ืœื™ืœื• ืขืžื• ืืฃ ื”ื™ื•ื ืœื™ืœื• ืขืžื• ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื“ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื ืคืง ืœื™ื” ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืชืจื™ ื™ื•ืžื™ ืœื‘ืจ ืžื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื“ืœื ืฉืจื™ื ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืขื“ ืฉื‘ืชื

When Moses added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since it is written: โ€œAnd sanctify them today and tomorrowโ€ (Exodus 19:10), the juxtaposition of the words โ€œtodayโ€ and โ€œtomorrowโ€ teaches that today is like tomorrow: Just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses said: Conclude from this that separation must be in effect for two days aside from now, i.e., not including the day of the command. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื‘ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื–ื›ืจ ื•ื ืงื‘ื”

ยง It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with two males and two females. And Beit Hillel say: A male and a female.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชื•ืกืฃ ืœืœื“ืช ืืช ืื—ื™ื• ืืช ื”ื‘ืœ ื”ื‘ืœ ื•ืื—ื•ืชื• ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื—ื•ืชื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืฉืช ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ื–ืจืข ืื—ืจ ืชื—ืช ื”ื‘ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ืจื’ื• ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื•ื“ื•ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžื•ื“ื™ืช

Rav Huna said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan, in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai? It is as it is written: โ€œAnd again she bore his brother [et aแธฅiv] Abel [et Hevel]โ€ (Genesis 4:2). The use of the superfluous word โ€œetโ€ indicates that she gave birth to Abel and his sister, in addition to Cain and his sister. And it states: โ€œFor God has appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew himโ€ (Genesis 4:25). This indicates that one must have at least four children. And the Rabbis, how do they understand this verse? In their opinion, Eve was thanking God for granting her another child, but one is not obligated to have four children.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื–ื›ืจ ื•ื ืงื‘ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื• ื–ื›ืจ ืื• ื ืงื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื ืชื”ื• ื‘ืจืื” ืœืฉื‘ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ื•ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ ืœื” ืฉื‘ืช

It is taught in another baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with a male and a female. And Beit Hillel say: Either a male or a female. Rava said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? It is as it is stated: โ€œHe did not create it a waste; He formed it to be inhabitedโ€ (Isaiah 45:18), and one has made the earth inhabited to a greater degree by adding even one child to the world.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชื• ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื“ื”ื ื”ื•ื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื’ืจ ืฉื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ื›ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื“ืžื™

ยง It was stated that amoraโ€™im disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, and Reish Lakish said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as he already had children. And Reish Lakish said he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born, and it is considered as though he did not have children.

ื•ืื–ื“ื• ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชื• ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืœื ื—ืœื” ื“ื”ื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืจืืฉื™ืช ืื•ื ื• ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืœื ื—ืœื” ื’ืจ ืฉื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ื›ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื“ืžื™

The Gemara comments: And they follow their regular line of reasoning, as it was stated: If one had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He does not have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, i.e., the first son born to him after his conversion does not inherit a double portion, as this man already had โ€œthe first of his strengthโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:17), the Torahโ€™s description of the firstborn in this context, before he converted. And Reish Lakish said: He does have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born.

ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ื ื—ืœื” ื“ืœืื• ื‘ื ื™ ื ื—ืœื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ

The Gemara adds: And it is necessary to state their opinions in both cases. As, had it only been taught to us with regard to that first case of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might have said that it is only in that case that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said his opinion, because from the outset, gentiles are also subject to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. However, with regard to inheritance, since they are not subject to the halakhot of inheritance, one might say that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan concedes to Reish Lakish.

ื•ืื™ ืื™ืชืžืจ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื”ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื

And conversely, if their dispute was stated only with regard to this issue of inheritance, I would have said that it is only in this case that Reish Lakish said his opinion, as the halakhot of inheritance do not apply to gentiles. But with regard to that case, the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan. Consequently, it is necessary for both disputes to be recorded.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืช ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืœื— ื‘ืจืื“ืš ื‘ืœืื“ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืœืื“ืŸ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชืŸ ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื—ื™ื™ืก ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจื• ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื—ื™ื™ืก

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raises an objection to Reish Lakish based upon the verse: โ€œAt that time Berodach-baladan, son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent a letterโ€ (IIย Kings 20:12), which indicates that gentiles are considered to be the children of their parents. Therefore, when they convert, they should already have fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: When they are gentiles they do have family lineage, but when they convert they do not have lineage, as they now belong to the family of the Jewish people and their previous lineage is disregarded.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื•ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื—ื™ื™ืก ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื‘ื• ืœื›ื ืคื” ืขื ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืขื ื”ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื•ืœืฆื™ื‘ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื›ืคืจ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืงืจ

Rav said: Everyone agrees with regard to a Canaanite slave, that he does not have lineage, as it is written that Abraham said to his slaves: โ€œRemain here with the donkeyโ€ (Genesis 22:5). This verse is interpreted to mean that they are a nation comparable to a donkey, which has no lineage. The Gemara raises an objection based upon a verse pertaining to Jonathanโ€™s Canaanite slave: โ€œAnd Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servantsโ€ (IIย Samuel 9:10), which indicates that a slaveโ€™s sons are in fact considered his sons. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov said: This is like the expression: A bullock, son of a bull. The word son in this context merely denotes progeny, not lineage.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ื™ื—ืกื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ืฉืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ื‘ืฉืžื ื“ืื‘ื•ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื›ื ืœื ืžืคืจืฉ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื™ื—ืกื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืชื ืื—ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ืื‘ื•ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื‘ื ื“ืื‘ื•ื”ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉืœื—ื ื”ืžืœืš ืืกื ืืœ ื‘ืŸ ื”ื“ื“ ื‘ืŸ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸ ืžืœืš ืืจื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื“ืžืฉืง ืœืืžืจ

The Gemara asks: If so, here too, with regard to gentiles, there is no proof from the verse about Berodach-baladan that they have family lineage. The Gemara answers: There it is different, as the Bible identified him by his name and by his fatherโ€™s name, thereby emphasizing the family connection. But here, it does not specify the names of Zibaโ€™s children. And if you wish, say instead that the Bible identified gentiles elsewhere by their father and their fatherโ€™s father, as it is written: โ€œAnd King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion, king of Aram, who dwelled in Damascus, sayingโ€ (Iย Kings 15:18). This indicates that there is lineage for gentiles.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืžืชื• ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื

ยง It was stated that amoraโ€™im disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children and they died, Rav Huna said: He has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through these children. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื‘ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื›ืœื• ื›ืœ ื ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉื‘ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืจื•ื— ืžืœืคื ื™ ื™ืขื˜ื•ืฃ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืœืฉื‘ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื ืœื™ื›ื

The Gemara clarifies the reasons for their opinions: Rav Huna said he has fulfilled the mitzva due to a statement of Rav Asi, as Rav Asi said that the reason for this mitzva is that the Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so, as it is stated: โ€œFor the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have madeโ€ (Isaiah 57:16). Consequently, once a child has been born and his soul has entered a body the mitzva has been fulfilled, even if the child subsequently dies. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said he has not fulfilled the mitzva, as we require โ€œHe formed it to be inhabitedโ€ (Isaiah 45:18), and this is not fulfilled when the children have passed away and no longer inhabit the earth.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™

The Gemara raises an objection with regard to the opinion of Rav Huna based upon the following baraita:

ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืœื™ื

Grandchildren are considered like children. This indicates that if oneโ€™s children have passed away, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply only if they had children of their own, as they are considered like his own children. The Gemara responds: When that baraita is taught it is with regard to completing the required number of children, e.g., if he had only a son, but his son had a daughter, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืžืช ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืื• ืฉื ืžืฆื ืกืจื™ืก ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Huna from another baraita: Grandchildren are considered like children. If one of a manโ€™s children died or was discovered to be a eunuch, the father has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. This directly contradicts Rav Hunaโ€™s statement that one fulfills the mitzva even if his children die. The Gemara concludes: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna is indeed a conclusive refutation.

ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืกื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื‘ืจื ืœื‘ืจื ื•ื‘ืจืชื ืœื‘ืจืชื ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื ืœื‘ืจืชื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจืชื ืœื‘ืจื ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืฉื‘ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื•ื”ื ืื™ื›ื

ยง It was taught in the baraita that grandchildren are considered like children. Abaye thought to say that if oneโ€™s children die, he fulfills the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through grandchildren, provided a son was born to his son and a daughter to his daughter, and all the more so if a son was born to his daughter, as his grandchildren take the place of his children in these cases. However, if a daughter was born to his son, no, she cannot take the place of her father. Rava said to him: We require merely fulfillment of the verse: โ€œHe formed it to be inhabited,โ€ and there is fulfillment in this case, as the earth is inhabited by his descendants.

ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืžื™ื”ืช ืชืจื™ ืžื—ื“ ืœื ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื ืกื™ื‘ ืื™ืชืชื ื•ืื•ืœื™ื“ ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืชื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื•

The Gemara comments: In any event, everyone agrees that if one has two grandchildren from one child, no, he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, even if he has both a grandson and a granddaughter. The Gemara asks: And has he not? Didnโ€™t the Rabbis say to Rav Sheshet: Marry a woman and have sons, as you have not yet fathered any sons, and Rav Sheshet said to them: The sons of my daughter are my sons? This indicates that one can fulfill the mitzva through grandchildren even if he did not have a son and daughter of his own.

ื”ืชื ื“ื—ื•ื™ื™ ืงืžื“ื—ื™ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื™ืขืงืจ ืžืคื™ืจืงื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื

The Gemara answers: There, Rav Sheshet was merely putting them off. The real reason he did not want to get remarried was because Rav Sheshet became impotent from Rav Hunaโ€™s discourse. Rav Hunaโ€™s discourses were so lengthy that Rav Sheshet became impotent after waiting for so long without relieving himself.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ืœืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื‘ื ื•ืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ ื•ื”ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื•ื”ืฆืืŸ ืฆืื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืืœื ื“ืงื ื™ืช ืžื™ื ืื™ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื“ืงื ื™ืช ืžื™ื ืื™

Rabba said to Rava bar Mari: From where is this matter that the Sages stated derived, that grandchildren are considered like children? If we say it is derived from the fact that it is written in Labanโ€™s speech to Jacob: โ€œThe daughters are my daughters and the children are my childrenโ€ (Genesis 31:43), which indicates that Jacobโ€™s children were also considered to be the children of their grandfather Laban, if that is so, does the continuation of Labanโ€™s statement: โ€œAnd the flocks are my flocksโ€ (Genesis 31:43), indicate that so too, Jacobโ€™s flocks were considered as belonging to Laban? Rather, Laban was saying that you, Jacob, acquired them from me. Here too, with regard to the children, Laban was saying: You acquired them from me, i.e., it is only due to me that you have children.

ืืœื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื‘ื ื—ืฆืจื•ืŸ ืืœ ื‘ืช ืžื›ื™ืจ ืื‘ื™ ื’ืœืขื“ื•ืชืœื“ ืœื• ืืช ืฉื’ื•ื‘ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื ื™ ืžื›ื™ืจ ื™ืจื“ื• ืžื—ื•ืงืงื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื—ื•ืงืงื™

Rather, the proof is from here: โ€œAnd afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir, the father of Gileadโ€ฆand she bore him Segubโ€ (Iย Chronicles 2:21), and it is written: โ€œOut of Machir came down governorsโ€ (Judges 5:14), and it is written: โ€œJudah is my governorโ€ (Psalms 60:9). Consequently, the governors, who were from the tribe of Judah, were also called the sons of Machir, who was from the tribe of Manasseh. This must be because they were the children of Machirโ€™s daughter and Hezron, indicating that grandchildren are considered like children.

ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœืื• ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ื ืฉื ืื“ื ืืฉื” ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื–ืจืข ืืช ื–ืจืขืš ื•ืœืขืจื‘ ืืœ ืชื ื— ื™ื“ืš ื›ื™ ืื™ื ืš ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื™ ื–ื” ื™ื›ืฉืจ ื”ื–ื” ืื• ื–ื” ื•ืื ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื›ืื—ื“ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื

ยง The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: If a man married a woman in his youth, and she passed away, he should marry another woman in his old age. If he had children in his youth, he should have more children in his old age, as it is stated: โ€œIn the morning sow your seed, and in the evening do not withhold your hand; for you do not know which shall prosper, whether this or that, or whether they both alike shall be goodโ€ (Ecclesiastes 11:6). This verse indicates that a man should continue having children even after he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื–ืจืข ืืช ื–ืจืขืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืืœืฃ ื–ื•ื’ื™ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืžื’ื‘ืช ืขื“ ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืก ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืชื• ื‘ืคืจืง ืื—ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื ื ื”ื’ื• ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื–ื” ืœื–ื”

Rabbi Akiva says that the verse should be understood as follows: If one studied Torah in his youth he should study more Torah in his old age; if he had students in his youth he should have additional students in his old age, as it is stated: โ€œIn the morning sow your seed, etc.โ€ They said by way of example that Rabbi Akiva had twelve thousand pairs of students in an area of land that stretched from Gevat to Antipatris in Judea, and they all died in one period of time, because they did not treat each other with respect.

ื•ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขื•ืœื ืฉืžื ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืฆืœ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืฉื ืื” ืœื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืžื•ืข ื•ื”ื ื”ื ื”ืขืžื™ื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื”

And the world was desolate of Torah until Rabbi Akiva came to our Rabbis in the South and taught his Torah to them. This second group of disciples consisted of Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua. And these are the very ones who upheld the study of Torah at that time. Although Rabbi Akivaโ€™s earlier students did not survive, his later disciples were able to transmit the Torah to future generations.

ืชื ื ื›ื•ืœื ืžืชื• ืžืคืกื— ื•ืขื“ ืขืฆืจืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืœื ืžืชื• ืžื™ืชื” ืจืขื” ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืกื›ืจื”

With regard to the twelve thousand pairs of Rabbi Akivaโ€™s students, the Gemara adds: It is taught that all of them died in the period from Passover until Shavuot. Rav แธคama bar Abba said, and some say it was Rabbi แธคiyya bar Avin: They all died a bad death. The Gemara inquires: What is it that is called a bad death? Rav Naแธฅman said: Diphtheria.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข

Rav Mattana said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who said that one must attempt to have more children even if he has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ืœืื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฉื” ืฉืจื•ื™ ื‘ืœื ืฉืžื—ื” ื‘ืœื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื‘ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืœื ืฉืžื—ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืžื—ืช ืืชื” ื•ื‘ื™ืชืš ื‘ืœื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื‘ืจื›ื” ืืœ ื‘ื™ืชืš ื‘ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืื“ื ืœื‘ื“ื•

ยง Apropos the discussion with regard to the mitzva to have children, the Gemara cites statements about marriage in general. Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi แธคanilai said: Any man who does not have a wife is left without joy, without blessing, without goodness. He proceeds to quote verses to support each part of his statement. He is without joy, as it is written: โ€œAnd you shall rejoice, you and your householdโ€ (Deuteronomy 14:26), which indicates that the a man is in a joyful state only when he is with his household, i.e., his wife. He is without blessing, as it is written: โ€œTo cause a blessing to rest in your houseโ€ (Ezekiel 44:30), which indicates that blessing comes through oneโ€™s house, i.e., oneโ€™s wife. He is without goodness, as it is written: โ€œIt is not good that man should be aloneโ€ (Genesis 2:18), i.e., without a wife.

ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืœื ื—ื•ืžื” ื‘ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืื ืื™ืŸ ืขื–ืจืชื™ ื‘ื™ ื•ืชื•ืฉื™ื” ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืžื ื™ ื‘ืœื ื—ื•ืžื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืงื‘ื” ืชืกื•ื‘ื‘ ื’ื‘ืจ

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: One who lives without a wife is left without Torah, and without a wall of protection. He is without Torah, as it is written: โ€œIs it that I have no help in me, and that sound wisdom is driven from me?โ€ (Job 6:13), indicating that one who does not have a wife lacks sound wisdom, i.e., Torah. He is without a wall, as it is written: โ€œA woman shall go round a manโ€ (Jeremiah 31:21), similar to a protective wall.

ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ื‘ืœื ืฉืœื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื•ืคืงื“ืช ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื ืชื—ื˜ื

Rava bar Ulla said: One who does not have a wife is left without peace, as it is written: โ€œAnd you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation and shall miss nothingโ€ (Job 5:24). This indicates that a man has peace only when he has a tent, i.e., a wife.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืืฉืชื• ืฉื”ื™ื ื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืงื“ื” ื ืงืจื ื—ื•ื˜ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื“ื ืœืคืงื•ื“ ืืช ืืฉืชื• ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื“ืจืš ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ

On the same verse, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Whoever knows that his wife fears Heaven and she desires him, and he does not visit her, i.e., have intercourse with her, is called a sinner, as it is stated: And you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A man is obligated to visit his wife for the purpose of having intercourse when he is about to depart on a journey, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall know that your tent is in peace, etc.โ€

ื”ื ืžื”ื›ื ื ืคืงื ืžื”ืชื ื ืคืงื ื•ืืœ ืื™ืฉืš ืชืฉื•ืงืชืš ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ืืฉื” ืžืฉืชื•ืงืงืช ืขืœ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื“ืจืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ื ืฆืจื›ื” ืืœื ืกืžื•ืš ืœื•ื•ืกืชื”

The Gemara asks: Is this last statement derived from here? It is derived from there: โ€œAnd your desire shall be to your husbandโ€ (Genesis 3:16), which teaches that a wife desires her husband when he is about to depart on a journey. Rav Yosef said: The additional derivation cited by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is necessary only near the time of her set pattern, i.e., when she expects to begin experiencing menstrual bleeding. Although the Sages generally prohibited intercourse at this time due to a concern that the couple might have intercourse after she begins bleeding, if he is about to depart on a journey he must have intercourse with her.

ื•ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืขื•ื ื” ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืจืฉื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ืžื™ื˜ืจื™ื“ื™

The Gemara asks: And how much before the expected onset of menstrual bleeding is considered near the time of her set pattern? Rava said: An interval of time, i.e., half a daily cycle, either a day or a night. The Gemara comments: And this statement that a man must have intercourse with his wife before he departs on a journey applies only if he is traveling for an optional matter, but if he is traveling in order to attend to a matter pertaining to a mitzva, he is not required to have intercourse with his wife so that he not become preoccupied and neglect the mitzva.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืื•ื”ื‘ ืืช ืืฉืชื• ื›ื’ื•ืคื• ื•ื”ืžื›ื‘ื“ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื’ื•ืคื• ื•ื”ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื‘ื ื™ื• ื•ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื“ืจืš ื™ืฉืจื” ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ืืŸ ืกืžื•ืš ืœืคื™ืจืงืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื”ืื•ื”ื‘ ืืช ืฉื›ื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื”ืžืงืจื‘ ืืช ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื• ื•ื”ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื‘ืช ืื—ื•ืชื•

ยง The Sages taught: One who loves his wife as he loves himself, and who honors her more than himself, and who instructs his sons and daughters in an upright path, and who marries them off near the time when they reach maturity, about him the verse states: And you shall know that your tent is in peace. As a result of his actions, there will be peace in his home, as it will be devoid of quarrel and sin. One who loves his neighbors, and who draws his relatives close, and who marries the daughter of his sister, a woman he knows and is fond of as a family relative and not only as a wife,

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

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Yevamot 62

ืžืฉืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ื ืžื™ ืœื™ืœืคื• ืžืžืฉื” ืืžืจื™ ืœืš ืžืฉื” ืžื“ืขืชื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืขื‘ื“ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขืฉื” ืžืฉื” ืžื“ืขืชื• ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืคื™ืจืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืืฉื” ื•ืฉื™ื‘ืจ ื”ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ื•ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“

from one that is not possible. Mankind was initially created with a male and female because otherwise reproduction would not have been possible. However, this fact cannot serve as a source that the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled only once one has a son and a daughter. The Gemara asks: And Beit Hillel, let them also learn from Moses. Beit Hillel could say to you: Moses acted based on his own perception when he separated from his wife, but this does not mean that a man is permitted to neglect the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply after fathering two males, as it is taught in a baraita: Moses did three things based on his own perception, and his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent: He separated from his wife, he broke the tablets, and he added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai.

ืคื™ืจืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืืฉื” ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉ ืืžืจ ื•ืžื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืœื ื“ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื”ื ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืืœื ืœืคื™ ืฉืขื” ื•ืงื‘ืข ืœื”ื ื–ืžืŸ ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ืืœ ืชื’ืฉื• ืืœ ืืฉื” ืื ื™ ืฉืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœื“ื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืขื” ื•ืฉืขื” ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืข ืœื™ ื–ืžืŸ ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื” ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœืš ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ื‘ื• ืœื›ื ืœืื”ืœื™ื›ื ื•ืืชื” ืคื” ืขืžื•ื“ ืขืžื“ื™

The Gemara clarifies: When Moses separated from his wife after the revelation at Sinai, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He said: If in the case of Israel, with whom the Divine Presence spoke only temporarily and for whom God set a specific time for revelation, the Torah stated: โ€œDo not approach a womanโ€ (Exodus 19:15), I, Moses, who am set aside for divine speech all the time and for whom God did not set a specific time, all the more so I must separate from my wife. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is stated after the revelation at Sinai: โ€œGo say to them: Return to your tents; and you, stand here with Meโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:26โ€“27). This indicates that whereas others could return to their homes and normal married life after the revelation at Sinai, Moses was to stay with God and not return to his wife.

ืฉื™ื‘ืจ ืืช ื”ืœื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉ ืืžืจ ื•ืžื” ืคืกื— ืฉื”ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉ ืžืื•ืช ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžืฆื•ืช ืืžืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœ ื‘ืŸ ื ื›ืจ ืœื ื™ืื›ืœ ื‘ื• ื”ืชื•ืจื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฉื•ืžื“ื™ื ืขืœ ืื—ืช ื›ืžื” ื•ื›ืžื”

Moses broke the tablets following the sin of the Golden Calf. What did he interpret that led him to do so? Moses said: If in the case of the Paschal lamb, which is only one of 613 mitzvot, the Torah states: โ€œNo alien shall eat of itโ€ (Exodus 12:43), excluding not only gentiles but apostate Jews as well, then here, in the case of the Golden Calf, where the tablets represent the entire Torah and where the Jewish people are apostates, as they are worshipping the calf, all the more so must they be excluded from receiving them.

ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฉืจ ืฉื‘ืจืช ื•ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืžืฉื” ื™ื™ืฉืจ ื›ื—ืš ืฉืฉื‘ืจืช

And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as it is written: โ€œThe first tablets that you broke [asher shibbarta]โ€ (Exodus 34:1), and Reish Lakish said: The word asher is an allusion to the fact that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be true [yishar koแธฅakha] that you broke the tablets.

ื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืžื“ืขืชื• ืžืื™ ื“ืจืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ื•ืžื—ืจ ื”ื™ื•ื ื›ืžื—ืจ ืžื” ืžื—ืจ ืœื™ืœื• ืขืžื• ืืฃ ื”ื™ื•ื ืœื™ืœื• ืขืžื• ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื“ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื ืคืง ืœื™ื” ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืชืจื™ ื™ื•ืžื™ ืœื‘ืจ ืžื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื•ื”ืกื›ื™ืžื” ื“ืขืชื• ืœื“ืขืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื“ืœื ืฉืจื™ื ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืขื“ ืฉื‘ืชื

When Moses added one day to the days of separation before the revelation at Sinai based on his own perception, what did he interpret that led him to do so? He reasoned that since it is written: โ€œAnd sanctify them today and tomorrowโ€ (Exodus 19:10), the juxtaposition of the words โ€œtodayโ€ and โ€œtomorrowโ€ teaches that today is like tomorrow: Just as tomorrow the men and women will separate for that day and the night preceding it, so too, today requires separation for the day and the night preceding it. Since God spoke to him in the morning, and the night of that day already passed, Moses said: Conclude from this that separation must be in effect for two days aside from now, i.e., not including the day of the command. Therefore, he extended the mitzva of separation by one day. And his perception agreed with the perception of the Omnipresent, as the Divine Presence did not rest upon Mount Sinai until Shabbat morning, as Moses had determined.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื‘ื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื–ื›ืจ ื•ื ืงื‘ื”

ยง It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with two males and two females. And Beit Hillel say: A male and a female.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชื•ืกืฃ ืœืœื“ืช ืืช ืื—ื™ื• ืืช ื”ื‘ืœ ื”ื‘ืœ ื•ืื—ื•ืชื• ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื—ื•ืชื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืฉืช ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื ื–ืจืข ืื—ืจ ืชื—ืช ื”ื‘ืœ ื›ื™ ื”ืจื’ื• ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื•ื“ื•ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžื•ื“ื™ืช

Rav Huna said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan, in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai? It is as it is written: โ€œAnd again she bore his brother [et aแธฅiv] Abel [et Hevel]โ€ (Genesis 4:2). The use of the superfluous word โ€œetโ€ indicates that she gave birth to Abel and his sister, in addition to Cain and his sister. And it states: โ€œFor God has appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew himโ€ (Genesis 4:25). This indicates that one must have at least four children. And the Rabbis, how do they understand this verse? In their opinion, Eve was thanking God for granting her another child, but one is not obligated to have four children.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื–ื›ืจ ื•ื ืงื‘ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื• ื–ื›ืจ ืื• ื ืงื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื ืชื”ื• ื‘ืจืื” ืœืฉื‘ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ื•ื”ื ืขื‘ื“ ืœื” ืฉื‘ืช

It is taught in another baraita that Rabbi Natan says that Beit Shammai say: The mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is fulfilled with a male and a female. And Beit Hillel say: Either a male or a female. Rava said: What is the reason of Rabbi Natan in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? It is as it is stated: โ€œHe did not create it a waste; He formed it to be inhabitedโ€ (Isaiah 45:18), and one has made the earth inhabited to a greater degree by adding even one child to the world.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชื• ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื“ื”ื ื”ื•ื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื’ืจ ืฉื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ื›ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื“ืžื™

ยง It was stated that amoraโ€™im disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, and Reish Lakish said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as he already had children. And Reish Lakish said he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born, and it is considered as though he did not have children.

ื•ืื–ื“ื• ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชื• ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืœื ื—ืœื” ื“ื”ื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืจืืฉื™ืช ืื•ื ื• ื•ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ืœื ื—ืœื” ื’ืจ ืฉื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ื›ืงื˜ืŸ ืฉื ื•ืœื“ ื“ืžื™

The Gemara comments: And they follow their regular line of reasoning, as it was stated: If one had children when he was a gentile and he subsequently converted, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He does not have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, i.e., the first son born to him after his conversion does not inherit a double portion, as this man already had โ€œthe first of his strengthโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:17), the Torahโ€™s description of the firstborn in this context, before he converted. And Reish Lakish said: He does have a firstborn with regard to inheritance, as the legal status of a convert who just converted is like that of a child just born.

ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ื ื—ืœื” ื“ืœืื• ื‘ื ื™ ื ื—ืœื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ

The Gemara adds: And it is necessary to state their opinions in both cases. As, had it only been taught to us with regard to that first case of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might have said that it is only in that case that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said his opinion, because from the outset, gentiles are also subject to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. However, with regard to inheritance, since they are not subject to the halakhot of inheritance, one might say that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan concedes to Reish Lakish.

ื•ืื™ ืื™ืชืžืจ ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื”ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื

And conversely, if their dispute was stated only with regard to this issue of inheritance, I would have said that it is only in this case that Reish Lakish said his opinion, as the halakhot of inheritance do not apply to gentiles. But with regard to that case, the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan. Consequently, it is necessary for both disputes to be recorded.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืช ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืœื— ื‘ืจืื“ืš ื‘ืœืื“ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืœืื“ืŸ ืžืœืš ื‘ื‘ืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชืŸ ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื—ื™ื™ืก ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจื• ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื—ื™ื™ืก

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raises an objection to Reish Lakish based upon the verse: โ€œAt that time Berodach-baladan, son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent a letterโ€ (IIย Kings 20:12), which indicates that gentiles are considered to be the children of their parents. Therefore, when they convert, they should already have fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: When they are gentiles they do have family lineage, but when they convert they do not have lineage, as they now belong to the family of the Jewish people and their previous lineage is disregarded.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื›ืœ ืžื•ื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื‘ื“ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื—ื™ื™ืก ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื‘ื• ืœื›ื ืคื” ืขื ื”ื—ืžื•ืจ ืขื ื”ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื•ืœืฆื™ื‘ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืขืฉืจื™ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื›ืคืจ ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืงืจ

Rav said: Everyone agrees with regard to a Canaanite slave, that he does not have lineage, as it is written that Abraham said to his slaves: โ€œRemain here with the donkeyโ€ (Genesis 22:5). This verse is interpreted to mean that they are a nation comparable to a donkey, which has no lineage. The Gemara raises an objection based upon a verse pertaining to Jonathanโ€™s Canaanite slave: โ€œAnd Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servantsโ€ (IIย Samuel 9:10), which indicates that a slaveโ€™s sons are in fact considered his sons. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov said: This is like the expression: A bullock, son of a bull. The word son in this context merely denotes progeny, not lineage.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ื™ื—ืกื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ืฉืžื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ื‘ืฉืžื ื“ืื‘ื•ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื›ื ืœื ืžืคืจืฉ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื™ื—ืกื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืชื ืื—ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ืื‘ื•ื”ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื‘ื ื“ืื‘ื•ื”ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฉืœื—ื ื”ืžืœืš ืืกื ืืœ ื‘ืŸ ื”ื“ื“ ื‘ืŸ ื˜ื‘ืจื™ืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื—ื–ื™ื•ืŸ ืžืœืš ืืจื ื”ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื‘ื“ืžืฉืง ืœืืžืจ

The Gemara asks: If so, here too, with regard to gentiles, there is no proof from the verse about Berodach-baladan that they have family lineage. The Gemara answers: There it is different, as the Bible identified him by his name and by his fatherโ€™s name, thereby emphasizing the family connection. But here, it does not specify the names of Zibaโ€™s children. And if you wish, say instead that the Bible identified gentiles elsewhere by their father and their fatherโ€™s father, as it is written: โ€œAnd King Asa sent them to Ben-hadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion, king of Aram, who dwelled in Damascus, sayingโ€ (Iย Kings 15:18). This indicates that there is lineage for gentiles.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืžืชื• ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื

ยง It was stated that amoraโ€™im disagreed over the following issue: If a man had children and they died, Rav Huna said: He has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through these children. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He has not fulfilled the mitzva.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืงื™ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื‘ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ื›ืœื• ื›ืœ ื ืฉืžื•ืช ืฉื‘ื’ื•ืฃ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืจื•ื— ืžืœืคื ื™ ื™ืขื˜ื•ืฃ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืœืฉื‘ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื ืœื™ื›ื

The Gemara clarifies the reasons for their opinions: Rav Huna said he has fulfilled the mitzva due to a statement of Rav Asi, as Rav Asi said that the reason for this mitzva is that the Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so, as it is stated: โ€œFor the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have madeโ€ (Isaiah 57:16). Consequently, once a child has been born and his soul has entered a body the mitzva has been fulfilled, even if the child subsequently dies. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said he has not fulfilled the mitzva, as we require โ€œHe formed it to be inhabitedโ€ (Isaiah 45:18), and this is not fulfilled when the children have passed away and no longer inhabit the earth.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™

The Gemara raises an objection with regard to the opinion of Rav Huna based upon the following baraita:

ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืœื”ืฉืœื™ื

Grandchildren are considered like children. This indicates that if oneโ€™s children have passed away, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply only if they had children of their own, as they are considered like his own children. The Gemara responds: When that baraita is taught it is with regard to completing the required number of children, e.g., if he had only a son, but his son had a daughter, he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืžืช ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืื• ืฉื ืžืฆื ืกืจื™ืก ืœื ืงื™ื™ื ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ื” ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Huna from another baraita: Grandchildren are considered like children. If one of a manโ€™s children died or was discovered to be a eunuch, the father has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. This directly contradicts Rav Hunaโ€™s statement that one fulfills the mitzva even if his children die. The Gemara concludes: The refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna is indeed a conclusive refutation.

ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืกื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื‘ืจื ืœื‘ืจื ื•ื‘ืจืชื ืœื‘ืจืชื ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื ืœื‘ืจืชื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืจืชื ืœื‘ืจื ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืœืฉื‘ืช ื™ืฆืจื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื•ื”ื ืื™ื›ื

ยง It was taught in the baraita that grandchildren are considered like children. Abaye thought to say that if oneโ€™s children die, he fulfills the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply through grandchildren, provided a son was born to his son and a daughter to his daughter, and all the more so if a son was born to his daughter, as his grandchildren take the place of his children in these cases. However, if a daughter was born to his son, no, she cannot take the place of her father. Rava said to him: We require merely fulfillment of the verse: โ€œHe formed it to be inhabited,โ€ and there is fulfillment in this case, as the earth is inhabited by his descendants.

ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืžื™ื”ืช ืชืจื™ ืžื—ื“ ืœื ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ื ืกื™ื‘ ืื™ืชืชื ื•ืื•ืœื™ื“ ื‘ื ื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจืชื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื•

The Gemara comments: In any event, everyone agrees that if one has two grandchildren from one child, no, he has not fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, even if he has both a grandson and a granddaughter. The Gemara asks: And has he not? Didnโ€™t the Rabbis say to Rav Sheshet: Marry a woman and have sons, as you have not yet fathered any sons, and Rav Sheshet said to them: The sons of my daughter are my sons? This indicates that one can fulfill the mitzva through grandchildren even if he did not have a son and daughter of his own.

ื”ืชื ื“ื—ื•ื™ื™ ืงืžื“ื—ื™ ืœื”ื• ื“ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื™ืขืงืจ ืžืคื™ืจืงื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื

The Gemara answers: There, Rav Sheshet was merely putting them off. The real reason he did not want to get remarried was because Rav Sheshet became impotent from Rav Hunaโ€™s discourse. Rav Hunaโ€™s discourses were so lengthy that Rav Sheshet became impotent after waiting for so long without relieving himself.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ืœืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืืจื™ ืžื ื ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื‘ื ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื‘ื ื•ืช ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ ื•ื”ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืืœื ืžืขืชื” ื•ื”ืฆืืŸ ืฆืื ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืืœื ื“ืงื ื™ืช ืžื™ื ืื™ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื“ืงื ื™ืช ืžื™ื ืื™

Rabba said to Rava bar Mari: From where is this matter that the Sages stated derived, that grandchildren are considered like children? If we say it is derived from the fact that it is written in Labanโ€™s speech to Jacob: โ€œThe daughters are my daughters and the children are my childrenโ€ (Genesis 31:43), which indicates that Jacobโ€™s children were also considered to be the children of their grandfather Laban, if that is so, does the continuation of Labanโ€™s statement: โ€œAnd the flocks are my flocksโ€ (Genesis 31:43), indicate that so too, Jacobโ€™s flocks were considered as belonging to Laban? Rather, Laban was saying that you, Jacob, acquired them from me. Here too, with regard to the children, Laban was saying: You acquired them from me, i.e., it is only due to me that you have children.

ืืœื ืžื”ื›ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื‘ื ื—ืฆืจื•ืŸ ืืœ ื‘ืช ืžื›ื™ืจ ืื‘ื™ ื’ืœืขื“ื•ืชืœื“ ืœื• ืืช ืฉื’ื•ื‘ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื ื™ ืžื›ื™ืจ ื™ืจื“ื• ืžื—ื•ืงืงื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžื—ื•ืงืงื™

Rather, the proof is from here: โ€œAnd afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir, the father of Gileadโ€ฆand she bore him Segubโ€ (Iย Chronicles 2:21), and it is written: โ€œOut of Machir came down governorsโ€ (Judges 5:14), and it is written: โ€œJudah is my governorโ€ (Psalms 60:9). Consequently, the governors, who were from the tribe of Judah, were also called the sons of Machir, who was from the tribe of Manasseh. This must be because they were the children of Machirโ€™s daughter and Hezron, indicating that grandchildren are considered like children.

ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœืื• ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืื•ืžืจ ื ืฉื ืื“ื ืืฉื” ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ืฉื ืืฉื” ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื–ืจืข ืืช ื–ืจืขืš ื•ืœืขืจื‘ ืืœ ืชื ื— ื™ื“ืš ื›ื™ ืื™ื ืš ื™ื•ื“ืข ืื™ ื–ื” ื™ื›ืฉืจ ื”ื–ื” ืื• ื–ื” ื•ืื ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื›ืื—ื“ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื

ยง The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehoshua says: If a man married a woman in his youth, and she passed away, he should marry another woman in his old age. If he had children in his youth, he should have more children in his old age, as it is stated: โ€œIn the morning sow your seed, and in the evening do not withhold your hand; for you do not know which shall prosper, whether this or that, or whether they both alike shall be goodโ€ (Ecclesiastes 11:6). This verse indicates that a man should continue having children even after he has fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ืœืžื•ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ื™ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื‘ืงืจ ื–ืจืข ืืช ื–ืจืขืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืืœืฃ ื–ื•ื’ื™ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืžื’ื‘ืช ืขื“ ืื ื˜ื™ืคืจืก ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืชื• ื‘ืคืจืง ืื—ื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืœื ื ื”ื’ื• ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื–ื” ืœื–ื”

Rabbi Akiva says that the verse should be understood as follows: If one studied Torah in his youth he should study more Torah in his old age; if he had students in his youth he should have additional students in his old age, as it is stated: โ€œIn the morning sow your seed, etc.โ€ They said by way of example that Rabbi Akiva had twelve thousand pairs of students in an area of land that stretched from Gevat to Antipatris in Judea, and they all died in one period of time, because they did not treat each other with respect.

ื•ื”ื™ื” ื”ืขื•ืœื ืฉืžื ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืฆืœ ืจื‘ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืฉื ืื” ืœื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืžื•ืข ื•ื”ื ื”ื ื”ืขืžื™ื“ื• ืชื•ืจื” ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื”

And the world was desolate of Torah until Rabbi Akiva came to our Rabbis in the South and taught his Torah to them. This second group of disciples consisted of Rabbi Meir, Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua. And these are the very ones who upheld the study of Torah at that time. Although Rabbi Akivaโ€™s earlier students did not survive, his later disciples were able to transmit the Torah to future generations.

ืชื ื ื›ื•ืœื ืžืชื• ืžืคืกื— ื•ืขื“ ืขืฆืจืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืœื ืžืชื• ืžื™ืชื” ืจืขื” ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืกื›ืจื”

With regard to the twelve thousand pairs of Rabbi Akivaโ€™s students, the Gemara adds: It is taught that all of them died in the period from Passover until Shavuot. Rav แธคama bar Abba said, and some say it was Rabbi แธคiyya bar Avin: They all died a bad death. The Gemara inquires: What is it that is called a bad death? Rav Naแธฅman said: Diphtheria.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข

Rav Mattana said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who said that one must attempt to have more children even if he has already fulfilled the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชื ื—ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ืœืื™ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฉื” ืฉืจื•ื™ ื‘ืœื ืฉืžื—ื” ื‘ืœื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื‘ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ืœื ืฉืžื—ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืฉืžื—ืช ืืชื” ื•ื‘ื™ืชืš ื‘ืœื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื‘ืจื›ื” ืืœ ื‘ื™ืชืš ื‘ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืื“ื ืœื‘ื“ื•

ยง Apropos the discussion with regard to the mitzva to have children, the Gemara cites statements about marriage in general. Rabbi Tanแธฅum said that Rabbi แธคanilai said: Any man who does not have a wife is left without joy, without blessing, without goodness. He proceeds to quote verses to support each part of his statement. He is without joy, as it is written: โ€œAnd you shall rejoice, you and your householdโ€ (Deuteronomy 14:26), which indicates that the a man is in a joyful state only when he is with his household, i.e., his wife. He is without blessing, as it is written: โ€œTo cause a blessing to rest in your houseโ€ (Ezekiel 44:30), which indicates that blessing comes through oneโ€™s house, i.e., oneโ€™s wife. He is without goodness, as it is written: โ€œIt is not good that man should be aloneโ€ (Genesis 2:18), i.e., without a wife.

ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืœื ื—ื•ืžื” ื‘ืœื ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืื ืื™ืŸ ืขื–ืจืชื™ ื‘ื™ ื•ืชื•ืฉื™ื” ื ื“ื—ื” ืžืžื ื™ ื‘ืœื ื—ื•ืžื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืงื‘ื” ืชืกื•ื‘ื‘ ื’ื‘ืจ

In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say: One who lives without a wife is left without Torah, and without a wall of protection. He is without Torah, as it is written: โ€œIs it that I have no help in me, and that sound wisdom is driven from me?โ€ (Job 6:13), indicating that one who does not have a wife lacks sound wisdom, i.e., Torah. He is without a wall, as it is written: โ€œA woman shall go round a manโ€ (Jeremiah 31:21), similar to a protective wall.

ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ื‘ืœื ืฉืœื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื•ืคืงื“ืช ื ื•ืš ื•ืœื ืชื—ื˜ื

Rava bar Ulla said: One who does not have a wife is left without peace, as it is written: โ€œAnd you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation and shall miss nothingโ€ (Job 5:24). This indicates that a man has peace only when he has a tent, i.e., a wife.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื“ืข ื‘ืืฉืชื• ืฉื”ื™ื ื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืงื“ื” ื ืงืจื ื—ื•ื˜ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื“ื ืœืคืงื•ื“ ืืช ืืฉืชื• ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื“ืจืš ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ

On the same verse, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Whoever knows that his wife fears Heaven and she desires him, and he does not visit her, i.e., have intercourse with her, is called a sinner, as it is stated: And you shall know that your tent is in peace; and you shall visit your habitation. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A man is obligated to visit his wife for the purpose of having intercourse when he is about to depart on a journey, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall know that your tent is in peace, etc.โ€

ื”ื ืžื”ื›ื ื ืคืงื ืžื”ืชื ื ืคืงื ื•ืืœ ืื™ืฉืš ืชืฉื•ืงืชืš ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ืืฉื” ืžืฉืชื•ืงืงืช ืขืœ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฆื ืœื“ืจืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ื ืฆืจื›ื” ืืœื ืกืžื•ืš ืœื•ื•ืกืชื”

The Gemara asks: Is this last statement derived from here? It is derived from there: โ€œAnd your desire shall be to your husbandโ€ (Genesis 3:16), which teaches that a wife desires her husband when he is about to depart on a journey. Rav Yosef said: The additional derivation cited by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is necessary only near the time of her set pattern, i.e., when she expects to begin experiencing menstrual bleeding. Although the Sages generally prohibited intercourse at this time due to a concern that the couple might have intercourse after she begins bleeding, if he is about to depart on a journey he must have intercourse with her.

ื•ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืขื•ื ื” ื•ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืจืฉื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ืžื™ื˜ืจื™ื“ื™

The Gemara asks: And how much before the expected onset of menstrual bleeding is considered near the time of her set pattern? Rava said: An interval of time, i.e., half a daily cycle, either a day or a night. The Gemara comments: And this statement that a man must have intercourse with his wife before he departs on a journey applies only if he is traveling for an optional matter, but if he is traveling in order to attend to a matter pertaining to a mitzva, he is not required to have intercourse with his wife so that he not become preoccupied and neglect the mitzva.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืื•ื”ื‘ ืืช ืืฉืชื• ื›ื’ื•ืคื• ื•ื”ืžื›ื‘ื“ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื’ื•ืคื• ื•ื”ืžื“ืจื™ืš ื‘ื ื™ื• ื•ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื“ืจืš ื™ืฉืจื” ื•ื”ืžืฉื™ืืŸ ืกืžื•ืš ืœืคื™ืจืงืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ื“ืขืช ื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ืื”ืœืš ื”ืื•ื”ื‘ ืืช ืฉื›ื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื”ืžืงืจื‘ ืืช ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื• ื•ื”ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื‘ืช ืื—ื•ืชื•

ยง The Sages taught: One who loves his wife as he loves himself, and who honors her more than himself, and who instructs his sons and daughters in an upright path, and who marries them off near the time when they reach maturity, about him the verse states: And you shall know that your tent is in peace. As a result of his actions, there will be peace in his home, as it will be devoid of quarrel and sin. One who loves his neighbors, and who draws his relatives close, and who marries the daughter of his sister, a woman he knows and is fond of as a family relative and not only as a wife,

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