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Today's Daf Yomi

January 11, 2015 | ื›ืณ ื‘ื˜ื‘ืช ืชืฉืขืดื”

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Yevamot 99

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืืžื• ืžืกืคืง ืœืื—ื•ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง

ยง The Sages taught: There is a case in which one performs แธฅalitza with his mother due to uncertainty, or with his sister due to uncertainty, or with his daughter due to uncertainty. This is the halakha despite the fact that a levirate bond cannot be created between these relatives.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืžื• ื•ืืฉื” ืื—ืจืช ื•ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ื•ื™ืœื“ื• ืฉื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื‘ืžื—ื‘ื ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื• ื•ื ืฉื ืืžื• ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื•ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื• ื ืฉื ืืžื• ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืœื ื‘ื ื™ื ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืืžื• ืžืกืคืง

How so? If his mother and another woman had two sons, one each, and they then gave birth to two other sons in hiding, whose identities were confused, such that their lineage was consequently indeterminate, and the known son of this woman came and married the mother of that other known son, and the known son of that woman married this sonโ€™s mother, and they died without children, the halakha is that this one of the mixed sons performs แธฅalitza with both women, as it is unknown which is his mother and which his yevama, and that one likewise performs แธฅalitza with both women. It is therefore found that each one of them performs แธฅalitza with his mother, due to the uncertainty.

ืœืื—ื•ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืžื• ื•ืืฉื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉื™ืœื“ื• ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืื• ืื—ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœื ืžืื•ืชื” ื”ืื ื•ื ืฉืื•ื ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืœื ื‘ื ื™ื ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืื—ื•ืชื• ืžืกืคืง

There is a case where a man performs แธฅalitza with his sister due to uncertainty. How so? If his mother and another woman gave birth to two females in hiding, and they were mixed, and the paternal, but not maternal, half brothers of this man and of the son of the other woman came and married them, and those half brothers died without children, the halakha is that the living half brothers perform แธฅalitza with both wives, each with his half sister-in-law. It is therefore found that one performs แธฅalitza with his half sister due to uncertainty.

ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืฉืชื• ื•ืืฉื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉื™ืœื“ื• ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืื• ืื—ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื ืฉืื•ื ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืœื ื‘ื ื™ื ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ื•ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง

There is a case where one performs แธฅalitza with his daughter due to uncertainty. How so? If his wife and another woman gave birth to two females in hiding, and they were mixed, and his brothers and the brothers of the other womanโ€™s husband came and married them, and they died without children, then this one performs แธฅalitza with his daughter due to uncertainty, and that one also performs แธฅalitza with his daughter due to uncertainty.

ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืืฉื” ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉืžื•ืœื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื—ืžืฉ ืื•ืžื•ืช

ยง Following the previous baraita, the Gemara cites two additional baraitot that discuss unusual family situations. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: A man and a woman can sometimes bear children of five nations, i.e., of five separate categories of lineage.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืœืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืคื—ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืง ื•ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืื—ื“ ื’ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ ื’ื•ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœืŸ ืœืฉื ืขื‘ื“ื•ืช ื•ื ื–ืงืงื• ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื’ืจ ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ืฉื—ืจืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืคื—ื” ื•ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืขื‘ื“ ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื’ืจ ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืžืžื–ืจ ืฉื—ืจืจ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื•ื”ืฉื™ืืŸ ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื’ืจ ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืžืžื–ืจ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ

How so? If a Jew bought a slave and a maidservant from the market, and the slave and maidservant had two children at the time, and one of these children converted, it is found that one child is a convert and the other one is a gentile. If the master immersed the slave and maidservant for the sake of giving them the status of slaves, and they engaged in intercourse with each other and had a child, here there are three children in the family who are a convert, and a gentile, and a slave. If he freed the maidservant, which renders her a Jewess, and her husband the slave engaged in intercourse with her, and they had another child, here there are a convert, a gentile, a slave, and a mamzer. The offspring of a slave and a Jewess, according to Rabbi Meir, have the same status as a son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship. If the master subsequently freed both the maidservant and the slave and married them to each other and they had another child, here there are a convert, a gentile, a slave, a mamzer, and a regular Jew.

ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ืœื“ ืžืžื–ืจ

The Gemara asks: What is the baraita teaching us? The Gemara answers: It is teaching us that if a gentile or a slave engaged in intercourse with a Jewish woman, their offspring is a mamzer.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืžื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื”ื’ื‘ื•ืช ืืžื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืคื—ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืง ื•ืœื”ื ื‘ืŸ ื•ืฉื—ืจืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืคื—ื” ื•ื ืฉืื” ื•ืขืžื“ ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื›ืœ ื ื›ืกื™ื• ืœื‘ื ื” ื ืžืฆื ื–ื” ืžื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื”ื’ื‘ื•ืช ืœืืžื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื”

The Sages taught: There is a case in which a man sells his father in order to collect his motherโ€™s marriage contract for her. How so? A Jew bought a slave and a maidservant from the market, and they had a son, and the master freed the maidservant and married her, and he arose and wrote that all his property should go to her son, including her sonโ€™s father, the slave. It is found that this son, after receiving the masterโ€™s property, might sell his father to collect for his mother her marriage contract.

ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ื ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ ื•ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ ืžืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื”ื ืงืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ืขื‘ื“ื ื›ืžืงืจืงืข ื“ืžื™

The Gemara asks: What is the baraita teaching us? The Gemara answers: The entire baraita is the statement of Rabbi Meir, and it is teaching us that although the legal status of a slave is like that of movable property, and there are those who hold that movable property cannot be mortgaged, Rabbi Meir holds that movable property is mortgaged for a marriage contract. This is also Rabbi Meirโ€™s ruling elsewhere. Therefore, one might be obligated to sell his slave to pay a marriage contract. And if you wish, say that it is teaching us this: The legal status of a slave is like that of real estate, and therefore, according to all opinions one is obligated to sell his slave to pay a marriage contract.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืืฉื” ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘ื•ืœื“ ื›ืœืชื” ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœื• ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื ืฉืื• ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืœื” ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื™ื™ื‘ืžื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ื• ืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ ืื‘ื™ื•

MISHNA: With regard to a woman whose offspring was mixed with the offspring of her daughter-in-law, and their lineage was consequently indeterminate, and the mixed sons matured and married women, and subsequently they died, the certain sons of the daughter-in-law perform แธฅalitza with the wives, but not levirate marriage, as with regard to each wife it is uncertain whether she is his brotherโ€™s wife, and therefore his yevama, and uncertain whether she is his fatherโ€™s brotherโ€™s wife, who is forbidden to him.

ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ืงื ื” ืื• ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ืื• ืžื™ื™ื‘ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ื• ื•ืืฉืช ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื™ื•

However, the certain sons of the elder woman, i.e., the mother-in-law, perform either แธฅalitza or levirate marriage, as with regard to each wife it is uncertain whether she is his brotherโ€™s wife, in which case levirate marriage is valid, or his brotherโ€™s sonโ€™s wife, in which case she is permitted to him, after having performed แธฅalitza with a son of the daughter-in-law.

ืžืชื• ื”ื›ืฉืจื™ื ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ืงื ื” ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื™ื™ื‘ืžื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ื• ื•ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืœื” ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื™ื™ื‘ื

If the sons of certain, unflawed lineage were the ones who died, then the mixed sons perform แธฅalitza with the widows of the elder womanโ€™s sons but not levirate marriage, as it is uncertain whether she is his brotherโ€™s wife or his fatherโ€™s brotherโ€™s wife. With the widows of the certain sons of the daughter-in-law, one of the mixed sons performs แธฅalitza, in case she is his brotherโ€™s wife. And the other one performs levirate marriage, as even if she is his brotherโ€™s sonโ€™s wife, she is permitted to him.

ื›ื”ื ืช ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘ื•ืœื“ ืฉืคื—ืชื” ื”ืจื™ ืืœื• ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ื—ืœืง ืื—ื“ ื‘ื’ื•ืจืŸ

In the case of a priestess whose offspring was mixed with her maidservantโ€™s offspring, they may partake of teruma, as both a priest and the slave of a priest partake of teruma. And they receive one share of teruma in the granary.

ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืœืžืชื™ื ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ื ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœื• ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืฉื—ืจืจื• ื–ื” ืืช ื–ื” ื ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ืจืื•ื™ื•ืช ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื”

And they may not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, as each of them might be a priest. And they may not marry women, whether unflawed women, who may not marry a slave, or women unfit to marry into the priesthood, as with regard to each of them it is uncertain whether he is a priest or a slave. If the mixed sons matured and freed each other, they may marry women fit to marry into the priesthood, as a freed slave may marry such women. However, neither may marry a woman unfit for the priesthood, in case he is a priest.

ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืœืžืชื™ื ื•ืื ื ื˜ืžืื• ืื™ื ืŸ ืกื•ืคื’ื™ืŸ ื”ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ืื ืื›ืœื• ืื™ื ืŸ ืžืฉืœืžื™ืŸ ืงืจืŸ ื•ื—ื•ืžืฉ ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืŸ ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื”ื“ืžื™ื ืฉืœื”ืŸ

And they may not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, since they are uncertain priests. However, if they became impure, they do not receive the forty lashes, as each of them might not be priest. And they may not partake of teruma, as one of them is not a priest. However, if they ate teruma unwittingly they do not pay the principal and the additional fifth, as each of them might be a priest. And they do not receive a share of teruma in the granary, as neither can prove that he is a priest. However, they may sell the teruma that they remove from their own produce, and although they may not eat it, the money is theirs. Since it cannot be proven with regard to either of them that he is not a priest, teruma cannot be appropriated from them.

ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœื”ื ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฆื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื”ื ืžื™ื“ื™ื”ื

And they do not receive a share of the consecrated offerings of the Temple, as each of them might not be a priest. And one may not give them consecrated offerings to sacrifice for the same reason. However, the hides of their own offerings may not be appropriated from their possession, as it cannot be proven with regard to either of them that he is not a priest.

ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื–ืจื•ืข ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืœื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืงื™ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ื›ื•ืจื• ื™ื”ื ืจื•ืขื” ืขื“ ืฉื™ืกืชืื‘ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื—ื•ืžืจื™ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืžืจื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ื

And they are exempt from giving a priest the foreleg, and from giving him the jaw, and from giving him the maw of their non-consecrated kosher animals. And with regard to either of them, the firstling of his kosher animal should graze until it becomes unfit to be sacrificed, i.e., until it gets a blemish. It is against his interest to sacrifice the animal before it gets a blemish, thereby letting it be eaten by the priests. Once it gets a blemish, it cannot be appropriated from him. Since he is possibly a priest, he may claim that the animal is the property of a priest. The animal then becomes his private property, and he may eat it if he wishes. And in general, we place upon him both the stringencies of priests and the stringencies of Israelites.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืชื• ื”ื›ืฉืจื™ื ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืœื ื”ื ืš ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ืขืจื•ื‘ ืœื” ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ืคืกื•ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืื™ืžื ื•ืžืชื• ื”ื•ื“ืื™ืŸ

GEMARA: It is stated in the mishna that if the sons of certain, unflawed lineage were the ones who died, the mixed sons perform แธฅalitza with the widows of the elder womanโ€™s sons, but not levirate marriage. The Gemara asks: Does this indicate that because these sons were mixed up they are rendered unfit? The fact that their lineage is unclear should not render them unfit. Rava Pappa said: Say that the correct wording is: And if the certain sons were the ones who died.

ืœื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืœื” ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื•ืงื ืžื™ื—ืœืฅ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™ ืื‘ืœ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืœื ื“ืงืคื’ืข ื‘ื™ื‘ืžื” ืœืฉื•ืง

It is stated in the mishna that with the widows of the certain sons of the daughter-in-law, one of the mixed sons performs แธฅalitza and the other one performs levirate marriage. The Gemara comments that แธฅalitza is specifically performed first, and afterward levirate marriage. However, levirate marriage is not performed first, because if she is not his own yevama but rather his brotherโ€™s daughter-in-law, doing so breaches the prohibition against a yevama engaging in intercourse with a member of the public.

ื›ื”ื ืช ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื—ืœืง ืื—ื“ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืื™ืžื ื—ืœืง ื›ืื—ื“

ยง It is stated in the mishna that in the case of a priestess whose offspring was mixed with her maidservantโ€™s offspring, they receive one share of teruma in the granary. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t it obvious that they receive one share and no more? Rather, say that they receive a share as one, i.e., they receive a share at the granary only if they come together.

ืชื ืŸ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉื™ืืžืจ ืื ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืขืฆืžื™ ื•ืื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™

The Gemara comments: According to this modification, we have learned in the mishna a ruling that is in accordance with the one who said that one may distribute teruma to a slave only if his master is with him, as it is taught in a baraita: One may distribute teruma to the slave of a priest who is possibly a priest himself only if his master is with him; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says that teruma is distributed to him alone, even without the accompaniment of his master, as he can say: If I am a priest, give me teruma due to my own priesthood, and if I am the slave of a priest, give me due to my master.

ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ

The Gemara explains the background behind this dispute: In Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s place, they would elevate a person to the presumptive status of priesthood for the purpose of lineage on the basis of his having received teruma. If they saw a person receive teruma, they would assume that he is a priest and testify to that effect. Therefore, teruma was not distributed to someone who might be a slave, unless he was accompanied by his master, lest the slave be assumed to be a priest himself. Conversely, in Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s place they would not elevate a person to the presumptive status of priestly lineage on the basis of his having received teruma. Therefore, he was allowed to receive teruma independently.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื”ืขื“ืชื™ ืืœื ืขื“ื•ืช ืื—ื“ ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok said: In all my days I never had the opportunity to testify in court, besides one testimony, and they promoted a slave to the presumptive status of priesthood on the basis of my word. Although they presumably examined the matter carefully, an error occurred.

ื”ืขืœื• ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืฉืชื ื‘ื”ืžืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ืŸ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืขืฆืžืŸ ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind that they actually promoted him? Now consider: If, even through the animals of the righteous, the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not bring about a stumbling block, then through the righteous themselves, all the more so is it not so that He does not bring about stumbling blocks?

ืืœื ืื™ืžื ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื–ื ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ืื–ืœ ื•ืืกื”ื™ื“ ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

Rather, say that this is what Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok meant: They sought to promote a slave to the presumptive status of priesthood on the basis of my word. How did this happen? Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok saw a man receiving teruma in Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s locale and went and testified in Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s locale about what he saw, not realizing that this testimony would be sufficient grounds to assume that the man is a priest. Since teruma is distributed there only to priests, the slave was almost promoted to the presumptive status of priesthood erroneously.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืขืฉืจื” ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื’ืจื ื•ืช ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื—ืจืฉ ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื•ื ื•ืื ื“ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื•ืก ื•ื”ืขื‘ื“ ื•ื”ืืฉื” ื•ื”ืขืจืœ ื•ื”ื˜ืžื ื•ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืฉื’ืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืœื‘ืชื™ื”ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื˜ืžื ื•ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื•

ยง The Sages taught: There are ten types of priests to whom one may not distribute teruma in the granary, and they are: A deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, a person whose sexual organs are concealed [tumtum], and a hermaphrodite, and a slave, and a woman, and an uncircumcised man, and a ritually impure man, and one who marries a woman who is unfit for him, i.e., who is unfit to marry a priest. And with regard to all of them, one may send teruma to them, to their homes, with the exception of a ritually impure man and one who marries a woman who is unfit for him.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื—ืจืฉ ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ืœืื• ื‘ื ื™ ื“ื™ืขื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื•ื ื•ืื ื“ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื•ืก ื ืžื™

The Gemara asks: Granted, teruma may not be distributed to a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, as they are not competent, and it is unbecoming to give them teruma in public. It is also inappropriate to distribute teruma to a tumtum and a hermaphrodite,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

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Yevamot 99

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Yevamot 99

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืืžื• ืžืกืคืง ืœืื—ื•ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง

ยง The Sages taught: There is a case in which one performs แธฅalitza with his mother due to uncertainty, or with his sister due to uncertainty, or with his daughter due to uncertainty. This is the halakha despite the fact that a levirate bond cannot be created between these relatives.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืžื• ื•ืืฉื” ืื—ืจืช ื•ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ื•ื™ืœื“ื• ืฉื ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื ื‘ืžื—ื‘ื ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื• ื•ื ืฉื ืืžื• ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื•ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ื–ื• ื ืฉื ืืžื• ืฉืœ ื–ื” ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืœื ื‘ื ื™ื ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืืžื• ืžืกืคืง

How so? If his mother and another woman had two sons, one each, and they then gave birth to two other sons in hiding, whose identities were confused, such that their lineage was consequently indeterminate, and the known son of this woman came and married the mother of that other known son, and the known son of that woman married this sonโ€™s mother, and they died without children, the halakha is that this one of the mixed sons performs แธฅalitza with both women, as it is unknown which is his mother and which his yevama, and that one likewise performs แธฅalitza with both women. It is therefore found that each one of them performs แธฅalitza with his mother, due to the uncertainty.

ืœืื—ื•ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืžื• ื•ืืฉื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉื™ืœื“ื• ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืื• ืื—ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœื ืžืื•ืชื” ื”ืื ื•ื ืฉืื•ื ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืœื ื‘ื ื™ื ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœืื—ื•ืชื• ืžืกืคืง

There is a case where a man performs แธฅalitza with his sister due to uncertainty. How so? If his mother and another woman gave birth to two females in hiding, and they were mixed, and the paternal, but not maternal, half brothers of this man and of the son of the other woman came and married them, and those half brothers died without children, the halakha is that the living half brothers perform แธฅalitza with both wives, each with his half sister-in-law. It is therefore found that one performs แธฅalitza with his half sister due to uncertainty.

ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืืฉืชื• ื•ืืฉื” ืื—ืจืช ืฉื™ืœื“ื• ืฉืชื™ ื ืงื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžื—ื‘ื ื•ื‘ืื• ืื—ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื ืฉืื•ื ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ืœื ื‘ื ื™ื ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง ื•ื–ื” ื—ื•ืœืฅ ืœื‘ืชื• ืžืกืคืง

There is a case where one performs แธฅalitza with his daughter due to uncertainty. How so? If his wife and another woman gave birth to two females in hiding, and they were mixed, and his brothers and the brothers of the other womanโ€™s husband came and married them, and they died without children, then this one performs แธฅalitza with his daughter due to uncertainty, and that one also performs แธฅalitza with his daughter due to uncertainty.

ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืฉ ื•ืืฉื” ืคืขืžื™ื ืฉืžื•ืœื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื—ืžืฉ ืื•ืžื•ืช

ยง Following the previous baraita, the Gemara cites two additional baraitot that discuss unusual family situations. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: A man and a woman can sometimes bear children of five nations, i.e., of five separate categories of lineage.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืœืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืคื—ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืง ื•ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื ืชื’ื™ื™ืจ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืื—ื“ ื’ืจ ื•ืื—ื“ ื’ื•ื™ ื”ื˜ื‘ื™ืœืŸ ืœืฉื ืขื‘ื“ื•ืช ื•ื ื–ืงืงื• ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื’ืจ ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ืฉื—ืจืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืคื—ื” ื•ื‘ื ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืขื‘ื“ ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื’ืจ ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืžืžื–ืจ ืฉื—ืจืจ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื•ื”ืฉื™ืืŸ ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื’ืจ ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืžืžื–ืจ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ

How so? If a Jew bought a slave and a maidservant from the market, and the slave and maidservant had two children at the time, and one of these children converted, it is found that one child is a convert and the other one is a gentile. If the master immersed the slave and maidservant for the sake of giving them the status of slaves, and they engaged in intercourse with each other and had a child, here there are three children in the family who are a convert, and a gentile, and a slave. If he freed the maidservant, which renders her a Jewess, and her husband the slave engaged in intercourse with her, and they had another child, here there are a convert, a gentile, a slave, and a mamzer. The offspring of a slave and a Jewess, according to Rabbi Meir, have the same status as a son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship. If the master subsequently freed both the maidservant and the slave and married them to each other and they had another child, here there are a convert, a gentile, a slave, a mamzer, and a regular Jew.

ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ืœื“ ืžืžื–ืจ

The Gemara asks: What is the baraita teaching us? The Gemara answers: It is teaching us that if a gentile or a slave engaged in intercourse with a Jewish woman, their offspring is a mamzer.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืžื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื”ื’ื‘ื•ืช ืืžื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืงื— ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืคื—ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื•ืง ื•ืœื”ื ื‘ืŸ ื•ืฉื—ืจืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืคื—ื” ื•ื ืฉืื” ื•ืขืžื“ ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื›ืœ ื ื›ืกื™ื• ืœื‘ื ื” ื ืžืฆื ื–ื” ืžื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื”ื’ื‘ื•ืช ืœืืžื• ื›ืชื•ื‘ืชื”

The Sages taught: There is a case in which a man sells his father in order to collect his motherโ€™s marriage contract for her. How so? A Jew bought a slave and a maidservant from the market, and they had a son, and the master freed the maidservant and married her, and he arose and wrote that all his property should go to her son, including her sonโ€™s father, the slave. It is found that this son, after receiving the masterโ€™s property, might sell his father to collect for his mother her marriage contract.

ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ื ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ ื•ืžื˜ืœื˜ืœื™ ืžืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื”ื ืงืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ืขื‘ื“ื ื›ืžืงืจืงืข ื“ืžื™

The Gemara asks: What is the baraita teaching us? The Gemara answers: The entire baraita is the statement of Rabbi Meir, and it is teaching us that although the legal status of a slave is like that of movable property, and there are those who hold that movable property cannot be mortgaged, Rabbi Meir holds that movable property is mortgaged for a marriage contract. This is also Rabbi Meirโ€™s ruling elsewhere. Therefore, one might be obligated to sell his slave to pay a marriage contract. And if you wish, say that it is teaching us this: The legal status of a slave is like that of real estate, and therefore, according to all opinions one is obligated to sell his slave to pay a marriage contract.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืืฉื” ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘ื•ืœื“ ื›ืœืชื” ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœื• ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ื ืฉืื• ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืชื• ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืœื” ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื™ื™ื‘ืžื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ื• ืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ ืื‘ื™ื•

MISHNA: With regard to a woman whose offspring was mixed with the offspring of her daughter-in-law, and their lineage was consequently indeterminate, and the mixed sons matured and married women, and subsequently they died, the certain sons of the daughter-in-law perform แธฅalitza with the wives, but not levirate marriage, as with regard to each wife it is uncertain whether she is his brotherโ€™s wife, and therefore his yevama, and uncertain whether she is his fatherโ€™s brotherโ€™s wife, who is forbidden to him.

ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ืงื ื” ืื• ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ืื• ืžื™ื™ื‘ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ื• ื•ืืฉืช ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื™ื•

However, the certain sons of the elder woman, i.e., the mother-in-law, perform either แธฅalitza or levirate marriage, as with regard to each wife it is uncertain whether she is his brotherโ€™s wife, in which case levirate marriage is valid, or his brotherโ€™s sonโ€™s wife, in which case she is permitted to him, after having performed แธฅalitza with a son of the daughter-in-law.

ืžืชื• ื”ื›ืฉืจื™ื ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ืงื ื” ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื™ื™ื‘ืžื™ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืกืคืง ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ื• ื•ืืฉืช ืื—ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืœื” ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื™ื™ื‘ื

If the sons of certain, unflawed lineage were the ones who died, then the mixed sons perform แธฅalitza with the widows of the elder womanโ€™s sons but not levirate marriage, as it is uncertain whether she is his brotherโ€™s wife or his fatherโ€™s brotherโ€™s wife. With the widows of the certain sons of the daughter-in-law, one of the mixed sons performs แธฅalitza, in case she is his brotherโ€™s wife. And the other one performs levirate marriage, as even if she is his brotherโ€™s sonโ€™s wife, she is permitted to him.

ื›ื”ื ืช ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ืœื“ื” ื‘ื•ืœื“ ืฉืคื—ืชื” ื”ืจื™ ืืœื• ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ื—ืœืง ืื—ื“ ื‘ื’ื•ืจืŸ

In the case of a priestess whose offspring was mixed with her maidservantโ€™s offspring, they may partake of teruma, as both a priest and the slave of a priest partake of teruma. And they receive one share of teruma in the granary.

ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืœืžืชื™ื ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ื ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืฉืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœื• ื”ืชืขืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืฉื—ืจืจื• ื–ื” ืืช ื–ื” ื ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ืจืื•ื™ื•ืช ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื”

And they may not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, as each of them might be a priest. And they may not marry women, whether unflawed women, who may not marry a slave, or women unfit to marry into the priesthood, as with regard to each of them it is uncertain whether he is a priest or a slave. If the mixed sons matured and freed each other, they may marry women fit to marry into the priesthood, as a freed slave may marry such women. However, neither may marry a woman unfit for the priesthood, in case he is a priest.

ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืœืžืชื™ื ื•ืื ื ื˜ืžืื• ืื™ื ืŸ ืกื•ืคื’ื™ืŸ ื”ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ืื ืื›ืœื• ืื™ื ืŸ ืžืฉืœืžื™ืŸ ืงืจืŸ ื•ื—ื•ืžืฉ ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ืจืŸ ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืชืจื•ืžื” ื•ื”ื“ืžื™ื ืฉืœื”ืŸ

And they may not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, since they are uncertain priests. However, if they became impure, they do not receive the forty lashes, as each of them might not be priest. And they may not partake of teruma, as one of them is not a priest. However, if they ate teruma unwittingly they do not pay the principal and the additional fifth, as each of them might be a priest. And they do not receive a share of teruma in the granary, as neither can prove that he is a priest. However, they may sell the teruma that they remove from their own produce, and although they may not eat it, the money is theirs. Since it cannot be proven with regard to either of them that he is not a priest, teruma cannot be appropriated from them.

ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื“ืฉื™ ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœื”ื ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฆื™ืื™ืŸ ืฉืœื”ื ืžื™ื“ื™ื”ื

And they do not receive a share of the consecrated offerings of the Temple, as each of them might not be a priest. And one may not give them consecrated offerings to sacrifice for the same reason. However, the hides of their own offerings may not be appropriated from their possession, as it cannot be proven with regard to either of them that he is not a priest.

ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื–ืจื•ืข ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืœื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืงื™ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ื›ื•ืจื• ื™ื”ื ืจื•ืขื” ืขื“ ืฉื™ืกืชืื‘ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื—ื•ืžืจื™ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืžืจื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ื

And they are exempt from giving a priest the foreleg, and from giving him the jaw, and from giving him the maw of their non-consecrated kosher animals. And with regard to either of them, the firstling of his kosher animal should graze until it becomes unfit to be sacrificed, i.e., until it gets a blemish. It is against his interest to sacrifice the animal before it gets a blemish, thereby letting it be eaten by the priests. Once it gets a blemish, it cannot be appropriated from him. Since he is possibly a priest, he may claim that the animal is the property of a priest. The animal then becomes his private property, and he may eat it if he wishes. And in general, we place upon him both the stringencies of priests and the stringencies of Israelites.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืชื• ื”ื›ืฉืจื™ื ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืœื ื”ื ืš ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ืขืจื•ื‘ ืœื” ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ืคืกื•ืœื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืื™ืžื ื•ืžืชื• ื”ื•ื“ืื™ืŸ

GEMARA: It is stated in the mishna that if the sons of certain, unflawed lineage were the ones who died, the mixed sons perform แธฅalitza with the widows of the elder womanโ€™s sons, but not levirate marriage. The Gemara asks: Does this indicate that because these sons were mixed up they are rendered unfit? The fact that their lineage is unclear should not render them unfit. Rava Pappa said: Say that the correct wording is: And if the certain sons were the ones who died.

ืœื‘ื ื™ ื”ื›ืœื” ืื—ื“ ื—ื•ืœืฅ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื“ื•ืงื ืžื™ื—ืœืฅ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™ ืื‘ืœ ื™ื‘ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ืœื ื“ืงืคื’ืข ื‘ื™ื‘ืžื” ืœืฉื•ืง

It is stated in the mishna that with the widows of the certain sons of the daughter-in-law, one of the mixed sons performs แธฅalitza and the other one performs levirate marriage. The Gemara comments that แธฅalitza is specifically performed first, and afterward levirate marriage. However, levirate marriage is not performed first, because if she is not his own yevama but rather his brotherโ€™s daughter-in-law, doing so breaches the prohibition against a yevama engaging in intercourse with a member of the public.

ื›ื”ื ืช ืฉื ืชืขืจื‘ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื—ืœืง ืื—ื“ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืื™ืžื ื—ืœืง ื›ืื—ื“

ยง It is stated in the mishna that in the case of a priestess whose offspring was mixed with her maidservantโ€™s offspring, they receive one share of teruma in the granary. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t it obvious that they receive one share and no more? Rather, say that they receive a share as one, i.e., they receive a share at the granary only if they come together.

ืชื ืŸ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืชืจื•ืžื” ืœืขื‘ื“ ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ืจื‘ื• ืขืžื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉื™ืืžืจ ืื ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืขืฆืžื™ ื•ืื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืื ื™ ืชื ื• ืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืจื‘ื™

The Gemara comments: According to this modification, we have learned in the mishna a ruling that is in accordance with the one who said that one may distribute teruma to a slave only if his master is with him, as it is taught in a baraita: One may distribute teruma to the slave of a priest who is possibly a priest himself only if his master is with him; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says that teruma is distributed to him alone, even without the accompaniment of his master, as he can say: If I am a priest, give me teruma due to my own priesthood, and if I am the slave of a priest, give me due to my master.

ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืžืชืจื•ืžื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ

The Gemara explains the background behind this dispute: In Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s place, they would elevate a person to the presumptive status of priesthood for the purpose of lineage on the basis of his having received teruma. If they saw a person receive teruma, they would assume that he is a priest and testify to that effect. Therefore, teruma was not distributed to someone who might be a slave, unless he was accompanied by his master, lest the slave be assumed to be a priest himself. Conversely, in Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s place they would not elevate a person to the presumptive status of priestly lineage on the basis of his having received teruma. Therefore, he was allowed to receive teruma independently.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืžื™ืžื™ ืœื ื”ืขื“ืชื™ ืืœื ืขื“ื•ืช ืื—ื“ ื•ื”ืขืœื• ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok said: In all my days I never had the opportunity to testify in court, besides one testimony, and they promoted a slave to the presumptive status of priesthood on the basis of my word. Although they presumably examined the matter carefully, an error occurred.

ื”ืขืœื• ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืฉืชื ื‘ื”ืžืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืชืงืœื” ืขืœ ื™ื“ืŸ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืขืฆืžืŸ ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Can it enter your mind that they actually promoted him? Now consider: If, even through the animals of the righteous, the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not bring about a stumbling block, then through the righteous themselves, all the more so is it not so that He does not bring about stumbling blocks?

ืืœื ืื™ืžื ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื”ืขืœื•ืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœ ืคื™ ื—ื–ื ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ืื–ืœ ื•ืืกื”ื™ื“ ื‘ืืชืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

Rather, say that this is what Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok meant: They sought to promote a slave to the presumptive status of priesthood on the basis of my word. How did this happen? Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok saw a man receiving teruma in Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s locale and went and testified in Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s locale about what he saw, not realizing that this testimony would be sufficient grounds to assume that the man is a priest. Since teruma is distributed there only to priests, the slave was almost promoted to the presumptive status of priesthood erroneously.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืขืฉืจื” ืื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœืงื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืชืจื•ืžื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื’ืจื ื•ืช ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื—ืจืฉ ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื•ื ื•ืื ื“ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื•ืก ื•ื”ืขื‘ื“ ื•ื”ืืฉื” ื•ื”ืขืจืœ ื•ื”ื˜ืžื ื•ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื• ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืฉื’ืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืœื‘ืชื™ื”ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื˜ืžื ื•ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื”ื•ื’ื ืช ืœื•

ยง The Sages taught: There are ten types of priests to whom one may not distribute teruma in the granary, and they are: A deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, a person whose sexual organs are concealed [tumtum], and a hermaphrodite, and a slave, and a woman, and an uncircumcised man, and a ritually impure man, and one who marries a woman who is unfit for him, i.e., who is unfit to marry a priest. And with regard to all of them, one may send teruma to them, to their homes, with the exception of a ritually impure man and one who marries a woman who is unfit for him.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื—ืจืฉ ืฉื•ื˜ื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ืœืื• ื‘ื ื™ ื“ื™ืขื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื˜ื•ืžื˜ื•ื ื•ืื ื“ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื•ืก ื ืžื™

The Gemara asks: Granted, teruma may not be distributed to a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, as they are not competent, and it is unbecoming to give them teruma in public. It is also inappropriate to distribute teruma to a tumtum and a hermaphrodite,

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