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Today's Daf Yomi

March 11, 2018 | ื›ืดื“ ื‘ืื“ืจ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Avodah Zarah 55

Basic philosophical questions are asked and answered regarding free choice – if God doesn’t want people worshipping idols, then why doesn’t God destroy them? The last section of Masechet Avoda Zara deals with wine of non-Jews and the first question addressed is at what stage does the wine become potential to the wine of libations and therefore forbidden to get benefit? Can a Jew work in the winepress treading on the grapes? An additional issue is raised regarding a rabbinic decree not to allow fruits of Israel to become impure.

ืืกืฃ ืืกืฃ ื›ืœ ืžืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืื“ืžื” ื ืื ื”ืณ ืืกืฃ ืื“ื ื•ื‘ื”ืžื” ืืกืฃ ืขื•ืฃ ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื•ื“ื’ื™ ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ืžื›ืฉืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ืจืฉืขื™ื [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืจืฉืขื™ื ื ื›ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ืื‘ื“ื ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื•ื”ืœื ืœืื“ื ื”ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื›ืจืชื™ ืืช ื”ืื“ื ืžืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืื“ืžื” [ื•ื’ื•ืณ]

โ€œShall I utterly consume all things from off the face of the earth? says the Lord. Shall I consume man and beast? Shall I consume the fowls of the heavens and the fish of the sea, and the stumbling blocks of the wicked, and shall I cut off man from off the face of the earth? says the Lordโ€ (Zephaniah 1:2โ€“3). Should God remove objects of idol worship from the world due to the fact that the wicked stumble because of them? If so, He would have to destroy all of humanity as well, as do not idol worshippers also worship people? This is expressed in the continuation of the verse: โ€œAnd shall I cut off man from off the face of the earth? says the Lord.โ€

ืฉืืœ ืื’ืจื™ืคืก ืฉืจ ืฆื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื›ื ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืืฉ ืื›ืœื” ื”ื•ื ืืœ ืงื ื ื›ืœื•ื ืžืชืงื ื ืืœื ื—ื›ื ื‘ื—ื›ื ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืขืฉื™ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจ

ยง Agrippas the general asked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah with regard to idol worship: โ€œFor the Lord your God is a devouring fire, a jealous Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:24). Doesnโ€™t jealousy arise only in the following cases: A wise man might be jealous of another wise man, and a mighty man might be jealous of another mighty man, and a rich man might be jealous of another rich man? If so, why is God jealous of objects of idol worship, which are not gods?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืš ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ืฉื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืขืœ ืืฉืชื• ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ืžืžื ื” ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงื ืื” ื‘ื” ืคื—ื•ืชื” ืžืžื ื” ืžืชืงื ืื” ื‘ื”

Rabban Gamliel said to Agrippas: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It can be compared to a person who married a second wife in addition to his first wife. If the second wife is more distinguished than the first wife, the first wife is not jealous of her, and she does not feel anger toward her husband. But if the second wife is less distinguished than the first wife, she is jealous of her.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืœื‘ื™ ื•ืœื‘ืš ื™ื“ืข ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืžืฉืฉื ื•ื”ื ืงื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื™ ื“ืื–ืœื™ ื›ื™ ืžืชื‘ืจื™ ื•ืืชื• ื›ื™ ืžืฆืžื“ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื

Zunin said to Rabbi Akiva: Both my heart and your heart know that there is no substance to idol worship. Nevertheless, donโ€™t we see people who go with broken limbs to worship idols and come back when they are whole? What is the reason for this?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืš ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ื ืืžืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขื™ืจื• ื”ื™ื• ืžืคืงื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืืฆืœื• ืฉืœื ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ื•ื”ืคืงื™ื“ ืœื• ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ืคืขื ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ื— ื•ื”ืคืงื™ื“ ืืฆืœื• ืฉืœื ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืœื• ืืฉืชื• ื‘ื•ื ื•ื ื›ืคืจื ื• ืืžืจ ืœื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื•ื˜ื” ื–ื” ืขืฉื” ืฉืœื ื›ื”ื•ื’ืŸ ืื ื• ื ืื‘ื“ ืืช ืืžื•ื ืชื™ื ื•

Rabbi Akiva said to Zunin: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It can be compared to a trusted person who was in a certain city, and all the residents of his city would deposit items and money with him, even not in the presence of witnesses. And there was one man who did not trust him, who came and specifically deposited money with him in the presence of witnesses. On one occasion, that person forgot and deposited money with him not in the presence of witnesses. The trusted manโ€™s wife said to him: Come, let us deny that he deposited the money with us, as there are no witnesses. The man said to her: Should we lose our credibility and act deceitfully just because this fool acted improperly and did not require the presence of witnesses?

ืืฃ ื›ืš ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืžืฉื’ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื“ื ืžืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉืœื ืชืœื›ื• ืืœื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืชืฆืื• ืืœื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ื‘ืฉืขื” ืคืœื•ื ื™ืช ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืกื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžื ืŸ ืœืฆืืช ื”ืœืš ื–ื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจื• ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื ื ืฆื ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื•ื˜ื” ื–ื” ืขื•ืฉื” ืฉืœื ื›ื”ื•ื’ืŸ ืื ื• ื ืื‘ื“ ืฉื‘ื•ืขืชื ื•

So too, with regard to different forms of suffering, at the time when they are sent to afflict the person, an oath is administered to them as follows: Take an oath that you shall not go and afflict the person except on such and such a day. And you shall not leave him except on such and such a day, at such and such an hour, by means of so-and-so, a specific doctor, and by means of such and such a medicine. When the time came for the suffering to leave him, this sick man went to a temple of idol worship. The forms of suffering said: By right we should not leave him. But then they say: Should we lose the fulfillment of our oath just because this fool is acting improperly?

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื—ืœื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื•ื ืืžื ื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื‘ืฉืœื™ื—ื•ืชืŸ ื•ื ืืžื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืขืชืŸ

And this is consistent with that which Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œThen the Lord will make your plagues wonderful, and the plagues of your seed, even great plagues and faithful, and evil and faithful sicknessesโ€ (Deuteronomy 28:59)? The term โ€œevilโ€ does not mean that the agent of sickness is in itself evil. Rather, this is referring to its mission, which is to cause harm. The term โ€œand faithful sicknessesโ€ indicates that the illnesses are faithful to their oath and adhere to the times designated for the affliction.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื‘ืืชืจื™ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ ืžืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืขืœืžื ืœืžื˜ืจื ืžืชื—ื–ื™ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื—ืœืžื ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืฉื—ื˜ื• ืœื™ ื’ื‘ืจื ื•ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื˜ืจื ืฉื—ื˜ื• ืœื” ื’ื‘ืจื ื•ืืชื™ ืžื˜ืจื

Rava bar Rav Yitzแธฅak said to Rav Yehuda: Isnโ€™t there a temple of idol worship in our locale, where, when the world is in need of rain, the idol appears to them in a dream, and it says to them: Slaughter a man as an offering to me, and I will bring rain. They then slaughter a man for it, and the rain comes.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืฉืชื ืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืฉื›ื™ื‘ื ื ืœื ืืžืจื™ ืœื›ื• ื”ื ืžืœืชื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฉืจ ื—ืœืง ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืืชื ืœื›ืœ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื—ืœื™ืงืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื˜ื•ืจื“ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื

Rav Yehuda said to Rava bar Rav Yitzแธฅak: Now, were I dead I would not have been able to tell you the explanation of this matter. It is therefore good that you reminded me of this matter while I am alive. The explanation is as Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd lest you lift up your eyes to the heavens, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heavens, you are drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the Lord your God has allotted [แธฅalak] to all the nations under the whole heavenโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:19). The verse teaches that God allowed the nations to be misled [sheheแธฅelikan] by matters that seemingly indicate that idol worship is effective in order to expel the nations from the world due to their decision to engage in idol worship.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืœืœืฆื™ื ื”ื•ื ื™ืœื™ืฅ ื•ืœืขื ื•ื™ื ื™ืชืŸ ื—ืŸ ื‘ื ืœื˜ืžื ืคื•ืชื—ื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื ืœื˜ื”ืจ ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื•

And this is consistent with that which Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œIf it concerns the scornful, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives graceโ€ (Proverbs 3:34)? One who comes in order to become impure, i.e., to sin, they, in Heaven, provide him with an opening to do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. If one comes in order to become purified, not only is he allowed to do so, but they, in Heaven, assist him.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ื’ืช ื‘ืขื•ื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœืชืคื•ื— ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกืš ืขื“ ืฉื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืžื” ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืจ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ืžื•ืชืจ

MISHNA: One may purchase from a gentile a winepress in which the grapes have been trodden on, despite the fact that the gentile takes grapes in his hand from the winepress and places them on the pile that remains to be trodden on. And the gentileโ€™s touch does not render the juice of the grapes wine used for a libation in idol worship, which is forbidden, until it descends into the collection vat, because until then it does not have the status of wine. Once the wine descended into the collection vat, that which is in the vat is prohibited, and the rest, which did not yet descend into the vat, is permitted.

ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช

One may tread on grapes together with the gentile in the winepress,

ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืœื ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื‘ื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืžืŸ ื”ื’ืช

but one may not harvest grapes with him. After the harvest the grapes are brought to the winepress, which is ritually impure. This would render the grapes impure, and it is prohibited to render produce of Eretz Yisrael impure. In the case of a Jew who produces his wine in a state of ritual impurity, one may not tread on grapes nor harvest them with him, as it is prohibited to assist transgressors. But once he has produced his wine, one may take the barrels to the winepress with him, as the wine is already impure. And one may also bring the barrels from the winepress together with him.

ื ื—ืชื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืœื ืœืฉื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืขื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืคืช ืœืคืœื˜ืจ

Similarly, in the case of a baker who makes his bread in a state of ritual impurity, one may not knead or arrange the dough in the shape of bread together with him, so as not to assist in a transgression. But one may take the bread with him to the bread merchant [lapalter].

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืœื”ืžืฉืš ืขื•ืฉื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกืš ืชื ืŸ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ื’ืช ื‘ืขื•ื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื ื˜ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื•ื ืชืŸ ืœืชืคื•ื— ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ื’ืช ืคืงื•ืงื” ื•ืžืœืื”

GEMARA: Rav Huna says: With regard to wine, once it begins to flow toward the exit from the winepress it can become wine used for a libation in idol worship if touched by a gentile. The Gemara asks: But we learned in the mishna: One may purchase from a gentile a winepress in which the grapes have been trodden on, despite the fact that the gentile took grapes in his hand and placed them on the pile of grapes that remained to be trodden on? Presumably the wine began to flow once the grapes were pressed, and yet the mishna states that the wine is not forbidden. Rav Huna said: The mishna is referring to a winepress that is stoppered and full, and therefore the wine does not flow.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกืš ืขื“ ืฉื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื’ืช ืคืงื•ืงื” ื•ืžืœืื”

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the mishna: And the gentileโ€™s touch does not render the grape juice wine used for a libation in idol worship until it descends into the collection vat. This indicates that even if the wine flows it does not become wine used for a libation before it descends into the vat. The Gemara answers: Here, too, the mishna is referring to a winepress that is stoppered and full, and the wine does not flow.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืžื” ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืจ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืื—ืจื•ื ื”

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the mishna: Once the wine descended into the collection vat, that which is in the vat is prohibited, and the rest that did not yet descend into the vat is permitted, even though it already began to flow. Rav Huna said: This is not difficult. Here, in the mishna, the halakha is stated in accordance with the initial version of the mishna. There, in my ruling, the halakha is stated in accordance with the ultimate version of the mishna.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื“ื“ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœื’ืจื•ื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืœื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืคื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื™ื“ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืื‘ืœ ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ื ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช ื•ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืœื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื

This is as it is taught in a baraita: Initially, the Sages would say the following halakhot whose mnemonic is bet, dalet, dalet, which stands for harvesting [botzrin], treading [dorkhin], and treading [dorkhin]: One may not harvest grapes with a gentile in order to bring them to the winepress, as this would render the grapes ritually impure and it is prohibited to impart impurity to the non-sacred produce that is in Eretz Yisrael. And one may not tread on grapes together with a Jew who produces wine from his fruit in a state of ritual impurity, as it is prohibited to assist transgressors. But one may tread on grapes in the winepress together with the gentile. The Gemara comments: And we are not concerned about the ruling of Rav Huna that from the time that it flows the wine is rendered wine used for a libation.

ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ื‘ื“ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื

The baraita continues: But the Sages later revised this halakha and said the following halakhot whose mnemonic is dalet, beit, dalet, which stands for treading [dorkhin], harvesting [botzrin], and treading [dorkhin]: One may not tread on grapes in the winepress together with the gentile. The Gemara comments: This is due to the ruling of Rav Huna that from the time that it flows the wine can be rendered wine used for a libation. The gentile usually touches the flowing wine while treading on the grapes, rendering the wine forbidden. Therefore, if a Jew receives payment for treading on the grapes with the gentile, he is profiting from an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Avodah Zarah 55

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 55

ืืกืฃ ืืกืฃ ื›ืœ ืžืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืื“ืžื” ื ืื ื”ืณ ืืกืฃ ืื“ื ื•ื‘ื”ืžื” ืืกืฃ ืขื•ืฃ ื”ืฉืžื™ื ื•ื“ื’ื™ ื”ื™ื ื•ื”ืžื›ืฉืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ืจืฉืขื™ื [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืจืฉืขื™ื ื ื›ืฉืœื™ื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ืื‘ื“ื ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื•ื”ืœื ืœืื“ื ื”ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื›ืจืชื™ ืืช ื”ืื“ื ืžืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืื“ืžื” [ื•ื’ื•ืณ]

โ€œShall I utterly consume all things from off the face of the earth? says the Lord. Shall I consume man and beast? Shall I consume the fowls of the heavens and the fish of the sea, and the stumbling blocks of the wicked, and shall I cut off man from off the face of the earth? says the Lordโ€ (Zephaniah 1:2โ€“3). Should God remove objects of idol worship from the world due to the fact that the wicked stumble because of them? If so, He would have to destroy all of humanity as well, as do not idol worshippers also worship people? This is expressed in the continuation of the verse: โ€œAnd shall I cut off man from off the face of the earth? says the Lord.โ€

ืฉืืœ ืื’ืจื™ืคืก ืฉืจ ืฆื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื›ื ื›ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืืฉ ืื›ืœื” ื”ื•ื ืืœ ืงื ื ื›ืœื•ื ืžืชืงื ื ืืœื ื—ื›ื ื‘ื—ื›ื ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืขืฉื™ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื™ืจ

ยง Agrippas the general asked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah with regard to idol worship: โ€œFor the Lord your God is a devouring fire, a jealous Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:24). Doesnโ€™t jealousy arise only in the following cases: A wise man might be jealous of another wise man, and a mighty man might be jealous of another mighty man, and a rich man might be jealous of another rich man? If so, why is God jealous of objects of idol worship, which are not gods?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืš ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ืฉื ืฉื ืืฉื” ืขืœ ืืฉืชื• ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ืžืžื ื” ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงื ืื” ื‘ื” ืคื—ื•ืชื” ืžืžื ื” ืžืชืงื ืื” ื‘ื”

Rabban Gamliel said to Agrippas: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It can be compared to a person who married a second wife in addition to his first wife. If the second wife is more distinguished than the first wife, the first wife is not jealous of her, and she does not feel anger toward her husband. But if the second wife is less distinguished than the first wife, she is jealous of her.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืœื‘ื™ ื•ืœื‘ืš ื™ื“ืข ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืžืฉืฉื ื•ื”ื ืงื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื™ ื“ืื–ืœื™ ื›ื™ ืžืชื‘ืจื™ ื•ืืชื• ื›ื™ ืžืฆืžื“ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื

Zunin said to Rabbi Akiva: Both my heart and your heart know that there is no substance to idol worship. Nevertheless, donโ€™t we see people who go with broken limbs to worship idols and come back when they are whole? What is the reason for this?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืš ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ื ืืžืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื ื™ ืขื™ืจื• ื”ื™ื• ืžืคืงื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืืฆืœื• ืฉืœื ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ื•ื”ืคืงื™ื“ ืœื• ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ืคืขื ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ื— ื•ื”ืคืงื™ื“ ืืฆืœื• ืฉืœื ื‘ืขื“ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืœื• ืืฉืชื• ื‘ื•ื ื•ื ื›ืคืจื ื• ืืžืจ ืœื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื•ื˜ื” ื–ื” ืขืฉื” ืฉืœื ื›ื”ื•ื’ืŸ ืื ื• ื ืื‘ื“ ืืช ืืžื•ื ืชื™ื ื•

Rabbi Akiva said to Zunin: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It can be compared to a trusted person who was in a certain city, and all the residents of his city would deposit items and money with him, even not in the presence of witnesses. And there was one man who did not trust him, who came and specifically deposited money with him in the presence of witnesses. On one occasion, that person forgot and deposited money with him not in the presence of witnesses. The trusted manโ€™s wife said to him: Come, let us deny that he deposited the money with us, as there are no witnesses. The man said to her: Should we lose our credibility and act deceitfully just because this fool acted improperly and did not require the presence of witnesses?

ืืฃ ื›ืš ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืžืฉื’ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืื“ื ืžืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืฉืœื ืชืœื›ื• ืืœื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืชืฆืื• ืืœื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ื‘ืฉืขื” ืคืœื•ื ื™ืช ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืกื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžื ืŸ ืœืฆืืช ื”ืœืš ื–ื” ืœื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจื• ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื ื ืฆื ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืฉื•ื˜ื” ื–ื” ืขื•ืฉื” ืฉืœื ื›ื”ื•ื’ืŸ ืื ื• ื ืื‘ื“ ืฉื‘ื•ืขืชื ื•

So too, with regard to different forms of suffering, at the time when they are sent to afflict the person, an oath is administered to them as follows: Take an oath that you shall not go and afflict the person except on such and such a day. And you shall not leave him except on such and such a day, at such and such an hour, by means of so-and-so, a specific doctor, and by means of such and such a medicine. When the time came for the suffering to leave him, this sick man went to a temple of idol worship. The forms of suffering said: By right we should not leave him. But then they say: Should we lose the fulfillment of our oath just because this fool is acting improperly?

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื—ืœื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื•ื ืืžื ื™ื ืจืขื™ื ื‘ืฉืœื™ื—ื•ืชืŸ ื•ื ืืžื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืขืชืŸ

And this is consistent with that which Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œThen the Lord will make your plagues wonderful, and the plagues of your seed, even great plagues and faithful, and evil and faithful sicknessesโ€ (Deuteronomy 28:59)? The term โ€œevilโ€ does not mean that the agent of sickness is in itself evil. Rather, this is referring to its mission, which is to cause harm. The term โ€œand faithful sicknessesโ€ indicates that the illnesses are faithful to their oath and adhere to the times designated for the affliction.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื‘ืืชืจื™ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ ืžืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืขืœืžื ืœืžื˜ืจื ืžืชื—ื–ื™ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื—ืœืžื ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืฉื—ื˜ื• ืœื™ ื’ื‘ืจื ื•ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื˜ืจื ืฉื—ื˜ื• ืœื” ื’ื‘ืจื ื•ืืชื™ ืžื˜ืจื

Rava bar Rav Yitzแธฅak said to Rav Yehuda: Isnโ€™t there a temple of idol worship in our locale, where, when the world is in need of rain, the idol appears to them in a dream, and it says to them: Slaughter a man as an offering to me, and I will bring rain. They then slaughter a man for it, and the rain comes.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืฉืชื ืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืฉื›ื™ื‘ื ื ืœื ืืžืจื™ ืœื›ื• ื”ื ืžืœืชื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฉืจ ื—ืœืง ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืืชื ืœื›ืœ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื—ืœื™ืงืŸ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื˜ื•ืจื“ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืขื•ืœื

Rav Yehuda said to Rava bar Rav Yitzแธฅak: Now, were I dead I would not have been able to tell you the explanation of this matter. It is therefore good that you reminded me of this matter while I am alive. The explanation is as Rav says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd lest you lift up your eyes to the heavens, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heavens, you are drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the Lord your God has allotted [แธฅalak] to all the nations under the whole heavenโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:19). The verse teaches that God allowed the nations to be misled [sheheแธฅelikan] by matters that seemingly indicate that idol worship is effective in order to expel the nations from the world due to their decision to engage in idol worship.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืœืœืฆื™ื ื”ื•ื ื™ืœื™ืฅ ื•ืœืขื ื•ื™ื ื™ืชืŸ ื—ืŸ ื‘ื ืœื˜ืžื ืคื•ืชื—ื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื ืœื˜ื”ืจ ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื•

And this is consistent with that which Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œIf it concerns the scornful, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives graceโ€ (Proverbs 3:34)? One who comes in order to become impure, i.e., to sin, they, in Heaven, provide him with an opening to do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. If one comes in order to become purified, not only is he allowed to do so, but they, in Heaven, assist him.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ื’ืช ื‘ืขื•ื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœืชืคื•ื— ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกืš ืขื“ ืฉื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืžื” ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืจ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ืžื•ืชืจ

MISHNA: One may purchase from a gentile a winepress in which the grapes have been trodden on, despite the fact that the gentile takes grapes in his hand from the winepress and places them on the pile that remains to be trodden on. And the gentileโ€™s touch does not render the juice of the grapes wine used for a libation in idol worship, which is forbidden, until it descends into the collection vat, because until then it does not have the status of wine. Once the wine descended into the collection vat, that which is in the vat is prohibited, and the rest, which did not yet descend into the vat, is permitted.

ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช

One may tread on grapes together with the gentile in the winepress,

ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืœื ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื‘ื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ื—ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืช ื•ืžื‘ื™ืื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืžืŸ ื”ื’ืช

but one may not harvest grapes with him. After the harvest the grapes are brought to the winepress, which is ritually impure. This would render the grapes impure, and it is prohibited to render produce of Eretz Yisrael impure. In the case of a Jew who produces his wine in a state of ritual impurity, one may not tread on grapes nor harvest them with him, as it is prohibited to assist transgressors. But once he has produced his wine, one may take the barrels to the winepress with him, as the wine is already impure. And one may also bring the barrels from the winepress together with him.

ื ื—ืชื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืœื ืœืฉื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืขื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืื‘ืœ ืžื•ืœื™ื›ื™ืŸ ืขืžื• ืคืช ืœืคืœื˜ืจ

Similarly, in the case of a baker who makes his bread in a state of ritual impurity, one may not knead or arrange the dough in the shape of bread together with him, so as not to assist in a transgression. But one may take the bread with him to the bread merchant [lapalter].

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืœื”ืžืฉืš ืขื•ืฉื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกืš ืชื ืŸ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ื’ืช ื‘ืขื•ื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื ื˜ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ื•ื ืชืŸ ืœืชืคื•ื— ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ื’ืช ืคืงื•ืงื” ื•ืžืœืื”

GEMARA: Rav Huna says: With regard to wine, once it begins to flow toward the exit from the winepress it can become wine used for a libation in idol worship if touched by a gentile. The Gemara asks: But we learned in the mishna: One may purchase from a gentile a winepress in which the grapes have been trodden on, despite the fact that the gentile took grapes in his hand and placed them on the pile of grapes that remained to be trodden on? Presumably the wine began to flow once the grapes were pressed, and yet the mishna states that the wine is not forbidden. Rav Huna said: The mishna is referring to a winepress that is stoppered and full, and therefore the wine does not flow.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกืš ืขื“ ืฉื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื‘ื’ืช ืคืงื•ืงื” ื•ืžืœืื”

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the mishna: And the gentileโ€™s touch does not render the grape juice wine used for a libation in idol worship until it descends into the collection vat. This indicates that even if the wine flows it does not become wine used for a libation before it descends into the vat. The Gemara answers: Here, too, the mishna is referring to a winepress that is stoppered and full, and the wine does not flow.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื™ืจื“ ืœื‘ื•ืจ ืžื” ืฉื‘ื‘ื•ืจ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ืžื•ืชืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื ื” ืื—ืจื•ื ื”

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the mishna: Once the wine descended into the collection vat, that which is in the vat is prohibited, and the rest that did not yet descend into the vat is permitted, even though it already began to flow. Rav Huna said: This is not difficult. Here, in the mishna, the halakha is stated in accordance with the initial version of the mishna. There, in my ruling, the halakha is stated in accordance with the ultimate version of the mishna.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื“ื“ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื•ืฆืจื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœื’ืจื•ื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืœื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืคื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืฉืืกื•ืจ ืœืกื™ื™ืข ื™ื“ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ ืขื‘ื™ืจื” ืื‘ืœ ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ื ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช ื•ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืœื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื

This is as it is taught in a baraita: Initially, the Sages would say the following halakhot whose mnemonic is bet, dalet, dalet, which stands for harvesting [botzrin], treading [dorkhin], and treading [dorkhin]: One may not harvest grapes with a gentile in order to bring them to the winepress, as this would render the grapes ritually impure and it is prohibited to impart impurity to the non-sacred produce that is in Eretz Yisrael. And one may not tread on grapes together with a Jew who produces wine from his fruit in a state of ritual impurity, as it is prohibited to assist transgressors. But one may tread on grapes in the winepress together with the gentile. The Gemara comments: And we are not concerned about the ruling of Rav Huna that from the time that it flows the wine is rendered wine used for a libation.

ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื•ืžืจ ื“ื‘ื“ ืื™ืŸ ื“ื•ืจื›ื™ืŸ ืขื ื”ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื’ืช ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื

The baraita continues: But the Sages later revised this halakha and said the following halakhot whose mnemonic is dalet, beit, dalet, which stands for treading [dorkhin], harvesting [botzrin], and treading [dorkhin]: One may not tread on grapes in the winepress together with the gentile. The Gemara comments: This is due to the ruling of Rav Huna that from the time that it flows the wine can be rendered wine used for a libation. The gentile usually touches the flowing wine while treading on the grapes, rendering the wine forbidden. Therefore, if a Jew receives payment for treading on the grapes with the gentile, he is profiting from an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited.

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