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Today's Daf Yomi

February 9, 2018 | 讻状讚 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Avodah Zarah 25

How long did the sun stop in the time of Joshua? Who else did the sun stop for? The mishna聽relates that a woman can’t be alone with a non-Jew – what is the mishna referring to as even with a Jew this is forbidden? Why are we not concerned that the non-Jew will kill her. a braita is quoted which gives tips on how one should behave when one sees a suspect non-Jew walking near him in order to protect oneself.


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讜讬讚诐 讛砖诪砖 讜讬专讞 注诪讚 注讚 讬拽诐 讙讜讬 讗讬讘讬讜 讛诇讗 讛讬讗 讻转讜讘讛 注诇 住驻专 讛讬砖专 诪讗讬 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讛 住驻专 讗讘专讛诐 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 砖谞拽专讗讜 讬砖专讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 转诪转 谞驻砖讬 诪讜转 讬砖专讬诐

搂 The Gemara cites a series of expositions with regard to what is called the book of Yashar. The verse states: 鈥淎nd the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is this not written in the book of Yashar鈥? (Joshua 10:13). The Gemara asks: What is the book of Yashar? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is Genesis, which is the book of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were called righteous [yesharim], as it is stated: 鈥淟et me die the death of the righteous [yesharim]鈥 (Numbers 23:10).

讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 讜讝专注讜 讬讛讬讛 诪诇讗 讛讙讜讬诐 [讗讬诪转讬 讬讛讬讛 诪诇讗 讛讙讜讬诐] 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇讬讛讜砖注 讜讬注诪讚 讛砖诪砖 讘讞爪讬 讛砖诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讗抓 诇讘讜讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

The Gemara asks: And where is it alluded to in Genesis that the sun would stand still for Joshua? The verse states in reference to Ephraim, who was Joshua鈥檚 ancestor: 鈥淎nd his seed shall become a multitude of nations鈥 (Genesis 48:19). The Gemara asks: When will he become a multitude of nations? He became a multitude of nations at the time when the sun stood in place for Joshua, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hastened not to go down for an entire day鈥 (Joshua 10:13).

讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 [砖注讬] 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 砖讬转 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 砖讬转 讻讜诇讛 诪诇转讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

The Gemara inquires: And how much time elapsed before the sun finally set? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that it took twenty-four hours: It traveled across the sky for six hours and stood still for six hours, and again traveled six hours and stood still for six hours, so that the entire matter lasted the duration of an entire day.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖讬转 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 注诪讬讚转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 [砖谞讗诪专] 讜诇讗 讗抓 诇讘讜讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 诪讻诇诇 讚诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 [讛讜讛]

Rabbi Elazar said that it lasted thirty-six hours: The sun traveled for six hours and stood for twelve hours, and again traveled six hours and stood for twelve hours, so that the accumulated time of its suspension was that of an entire day. Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: Forty-eight hours elapsed before it set. It traveled six hours and stood for twelve hours, and then traveled six hours and stood for twenty-four hours, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sun stayed in the midst of heaven,鈥 and then: 鈥淎nd hastened not to go down for an entire day.鈥 By inference, it can be understood that initially it was not suspended for an entire day. Rather, at first it stood still for twelve hours, and was later suspended for an entire day.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘转讜住驻转讗 驻诇讬讙讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 注诪讬讚转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜诇讗 讗抓 诇讘讜讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

There are those who say that these Sages do not disagree over how much time had elapsed before the sun set. Rather, they disagree with regard to the additional time by which the day was extended. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Twenty-four hours were added to that day, because the sun traveled six hours and stood twelve hours, and again traveled six hours and stood for another twelve hours, which meant that its standing time lasted for an entire day. Rabbi Elazar said that thirty-six hours were added: It traveled six hours and stood for twelve hours, and then traveled six hours and stood for twenty-four more hours. It is with regard to the second suspension that the verse states: 鈥淎nd hastened not to go down for an entire day.鈥

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诪拽讬砖 注诪讬讚转讜 诇讘讬讗转讜 诪讛 讘讬讗转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 讗祝 注诪讬讚转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: The time the sun stood in place was forty-eight hours in total. The sun traveled six hours and stood twenty-four hours, and then traveled another six hours and stood for another twenty-four hours. His reasoning is that the verse juxtaposes the sun鈥檚 suspension to its motion: Just as the sun is in motion for an entire day, so too, its suspension was for an entire day.

转谞讗 讻砖诐 砖注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇讬讛讜砖注 讻讱 注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇诪砖讛 讜诇谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讬讛讜砖注 拽专讗讬 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讙诪专讗 诇诪砖讛 诪谞诇谉 讗转讬讗 讗讞诇 讗讞诇 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讗讞诇 转转 驻讞讚讱 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讘讬讛讜砖注 讗讞诇 讙讚诇讱

It is taught: Just as the sun stood still for Joshua, so too the sun stood still for Moses and for Nakdimon ben Guryon. It is known that it stood still for Joshua from a verse, and it is known that it stood still for Nakdimon ben Guryon by tradition. From where do we derive that it stood still for Moses as well? The Gemara answers: It is derived by means of a verbal analogy between the terms 鈥淚 will begin鈥 and 鈥淚 will begin.鈥 The Gemara elaborates: It is written here, with regard to Moses: 鈥淚 will begin to deliver the dread of you and the fear of you upon the peoples鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:25), and it is written there, with regard to Joshua: 鈥淚 will begin to magnify you鈥 (Joshua 3:7).

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗转讬讗 转转 转转 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讗讞诇 转转 驻讞讚讱 讜讻转讬讘 讘讬讛讜砖注 讘讬讜诐 转转 讛壮 讗转 讛讗诪专讬

And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It is derived from a verbal analogy between the words 鈥渄elivered鈥 and 鈥渄elivered.鈥 It is written here, with regard to Moses: 鈥淚 will begin to deliver the dread of you,鈥 and it is written there, with regard to Joshua: 鈥淚n the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel鈥 (Joshua 10:12).

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 诪讙讜驻讬讛 讚拽专讗 砖诪注转 诇讬讛 讗砖专 讬砖诪注讜谉 砖诪注讱 讜专讙讝讜 讜讞诇讜 诪驻谞讬讱 讗讬诪转讬 专讙讝讜 讜讞诇讜 诪驻谞讬讱 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇诪砖讛

Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that there is no need for a verbal analogy, as you can learn this idea from the verse itself: 鈥淭his day will I begin to deliver the dread of you and the fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole heaven, who, when they hear the report of you, shall tremble and be in anguish because of you鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:25). When was the fulfillment of the prophecy that all the nations 鈥渟hall tremble and be in anguish because of you鈥? It was at the time when the sun stood still for Moses.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 讻讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 诇驻谞讬讜 讜讗讞专讬讜 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 砖注讜转 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讗讘谞讬 讘专讚 诇讗 讛讜讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘谞住诐 诪驻谞讬 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讛诐 讘诪讜专讚 讘讬转 讞讜专谉 讜讛壮 讛砖诇讬讱 注诇讬讛诐 讗讘谞讬诐 讙讚诇讜转 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 注讚 注讝拽讛 讜讬诪转讜

The Gemara raises an objection: After the sun stood still, the verse states: 鈥淎nd there was no day like that before it or after it鈥 (Joshua 10:14). If there was no day comparable to it, how can it be asserted that the sun stood still for Moses as well? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the number of hours the sun stood still for Moses were not as many as in the case of Joshua. And if you wish, say instead: When the sun stood still for Moses there were no hailstones, whereas in the case of Joshua there were hailstones, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, as they fled from before the children of Israel, while they were in the descent of Beth Horon, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them into Azeka and they died鈥 (Joshua 10:11).

讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇诇诪讚 讘谞讬 讬讛讜讚讛 拽砖转 讛谞讛 讻转讜讘讛 注诇 住驻专 讛讬砖专 诪讗讬 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讛 住驻专 讗讘专讛诐 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 砖谞拽专讗讜 讬砖专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 转诪转 谞驻砖讬 诪讜转 讬砖专讬诐 讜转讛讬 讗讞专讬转讬 讻诪讜讛讜

The Gemara cites another exposition with regard to the book of Yashar. It is written: 鈥淎nd said: To teach the sons of Judah the bow. Behold, it is written in the book of Yashar鈥 (II聽Samuel 1:18). The Gemara again asks: What is the book of Yashar? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is the book of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were called righteous [yesharim], as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淟et me die the death of the righteous [yesharim] and let my end be like his鈥 (Numbers 23:10).

讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 讬讛讜讚讛 讗转讛 讬讜讚讜讱 讗讞讬讱 讬讚讱 讘注专祝 讗讬讘讬讱 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪诇讞诪讛 砖爪专讬讻讛 讬讚 讻谞讙讚 注讜专祝 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讜 拽砖转

The Gemara further analyzes the verse in Samuel: And where is it alluded to in Genesis that Judah must be taught to use the bow? The verse states: 鈥淛udah, your brothers shall praise you; your hand shall be on the nape of your enemies鈥 (Genesis 49:8). The Gemara explains: What is the form of warfare that requires one鈥檚 hand to be held opposite the nape? You must say that this is referring to the use of a bow. This is the referent of the verse in Samuel.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讝讛 住驻专 诪砖谞讛 转讜专讛 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讚讻转讬讘 讜注砖讬转 讛讬砖专 讜讛讟讜讘 讘注讬谞讬 讛壮 讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 讬讚讬讜 专讘 诇讜 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪诇讞诪讛 砖爪专讬讻讛 砖转讬 讬讚讬诐 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讜 拽砖转

The Gemara cites a different interpretation: Rabbi Elazar says that the book of Yashar is the book of Deuteronomy. And why did they call it the book of Yashar? As it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall do that which is right [yashar] and good in the sight of the Lord鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:18). And where is it alluded to in Deuteronomy that Judah must be taught to use the bow? The verse states: 鈥淎nd this for Judah, and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the form of warfare that requires the use of two hands? You must say that this is referring to the use of a bow. This is the referent of the verse in Samuel.

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讝讛 住驻专 砖讜驻讟讬诐 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诐 讗讬谉 诪诇讱 讘讬砖专讗诇 讗讬砖 讛讬砖专 讘注讬谞讬讜 讬注砖讛 讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 诇诪注谉 讚注转 讚专讜转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇诇诪讚诐 诪诇讞诪讛 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪诇讞诪讛 砖爪专讬讻讛 诇讬诪讜讚 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讜 拽砖转

The Gemara provides yet another explanation: Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani says that the book of Yashar is the book of Judges. And why did they call it the book of Yashar? As it is written: 鈥淚n those days there was no king in Israel; every man did that which was right [yashar] in his own eyes鈥 (Judges 17:6). And where is it alluded to in Judges that Judah must be taught to use the bow? The verse states: 鈥淥nly that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war鈥 (Judges 3:2). What is the form of warfare that requires teaching? You must say that this is referring to the use of a bow. This is the referent of the verse in Samuel.

讜诪谞诇谉 讚讘讬讛讜讚讛 讻转讬讘 讚讻转讬讘 诪讬 讬注诇讛 诇谞讜 讘转讞诇讛 讗诇 讛讻谞注谞讬 诇讛诇讞诐 讘讜 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讬讛讜讚讛 讬注诇讛

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that Judges 3:2 is written in reference to Judah? We derive it as it is written: 鈥淭he children of Israel asked the Lord, saying: Who shall go up for us first against the Canaanites, to fight against them? And Lord said: Judah shall go up鈥 (Judges 1:1鈥2).

讜讬专诐 讛讟讘讞 讗转 讛砖讜拽 讜讛注诇讬讛 讜讬砖诐 诇驻谞讬 砖讗讜诇 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽 讜讗诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 讚诪住诪讻讗 砖讜拽 诇讗诇讬讛

搂 The Gemara cites another dispute between the same amora鈥檌m. The verse states: 鈥淎nd the cook took up the thigh, and that which was upon it [vehe鈥檃leha], and set it before Saul鈥 (I聽Samuel 9:24). To what does the term 鈥渁nd that which was upon it鈥 refer? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It refers to the thigh and the tail. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the tail is referred to as: 鈥淎nd that which was upon it鈥? The reason is that the thigh supports the tail, as it rests upon it.

讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽 讜讞讝讛 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 讚诪讞讬转 诇讛 诇讞讝讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚砖讜拽 讻讬 讘注讬 讗谞讜驻讬 讜诪谞驻讬 诇讬讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 砖讜拽 讜砖讜驻讬 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 砖讜驻讬 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚砖讜拽 拽讗讬

And Rabbi Elazar says: The verse refers to the thigh and the breast. What is the reason that the breast is referred to as: 鈥淎nd that which was upon it鈥? The reason is that one places the breast upon the thigh when it requires sacrificial waving, and waves it. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani says: The verse refers to the thigh and the cap [shofi], i.e., the very top part of the leg. What is the reason that the cap is referred to as: 鈥淎nd that which was upon it鈥? It is because it is referring to the cap that stands above the thigh.

诇讗 转转讬讬讞讚 讗砖讛 注诪讛诐 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讘讞讚 讚讻讜讜转讛 讙讘讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讬 砖专讬 讜讛转谞谉 诇讗 讬转讬讬讞讚 讗讬砖 讗讞讚 注诐 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐

搂 The mishna teaches that a woman may not seclude herself with gentiles. The Gemara asks: What are we dealing with? If we say that we are dealing with a woman who secludes herself with one gentile, is this permitted in the corresponding situation involving a Jew? But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Kiddushin 80b): One man may not seclude himself even with two women? It is certainly forbidden for one man to be secluded with one woman.

讗诇讗 讘转诇转讗 讚讻讜讜转讛 讙讘讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘驻专讜爪讬诐 诪讬 砖专讬 讜讛转谞谉 讗讘诇 讗砖讛 讗讞转 诪转讬讬讞讚转 注诐 砖谞讬 讗谞砖讬诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讻砖专讬诐 讗讘诇 讘驻专讜爪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 注砖专讛 谞诪讬 诇讗 诪注砖讛 讛讬讛 讜讛讜爪讬讗讜讛 注砖专讛 讘诪讟讛

Rather, the mishna is referring to a case in which a woman secludes herself with three gentiles. The Gemara asks: Is this permitted in the corresponding situation involving Jews steeped in sexual immorality? But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Kiddushin 80b): But one woman may be secluded with two men; and Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They taught this halakha only with regard to men of fit morals; but with regard to those steeped in sexual immorality, she may not be secluded even with ten men. There was an incident where ten men carried a woman out of the city on a bier, as though she were dead, and they engaged in intercourse with her.

诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讘讗砖转讜 注诪讜 讙讜讬 讗讬谉 讗砖转讜 诪砖诪专转讜 讗讘诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗砖转讜 诪砖诪专转讜

The Gemara answers: No, the ruling of the mishna here is necessary in a case where the gentile鈥檚 wife is with him. The differences between the two rulings is that in the case of a gentile, it is assumed that his wife does not guard him against sinning with another, but with regard to a Jew, his wife does guard him against sinning with another.

讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘讗砖讛 讞砖讜讘讛 注住拽讬谞谉 讚诪讬专转转讬 诪讬谞讛 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 讗砖讛 讻诇讬 讝讬讬谞讛 注诇讬讛

搂 The mishna teaches that a woman may not seclude herself with a gentile due to the concern that they might engage in illicit sexual relations. The Gemara challenges: And let us derive that a woman may not seclude herself with a gentile due to the concern about bloodshed. The Gemara cites two responses. Rabbi Yirmeya says: We are dealing with a distinguished woman, whom gentiles will not kill, as they are fearful of her status. Nevertheless, there is a concern with regard to illicit sexual relations. Rav Idi bar Avin says: A woman carries her weapons upon her. In other words, there is no need to be concerned that a woman might be killed by gentiles; rather, the very fact that she is a woman protects her, as they would most likely rape her and not kill her.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗砖讛 讞砖讜讘讛 讘讬谉 讗谞砖讬诐 讜砖讗讬谞讛 讞砖讜讘讛 讘讬谉 讛谞砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two answers? The Gemara answers: The difference between them is with regard to a woman who is distinguished among men due to her political position, but is not distinguished among the women, i.e., she is unattractive. According to Rabbi Yirmeya, there is no concern that she will be killed, as she is distinguished, nor is there a concern that they will engage in illicit sexual relations. Therefore, it would be permitted for her to seclude herself with them. By contrast, as Rav Idi bar Avin stated his explanation in general terms, he evidently holds that the concern of illicit sexual relations always applies, regardless of the woman鈥檚 appearance.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讛讗砖讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛砖诇讜诐 注诪讛 诇讗 转转讬讬讞讚 注诪讛谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讞砖讜讚讬谉 注诇 讛注专讬讜转

The Gemara notes that it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Idi bar Avin: With regard to a woman, even though her protection accompanies her, i.e., she is not in danger of being killed, she may not seclude herself with gentiles because they are suspected of engaging in forbidden sexual relations.

诇讗 讬转讬讬讞讚 讗讚诐 注诪讛谉 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讝讚诪谉 诇讜 讙讜讬 讘讚专讱 讟讜驻诇讜 诇讬诪讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讛 讗讜诪专 讘住讬讬祝 讟讜驻诇讜 诇讬诪讬谞讜 讘诪拽诇 讟讜驻诇讜 诇砖诪讗诇讜

搂 The mishna further teaches that a person may not seclude himself with gentiles because they are suspected of bloodshed. The Sages taught: A Jew who encounters a gentile on the road and continues his travels with him should position the gentile to his right, so that the Jew鈥檚 dominant hand is closest to the gentile, which will enable him to defend himself against a potential attack. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, says: If the gentile is armed with a sword, the Jew positions him to his right, because a blade is usually carried on one鈥檚 left side. But if the gentile is armed with a stick, the Jew should steer him to his left, as a stick is usually carried in one鈥檚 right hand. By walking on the same side as the gentile鈥檚 weapon, the Jew can best prevent him from drawing it.

讛讬讜 注讜诇讬谉 讘诪注诇讛 讗讜 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讬专讬讚讛 诇讗 讬讛讗 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪讟讛 讜讙讜讬 诇诪注诇讛 讗诇讗 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪注诇讛 讜讙讜讬 诇诪讟讛 讜讗诇 讬砖讜讞 诇驻谞讬讜 砖诪讗 讬专讜抓 讗转 讙讜诇讙诇转讜

The Gemara continues: If the Jew and gentile were ascending an incline or descending a decline, the Jew should not be positioned below while the gentile is above, so that the gentile will not have the advantage of height if he decides to attack. Rather, the Jew should be located above while the gentile is below. And the Jew should not bend down before him, lest the gentile break his skull.

砖讗诇讜 诇讛讬讻谉 讛讜诇讱 讬专讞讬讘 诇讜 讗转 讛讚专讱 讻讚专讱 砖注砖讛 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 诇注砖讜 讛专砖注 讚讻转讬讘 注讚 讗砖专 讗讘讗 讗诇 讗讚谞讬 砖注讬专讛

Furthermore, if the gentile asks him where he is going, the Jew should extend the journey when relating his destination to him, i.e., he should claim that he is traveling to a place beyond his actual destination, in the manner that Jacob our father did to the wicked Esau. As it is written that Jacob said to Esau: 鈥淟et my lord pass over before his servant and I will journey on gently, according to the pace of the cattle that are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come unto my lord unto Seir鈥 (Genesis 33:14).

讜讻转讬讘 讜讬注拽讘 谞住注 住讻转讛

The Gemara continues: And it is written subsequently: 鈥淎nd Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built himself a house鈥 (Genesis 33:17). Rather than meeting Esau in Seir, Jacob traveled to the nearer location of Succoth. Telling a gentile that one is traveling to a farther destination might cause the gentile to defer his attack due to the assumption that he has a longer period of time to plan and execute it. As a result of the delay, the Jew has a better chance of reaching his true destination safely.

诪注砖讛 讘转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讛讬讜 讛讜诇讻讬诐 诇讻讝讬讘 驻讙注讜 讘讛谉 诇讬住讟讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 诇讗谉 讗转诐 讛讜诇讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 诇注讻讜 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讜 诇讻讝讬讘 驻讬专砖讜 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 转诇诪讬讚讬 诪讬 讗转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 讗砖专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜转诇诪讬讚讬讜 砖诇讗 驻讙注 讘讛谉 讗讚诐 专注 诪注讜诇诐

The Gemara illustrates this idea through a relevant story. An incident occurred involving several students of Rabbi Akiva who were traveling to Keziv. Along the way, bandits encountered them and said to them: Where are you going? Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students said to them: To Akko. Once they reached Keziv, Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students separated from the bandits. At this point the bandits said to them: Whose students are you? The students said to the bandits: We are students of Rabbi Akiva. The bandits said to them: Fortunate are Rabbi Akiva and his students, as they were never harmed by an evil person. The bandits were impressed with the wisdom that the students demonstrated in evading harm.

专讘 诪谞砖讛 讛讜讛 讗讝诇

The Gemara relates another incident: Rav Menashe was traveling

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Avodah Zarah 25

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 25

讜讬讚诐 讛砖诪砖 讜讬专讞 注诪讚 注讚 讬拽诐 讙讜讬 讗讬讘讬讜 讛诇讗 讛讬讗 讻转讜讘讛 注诇 住驻专 讛讬砖专 诪讗讬 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讛 住驻专 讗讘专讛诐 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 砖谞拽专讗讜 讬砖专讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 转诪转 谞驻砖讬 诪讜转 讬砖专讬诐

搂 The Gemara cites a series of expositions with regard to what is called the book of Yashar. The verse states: 鈥淎nd the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is this not written in the book of Yashar鈥? (Joshua 10:13). The Gemara asks: What is the book of Yashar? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is Genesis, which is the book of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were called righteous [yesharim], as it is stated: 鈥淟et me die the death of the righteous [yesharim]鈥 (Numbers 23:10).

讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 讜讝专注讜 讬讛讬讛 诪诇讗 讛讙讜讬诐 [讗讬诪转讬 讬讛讬讛 诪诇讗 讛讙讜讬诐] 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇讬讛讜砖注 讜讬注诪讚 讛砖诪砖 讘讞爪讬 讛砖诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讗抓 诇讘讜讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

The Gemara asks: And where is it alluded to in Genesis that the sun would stand still for Joshua? The verse states in reference to Ephraim, who was Joshua鈥檚 ancestor: 鈥淎nd his seed shall become a multitude of nations鈥 (Genesis 48:19). The Gemara asks: When will he become a multitude of nations? He became a multitude of nations at the time when the sun stood in place for Joshua, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hastened not to go down for an entire day鈥 (Joshua 10:13).

讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 [砖注讬] 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 砖讬转 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 砖讬转 讻讜诇讛 诪诇转讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

The Gemara inquires: And how much time elapsed before the sun finally set? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that it took twenty-four hours: It traveled across the sky for six hours and stood still for six hours, and again traveled six hours and stood still for six hours, so that the entire matter lasted the duration of an entire day.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖讬转 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 注诪讬讚转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 [砖谞讗诪专] 讜诇讗 讗抓 诇讘讜讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 诪讻诇诇 讚诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 [讛讜讛]

Rabbi Elazar said that it lasted thirty-six hours: The sun traveled for six hours and stood for twelve hours, and again traveled six hours and stood for twelve hours, so that the accumulated time of its suspension was that of an entire day. Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: Forty-eight hours elapsed before it set. It traveled six hours and stood for twelve hours, and then traveled six hours and stood for twenty-four hours, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sun stayed in the midst of heaven,鈥 and then: 鈥淎nd hastened not to go down for an entire day.鈥 By inference, it can be understood that initially it was not suspended for an entire day. Rather, at first it stood still for twelve hours, and was later suspended for an entire day.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讘转讜住驻转讗 驻诇讬讙讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 注诪讬讚转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 砖诇砖讬诐 讜砖砖 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 转专讬住专 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讜诇讗 讗抓 诇讘讜讗 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

There are those who say that these Sages do not disagree over how much time had elapsed before the sun set. Rather, they disagree with regard to the additional time by which the day was extended. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Twenty-four hours were added to that day, because the sun traveled six hours and stood twelve hours, and again traveled six hours and stood for another twelve hours, which meant that its standing time lasted for an entire day. Rabbi Elazar said that thirty-six hours were added: It traveled six hours and stood for twelve hours, and then traveled six hours and stood for twenty-four more hours. It is with regard to the second suspension that the verse states: 鈥淎nd hastened not to go down for an entire day.鈥

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讗专讘注讬诐 讜砖诪讜谞讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讗讝讬诇 砖讬转 讜拽诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诪拽讬砖 注诪讬讚转讜 诇讘讬讗转讜 诪讛 讘讬讗转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐 讗祝 注诪讬讚转讜 讻讬讜诐 转诪讬诐

Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: The time the sun stood in place was forty-eight hours in total. The sun traveled six hours and stood twenty-four hours, and then traveled another six hours and stood for another twenty-four hours. His reasoning is that the verse juxtaposes the sun鈥檚 suspension to its motion: Just as the sun is in motion for an entire day, so too, its suspension was for an entire day.

转谞讗 讻砖诐 砖注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇讬讛讜砖注 讻讱 注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇诪砖讛 讜诇谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讬讛讜砖注 拽专讗讬 谞拽讚讬诪讜谉 讘谉 讙讜专讬讜谉 讙诪专讗 诇诪砖讛 诪谞诇谉 讗转讬讗 讗讞诇 讗讞诇 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讗讞诇 转转 驻讞讚讱 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讘讬讛讜砖注 讗讞诇 讙讚诇讱

It is taught: Just as the sun stood still for Joshua, so too the sun stood still for Moses and for Nakdimon ben Guryon. It is known that it stood still for Joshua from a verse, and it is known that it stood still for Nakdimon ben Guryon by tradition. From where do we derive that it stood still for Moses as well? The Gemara answers: It is derived by means of a verbal analogy between the terms 鈥淚 will begin鈥 and 鈥淚 will begin.鈥 The Gemara elaborates: It is written here, with regard to Moses: 鈥淚 will begin to deliver the dread of you and the fear of you upon the peoples鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:25), and it is written there, with regard to Joshua: 鈥淚 will begin to magnify you鈥 (Joshua 3:7).

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗转讬讗 转转 转转 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讗讞诇 转转 驻讞讚讱 讜讻转讬讘 讘讬讛讜砖注 讘讬讜诐 转转 讛壮 讗转 讛讗诪专讬

And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It is derived from a verbal analogy between the words 鈥渄elivered鈥 and 鈥渄elivered.鈥 It is written here, with regard to Moses: 鈥淚 will begin to deliver the dread of you,鈥 and it is written there, with regard to Joshua: 鈥淚n the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel鈥 (Joshua 10:12).

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 诪讙讜驻讬讛 讚拽专讗 砖诪注转 诇讬讛 讗砖专 讬砖诪注讜谉 砖诪注讱 讜专讙讝讜 讜讞诇讜 诪驻谞讬讱 讗讬诪转讬 专讙讝讜 讜讞诇讜 诪驻谞讬讱 讘砖注讛 砖注诪讚讛 诇讜 讞诪讛 诇诪砖讛

Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that there is no need for a verbal analogy, as you can learn this idea from the verse itself: 鈥淭his day will I begin to deliver the dread of you and the fear of you upon the peoples that are under the whole heaven, who, when they hear the report of you, shall tremble and be in anguish because of you鈥 (Deuteronomy 2:25). When was the fulfillment of the prophecy that all the nations 鈥渟hall tremble and be in anguish because of you鈥? It was at the time when the sun stood still for Moses.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 讻讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 诇驻谞讬讜 讜讗讞专讬讜 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 砖注讜转 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讗讘谞讬 讘专讚 诇讗 讛讜讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 讘谞住诐 诪驻谞讬 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讛诐 讘诪讜专讚 讘讬转 讞讜专谉 讜讛壮 讛砖诇讬讱 注诇讬讛诐 讗讘谞讬诐 讙讚诇讜转 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 注讚 注讝拽讛 讜讬诪转讜

The Gemara raises an objection: After the sun stood still, the verse states: 鈥淎nd there was no day like that before it or after it鈥 (Joshua 10:14). If there was no day comparable to it, how can it be asserted that the sun stood still for Moses as well? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the number of hours the sun stood still for Moses were not as many as in the case of Joshua. And if you wish, say instead: When the sun stood still for Moses there were no hailstones, whereas in the case of Joshua there were hailstones, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, as they fled from before the children of Israel, while they were in the descent of Beth Horon, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them into Azeka and they died鈥 (Joshua 10:11).

讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇诇诪讚 讘谞讬 讬讛讜讚讛 拽砖转 讛谞讛 讻转讜讘讛 注诇 住驻专 讛讬砖专 诪讗讬 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讛 住驻专 讗讘专讛诐 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 砖谞拽专讗讜 讬砖专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 转诪转 谞驻砖讬 诪讜转 讬砖专讬诐 讜转讛讬 讗讞专讬转讬 讻诪讜讛讜

The Gemara cites another exposition with regard to the book of Yashar. It is written: 鈥淎nd said: To teach the sons of Judah the bow. Behold, it is written in the book of Yashar鈥 (II聽Samuel 1:18). The Gemara again asks: What is the book of Yashar? Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: This is the book of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were called righteous [yesharim], as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淟et me die the death of the righteous [yesharim] and let my end be like his鈥 (Numbers 23:10).

讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 讬讛讜讚讛 讗转讛 讬讜讚讜讱 讗讞讬讱 讬讚讱 讘注专祝 讗讬讘讬讱 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪诇讞诪讛 砖爪专讬讻讛 讬讚 讻谞讙讚 注讜专祝 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讜 拽砖转

The Gemara further analyzes the verse in Samuel: And where is it alluded to in Genesis that Judah must be taught to use the bow? The verse states: 鈥淛udah, your brothers shall praise you; your hand shall be on the nape of your enemies鈥 (Genesis 49:8). The Gemara explains: What is the form of warfare that requires one鈥檚 hand to be held opposite the nape? You must say that this is referring to the use of a bow. This is the referent of the verse in Samuel.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 讝讛 住驻专 诪砖谞讛 转讜专讛 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讚讻转讬讘 讜注砖讬转 讛讬砖专 讜讛讟讜讘 讘注讬谞讬 讛壮 讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 讬讚讬讜 专讘 诇讜 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪诇讞诪讛 砖爪专讬讻讛 砖转讬 讬讚讬诐 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讜 拽砖转

The Gemara cites a different interpretation: Rabbi Elazar says that the book of Yashar is the book of Deuteronomy. And why did they call it the book of Yashar? As it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall do that which is right [yashar] and good in the sight of the Lord鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:18). And where is it alluded to in Deuteronomy that Judah must be taught to use the bow? The verse states: 鈥淎nd this for Judah, and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the form of warfare that requires the use of two hands? You must say that this is referring to the use of a bow. This is the referent of the verse in Samuel.

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讝讛 住驻专 砖讜驻讟讬诐 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 住驻专 讛讬砖专 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬诪讬诐 讛讛诐 讗讬谉 诪诇讱 讘讬砖专讗诇 讗讬砖 讛讬砖专 讘注讬谞讬讜 讬注砖讛 讜讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗 诇诪注谉 讚注转 讚专讜转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 诇诇诪讚诐 诪诇讞诪讛 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 诪诇讞诪讛 砖爪专讬讻讛 诇讬诪讜讚 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讜 拽砖转

The Gemara provides yet another explanation: Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani says that the book of Yashar is the book of Judges. And why did they call it the book of Yashar? As it is written: 鈥淚n those days there was no king in Israel; every man did that which was right [yashar] in his own eyes鈥 (Judges 17:6). And where is it alluded to in Judges that Judah must be taught to use the bow? The verse states: 鈥淥nly that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war鈥 (Judges 3:2). What is the form of warfare that requires teaching? You must say that this is referring to the use of a bow. This is the referent of the verse in Samuel.

讜诪谞诇谉 讚讘讬讛讜讚讛 讻转讬讘 讚讻转讬讘 诪讬 讬注诇讛 诇谞讜 讘转讞诇讛 讗诇 讛讻谞注谞讬 诇讛诇讞诐 讘讜 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讬讛讜讚讛 讬注诇讛

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that Judges 3:2 is written in reference to Judah? We derive it as it is written: 鈥淭he children of Israel asked the Lord, saying: Who shall go up for us first against the Canaanites, to fight against them? And Lord said: Judah shall go up鈥 (Judges 1:1鈥2).

讜讬专诐 讛讟讘讞 讗转 讛砖讜拽 讜讛注诇讬讛 讜讬砖诐 诇驻谞讬 砖讗讜诇 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽 讜讗诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 讚诪住诪讻讗 砖讜拽 诇讗诇讬讛

搂 The Gemara cites another dispute between the same amora鈥檌m. The verse states: 鈥淎nd the cook took up the thigh, and that which was upon it [vehe鈥檃leha], and set it before Saul鈥 (I聽Samuel 9:24). To what does the term 鈥渁nd that which was upon it鈥 refer? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It refers to the thigh and the tail. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the tail is referred to as: 鈥淎nd that which was upon it鈥? The reason is that the thigh supports the tail, as it rests upon it.

讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 砖讜拽 讜讞讝讛 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 讚诪讞讬转 诇讛 诇讞讝讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚砖讜拽 讻讬 讘注讬 讗谞讜驻讬 讜诪谞驻讬 诇讬讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 砖讜拽 讜砖讜驻讬 诪讗讬 讜讛注诇讬讛 砖讜驻讬 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚砖讜拽 拽讗讬

And Rabbi Elazar says: The verse refers to the thigh and the breast. What is the reason that the breast is referred to as: 鈥淎nd that which was upon it鈥? The reason is that one places the breast upon the thigh when it requires sacrificial waving, and waves it. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani says: The verse refers to the thigh and the cap [shofi], i.e., the very top part of the leg. What is the reason that the cap is referred to as: 鈥淎nd that which was upon it鈥? It is because it is referring to the cap that stands above the thigh.

诇讗 转转讬讬讞讚 讗砖讛 注诪讛诐 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讘讞讚 讚讻讜讜转讛 讙讘讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讬 砖专讬 讜讛转谞谉 诇讗 讬转讬讬讞讚 讗讬砖 讗讞讚 注诐 砖转讬 谞砖讬诐

搂 The mishna teaches that a woman may not seclude herself with gentiles. The Gemara asks: What are we dealing with? If we say that we are dealing with a woman who secludes herself with one gentile, is this permitted in the corresponding situation involving a Jew? But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Kiddushin 80b): One man may not seclude himself even with two women? It is certainly forbidden for one man to be secluded with one woman.

讗诇讗 讘转诇转讗 讚讻讜讜转讛 讙讘讬 讬砖专讗诇 讘驻专讜爪讬诐 诪讬 砖专讬 讜讛转谞谉 讗讘诇 讗砖讛 讗讞转 诪转讬讬讞讚转 注诐 砖谞讬 讗谞砖讬诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 讘讻砖专讬诐 讗讘诇 讘驻专讜爪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 注砖专讛 谞诪讬 诇讗 诪注砖讛 讛讬讛 讜讛讜爪讬讗讜讛 注砖专讛 讘诪讟讛

Rather, the mishna is referring to a case in which a woman secludes herself with three gentiles. The Gemara asks: Is this permitted in the corresponding situation involving Jews steeped in sexual immorality? But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Kiddushin 80b): But one woman may be secluded with two men; and Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: They taught this halakha only with regard to men of fit morals; but with regard to those steeped in sexual immorality, she may not be secluded even with ten men. There was an incident where ten men carried a woman out of the city on a bier, as though she were dead, and they engaged in intercourse with her.

诇讗 爪专讬讻讗 讘讗砖转讜 注诪讜 讙讜讬 讗讬谉 讗砖转讜 诪砖诪专转讜 讗讘诇 讬砖专讗诇 讗砖转讜 诪砖诪专转讜

The Gemara answers: No, the ruling of the mishna here is necessary in a case where the gentile鈥檚 wife is with him. The differences between the two rulings is that in the case of a gentile, it is assumed that his wife does not guard him against sinning with another, but with regard to a Jew, his wife does guard him against sinning with another.

讜转讬驻讜拽 诇讬讛 诪砖讜诐 砖驻讬讻讜转 讚诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘讗砖讛 讞砖讜讘讛 注住拽讬谞谉 讚诪讬专转转讬 诪讬谞讛 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 讗砖讛 讻诇讬 讝讬讬谞讛 注诇讬讛

搂 The mishna teaches that a woman may not seclude herself with a gentile due to the concern that they might engage in illicit sexual relations. The Gemara challenges: And let us derive that a woman may not seclude herself with a gentile due to the concern about bloodshed. The Gemara cites two responses. Rabbi Yirmeya says: We are dealing with a distinguished woman, whom gentiles will not kill, as they are fearful of her status. Nevertheless, there is a concern with regard to illicit sexual relations. Rav Idi bar Avin says: A woman carries her weapons upon her. In other words, there is no need to be concerned that a woman might be killed by gentiles; rather, the very fact that she is a woman protects her, as they would most likely rape her and not kill her.

诪讗讬 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讗砖讛 讞砖讜讘讛 讘讬谉 讗谞砖讬诐 讜砖讗讬谞讛 讞砖讜讘讛 讘讬谉 讛谞砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two answers? The Gemara answers: The difference between them is with regard to a woman who is distinguished among men due to her political position, but is not distinguished among the women, i.e., she is unattractive. According to Rabbi Yirmeya, there is no concern that she will be killed, as she is distinguished, nor is there a concern that they will engage in illicit sexual relations. Therefore, it would be permitted for her to seclude herself with them. By contrast, as Rav Idi bar Avin stated his explanation in general terms, he evidently holds that the concern of illicit sexual relations always applies, regardless of the woman鈥檚 appearance.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讛讗砖讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛砖诇讜诐 注诪讛 诇讗 转转讬讬讞讚 注诪讛谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讞砖讜讚讬谉 注诇 讛注专讬讜转

The Gemara notes that it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Idi bar Avin: With regard to a woman, even though her protection accompanies her, i.e., she is not in danger of being killed, she may not seclude herself with gentiles because they are suspected of engaging in forbidden sexual relations.

诇讗 讬转讬讬讞讚 讗讚诐 注诪讛谉 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讝讚诪谉 诇讜 讙讜讬 讘讚专讱 讟讜驻诇讜 诇讬诪讬谞讜 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讛 讗讜诪专 讘住讬讬祝 讟讜驻诇讜 诇讬诪讬谞讜 讘诪拽诇 讟讜驻诇讜 诇砖诪讗诇讜

搂 The mishna further teaches that a person may not seclude himself with gentiles because they are suspected of bloodshed. The Sages taught: A Jew who encounters a gentile on the road and continues his travels with him should position the gentile to his right, so that the Jew鈥檚 dominant hand is closest to the gentile, which will enable him to defend himself against a potential attack. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, says: If the gentile is armed with a sword, the Jew positions him to his right, because a blade is usually carried on one鈥檚 left side. But if the gentile is armed with a stick, the Jew should steer him to his left, as a stick is usually carried in one鈥檚 right hand. By walking on the same side as the gentile鈥檚 weapon, the Jew can best prevent him from drawing it.

讛讬讜 注讜诇讬谉 讘诪注诇讛 讗讜 讬讜专讚讬谉 讘讬专讬讚讛 诇讗 讬讛讗 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪讟讛 讜讙讜讬 诇诪注诇讛 讗诇讗 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪注诇讛 讜讙讜讬 诇诪讟讛 讜讗诇 讬砖讜讞 诇驻谞讬讜 砖诪讗 讬专讜抓 讗转 讙讜诇讙诇转讜

The Gemara continues: If the Jew and gentile were ascending an incline or descending a decline, the Jew should not be positioned below while the gentile is above, so that the gentile will not have the advantage of height if he decides to attack. Rather, the Jew should be located above while the gentile is below. And the Jew should not bend down before him, lest the gentile break his skull.

砖讗诇讜 诇讛讬讻谉 讛讜诇讱 讬专讞讬讘 诇讜 讗转 讛讚专讱 讻讚专讱 砖注砖讛 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 诇注砖讜 讛专砖注 讚讻转讬讘 注讚 讗砖专 讗讘讗 讗诇 讗讚谞讬 砖注讬专讛

Furthermore, if the gentile asks him where he is going, the Jew should extend the journey when relating his destination to him, i.e., he should claim that he is traveling to a place beyond his actual destination, in the manner that Jacob our father did to the wicked Esau. As it is written that Jacob said to Esau: 鈥淟et my lord pass over before his servant and I will journey on gently, according to the pace of the cattle that are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come unto my lord unto Seir鈥 (Genesis 33:14).

讜讻转讬讘 讜讬注拽讘 谞住注 住讻转讛

The Gemara continues: And it is written subsequently: 鈥淎nd Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built himself a house鈥 (Genesis 33:17). Rather than meeting Esau in Seir, Jacob traveled to the nearer location of Succoth. Telling a gentile that one is traveling to a farther destination might cause the gentile to defer his attack due to the assumption that he has a longer period of time to plan and execute it. As a result of the delay, the Jew has a better chance of reaching his true destination safely.

诪注砖讛 讘转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 砖讛讬讜 讛讜诇讻讬诐 诇讻讝讬讘 驻讙注讜 讘讛谉 诇讬住讟讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 诇讗谉 讗转诐 讛讜诇讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 诇注讻讜 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讜 诇讻讝讬讘 驻讬专砖讜 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 转诇诪讬讚讬 诪讬 讗转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 转诇诪讬讚讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讛谉 讗砖专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜转诇诪讬讚讬讜 砖诇讗 驻讙注 讘讛谉 讗讚诐 专注 诪注讜诇诐

The Gemara illustrates this idea through a relevant story. An incident occurred involving several students of Rabbi Akiva who were traveling to Keziv. Along the way, bandits encountered them and said to them: Where are you going? Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students said to them: To Akko. Once they reached Keziv, Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students separated from the bandits. At this point the bandits said to them: Whose students are you? The students said to the bandits: We are students of Rabbi Akiva. The bandits said to them: Fortunate are Rabbi Akiva and his students, as they were never harmed by an evil person. The bandits were impressed with the wisdom that the students demonstrated in evading harm.

专讘 诪谞砖讛 讛讜讛 讗讝诇

The Gemara relates another incident: Rav Menashe was traveling

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