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Today's Daf Yomi

February 11, 2018 | ื›ืดื• ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Avodah Zarah 27

Study Guide Avoda Zara 27

Can a non-Jew perform a brit mila on a Jew? What are the sources for the different opinions? If there is no Jew available, it is better if a Samaritan (Cuti) performs it or an idol worshipper? Can a woman perform a brit mila? Can a non-Jew perform a medical procedure on a Jew? Can a Jew perform a medical procedure for a non-Jew?


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ื‘ืจื•ืคื ืžื•ืžื—ื” ื“ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ

We are dealing with an expert physician, who will not risk his reputation by harming a child. This is similar to that which Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said, as when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: If the physician was considered a recognized expert, it is permitted for one to be healed by him. When Rabbi Meir said that an Aramean may circumcise a Jewish boy, he was referring specifically to a doctor who is known for his expertise.

ื•ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื•ืชื™ ืฉืคื™ืจ ื“ืžื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืœ ืืช ื”ื›ื•ืชื™ ื•ื›ื•ืชื™ ืœื ื™ืžื•ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืœ ืœืฉื ื”ืจ ื’ืจื–ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The latter clause of the baraita states that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a Samaritan may circumcise a Jewish infant. The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda actually hold that it is permitted for a Samaritan to perform circumcision? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: A Jew may circumcise a Samaritan but a Samaritan may not be allowed to circumcise a Jew, because he circumcises him for the sake of Mount Gerizim; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืžื™ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืœืฉืžื” ืืœื ืžืœ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ืขื“ ืฉืชืฆื ื ืฉืžืชื•

Rabbi Yosei said to him: And where do we find that the mitzva of circumcision from the Torah must be performed for the sake of fulfilling Godโ€™s will? Rather, a Samaritan may continue to circumcise Jews until his soul leaves his body, i.e., until the Samaritan dies, and there is no room for concern. But Rabbi Yehuda explicitly states above that circumcision may not be performed by a Samaritan.

ืืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืื™ืคื•ืš ื›ื“ืืคื›ื™ื ืŸ ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื•ื“ืงื ืงืฉื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื™ื

Rather, actually you should reverse the opinions in the baraita as we reversed them initially. And as for the difficulty raised with regard to one statement of Rabbi Yehuda against the other statement of Rabbi Yehuda, that opinion, that a gentile may not perform circumcision, is actually the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Conversely, the first baraita, which is reversed and therefore cites Rabbi Yehuda as maintaining that an Aramean may perform circumcision, is referring to Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai. Accordingly, the different opinions reflect a dispute between tannaโ€™im rather than a contradiction.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžื•ืจ

The Gemara cites a proof that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi a gentile is not qualified to perform circumcision. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: From where is it derived with regard to circumcision performed by a gentile that it is not valid? The verse states: โ€œAnd God said to Abraham: And as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you, and your seed after you throughout their generationsโ€ (Genesis 17:9).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื”ืณ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ

ยง It was stated that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda circumcision must be performed for the sake of fulfilling a mitzva, whereas Rabbi Yosei holds that no particular intention is necessary. The Gemara analyzes these opinions. Rav แธคisda said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: โ€œAnd when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the Passover to the Lord let all his males be circumcisedโ€ (Exodus 12:48). It can be inferred from the verse that the males must be circumcised โ€œto the Lord,โ€ i.e., for the sake of fulfilling Godโ€™s will. The Gemara asks: And what is the reasoning of Rabbi Yosei? It is written: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol]โ€ (Genesis 17:13). The usage of the doubled verb teaches that circumcision may be performed by anyone.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื”ืณ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืคืกื— ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื

The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage, i.e., Rabbi Yosei, isnโ€™t it written: โ€œTo the Lord let all his males be circumcised,โ€ which indicates that circumcision must be performed for the sake of fulfilling Godโ€™s will? The Gemara answers: That is written with regard to Passover. According to Rabbi Yosei, the phrase โ€œto the Lordโ€ is referring to the previous mention of the Paschal offering, rather than to circumcision. Accordingly, the verse should be read: โ€œWill keep Passover to the Lord.โ€ The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, isnโ€™t it also written: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ indicating that circumcision may be performed by anyone? The Gemara answers: The Torah spoke in the language of people, i.e., the doubled verb is the usual style of the Torah, which does not serve to teach a novel halakha.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ื“ืจื• ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ

ยง The Gemara continues discussing the issue of circumcisions performed by gentiles. It was stated: From where is it derived with regard to circumcision performed by a gentile that it is not valid? Daru bar Pappa says in the name of Rav: This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: And God said to Abraham: โ€œAnd as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you, and your seed after you throughout their generations.โ€ And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says that it is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol].โ€ According to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, this verse teaches that a Jew must be circumcised by one who is already circumcised.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืขืจื‘ื™ ืžื”ื•ืœ ื•ื’ื‘ื ื•ื ื™ ืžื”ื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ ืœื™ื›ื

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? There is a practical difference between them with regard to a circumcised Arab or a circumcised hill person [gavnuni]. According to the one who says that the halakha that a Jewish infant may be circumcised only by one who has been circumcised himself is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is reason to permit an Arab or gavnuni to perform the circumcision, as they are circumcised. And according to the one who says that circumcision may not be performed by a gentile is derived from the phrase: โ€œYou shall keep my covenant,โ€ there is no reason to permit an Arab or Gibeonite to perform circumcision.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ืงื•ื ื ืฉืื ื™ ื ื”ื ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืขืจืœื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขืจืœื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืžื•ืœื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืœืžื ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื“ืžื•

The Gemara raises an objection: And is it so, according to the one who says it is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ that a Jew may not be circumcised by a gentile, that there is reason to permit a circumcised gentile to perform circumcision? But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Nedarim 31b): With regard to one who vows: Deriving benefit from those who are uncircumcised is konam for me, he is permitted to derive benefit from uncircumcised Jews because they are not regarded as uncircumcised, but he is prohibited from deriving benefit from the uncircumcised of the nations of the world? Apparently, even though some gentiles are circumcised, they are nevertheless considered as those who are uncircumcised.

ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืžืชื• ืื—ื™ื• ืžื—ืžืช ืžื™ืœื” ื•ืœื ืžืœื•ื”ื• ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื

Rather, there is a difference between them with regard to a Jew whose brothers died due to circumcision, and as a result, they did not circumcise him. According to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œAnd as for you, you shall keep My covenant,โ€ there is reason to permit such a person to perform circumcision, as he is a Jew. According to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the phrase: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is no reason to permit this Jew to perform circumcision, as he is not circumcised himself.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ืงื•ื ื ืฉืื ื™ ื ื”ื ื” ืžืžื•ืœื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืขืจืœื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืžื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื•ืœื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืœืžื ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื“ืžื•

The Gemara rejects this suggestion as well: And is it so that according to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is no reason to permit an uncircumcised Jew to perform circumcision? But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Nedarim 31b): With regard to one who vows: Deriving benefit from those who are circumcised is konam for me, he is prohibited from deriving benefit even from uncircumcised Jews and he is permitted to derive benefit from the circumcised of the nations of the world. Apparently, even though some Jews are not circumcised, they are nevertheless considered as those who are circumcised.

ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืืฉื” ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžื•ืจ ืœื™ื›ื ื“ืืฉื” ืœืื• ื‘ืช ืžื™ืœื” ื”ื™ื ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืฉื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื”ื™ืœื ื“ืžื™ื

Rather, there is a difference between these two opinions with regard to a woman. According to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œAnd as for you, you shall keep My covenant,โ€ there is no reason to permit a woman to perform circumcision, as a woman is not subject to the mitzva of circumcision, and therefore she is not included in those who must keep Godโ€™s covenant. And according to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is reason to permit a woman to perform circumcision, as a woman is considered as one who is naturally circumcised.

ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืืฉื” ืœื ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืงื— ืฆืคืจื” ืฆืจ ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืชืงื— ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชื›ืจืช ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืชื›ืจืช ื“ืืžืจื” ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืืชื™ื ืื™ื”ื™ ื•ืืชื—ืœื” ื•ืืชื ืžืฉื” ื•ืื’ืžืจื”

The Gemara raises a difficulty against this explanation: And is there anyone who says that a woman may not perform circumcision? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œThen Zipporah took [vattikkaแธฅ] a flint and cut off the foreskin of her sonโ€ (Exodus 4:25). This verse explicitly states that a circumcision was performed by a woman. The Gemara answers that one should read into the verse: And she caused to be taken [vattakkaแธฅ], i.e., she did not take a flint herself. But isnโ€™t it written: And she cut off [vattikhrot]? Read into the verse: And she caused to be cut off [vattakhret], as she told another person to take a flint and cut off her sonโ€™s foreskin, and he did so. The Gemara provides an alternative explanation: And if you wish, say instead: She came and began the act, and Moses came and completed the circumcision.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืชืคืจื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื™ื ื• ืœื‘ื™ื ื•

MISHNA: The mishna discusses the issue of accepting certain professional services from a gentile. One may be treated by gentiles, provided that it is monetary treatment, but not personal treatment. And one may not have his hair cut by them anywhere, due to the danger that the gentile will kill him with the razor; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: In the public thoroughfare, it is permitted to have oneโ€™s hair cut by a gentile, but not when the Jew and gentile are alone together.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžืื™ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื‘ื—ื ื ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื—ื ื

GEMARA: What is monetary treatment, and what is personal treatment? If we say that monetary treatment is medical attention provided in exchange for payment, whereas personal treatment is medical attention provided for free, then let the mishna teach: One may be treated by gentiles in exchange for payment, but not for free.

ืืœื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืกื›ื ื” ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืกื›ื ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื™ื‘ื“ื ื“ื›ื•ืกื™ืœืชื ืœื ืžืชืกื™ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara suggests another explanation: Rather, monetary treatment is referring to medical treatment for a matter that poses no life-threatening danger, whereas personal treatment is referring to treatment for a matter that does pose life-threatening danger. The Gemara rejects this suggestion as well. But doesnโ€™t Rav Yehuda say: Even with regard to the wound of a bloodletting incision [rivda dekhusilta] we are not permitted to be treated by gentiles. The wound left after bloodletting certainly does not pose life-threatening danger, and yet a Jew is prohibited from having it treated by a gentile.

ืืœื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžืชื• ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื™ื‘ื“ื ื“ื›ื•ืกื™ืœืชื ืœื ืžืชืกื™ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

Rather, monetary treatment is referring to medical treatment provided for oneโ€™s animal, whereas personal treatment is referring to treatment provided for his own body, and this is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda says: Even with regard to the wound of a bloodletting incision, we are not permitted to be treated by them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ืื‘ืœ ืื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืกื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืกื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ืจืข ืœื• ืžื•ืชืจ

Rav แธคisda says that Mar Ukva says: But if a gentile said to him: Such and such a potion is beneficial for this ailment, or such and such a potion is harmful for this ailment, it is permitted to adhere to the gentileโ€™s advice.

ืกื‘ืจ ืฉื™ื•ืœื™ ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœื• ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœื• ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื•ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืœืื•ืจื•ืขื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื”

The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile thinks to himself that the Jew is asking him for his opinion, and just as he is asking him, he will also ask other people. And the gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, that man, i.e., the gentile, will bring harm to himself by damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกืคืง ื—ื™ ืกืคืง ืžืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื•ื“ืื™ ืžืช ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ

ยง The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. Rava says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says, and some say that it was Rav แธคisda who says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: If there is uncertainty as to whether a patient will live through his ailment or die from it, the patient may not be treated by gentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is certain that he will die from his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient is treated by them, as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.

ืžืช ื”ืื™ื›ื ื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will die if he is not treated, nevertheless, there is value in temporal life, i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: We are not concerned with the value of temporal life when there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.

ื•ืžื ื ืชื™ืžืจื ื“ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืืžืจื ื• ื ื‘ื•ื ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ื”ืจืขื‘ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื•ืžืชื ื• ืฉื ื•ื”ืื™ื›ื ื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืืœื ืœืื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: And from where do you say that we are not concerned with the value of temporal life? As it is written with regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: โ€œIf we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but dieโ€ (IIย Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: But isnโ€™t there temporal life to be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? Rather, is it not apparent that we are not concerned with the value of temporal life?

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืœื ื™ืฉื ื•ื™ืชืŸ ืื“ื ืขื ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื”

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: A person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even in a case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only temporal life.

ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ื‘ืŸ ื“ืžื ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืฉื”ื›ื™ืฉื• ื ื—ืฉ ื•ื‘ื ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ืกื›ื ื™ื ืœืจืคืื•ืชื• ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื—ื™ ื”ื ื— ืœื• ื•ืืจืคื ืžืžื ื• ื•ืื ื™ ืื‘ื™ื ืžืงืจื ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฆืชื” ื ืฉืžืชื• ื•ืžืช

The baraita relates an incident illustrating this point. There was an incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmaelโ€™s sister, in which a snake bit him. And following the attack, Yaโ€™akov of the village of Sekhanya, who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, came to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let him do so. And ben Dama said to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let him treat me, and I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torah to prove that accepting medical treatment from a heretic is permitted in this situation. But ben Dama did not manage to complete the statement before his soul departed from his body and he died.

ืงืจื ืขืœื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืฉืจื™ืš ื‘ืŸ ื“ืžื ืฉื’ื•ืคืš ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ื™ืฆืชื” ื ืฉืžืชืš ื‘ื˜ื”ืจื” ื•ืœื ืขื‘ืจืช ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ืš ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืคื•ืจืฅ ื’ื“ืจ ื™ืฉื›ื ื• ื ื—ืฉ

Rabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state the verse: โ€œAnd who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite himโ€ (Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordinance of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.

ืฉืื ื™ ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื“ืžืฉื›ื ื“ืืชื™ ืœืžื™ืžืฉืš ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara explains: Heresy is different, as it is enticing. In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, as one might come to be drawn after his heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืœื ืขื‘ืจืช ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ืš ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืคื•ืจืฅ ื’ื“ืจ ื™ืฉื›ื ื• ื ื—ืฉ ืื™ื”ื• ื ืžื™ ื—ื•ื™ื ื˜ืจืงื™ื” ื—ื•ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืกื•ืชื ื›ืœืœ

The Master said above: You did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state the verse: โ€œAnd who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.โ€ The Gemara asks: But ben Dama was also bitten by a snake, even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: The snake mentioned in the curse of the Sages is different, as it has no remedy whatsoever. Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.

ื•ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืœื ืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื”ื

The Gemara asks: And what would ben Dama have said? What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: โ€œYou shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordinances, which if a man do, he shall live by themโ€ (Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by Godโ€™s mitzvot, and not that he should die by them. This verse serves as a source for the halakha that one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื‘ืฆื™ื ืขื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื ืœื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ืืœ ืชื”ืจื’ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื•ื“ ื•ืืœ ื™ื”ืจื’ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืœื ืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื ืชื—ืœืœื• ืืช ืฉื ืงื“ืฉื™

And why does Rabbi Yishmael disagree with ben Dama? He maintains that this matter applies only in private, but in public one may not transgress a prohibition even to save a life. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael would say: From where is it derived that if oppressors say to a person: Worship an idol and you will not be killed, that one should worship the idol and not be killed? The verse states: โ€œHe shall live by them,โ€ and not that he should die by them. One might have thought that this applies even in public. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall not profane My holy nameโ€ (Leviticus 22:32).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืžื›ื” ืฉืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ

ยง The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: With regard to any injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated by gentiles. And there are those who say that Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: With regard to any

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Avodah Zarah 27

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 27

ื‘ืจื•ืคื ืžื•ืžื—ื” ื“ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื ื”ื™ื” ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ

We are dealing with an expert physician, who will not risk his reputation by harming a child. This is similar to that which Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said, as when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: If the physician was considered a recognized expert, it is permitted for one to be healed by him. When Rabbi Meir said that an Aramean may circumcise a Jewish boy, he was referring specifically to a doctor who is known for his expertise.

ื•ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ื•ืชื™ ืฉืคื™ืจ ื“ืžื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืœ ืืช ื”ื›ื•ืชื™ ื•ื›ื•ืชื™ ืœื ื™ืžื•ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืœ ืœืฉื ื”ืจ ื’ืจื–ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The latter clause of the baraita states that Rabbi Yehuda maintains that a Samaritan may circumcise a Jewish infant. The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda actually hold that it is permitted for a Samaritan to perform circumcision? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: A Jew may circumcise a Samaritan but a Samaritan may not be allowed to circumcise a Jew, because he circumcises him for the sake of Mount Gerizim; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื•ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืžื™ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืœืฉืžื” ืืœื ืžืœ ื•ื”ื•ืœืš ืขื“ ืฉืชืฆื ื ืฉืžืชื•

Rabbi Yosei said to him: And where do we find that the mitzva of circumcision from the Torah must be performed for the sake of fulfilling Godโ€™s will? Rather, a Samaritan may continue to circumcise Jews until his soul leaves his body, i.e., until the Samaritan dies, and there is no room for concern. But Rabbi Yehuda explicitly states above that circumcision may not be performed by a Samaritan.

ืืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืื™ืคื•ืš ื›ื“ืืคื›ื™ื ืŸ ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื•ื“ืงื ืงืฉื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื”ื™ื

Rather, actually you should reverse the opinions in the baraita as we reversed them initially. And as for the difficulty raised with regard to one statement of Rabbi Yehuda against the other statement of Rabbi Yehuda, that opinion, that a gentile may not perform circumcision, is actually the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Conversely, the first baraita, which is reversed and therefore cites Rabbi Yehuda as maintaining that an Aramean may perform circumcision, is referring to Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai. Accordingly, the different opinions reflect a dispute between tannaโ€™im rather than a contradiction.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžื•ืจ

The Gemara cites a proof that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi a gentile is not qualified to perform circumcision. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: From where is it derived with regard to circumcision performed by a gentile that it is not valid? The verse states: โ€œAnd God said to Abraham: And as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you, and your seed after you throughout their generationsโ€ (Genesis 17:9).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื”ืณ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ

ยง It was stated that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda circumcision must be performed for the sake of fulfilling a mitzva, whereas Rabbi Yosei holds that no particular intention is necessary. The Gemara analyzes these opinions. Rav แธคisda said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: โ€œAnd when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the Passover to the Lord let all his males be circumcisedโ€ (Exodus 12:48). It can be inferred from the verse that the males must be circumcised โ€œto the Lord,โ€ i.e., for the sake of fulfilling Godโ€™s will. The Gemara asks: And what is the reasoning of Rabbi Yosei? It is written: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol]โ€ (Genesis 17:13). The usage of the doubled verb teaches that circumcision may be performed by anyone.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื”ืณ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ืคืกื— ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื

The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage, i.e., Rabbi Yosei, isnโ€™t it written: โ€œTo the Lord let all his males be circumcised,โ€ which indicates that circumcision must be performed for the sake of fulfilling Godโ€™s will? The Gemara answers: That is written with regard to Passover. According to Rabbi Yosei, the phrase โ€œto the Lordโ€ is referring to the previous mention of the Paschal offering, rather than to circumcision. Accordingly, the verse should be read: โ€œWill keep Passover to the Lord.โ€ The Gemara asks: And according to the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, isnโ€™t it also written: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ indicating that circumcision may be performed by anyone? The Gemara answers: The Torah spoke in the language of people, i.e., the doubled verb is the usual style of the Torah, which does not serve to teach a novel halakha.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ื“ืจื• ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ

ยง The Gemara continues discussing the issue of circumcisions performed by gentiles. It was stated: From where is it derived with regard to circumcision performed by a gentile that it is not valid? Daru bar Pappa says in the name of Rav: This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: And God said to Abraham: โ€œAnd as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you, and your seed after you throughout their generations.โ€ And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says that it is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol].โ€ According to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, this verse teaches that a Jew must be circumcised by one who is already circumcised.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืขืจื‘ื™ ืžื”ื•ืœ ื•ื’ื‘ื ื•ื ื™ ืžื”ื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ ืœื™ื›ื

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between these two opinions? There is a practical difference between them with regard to a circumcised Arab or a circumcised hill person [gavnuni]. According to the one who says that the halakha that a Jewish infant may be circumcised only by one who has been circumcised himself is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is reason to permit an Arab or gavnuni to perform the circumcision, as they are circumcised. And according to the one who says that circumcision may not be performed by a gentile is derived from the phrase: โ€œYou shall keep my covenant,โ€ there is no reason to permit an Arab or Gibeonite to perform circumcision.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ืงื•ื ื ืฉืื ื™ ื ื”ื ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืขืจืœื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื‘ืขืจืœื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืžื•ืœื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืœืžื ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื“ืžื•

The Gemara raises an objection: And is it so, according to the one who says it is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ that a Jew may not be circumcised by a gentile, that there is reason to permit a circumcised gentile to perform circumcision? But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Nedarim 31b): With regard to one who vows: Deriving benefit from those who are uncircumcised is konam for me, he is permitted to derive benefit from uncircumcised Jews because they are not regarded as uncircumcised, but he is prohibited from deriving benefit from the uncircumcised of the nations of the world? Apparently, even though some gentiles are circumcised, they are nevertheless considered as those who are uncircumcised.

ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืžืชื• ืื—ื™ื• ืžื—ืžืช ืžื™ืœื” ื•ืœื ืžืœื•ื”ื• ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื

Rather, there is a difference between them with regard to a Jew whose brothers died due to circumcision, and as a result, they did not circumcise him. According to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œAnd as for you, you shall keep My covenant,โ€ there is reason to permit such a person to perform circumcision, as he is a Jew. According to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the phrase: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is no reason to permit this Jew to perform circumcision, as he is not circumcised himself.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ืงื•ื ื ืฉืื ื™ ื ื”ื ื” ืžืžื•ืœื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืขืจืœื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืžื•ืชืจ ื‘ืžื•ืœื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืœืžื ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื”ื™ืœื™ ื“ืžื•

The Gemara rejects this suggestion as well: And is it so that according to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is no reason to permit an uncircumcised Jew to perform circumcision? But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Nedarim 31b): With regard to one who vows: Deriving benefit from those who are circumcised is konam for me, he is prohibited from deriving benefit even from uncircumcised Jews and he is permitted to derive benefit from the circumcised of the nations of the world. Apparently, even though some Jews are not circumcised, they are nevertheless considered as those who are circumcised.

ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืืฉื” ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžื•ืจ ืœื™ื›ื ื“ืืฉื” ืœืื• ื‘ืช ืžื™ืœื” ื”ื™ื ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืฉื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื”ื™ืœื ื“ืžื™ื

Rather, there is a difference between these two opinions with regard to a woman. According to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œAnd as for you, you shall keep My covenant,โ€ there is no reason to permit a woman to perform circumcision, as a woman is not subject to the mitzva of circumcision, and therefore she is not included in those who must keep Godโ€™s covenant. And according to the one who says that the halakha is derived from the verse: โ€œHe must be circumcised [himmol yimmol],โ€ there is reason to permit a woman to perform circumcision, as a woman is considered as one who is naturally circumcised.

ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืืฉื” ืœื ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืงื— ืฆืคืจื” ืฆืจ ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืชืงื— ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชื›ืจืช ืงืจื™ ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืชื›ืจืช ื“ืืžืจื” ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืืชื™ื ืื™ื”ื™ ื•ืืชื—ืœื” ื•ืืชื ืžืฉื” ื•ืื’ืžืจื”

The Gemara raises a difficulty against this explanation: And is there anyone who says that a woman may not perform circumcision? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œThen Zipporah took [vattikkaแธฅ] a flint and cut off the foreskin of her sonโ€ (Exodus 4:25). This verse explicitly states that a circumcision was performed by a woman. The Gemara answers that one should read into the verse: And she caused to be taken [vattakkaแธฅ], i.e., she did not take a flint herself. But isnโ€™t it written: And she cut off [vattikhrot]? Read into the verse: And she caused to be cut off [vattakhret], as she told another person to take a flint and cut off her sonโ€™s foreskin, and he did so. The Gemara provides an alternative explanation: And if you wish, say instead: She came and began the act, and Moses came and completed the circumcision.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืชืคืจื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื™ื ื• ืœื‘ื™ื ื•

MISHNA: The mishna discusses the issue of accepting certain professional services from a gentile. One may be treated by gentiles, provided that it is monetary treatment, but not personal treatment. And one may not have his hair cut by them anywhere, due to the danger that the gentile will kill him with the razor; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: In the public thoroughfare, it is permitted to have oneโ€™s hair cut by a gentile, but not when the Jew and gentile are alone together.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื•ืžืื™ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื‘ื—ื ื ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื—ื ื

GEMARA: What is monetary treatment, and what is personal treatment? If we say that monetary treatment is medical attention provided in exchange for payment, whereas personal treatment is medical attention provided for free, then let the mishna teach: One may be treated by gentiles in exchange for payment, but not for free.

ืืœื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืกื›ื ื” ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืกื›ื ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื™ื‘ื“ื ื“ื›ื•ืกื™ืœืชื ืœื ืžืชืกื™ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara suggests another explanation: Rather, monetary treatment is referring to medical treatment for a matter that poses no life-threatening danger, whereas personal treatment is referring to treatment for a matter that does pose life-threatening danger. The Gemara rejects this suggestion as well. But doesnโ€™t Rav Yehuda say: Even with regard to the wound of a bloodletting incision [rivda dekhusilta] we are not permitted to be treated by gentiles. The wound left after bloodletting certainly does not pose life-threatening danger, and yet a Jew is prohibited from having it treated by a gentile.

ืืœื ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ืžืžื•ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžืชื• ืจื™ืคื•ื™ ื ืคืฉื•ืช ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืจื™ื‘ื“ื ื“ื›ื•ืกื™ืœืชื ืœื ืžืชืกื™ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื•

Rather, monetary treatment is referring to medical treatment provided for oneโ€™s animal, whereas personal treatment is referring to treatment provided for his own body, and this is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda says: Even with regard to the wound of a bloodletting incision, we are not permitted to be treated by them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ืื‘ืœ ืื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืกื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืกื ืคืœื•ื ื™ ืจืข ืœื• ืžื•ืชืจ

Rav แธคisda says that Mar Ukva says: But if a gentile said to him: Such and such a potion is beneficial for this ailment, or such and such a potion is harmful for this ailment, it is permitted to adhere to the gentileโ€™s advice.

ืกื‘ืจ ืฉื™ื•ืœื™ ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœื• ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœื• ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื ื ื•ืืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ืœืื•ืจื•ืขื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื”

The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile thinks to himself that the Jew is asking him for his opinion, and just as he is asking him, he will also ask other people. And the gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, that man, i.e., the gentile, will bring harm to himself by damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกืคืง ื—ื™ ืกืคืง ืžืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื•ื“ืื™ ืžืช ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ

ยง The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. Rava says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says, and some say that it was Rav แธคisda who says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: If there is uncertainty as to whether a patient will live through his ailment or die from it, the patient may not be treated by gentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is certain that he will die from his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient is treated by them, as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.

ืžืช ื”ืื™ื›ื ื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will die if he is not treated, nevertheless, there is value in temporal life, i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: We are not concerned with the value of temporal life when there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.

ื•ืžื ื ืชื™ืžืจื ื“ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื ืืžืจื ื• ื ื‘ื•ื ื”ืขื™ืจ ื•ื”ืจืขื‘ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื•ืžืชื ื• ืฉื ื•ื”ืื™ื›ื ื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืืœื ืœืื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื” ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: And from where do you say that we are not concerned with the value of temporal life? As it is written with regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: โ€œIf we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but dieโ€ (IIย Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: But isnโ€™t there temporal life to be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? Rather, is it not apparent that we are not concerned with the value of temporal life?

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืœื ื™ืฉื ื•ื™ืชืŸ ืื“ื ืขื ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืฉืขื”

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: A person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even in a case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only temporal life.

ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ื‘ืŸ ื“ืžื ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืฉื”ื›ื™ืฉื• ื ื—ืฉ ื•ื‘ื ื™ืขืงื‘ ืื™ืฉ ื›ืคืจ ืกื›ื ื™ื ืœืจืคืื•ืชื• ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื—ื™ ื”ื ื— ืœื• ื•ืืจืคื ืžืžื ื• ื•ืื ื™ ืื‘ื™ื ืžืงืจื ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ืœื ื”ืกืคื™ืง ืœื’ืžื•ืจ ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฆืชื” ื ืฉืžืชื• ื•ืžืช

The baraita relates an incident illustrating this point. There was an incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmaelโ€™s sister, in which a snake bit him. And following the attack, Yaโ€™akov of the village of Sekhanya, who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, came to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let him do so. And ben Dama said to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let him treat me, and I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torah to prove that accepting medical treatment from a heretic is permitted in this situation. But ben Dama did not manage to complete the statement before his soul departed from his body and he died.

ืงืจื ืขืœื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืฉืจื™ืš ื‘ืŸ ื“ืžื ืฉื’ื•ืคืš ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ื™ืฆืชื” ื ืฉืžืชืš ื‘ื˜ื”ืจื” ื•ืœื ืขื‘ืจืช ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ืš ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืคื•ืจืฅ ื’ื“ืจ ื™ืฉื›ื ื• ื ื—ืฉ

Rabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state the verse: โ€œAnd who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite himโ€ (Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordinance of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.

ืฉืื ื™ ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื“ืžืฉื›ื ื“ืืชื™ ืœืžื™ืžืฉืš ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara explains: Heresy is different, as it is enticing. In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, as one might come to be drawn after his heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืœื ืขื‘ืจืช ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ืš ืฉื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืคื•ืจืฅ ื’ื“ืจ ื™ืฉื›ื ื• ื ื—ืฉ ืื™ื”ื• ื ืžื™ ื—ื•ื™ื ื˜ืจืงื™ื” ื—ื•ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืกื•ืชื ื›ืœืœ

The Master said above: You did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state the verse: โ€œAnd who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.โ€ The Gemara asks: But ben Dama was also bitten by a snake, even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: The snake mentioned in the curse of the Sages is different, as it has no remedy whatsoever. Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.

ื•ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืœื ืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื”ื

The Gemara asks: And what would ben Dama have said? What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: โ€œYou shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordinances, which if a man do, he shall live by themโ€ (Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by Godโ€™s mitzvot, and not that he should die by them. This verse serves as a source for the halakha that one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื‘ืฆื™ื ืขื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื ืœื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ืืœ ืชื”ืจื’ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื•ื“ ื•ืืœ ื™ื”ืจื’ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื—ื™ ื‘ื”ื ื•ืœื ืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื‘ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื ืชื—ืœืœื• ืืช ืฉื ืงื“ืฉื™

And why does Rabbi Yishmael disagree with ben Dama? He maintains that this matter applies only in private, but in public one may not transgress a prohibition even to save a life. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael would say: From where is it derived that if oppressors say to a person: Worship an idol and you will not be killed, that one should worship the idol and not be killed? The verse states: โ€œHe shall live by them,โ€ and not that he should die by them. One might have thought that this applies even in public. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall not profane My holy nameโ€ (Leviticus 22:32).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ืžื›ื” ืฉืžื—ืœืœื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืืช ื”ืฉื‘ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืœ

ยง The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: With regard to any injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated by gentiles. And there are those who say that Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: With regard to any

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