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Today's Daf Yomi

February 13, 2018 | ื›ืดื— ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Avodah Zarah 29

Shiur in memory of Enya bat Reuven. More remedies are described and also what foods/activities to avoid if one is sick. How can one get a haircut from a non-Jew and ensure that one won’t be killed? A Jew can give a haircut to a non-Jew but must be careful not to get near the area that they would grow long in order to then cut it and offer it to their gods. Certain items of non-Jews are forbidden not only to eat but also to benefit from as they may have been used for idol worship such as wine.


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ืœื—ืกืคื ื™ืชื ื•ื—ื™ืœื•ืคื ืกื›ื ืชื

for facial wounds, but the reverse presents a danger.

ื—ืœื ืœืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ื•ืžื•ื ื™ื ื™ ืœืชืขื ื™ืชื ื•ื—ื™ืœื•ืคื ืกื›ื ืชื ืชื—ืœื™ ื•ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื ืกื›ื ืชื ืื™ืฉืชื ื•ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื ืกื›ื ืชื ื›ืื™ื‘ ืขื™ื ื ื•ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ืกื›ื ืชื ืฉื ื™ ืœื“ื’ ื“ื ืฉื ื™ ืœื“ื ื“ื’ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืกื›ื ืชื

Vinegar is good for one to consume after bloodletting, and eating small fish is good for one who has completed a fast, but the reverse is a danger. Eating cress and then undergoing bloodletting poses a danger. With regard to one who suffers from a fever and undergoes bloodletting, this poses a danger to his life. Similarly, one who suffers from pain of the eye and undergoes bloodletting endangers to his life. On the second day after eating fish one may let blood, and on the second day after letting blood one may eat fish. With regard to eating fish on the third day after letting blood, or letting blood on the third day after eating fish, both of these actions pose a danger.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืžืงื™ื– ื“ื ืœื ื™ืื›ืœ ื—ื’ื‘ืฉ ืœื ื—ืœื‘ ื•ืœื ื’ื‘ื™ื ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืฆืœื™ื ื•ืœื ืฉื—ืœื™ื ืื ืื›ืœ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ื™ื™ืชื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขืชื ื“ื—ืœื ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขืชื ื“ื—ืžืจื ื•ื ืขืจื‘ื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื” ืœื ืžืคื ื” ืืœื ืœืžื–ืจื—ื” ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืฉื” ืจื™ื—ื

ยง The Gemara presents a series of health-related statements. The Sages taught: One who lets blood may not eat the following foods, corresponding to the acronym แธฅet, gimmel, beit, shin. That is, he may consume neither milk [แธฅalav], nor cheese [gevina], nor onions [betzalim], nor cress [sheแธฅalim]. If he ate one of these, Abaye said: He should bring a quarter-log of vinegar and a quarter-log of wine and mix them together and drink the mixture. And when he defecates, he should defecate only toward the east of the city, because the odor of the excrement after that treatment is offensive. Since the wind does not usually blow from the east, it is less likely to spread the stench.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžืื™ ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืื™ืกืชื•ืžื›ื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื ืžืื™ ืืกื•ืชื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ื›ืžื•ื ื ื›ืจื•ื™ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื ื™ื ื•ืื’ื“ื ื ื•ืฆื™ืชืจื™ ื•ืื‘ื“ืชื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may lift the unkali on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the unkali? Rabbi Abba said: It is the edge of the ribs [istumkha] near the heart which sometimes bend inward, in which case they must be lifted and straightened into their proper position. The Gemara asks: What is the cure for one whose unkali has been bent? He should take cumin, caraway, mint [ninya], wormwood, satureja, and hyssop.

ืœืœื™ื‘ื ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืžื— ืœื‘ื‘ ืื ื•ืฉ ืœืจื•ื—ื ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ื•ืจื•ื— ืืœื”ื™ื ืžืจื—ืคืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืžื™ื ืœื›ื•ื“ื ื‘ืฉื™ื›ืจื ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ื•ื›ื“ื” ืขืœ ืฉื›ืžื”

This remedy is beneficial for several ailments, and the Gemara presents each of these in turn: For curing the heart, the above combination should be taken with wine, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: โ€œAnd wine that makes glad the heart of manโ€ (Psalms 104:15). For curing an ailment that arises due to the wind [ruแธฅa], one drinks the mixture in water, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: โ€œAnd the spirit [ruaแธฅ] of God hovered over the face of the watersโ€ (Genesis 1:2). For childbirth [lekhuda], a woman in labor drinks the mixture with beer [shikhra], and your mnemonic for this is the verse: โ€œWith her pitcher [vekhadah] upon her shoulder [shikhmah]โ€ (Genesis 24:15).

ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืฉื—ื™ืง ืœื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ืžืœื ื—ืžืฉ ืืฆื‘ืขืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืชื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืฉื—ื™ืง ื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ืœื—ื•ื“ื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืžืœื ืืฆื‘ืขื™ื” ืจื‘ืชื™ ื•ืžืœื ืืฆื‘ืขื™ื” ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืื ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืื™ืชืกืื™ ืขื“ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ื˜ื™ื™ืขื ืื™ื™ืชื™ ื›ื•ื–ื ื—ื“ืชื ื•ืžืœื™ื™ื” ืžื™ื ื•ืจืžื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืชืจื•ื•ื“ื ื“ื“ื•ื‘ืฉื ื“ืชืœื™ ืœื” ื‘ื™ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ืื™ืฉืชื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืื™ืชืกืื™

Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rava, ground all of these together and took a handful of the mixture and drank it. Rav Ashi ground each and every one of the herbs separately and he took all that he could hold between his large finger and his small finger and drank it. Rav Pappa said: I tried all these remedies and I was not healed until a certain Arab said to me: Bring a new jug and fill it with water and place in it a ladle [tarvada] of honey that is suspended among the stars, i.e., add the ladle at night, and drink it on the next day. Rav Pappa concludes: I did this and I was healed.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืจืคืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืœื” ืžื—ืœื™ื• ื•ืจืคื•ืืชืŸ ืจืคื•ืื” ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื›ืจื•ื‘ ื•ืชืจื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืžื™ ืกื™ืกื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ื™ืฉื” ื•ืงื™ื‘ืช ื•ื”ืจืช ื•ื™ื•ืชืจืช ื”ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื’ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉื“ื’ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืžืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื

The Sages taught: Six items heal a sick person from his illness and their cure is a permanent cure, and these are: Cabbage, beets, water in which dried chamomile was soaked, and the stomach contents of an animal, and the womb of an animal, and the lobe of the liver. And some say: Small fish are also included in this list. And moreover, eating small fish causes a personโ€™s entire body to flourish and to grow.

ืขืฉืจื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื—ื–ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืœื” ืœื—ืœื™ื• ื•ื—ืœื™ื• ืงืฉื” ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉื•ืจ ืฉื•ืžืŸ ื‘ืฉืจ ืฆืœื™ ื‘ืฉืจ ืฆื™ืคืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืฆืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืฉื—ืœื™ื ื•ืชื’ืœื—ืช ื•ืžืจื—ืฅ ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื ื” ื•ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ืื’ื•ื–ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ืงืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืœืžื” ื ืงืจื ืฉืžืŸ ืงืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืŸ ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ื›ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช

Ten items return a sick person to his illness, and his illness becomes even more severe than it originally was, and they are: One who eats ox meat, fat, roasted meat, bird meat, and a roasted egg, and cress; and the act of shaving, and bathing, and the consumption of cheese, and liver. And some say: Nuts are also included in this list. And some say: Cucumbers are also included in this list. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Why are they called cucumbers [kishuโ€™in]? Because they are as harmful [kashin] to a personโ€™s entire body as swords.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืชืคืจื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื™ ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืžืจืื” ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื‘ืœื•ืจื™ืชื• ืฉื•ืžื˜ ืืช ื™ื“ื•

ยง The mishna teaches: And one may not have his hair cut by gentiles anywhere. The Sages taught in a baraita: A Jew who has his hair cut by a gentile should observe the gentileโ€™s actions in a mirror while he cuts his hair. And in the case of a gentile who has his hair cut by a Jew, when the Jew reaches the gentileโ€™s forelock he removes his hand and does not cut it, because it is associated with idol worship.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื™ ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืžืจืื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ ืื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืžืจืื” ื•ืื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื›ื™ ืจื•ืื” ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืœืขื•ืœื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืžืจืื” ืžืชื—ื–ื™ ื›ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘

The Master said: A Jew who has his hair cut by a gentile should observe the gentileโ€™s actions in a mirror. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of this case? If it is referring to a haircut performed in a public domain, why do I need a mirror? After all, the gentile will not harm a Jew in public. And if it occurs in a private domain, even if the Jews observes the gentileโ€™s actions, what of it? How does the fact that the Jew is watching prevent the gentile barber from harming him? The Gemara explains: Actually, this is referring to a haircut in a private domain, but since there is a mirror in place, the Jew appears as an important person whom the gentile will hesitate to attack.

ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ื”ื•ื” ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ ื“ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื ื ื—ื ื ื™ืื™ ืงื•ืขื™ืš ืœื–ื•ื’ื ืืžืจ ืชื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ื“ืขื‘ืจื™ ืื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ

The Gemara relates a relevant incident: Rav แธคana bar Bizna was having his hair cut by a gentile in one of the side streets of Nehardeโ€™a. The barber said to him: แธคana, แธคana; Your throat is appealing to the razor. Rav แธคana bar Bizna said: I have this coming to me, as I violated the ruling of Rabbi Meir, who stated that one may not have his hair cut by a gentile in any location.

ื•ืื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืื™ืžืจ ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžื™ ืืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ ื“ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื“ืžื•

The Gemara asks: And didnโ€™t Rav แธคana bar Bizna violate the ruling of the Rabbis as well? Say that when the Rabbis stated that it is permitted to have oneโ€™s hair cut by a gentile, they were referring to a haircut performed in a public domain; but with regard to a haircut performed in a private domain, did they say that it is permitted? Since the side streets of Nehardeโ€™a cannot be considered a public domain, evidently Rav แธคana bar Bizna violated the ruling of the Rabbis. The Gemara explains: And Rav แธคana bar Bizna maintains: With regard to the side streets of Nehardeโ€™a, since many people are present there, they are similar to a public domain, and it would therefore be permitted to have oneโ€™s hair cut there according to the opinion of the Rabbis.

ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื‘ืœื•ืจื™ืชื• ืฉื•ืžื˜ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ื•ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืจื•ื— ื•ืจื•ื—

The baraita stated: And in the case of a gentile who has his hair cut by a Jew, when the Jew reaches the gentileโ€™s forelock, he removes his hand and does not cut it, because it is associated with idol worship. The Gemara asks: And how much space should the Jew leave around the forelock? Rav Malkiyya says that Rav Adda bar Ahava says: Three fingerbreadths in each and every direction.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื™ืงื ืฉืคื•ื“ ืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื• ื‘ืœื•ืจื™ืช ืืคืจ ืžืงืœื” ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื ื” ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื”

In addition to Rav Malkiyya, whose ruling was just cited, there was another amora known as Rav Malkiyyu. In order to avoid confusing the two, the Gemara records their respective rulings. Rav แธคanina, son of Rav Ika, says: The statements concerning a skewer, maidservants, and follicles were issued by Rav Malkiyyu; the rulings concerning a forelock, burnt ashes, and cheese were stated by Rav Malkiyya.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื” ืฉืžืขืชืชื ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื• ื•ืกื™ืžื ื ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืžืœื›ืชื ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืฉืคื—ื•ืช

Rav Pappa said a different opinion: Statements from the Mishna and baraita were issued by Rav Malkiyya, whereas rulings of halakha that are not related to a mishna or baraita were taught by Rav Malkiyyu. And the mnemonic to remember this is: The Mishna is a queen [malketa], i.e., the statements that are referring to a mishna were made by Rav Malkiyya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen. The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the opinions of Rav แธคanina and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them with regard to the halakha concerning maidservants. According to Rav แธคanina, this halakha was stated by Rav Malkiyyu, whereas Rav Pappa holds that it was taught by Rav Malkiyya, as it is referring to a dispute in a mishna.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื”ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื—ื•ืžืฅ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืชื—ืœืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืจืก ื”ื“ืจื™ื™ื ื™ ื•ืขื•ืจื•ืช ืœื‘ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืงืจืข ืฉืœื• ืขื’ื•ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืžืฉื•ืš ืžื•ืชืจ

MISHNA: This mishna discusses the halakhic status of various items that belong to gentiles. These are items that belong to gentiles and are prohibited to Jews, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited: Wine, and vinegar belonging to gentiles that was originally wine, and Hadrianic earthenware, and hides with a tear opposite the heart. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A hide is prohibited only when the tear around its heart is circular, but if it is elongated it is permitted, as gentiles will sacrifice a heart only when it has been removed by a circular laceration.

ื‘ืฉืจ ื”ื ื›ื ืก ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ืืกื•ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืžืชื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ืŸ ืœืชืจืคื•ืช ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ืŸ ื•ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

Meat that enters the house of idol worship is permitted, and meat that exits this house is prohibited, because it is considered as offerings to the dead, i.e., to idols; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. With regard to those going to a festival of idolatry [tarput], it is prohibited to engage in business with them. And with regard to those who are coming from it, it is permitted to engage in business with them.

ื ื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื•ืงื ืงื ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื ื•ืก ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื”ื—ืจืฆื ื™ื ื•ื”ื–ื’ื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื—ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ื™ืฉื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

Wineskins and jugs belonging to gentiles, which have a Jewโ€™s wine contained in them, are prohibited to Jews, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Their prohibition is not that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited. Residual grape seeds and grape skins belonging to gentiles, which are left behind after the grapes are crushed for wine, are prohibited, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Moist grape residues are prohibited, but dry residues are permitted.

ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื™ืก ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ื ื™ื™ืงื™ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื”

Fish stew [murayes] and cheese of Beit Unyaki belonging to gentiles are prohibited, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Their prohibition is not that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ืฉื”ื™ื• ืžื”ืœื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจืš ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืืกืจื• ื’ื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ื’ื•ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขืžื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืงื™ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื ื‘ื™ืœื”

Rabbi Yehuda said: Rabbi Yishmael asked Rabbi Yehoshua a series of questions while they were traveling along the road. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: For what reason did the Sages prohibit the cheeses of gentiles? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Because gentiles curdle cheese with the stomach contents of an unslaughtered animal carcass, and as the carcass of an unslaughtered animal is not kosher, cheese that is curdled with it is likewise prohibited.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื•ื”ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืช ืขื•ืœื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืžืงื™ื‘ืช ื ื‘ื™ืœื” ืืžืจื• ื›ื”ืŸ ืฉื“ืขืชื• ื™ืคื” ืฉื•ืจืคื” ื—ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื“ื• ืœื• ืื‘ืœ ืืžืจื• ืื™ืŸ ื ื”ื ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ

In response, Rabbi Yishmael said to him: But arenโ€™t the stomach contents of a burnt-offering subject to a more stringent prohibition than the stomach contents of an unslaughtered animal carcass? And yet they said: A priest who is open-minded [shedato yafa] with regard to what he eats may swallow [shorefah] the stomach contents of a burnt-offering while they are raw, and the other Sages did not agree with him. But the Sages said: One may not derive benefit from the stomach contents of a burnt-offering abย initio, and if one did derive benefit from them, he is not liable for misusing consecrated property. According to both opinions, deriving benefit from the stomach contents of a burnt-offering is not prohibited by Torah law. Since the halakha with regard to a burnt-offering is more stringent than that of an animal carcass, why would deriving benefit from the carcass be prohibited, while deriving benefit from the burnt-offering is permitted?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขืžื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืงื™ื‘ืช ืขื’ืœื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ื›ืŸ ืœืžื” ืœื ืืกืจื•ื” ื‘ื”ื ืื”

Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabbi Yishmael: The cheese of gentiles is prohibited because they curdle it in the stomach contents of calves used for idol worship. Since it is prohibited to derive benefit from such calves, cheese curdled in their stomach contents is also prohibited. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: If that is so, why didnโ€™t the Sages prohibit deriving any benefit from the cheese, instead of merely prohibiting its consumption?

ื”ืฉื™ืื• ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ื™ืืš ืืชื” ืงื•ืจื ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื“ื™ืš ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืื• ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื“ื™ืš

Instead of answering Rabbi Yishmael, Rabbi Yehoshua diverted his attention to another matter and said to him: Yishmael, how do you read the following verse in the Song of Songs (1:2)? Do you read it as: For Your love [dodekha] is better than wine, or as: For your love [dodayikh] is better than wine? The first version, which is in the masculine form, would be a reference to God, whereas the second version, in the feminine, would be a reference to the Jewish people.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื“ื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืŸ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžืœืžื“ ืขืœื™ื• ืœืจื™ื— ืฉืžื ื™ืš ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื

Rabbi Yishmael said to him that it should be read in the feminine: For your love [dodayikh] is better than wine. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: The matter is not so, as another verse teaches with regard to it: โ€œYour ointments [shemanekha] have a goodly fragranceโ€ (Song of Songs 1:3). This phrase, which appears in the next verse, is written in the masculine form, and therefore it is determined that the preceding verse can also be understood in the masculine form.

ื’ืžืณ ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืฉืจ ื—ืœื‘ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ืžื• ื™ืื›ืœื• ื™ืฉืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกื™ื›ื ืžื” ื–ื‘ื— ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื” ืืฃ ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื”

GEMARA: From where do we derive that wine belonging to gentiles is prohibited? Rabba bar Avuh says that the verse states: โ€œWho did eat the fat of their offerings, and drank the wine of their drink-offeringโ€ (Deuteronomy 32:38). This verse juxtaposes the fat of gentile sacrifices to their wine: Just as deriving benefit from their offering is prohibited, so too, deriving benefit from their wine is prohibited.

ื–ื‘ื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฆืžื“ื• ืœื‘ืขืœ ืคืขื•ืจ ื•ื™ืื›ืœื• ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืžืชื™ื ืžื” ืžืช ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื” ืืฃ ื–ื‘ื— ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื”

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the prohibition with regard to an offering itself? It is derived from a verse, as it is written: โ€œThey joined themselves also unto Baal of Peor, and ate the offerings to the deadโ€ (Psalms 106:28). This verse teaches that just as deriving benefit from a corpse is prohibited, so too, deriving benefit from an offering of idolatry is prohibited.

ื•ืžืช ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžื ืœืŸ ืืชื™ื ืฉื ืฉื ืžืขื’ืœื” ืขืจื•ืคื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืชืžืช ืฉื ืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ืขืจืคื• ืฉื ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื‘ื ื—ืœ ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื”

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive the prohibition of a corpse itself? The Gemara answers: It is derived from a verbal analogy between the words โ€œthereโ€ and โ€œthereโ€ employed with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken to absolve a city from bearing responsibility for the death of a visitor. It is written here: โ€œAnd Miriam died thereโ€ (Numbers 20:1), and it is written there: โ€œAnd the elders of that city shall bring down the heifer unto a rough valley, which may neither be plowed nor sown, and shall break the heiferโ€™s neck there in the valleyโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:4). Just as there, deriving benefit from the heifer is prohibited, so too here, deriving benefit from a corpse is prohibited.

ื•ื”ืชื ืžื ืœืŸ ืืžืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ื›ืงื“ืฉื™ื

And there, from where do we learn that deriving benefit from the heifer is prohibited? The Sages said in the school of Rabbi Yannai: A term of atonement is written with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken (Deuteronomy 21:8), just as it is written with regard to sacrificial animals. This teaches that deriving benefit from the heifer is prohibited, just as deriving benefit from sacrificial animals is prohibited.

ื•ื”ื—ื•ืžืฅ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืชื—ืœืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื—ืžื™ืฅ ืคืงืข ืœื™ื” ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื ืืชื ืœืืฉืžื•ืขื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืžืฅ ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื’ื•ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ื•ืชื ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื ืกื•ื›ื™ ืœื ืžื ืกื›ื™ ื•ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื—ืœื•ืคื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ื—ื•ืชื ืœื ื˜ืจื— ื•ืžื–ื™ื™ืฃ

ยง The mishna teaches: And vinegar belonging to gentiles that was originally wine is prohibited. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t this obvious? Just because the wine has soured, should its prohibition lapse? Rav Ashi said: This comes to teach us that our vinegar that is in a gentileโ€™s possession does not require a seal within a seal for it to remain permitted for consumption. Rather, one seal is sufficient. Rav Ashi explains the reason for this leniency: If the concern is due to idolatrous libation, gentiles do not offer libations of vinegar. And if it is due to the concern that a gentile may secretly exchange his prohibited vinegar with the vinegar of a Jew, since there is one seal, the gentile will not exert himself and forge a different seal in order to facilitate the exchange.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืฉื ื™ื ื• ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืชื—ืœืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ื‘ืฉื™ืœ ืคืงืข ืœื™ื” ืื™ืกื•ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื ืืชื ืœืืฉืžื•ืขื™ื ืŸ ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื’ื•ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ื•ืชื ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื ืกื•ื›ื™ ืœื ืžื ืกื›ื™ ื•ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื

Rabbi Ileโ€™a says: We learned that cooked wine belonging to gentiles that was originally uncooked wine is prohibited. The Gemara again asks: Isnโ€™t this obvious? Just because the wine was cooked, should its prohibition lapse? Rav Ashi said: This comes to teach us that our cooked wine that is in a gentileโ€™s possession does not require a seal within a seal for it to remain permitted for consumption. Rather, one seal is sufficient. Rav Ashi elaborates: If the concern is due to idolatrous libation, gentiles do not offer libations of cooked wine. And if it is due to

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Avodah Zarah 29

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 29

ืœื—ืกืคื ื™ืชื ื•ื—ื™ืœื•ืคื ืกื›ื ืชื

for facial wounds, but the reverse presents a danger.

ื—ืœื ืœืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ื•ืžื•ื ื™ื ื™ ืœืชืขื ื™ืชื ื•ื—ื™ืœื•ืคื ืกื›ื ืชื ืชื—ืœื™ ื•ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื ืกื›ื ืชื ืื™ืฉืชื ื•ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื ืกื›ื ืชื ื›ืื™ื‘ ืขื™ื ื ื•ืกื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ืกื›ื ืชื ืฉื ื™ ืœื“ื’ ื“ื ืฉื ื™ ืœื“ื ื“ื’ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืกื›ื ืชื

Vinegar is good for one to consume after bloodletting, and eating small fish is good for one who has completed a fast, but the reverse is a danger. Eating cress and then undergoing bloodletting poses a danger. With regard to one who suffers from a fever and undergoes bloodletting, this poses a danger to his life. Similarly, one who suffers from pain of the eye and undergoes bloodletting endangers to his life. On the second day after eating fish one may let blood, and on the second day after letting blood one may eat fish. With regard to eating fish on the third day after letting blood, or letting blood on the third day after eating fish, both of these actions pose a danger.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืžืงื™ื– ื“ื ืœื ื™ืื›ืœ ื—ื’ื‘ืฉ ืœื ื—ืœื‘ ื•ืœื ื’ื‘ื™ื ื” ื•ืœื ื‘ืฆืœื™ื ื•ืœื ืฉื—ืœื™ื ืื ืื›ืœ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ื™ื™ืชื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขืชื ื“ื—ืœื ื•ืจื‘ื™ืขืชื ื“ื—ืžืจื ื•ื ืขืจื‘ื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืžืคื ื” ืœื ืžืคื ื” ืืœื ืœืžื–ืจื—ื” ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืฉื” ืจื™ื—ื

ยง The Gemara presents a series of health-related statements. The Sages taught: One who lets blood may not eat the following foods, corresponding to the acronym แธฅet, gimmel, beit, shin. That is, he may consume neither milk [แธฅalav], nor cheese [gevina], nor onions [betzalim], nor cress [sheแธฅalim]. If he ate one of these, Abaye said: He should bring a quarter-log of vinegar and a quarter-log of wine and mix them together and drink the mixture. And when he defecates, he should defecate only toward the east of the city, because the odor of the excrement after that treatment is offensive. Since the wind does not usually blow from the east, it is less likely to spread the stench.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืžืื™ ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืื™ืกืชื•ืžื›ื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื ืžืื™ ืืกื•ืชื ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ื›ืžื•ื ื ื›ืจื•ื™ื™ื ื•ื ื™ื ื™ื ื•ืื’ื“ื ื ื•ืฆื™ืชืจื™ ื•ืื‘ื“ืชื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may lift the unkali on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the unkali? Rabbi Abba said: It is the edge of the ribs [istumkha] near the heart which sometimes bend inward, in which case they must be lifted and straightened into their proper position. The Gemara asks: What is the cure for one whose unkali has been bent? He should take cumin, caraway, mint [ninya], wormwood, satureja, and hyssop.

ืœืœื™ื‘ื ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืžื— ืœื‘ื‘ ืื ื•ืฉ ืœืจื•ื—ื ื‘ืžื™ื ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ื•ืจื•ื— ืืœื”ื™ื ืžืจื—ืคืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื”ืžื™ื ืœื›ื•ื“ื ื‘ืฉื™ื›ืจื ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ื•ื›ื“ื” ืขืœ ืฉื›ืžื”

This remedy is beneficial for several ailments, and the Gemara presents each of these in turn: For curing the heart, the above combination should be taken with wine, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: โ€œAnd wine that makes glad the heart of manโ€ (Psalms 104:15). For curing an ailment that arises due to the wind [ruแธฅa], one drinks the mixture in water, and your mnemonic for this is the verse: โ€œAnd the spirit [ruaแธฅ] of God hovered over the face of the watersโ€ (Genesis 1:2). For childbirth [lekhuda], a woman in labor drinks the mixture with beer [shikhra], and your mnemonic for this is the verse: โ€œWith her pitcher [vekhadah] upon her shoulder [shikhmah]โ€ (Genesis 24:15).

ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืฉื—ื™ืง ืœื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ืžืœื ื—ืžืฉ ืืฆื‘ืขืชื™ื” ื•ืฉืชื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืฉื—ื™ืง ื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ืœื—ื•ื“ื™ื” ื•ืฉืงื™ืœ ืžืœื ืืฆื‘ืขื™ื” ืจื‘ืชื™ ื•ืžืœื ืืฆื‘ืขื™ื” ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืื ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืื™ืชืกืื™ ืขื“ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ื˜ื™ื™ืขื ืื™ื™ืชื™ ื›ื•ื–ื ื—ื“ืชื ื•ืžืœื™ื™ื” ืžื™ื ื•ืจืžื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืชืจื•ื•ื“ื ื“ื“ื•ื‘ืฉื ื“ืชืœื™ ืœื” ื‘ื™ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ืื™ืฉืชื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืื™ืชืกืื™

Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rava, ground all of these together and took a handful of the mixture and drank it. Rav Ashi ground each and every one of the herbs separately and he took all that he could hold between his large finger and his small finger and drank it. Rav Pappa said: I tried all these remedies and I was not healed until a certain Arab said to me: Bring a new jug and fill it with water and place in it a ladle [tarvada] of honey that is suspended among the stars, i.e., add the ladle at night, and drink it on the next day. Rav Pappa concludes: I did this and I was healed.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžืจืคืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืœื” ืžื—ืœื™ื• ื•ืจืคื•ืืชืŸ ืจืคื•ืื” ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื›ืจื•ื‘ ื•ืชืจื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืžื™ ืกื™ืกื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ื™ืฉื” ื•ืงื™ื‘ืช ื•ื”ืจืช ื•ื™ื•ืชืจืช ื”ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ื“ื’ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉื“ื’ื™ื ืงื˜ื ื™ื ืžืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื

The Sages taught: Six items heal a sick person from his illness and their cure is a permanent cure, and these are: Cabbage, beets, water in which dried chamomile was soaked, and the stomach contents of an animal, and the womb of an animal, and the lobe of the liver. And some say: Small fish are also included in this list. And moreover, eating small fish causes a personโ€™s entire body to flourish and to grow.

ืขืฉืจื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืžื—ื–ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื—ื•ืœื” ืœื—ืœื™ื• ื•ื—ืœื™ื• ืงืฉื” ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื”ืื•ื›ืœ ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉื•ืจ ืฉื•ืžืŸ ื‘ืฉืจ ืฆืœื™ ื‘ืฉืจ ืฆื™ืคืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืฆืœื•ื™ื” ื•ืฉื—ืœื™ื ื•ืชื’ืœื—ืช ื•ืžืจื—ืฅ ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื ื” ื•ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ืื’ื•ื–ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืืฃ ืงืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืœืžื” ื ืงืจื ืฉืžืŸ ืงืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืŸ ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ื’ื•ืคื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ื›ื—ืจื‘ื•ืช

Ten items return a sick person to his illness, and his illness becomes even more severe than it originally was, and they are: One who eats ox meat, fat, roasted meat, bird meat, and a roasted egg, and cress; and the act of shaving, and bathing, and the consumption of cheese, and liver. And some say: Nuts are also included in this list. And some say: Cucumbers are also included in this list. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Why are they called cucumbers [kishuโ€™in]? Because they are as harmful [kashin] to a personโ€™s entire body as swords.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกืชืคืจื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื™ ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืžืจืื” ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื‘ืœื•ืจื™ืชื• ืฉื•ืžื˜ ืืช ื™ื“ื•

ยง The mishna teaches: And one may not have his hair cut by gentiles anywhere. The Sages taught in a baraita: A Jew who has his hair cut by a gentile should observe the gentileโ€™s actions in a mirror while he cuts his hair. And in the case of a gentile who has his hair cut by a Jew, when the Jew reaches the gentileโ€™s forelock he removes his hand and does not cut it, because it is associated with idol worship.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื™ ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืžืจืื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžื™ ืื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืžืจืื” ื•ืื™ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื›ื™ ืจื•ืื” ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืœืขื•ืœื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืžืจืื” ืžืชื—ื–ื™ ื›ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘

The Master said: A Jew who has his hair cut by a gentile should observe the gentileโ€™s actions in a mirror. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of this case? If it is referring to a haircut performed in a public domain, why do I need a mirror? After all, the gentile will not harm a Jew in public. And if it occurs in a private domain, even if the Jews observes the gentileโ€™s actions, what of it? How does the fact that the Jew is watching prevent the gentile barber from harming him? The Gemara explains: Actually, this is referring to a haircut in a private domain, but since there is a mirror in place, the Jew appears as an important person whom the gentile will hesitate to attack.

ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ื”ื•ื” ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื’ื•ื™ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ ื“ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื ื ื—ื ื ื™ืื™ ืงื•ืขื™ืš ืœื–ื•ื’ื ืืžืจ ืชื™ืชื™ ืœื™ ื“ืขื‘ืจื™ ืื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ

The Gemara relates a relevant incident: Rav แธคana bar Bizna was having his hair cut by a gentile in one of the side streets of Nehardeโ€™a. The barber said to him: แธคana, แธคana; Your throat is appealing to the razor. Rav แธคana bar Bizna said: I have this coming to me, as I violated the ruling of Rabbi Meir, who stated that one may not have his hair cut by a gentile in any location.

ื•ืื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืื™ืžืจ ื“ืืžื•ืจ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžื™ ืืžื•ืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ ื“ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ืจืฉื•ืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื“ืžื•

The Gemara asks: And didnโ€™t Rav แธคana bar Bizna violate the ruling of the Rabbis as well? Say that when the Rabbis stated that it is permitted to have oneโ€™s hair cut by a gentile, they were referring to a haircut performed in a public domain; but with regard to a haircut performed in a private domain, did they say that it is permitted? Since the side streets of Nehardeโ€™a cannot be considered a public domain, evidently Rav แธคana bar Bizna violated the ruling of the Rabbis. The Gemara explains: And Rav แธคana bar Bizna maintains: With regard to the side streets of Nehardeโ€™a, since many people are present there, they are similar to a public domain, and it would therefore be permitted to have oneโ€™s hair cut there according to the opinion of the Rabbis.

ื•ื’ื•ื™ ื”ืžืกืชืคืจ ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื‘ืœื•ืจื™ืชื• ืฉื•ืžื˜ ืืช ื™ื“ื• ื•ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ืจื•ื— ื•ืจื•ื—

The baraita stated: And in the case of a gentile who has his hair cut by a Jew, when the Jew reaches the gentileโ€™s forelock, he removes his hand and does not cut it, because it is associated with idol worship. The Gemara asks: And how much space should the Jew leave around the forelock? Rav Malkiyya says that Rav Adda bar Ahava says: Three fingerbreadths in each and every direction.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื™ืงื ืฉืคื•ื“ ืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื•ื’ื•ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื• ื‘ืœื•ืจื™ืช ืืคืจ ืžืงืœื” ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื ื” ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื”

In addition to Rav Malkiyya, whose ruling was just cited, there was another amora known as Rav Malkiyyu. In order to avoid confusing the two, the Gemara records their respective rulings. Rav แธคanina, son of Rav Ika, says: The statements concerning a skewer, maidservants, and follicles were issued by Rav Malkiyyu; the rulings concerning a forelock, burnt ashes, and cheese were stated by Rav Malkiyya.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื” ืฉืžืขืชืชื ืจื‘ ืžืœื›ื™ื• ื•ืกื™ืžื ื ืžืชื ื™ืชื ืžืœื›ืชื ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืฉืคื—ื•ืช

Rav Pappa said a different opinion: Statements from the Mishna and baraita were issued by Rav Malkiyya, whereas rulings of halakha that are not related to a mishna or baraita were taught by Rav Malkiyyu. And the mnemonic to remember this is: The Mishna is a queen [malketa], i.e., the statements that are referring to a mishna were made by Rav Malkiyya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen. The Gemara asks: What is the difference between the opinions of Rav แธคanina and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them with regard to the halakha concerning maidservants. According to Rav แธคanina, this halakha was stated by Rav Malkiyyu, whereas Rav Pappa holds that it was taught by Rav Malkiyya, as it is referring to a dispute in a mishna.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืœื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื”ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื—ื•ืžืฅ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืชื—ืœืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ืจืก ื”ื“ืจื™ื™ื ื™ ื•ืขื•ืจื•ืช ืœื‘ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื”ืงืจืข ืฉืœื• ืขื’ื•ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืžืฉื•ืš ืžื•ืชืจ

MISHNA: This mishna discusses the halakhic status of various items that belong to gentiles. These are items that belong to gentiles and are prohibited to Jews, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited: Wine, and vinegar belonging to gentiles that was originally wine, and Hadrianic earthenware, and hides with a tear opposite the heart. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A hide is prohibited only when the tear around its heart is circular, but if it is elongated it is permitted, as gentiles will sacrifice a heart only when it has been removed by a circular laceration.

ื‘ืฉืจ ื”ื ื›ื ืก ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ืืกื•ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืžืชื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ื”ื•ืœื›ื™ืŸ ืœืชืจืคื•ืช ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ืŸ ื•ื”ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

Meat that enters the house of idol worship is permitted, and meat that exits this house is prohibited, because it is considered as offerings to the dead, i.e., to idols; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. With regard to those going to a festival of idolatry [tarput], it is prohibited to engage in business with them. And with regard to those who are coming from it, it is permitted to engage in business with them.

ื ื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื•ืงื ืงื ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื ื•ืก ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื”ื—ืจืฆื ื™ื ื•ื”ื–ื’ื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื—ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื™ื‘ื™ืฉื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

Wineskins and jugs belonging to gentiles, which have a Jewโ€™s wine contained in them, are prohibited to Jews, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Their prohibition is not that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited. Residual grape seeds and grape skins belonging to gentiles, which are left behind after the grapes are crushed for wine, are prohibited, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Moist grape residues are prohibited, but dry residues are permitted.

ื”ืžื•ืจื™ื™ืก ื•ื’ื‘ื™ื ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ื ื™ื™ืงื™ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจืŸ ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื”ื ืื”

Fish stew [murayes] and cheese of Beit Unyaki belonging to gentiles are prohibited, and their prohibition is that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Their prohibition is not that of an item from which deriving benefit is prohibited.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื›ืฉื”ื™ื• ืžื”ืœื›ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจืš ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืืกืจื• ื’ื‘ื™ื ื•ืช ื’ื•ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขืžื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืงื™ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ื ื‘ื™ืœื”

Rabbi Yehuda said: Rabbi Yishmael asked Rabbi Yehoshua a series of questions while they were traveling along the road. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: For what reason did the Sages prohibit the cheeses of gentiles? Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Because gentiles curdle cheese with the stomach contents of an unslaughtered animal carcass, and as the carcass of an unslaughtered animal is not kosher, cheese that is curdled with it is likewise prohibited.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื•ื”ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืช ืขื•ืœื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืžืงื™ื‘ืช ื ื‘ื™ืœื” ืืžืจื• ื›ื”ืŸ ืฉื“ืขืชื• ื™ืคื” ืฉื•ืจืคื” ื—ื™ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื“ื• ืœื• ืื‘ืœ ืืžืจื• ืื™ืŸ ื ื”ื ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืขืœื™ืŸ

In response, Rabbi Yishmael said to him: But arenโ€™t the stomach contents of a burnt-offering subject to a more stringent prohibition than the stomach contents of an unslaughtered animal carcass? And yet they said: A priest who is open-minded [shedato yafa] with regard to what he eats may swallow [shorefah] the stomach contents of a burnt-offering while they are raw, and the other Sages did not agree with him. But the Sages said: One may not derive benefit from the stomach contents of a burnt-offering abย initio, and if one did derive benefit from them, he is not liable for misusing consecrated property. According to both opinions, deriving benefit from the stomach contents of a burnt-offering is not prohibited by Torah law. Since the halakha with regard to a burnt-offering is more stringent than that of an animal carcass, why would deriving benefit from the carcass be prohibited, while deriving benefit from the burnt-offering is permitted?

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขืžื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื‘ืงื™ื‘ืช ืขื’ืœื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ื›ืŸ ืœืžื” ืœื ืืกืจื•ื” ื‘ื”ื ืื”

Rabbi Yehoshua said to Rabbi Yishmael: The cheese of gentiles is prohibited because they curdle it in the stomach contents of calves used for idol worship. Since it is prohibited to derive benefit from such calves, cheese curdled in their stomach contents is also prohibited. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: If that is so, why didnโ€™t the Sages prohibit deriving any benefit from the cheese, instead of merely prohibiting its consumption?

ื”ืฉื™ืื• ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื”ื™ืืš ืืชื” ืงื•ืจื ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื“ื™ืš ืžื™ื™ืŸ ืื• ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื“ื™ืš

Instead of answering Rabbi Yishmael, Rabbi Yehoshua diverted his attention to another matter and said to him: Yishmael, how do you read the following verse in the Song of Songs (1:2)? Do you read it as: For Your love [dodekha] is better than wine, or as: For your love [dodayikh] is better than wine? The first version, which is in the masculine form, would be a reference to God, whereas the second version, in the feminine, would be a reference to the Jewish people.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ื™ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ื“ื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืŸ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžืœืžื“ ืขืœื™ื• ืœืจื™ื— ืฉืžื ื™ืš ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื

Rabbi Yishmael said to him that it should be read in the feminine: For your love [dodayikh] is better than wine. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: The matter is not so, as another verse teaches with regard to it: โ€œYour ointments [shemanekha] have a goodly fragranceโ€ (Song of Songs 1:3). This phrase, which appears in the next verse, is written in the masculine form, and therefore it is determined that the preceding verse can also be understood in the masculine form.

ื’ืžืณ ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืฉืจ ื—ืœื‘ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ืžื• ื™ืื›ืœื• ื™ืฉืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืกื™ื›ื ืžื” ื–ื‘ื— ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื” ืืฃ ื™ื™ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื”

GEMARA: From where do we derive that wine belonging to gentiles is prohibited? Rabba bar Avuh says that the verse states: โ€œWho did eat the fat of their offerings, and drank the wine of their drink-offeringโ€ (Deuteronomy 32:38). This verse juxtaposes the fat of gentile sacrifices to their wine: Just as deriving benefit from their offering is prohibited, so too, deriving benefit from their wine is prohibited.

ื–ื‘ื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฆืžื“ื• ืœื‘ืขืœ ืคืขื•ืจ ื•ื™ืื›ืœื• ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืžืชื™ื ืžื” ืžืช ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื” ืืฃ ื–ื‘ื— ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื”

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive the prohibition with regard to an offering itself? It is derived from a verse, as it is written: โ€œThey joined themselves also unto Baal of Peor, and ate the offerings to the deadโ€ (Psalms 106:28). This verse teaches that just as deriving benefit from a corpse is prohibited, so too, deriving benefit from an offering of idolatry is prohibited.

ื•ืžืช ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ืžื ืœืŸ ืืชื™ื ืฉื ืฉื ืžืขื’ืœื” ืขืจื•ืคื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืชืžืช ืฉื ืžืจื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ืขืจืคื• ืฉื ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ื‘ื ื—ืœ ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื ืžื™ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ื”ื ืื”

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive the prohibition of a corpse itself? The Gemara answers: It is derived from a verbal analogy between the words โ€œthereโ€ and โ€œthereโ€ employed with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken to absolve a city from bearing responsibility for the death of a visitor. It is written here: โ€œAnd Miriam died thereโ€ (Numbers 20:1), and it is written there: โ€œAnd the elders of that city shall bring down the heifer unto a rough valley, which may neither be plowed nor sown, and shall break the heiferโ€™s neck there in the valleyโ€ (Deuteronomy 21:4). Just as there, deriving benefit from the heifer is prohibited, so too here, deriving benefit from a corpse is prohibited.

ื•ื”ืชื ืžื ืœืŸ ืืžืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื›ืคืจื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ื›ืงื“ืฉื™ื

And there, from where do we learn that deriving benefit from the heifer is prohibited? The Sages said in the school of Rabbi Yannai: A term of atonement is written with regard to the heifer whose neck is broken (Deuteronomy 21:8), just as it is written with regard to sacrificial animals. This teaches that deriving benefit from the heifer is prohibited, just as deriving benefit from sacrificial animals is prohibited.

ื•ื”ื—ื•ืžืฅ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืชื—ืœืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื—ืžื™ืฅ ืคืงืข ืœื™ื” ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื ืืชื ืœืืฉืžื•ืขื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ืžืฅ ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื’ื•ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ื•ืชื ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื ืกื•ื›ื™ ืœื ืžื ืกื›ื™ ื•ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื—ืœื•ืคื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ื—ื•ืชื ืœื ื˜ืจื— ื•ืžื–ื™ื™ืฃ

ยง The mishna teaches: And vinegar belonging to gentiles that was originally wine is prohibited. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t this obvious? Just because the wine has soured, should its prohibition lapse? Rav Ashi said: This comes to teach us that our vinegar that is in a gentileโ€™s possession does not require a seal within a seal for it to remain permitted for consumption. Rather, one seal is sufficient. Rav Ashi explains the reason for this leniency: If the concern is due to idolatrous libation, gentiles do not offer libations of vinegar. And if it is due to the concern that a gentile may secretly exchange his prohibited vinegar with the vinegar of a Jew, since there is one seal, the gentile will not exert himself and forge a different seal in order to facilitate the exchange.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืฉื ื™ื ื• ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžืชื—ืœืชื• ื™ื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ื‘ืฉื™ืœ ืคืงืข ืœื™ื” ืื™ืกื•ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื ืืชื ืœืืฉืžื•ืขื™ื ืŸ ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื•ืฉืœ ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ื™ื“ ื’ื•ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื—ื•ืชื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื—ื•ืชื ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื ืกื•ื›ื™ ืœื ืžื ืกื›ื™ ื•ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื

Rabbi Ileโ€™a says: We learned that cooked wine belonging to gentiles that was originally uncooked wine is prohibited. The Gemara again asks: Isnโ€™t this obvious? Just because the wine was cooked, should its prohibition lapse? Rav Ashi said: This comes to teach us that our cooked wine that is in a gentileโ€™s possession does not require a seal within a seal for it to remain permitted for consumption. Rather, one seal is sufficient. Rav Ashi elaborates: If the concern is due to idolatrous libation, gentiles do not offer libations of cooked wine. And if it is due to

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