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Today's Daf Yomi

March 8, 2018 | ื›ืดื ื‘ืื“ืจ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Avodah Zarah 52

Study Guide Avoda Zara 52. When does an idol become forbidden? From the time it was created or from the time it was worshipped? What about a utensil for idol worship? Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael disagree andย the amoraimย bring proof texts for each of them. Several questions are asked regarding the impurity that the rabbis instituted for items of idol worship. Can the impurity on a food that was offered up to an idol and then canceled by a non-Jewย be considered pure or is the law the same as the benefit which is forbidden forever even if the item is cancelled? Can items used in the temple built by Onias (Chonyo) be used in the Beit Hamikdash?


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ืชื ื”ื• ืขื ื™ืŸ ืœื›ืœื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืืžืจื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ืื™ื ื” ืืกื•ืจื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื™ื“

Since the verse does not apply to places that were themselves worshipped, apply it to the matter of vessels that were used for idol worship. It is from here that the Sages stated: A gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is not prohibited until it is worshipped, but a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship is forbidden immediately.

ื•ื”ื ื‘ื›ืœื™ื ืื•ืงื™ืžื ื ืœื” ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื™ืจืฉื™ื ืืชื ืืช ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืžืงื™ืฉ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืœื›ืœื™ื ืžื” ื›ืœื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืฃ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ื ืžื™ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืœื ืžืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืืช ื”ืคืกื™ืง ื”ืขื ื™ืŸ

The Gemara questions how the halakha with regard to an object of idol worship is derived from this verse. But didnโ€™t we interpret this verse as being stated with regard to vessels used in idolatrous worship, and not to an object of idol worship? The Gemara answers: The verse states: โ€œYou shall destroy all the places, where the nations that you are to dispossess served their godsโ€ (Deuteronomy 12:2). The verse juxtaposes โ€œtheir godsโ€ to โ€œthe places,โ€ i.e., the vessels used to serve them. Just as the vessels are not forbidden until they are used for worship, so too their gods, the idols, are also not forbidden until they are worshipped. And Rabbi Akiva, who does not consider the terms juxtaposed, he could say to you that the word โ€œet,โ€ written in the verse before the term โ€œtheir gods,โ€ separates the matter of their gods from the matter of the vessels.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืฉื›ื—ืŸ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื” ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ืกื‘ืจื ื”ื•ื ืžื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืื™ืžื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืœืœ ื•ื›ืœืœ ืœื ื”ืฉืชื ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ืื™ืชืกื•ืจื™ ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื

The Gemara asks: And as for the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, we found a source for the halakha that a gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is not prohibited until it is worshipped. From where does he derive that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship is prohibited immediately? The Gemara answers: It is based on logical reasoning. From the fact that a gentileโ€™s idol is not forbidden until it is worshipped, it stands to reason that a Jewโ€™s idol is prohibited immediately. The Gemara asks: Why not say that a Jewโ€™s idol is not forbidden at all? The Gemara answers: Now, the status of a Jewโ€™s idol cannot be revoked and the idol requires interment. Is it possible that it does not become prohibited?

ื•ืื™ืžื ื›ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืืช ื—ื˜ืืชื›ื ืืฉืจ ืขืฉื™ืชื ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœ ืžืฉืขืช ืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืงื ืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื˜ื

The Gemara challenges: But one could say that a Jewโ€™s idol is forbidden only once it is worshipped, just as a gentileโ€™s idol is forbidden only once it is worshipped. The Gemara answers: The verse states: โ€œAnd I took your sin, the calf that you had made, and I burned it with fireโ€ (Deuteronomy 9:21), which indicates that from the time of its making its worshippers were liable for the sin.

ืื™ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืงื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ื—ื˜ื ืื™ืชืกื•ืจื™ ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืจื•ืจ ื”ืื™ืฉ ืืฉืจ ื™ืขืฉื” ืคืกืœ ื•ืžืกื›ื” ืžืฉืขืช ืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืงื ืœื™ื” ื‘ืืจื•ืจ

The Gemara asks: Why not say that this matter applies only with regard to rendering the man who made the idol liable for the sin, but the object of idol worship does not become prohibited until it is worshipped? The Gemara answers: The verse states: โ€œCursed be the man who shall make a graven or molten image, an abomination to the Lord, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15), which indicates that from the time of its making the person who made the idol is liable to be cursed.

ืื™ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืงื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ืืจื•ืจ ืื™ืชืกื•ืจื™ ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื ืชื•ืขื‘ืช ื”ืณ ื›ืชื™ื‘

The Gemara asks: Why not say that this matter applies only with regard to rendering the man who made the idol liable to be cursed, but the object of idol worship does not become prohibited until it is worshipped? The Gemara answers: It is written: โ€œAn abomination to the Lordโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15). This indicates that the idol itself is an abomination and is therefore prohibited from the time that it is made.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืชื•ืขื‘ื”

The Gemara asks: And as for Rabbi Akiva, who does not maintain that a Jewโ€™s idol is forbidden from the time that it is made, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva explains that the term โ€œan abominationโ€ means an object that leads to abomination but itself is not considered an abomination before it is worshipped.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืคืกื™ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืชืฉืจืคื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉ ืžืฉืคืกืœื• ื ืขืฉื” ืืœื•ื”

The Gemara explains the opinion of Rabbi Akiva: And as for the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, from where does he derive that a gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is prohibited immediately? Ulla said: The verse states: โ€œThe graven images of their gods you shall burn with fire; you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them and take it for yourself, lest you be snared thereby, for it is an abomination to the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:25). The term โ€œgraven imagesโ€ indicates that from the time that the gentile engraves and carves the stone into an idol it becomes a god and is forbidden.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื’ื•ื™ ืฉืคื•ืกืœ ืืœื•ื”ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืคืกื™ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืชืฉืจืคื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉ

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Yishmael, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael requires that verse for that which Rav Yosef teaches in a baraita, as Rav Yosef teaches: From where is it derived that a gentile may revoke [sheposel] the status of an object as his god? This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œThe graven images of [pesilei] their gods you shall burn with fireโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:25).

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ืชื—ืžื“ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืงื—ืช ืœืš ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืคืกืœื• ืœืืœื•ื” ืœื ืชื—ืžื“ ืคืกืœื• ืžืืœื•ื” ื•ืœืงื—ืช ืœืš

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Akiva, from where does he derive this halakha? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva derives it from the interpretation of Shmuel, as Shmuel raises a contradiction: It is written: โ€œThe graven images of [pesilei] their gods you shall burn with fire; you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on themโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:25), and in the continuation of the verse it is written: โ€œAnd take it for yourself,โ€ indicating that one is permitted to take the silver and gold. How can these texts be reconciled? If the gentile engraved and carved the stone as a god, it is immediately rendered forbidden and the prohibition โ€œyou shall not covetโ€ applies. If the gentile revoked [pesalo] the idolโ€™s status as a god, the continuation of the verse: โ€œAnd take it for yourself,โ€ applies.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืฉื›ื—ืŸ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ืžื ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืฉื ื‘ืกืชืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขืฉื” ืœื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืกืชืจ

The Gemara asks: And as for the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, we found a source for the halakha that a gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is prohibited immediately. From where do we derive that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship is not forbidden until it is worshipped? Rav Yehuda said that the verse states: โ€œCursed be the man who shall make a graven or molten imageโ€ฆand shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15). This indicates that the idol is not rendered forbidden until the idolater performs in service of the idol those matters, i.e., rites, that are performed in a hidden place.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื ื‘ืกืชืจ

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Yishmael, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael requires that verse for that which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says, as Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: From where is it derived that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship requires interment? This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œAnd shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15), which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak interprets as requiring one to inter the idol in a hidden place.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื ืชื˜ืข ืœืš ืืฉืจื” ื›ืœ ืขืฅ ืืฆืœ ืžื–ื‘ื— ืžื” ืžื–ื‘ื— ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืืฃ ืืฉืจื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื’ื ื™ื–ื”

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Akiva, from where does he derive this halakha? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva derives it from that which Rav แธคisda says that Rav says, as Rav แธคisda says that Rav says: From where is it derived that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship requires interment? This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œYou shall not plant for yourself an ashera of any kind of tree beside the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:21). The verse juxtaposes an ashera, a tree used as part of idolatrous rites, to the altar. This indicates that just as the altar requires interment, so too an ashera requires interment.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืžื™ื“ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื”ื’ื•ืŸ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื•ื˜ืข ืืฉืจื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉืคื˜ื™ื ื•ืฉื˜ืจื™ื ืชืชืŸ ืœืš ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืขืจื™ืš ื•ืกืžื™ืš ืœื™ื” ืœื ืชื˜ืข ืœืš ืืฉืจื” ื›ืœ ืขืฅ

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Yishmael, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael requires that verse for that which Reish Lakish says, as Reish Lakish says: Anyone who appoints over the community a judge who is unfit for the position, due to his lack of knowledge or wickedness, is considered as though he plants an ashera among the Jewish people, as it is stated: โ€œJudges and officers you shall make for yourself in all of your gatesโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:18), and juxtaposed to it is the verse: โ€œYou shall not plant for yourself an ashera of any kind of tree beside the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:21).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื•ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื˜ืขื• ืืฆืœ ืžื–ื‘ื— ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืฆืœ ืžื–ื‘ื—

Rav Ashi says: And if one appoints an unsuitable individual as a judge in a place where there are Torah scholars, it is as though he planted an ashera next to the altar, as it is stated: โ€œBeside the altar of the Lord your God.โ€

ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืจื™ืชืš ื›ืœื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื”ื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ืžืืŸ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืžืฉืžืฉื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืžืฉื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืœื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ

ยง Rav Hamnuna raises a dilemma: If one welded [ritekh] a broken vessel for idol worship, what is the halakha? The Gemara asks: With regard to whose idol worship does Rav Hamnuna raise the dilemma? If we say that Rav Hamnuna is referring to a gentileโ€™s idol worship, that is difficult, as both according to Rabbi Yishmael and according to Rabbi Akiva vessels used in idolatrous worship are considered accessories of idol worship, and accessories of idol worship are not prohibited until they are used for worship. Rather, Rav Hamnuna is referring to a Jewsโ€™ idol worship.

ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืžืืŸ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ืฉืชื ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ืคื” ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืืœื ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion does Rav Hamnuna raise the dilemma? If we say that he raises the dilemma in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, this is difficult. Now that the idol itself is not prohibited until it is worshipped, is it necessary to state that its accessories are not forbidden until they are used for idol worship? Rather, perhaps Rav Hamnuna raises the dilemma in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who says that a Jewโ€™s idol is prohibited immediately.

ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืžืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ื’ืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืžื” ื”ืชื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืฃ ื”ื›ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืžื™ื ื” ื’ืžืจ ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืืฃ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื™ื“

The Gemara suggest an explanation of the dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to a Jewโ€™s accessories of idol worship? Do we learn the halakha with regard to a Jewโ€™s accessories from the halakha with regard to a gentileโ€™s accessories? Just as there, in the case of a gentileโ€™s accessories of idol worship, they are not forbidden until they are used for idol worship, so too here, in the case of a Jewโ€™s accessories of idol worship, they are not forbidden until they are used for idol worship. Or perhaps the halakha is learned from the halakha with regard to a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship itself. Just as the idol itself is prohibited immediately, so too its accessories are prohibited immediately.

ืžืื™ ืื™ืจื™ื ื“ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืชืš ื›ืœื™ ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืขืฉื”

The Gemara rejects this explanation: If that is the explanation of Rav Hamnunaโ€™s dilemma, why does he specifically raise the dilemma with regard to one who welded a broken vessel? Let him raise the dilemma with regard to one who fashioned a vessel for idolatrous worship.

ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืžืฉื•ื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื™ืฉื ื” ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœื™ ืžืชื›ื•ืช ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื”ืŸ ื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื ืฉืชื‘ืจื• ื˜ื”ืจื• ื—ื–ืจ ื•ืขืฉืืŸ ื›ืœื™ื ื™ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื™ืฉื ื”

The Gemara answers: Rav Hamnuna is referring to a vessel that was used for idol worship before it broke, and he is raising the dilemma with regard to the matter of previous ritual impurity. As we learned in a mishna (Kelim 11:1): With regard to metal vessels, both their flat vessels, which have no repositories, and their receptacles, vessels that have repositories, are all impure if they came into contact with a primary source of ritual impurity. If they broke, they thereby became purified. But if one remade the broken vessels into new vessels, they reassume their previous impurity.

ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื“ืจื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืื‘ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœื ืฉื ื ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืฉืืจ ื˜ื•ืžืื•ืช ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And this is the dilemma that Rav Hamnuna is raising: When the mishna teaches that a vessel that is remade reassumes its impurity, does this matter apply only to impurity by Torah law, but in the case of impurity by rabbinic law, such as the impurity of an object of idol worship, it does not apply? Or perhaps there is no difference between impurity by Torah law and impurity by rabbinic law. The Gemara asks: If that is the explanation of Rav Hamnunaโ€™s dilemma, why does he specifically discuss a vessel used for idol worship? Let him raise the dilemma with regard to any other type of impurity by rabbinic law.

ื—ื“ื ืžื’ื• ื—ื“ื ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื™ ื”ื“ืจื ืื• ืœื ื”ื“ืจื ื•ืื ืชื™ืžืฆื™ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื ื”ื“ืจื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžืฉื•ื ื—ื•ืžืจื ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื™ ืฉื•ื™ื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืื• ืœื ืชื™ืงื•

The Gemara answers: Rav Hamnuna is raising two dilemmas, one of which stems from the other. Is impurity by rabbinic law reassumed, or is it not reassumed? And if you say that it is not reassumed, what is the halakha with regard to the impurity of an object of idol worship? Did the Sages render its status like that of impurity by Torah law, due to the stringency of idol worship, or not? The Gemara concludes: The dilemmas shall stand unresolved.

ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืชืงืจื•ื‘ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืžื”ื• ืžื™ ืžื”ื ื™ื ืœื”ื• ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืœื˜ื”ืจื™ื ื”ื• ืžื˜ื•ืžืื” ืื• ืœื

ยง Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raised a dilemma to Rabbi Yannai: With regard to an offering consisting of food brought in idolatrous worship, what is the halakha? Is the revocation of their status as an object of idol worship by a gentile effective to purify them from the ritual impurity of an offering brought in idolatrous worship or is it not effective?

ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœื™ื ื›ืœื™ื ืœื ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื˜ื”ืจื” ื‘ืžืงื•ื” ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื ืžื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื™ ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara suggests: And let him raise the dilemma with regard to whether revocation of vesselsโ€™ status purifies vessels used in idol worship from their impurity. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan does not raise the dilemma with regard to vessels, since they have the ability to attain purity by being immersed in a ritual bath, and therefore their impurity can certainly also be nullified. When he raises the dilemma, it is only with regard to food, which cannot be purified in a ritual bath.

ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื’ื•ืคื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื’ื•ืคื” ืœื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara suggests: Let him raise the dilemma with regard to whether revoking its status purifies the object of idol worship itself in a case where it consists of food. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan does not raise the dilemma with regard to the object of idol worship itself,

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื” ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื ืžื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื™ ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืชืงืจื•ื‘ืช ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืœื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื ืžื™ ืœื ื‘ื˜ืœื” ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืœื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ืชื™ืงื•

as, since its prohibition is nullified, its impurity is also nullified. When he raises the dilemma, it is only with regard to an offering consisting of food brought in idolatrous worship. What is the halakha? Does one say that since its prohibition is not nullified, in accordance with the statement of Rav Giddel, who teaches that the prohibition that takes effect with regard to offerings brought in idolatrous worship is never nullified, therefore the impurity is also not nullified? Or perhaps only their prohibition, which is by Torah law, is not nullified, but their impurity, which is by rabbinic law, is nullified. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืื•ืœ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ื ื™ื• ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ

ยง Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul asked Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: With regard to vessels that were used in the temple of Onias, what is the halakha with regard to using them in the Temple?

ื•ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ื ื™ื• ืœืื• ื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ื ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืฉืžืฉื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ

And he raised this dilemma according to the opinion of the one who says that the temple of Onias was not a temple of idol worship. As we learned in a mishna (Menaแธฅot 109a): Priests who served in the temple of Onias may not serve in the Temple that is in Jerusalem, and needless to say, those priests who served in a temple of something else, i.e., idol worship, may not serve in the Temple in Jerusalem. This distinction indicates that the temple of Onias was not a temple of idol worship. It was used for the service of God, but it violated the prohibition against sacrificing offerings outside of the Temple in Jerusalem.

ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืกื™ื ื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ื ื™ ื“ืขื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœื™ื ืœื ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœื ืฉื ื

The Gemara explains the dilemma: Does one say that it is only the priests that the Sages penalized by preventing them from serving in the Temple, as they possess awareness and are responsible for their actions, but they did not institute a similar decree with regard to vessels, as they are inanimate? Or perhaps there is no difference, and the decree also applies to the vessels.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืืกื•ืจื™ื ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืงืจื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื•ืฉื›ื—ื ื•ื”ื•

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul: The vessels that were used in the temple of Onias are prohibited, and we possessed knowledge of a verse from which this halakha was derived, but we forgot which verse it is.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ื–ื ื™ื— ื”ืžืœืš ืื—ื– ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื• ื‘ืžืขืœื• ื”ื›ื ื• ื•ื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื”ื›ื ื• ื“ืื˜ื‘ืœื™ื ื”ื• ื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉื ื ื”ื•

Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul raised an objection to this ruling from a verse referring to vessels of the Temple that Ahaz had used for idol worship: โ€œAll the vessels, which King Ahaz in his reign did cast away when he acted treacherously, we have prepared and sanctified, and, behold, they are before the altar of the Lordโ€ (IIย Chronicles 29:19). What, is it not the case that the term โ€œwe have preparedโ€ means that we immersed them in a ritual bath, and the term โ€œsanctifiedโ€ means that we sanctified them to be used again in the Temple? This would indicate that the vessels may be used in the Temple even though they were used in idolatrous worship.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ืœืฉืžื™ื ืฉื”ื—ื–ืจืช ืœื™ ืื‘ื“ืชื™ ื”ื›ื ื• ืฉื’ื ื–ื ื•ื ื•ื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ืฉื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ืื—ืจื™ื ืชื—ืชื™ื”ื

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul: Blessed are you to Heaven, as you have returned my lost verse to me. That verse is the forgotten source of the halakha that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi stated, and it should be interpreted as follows: โ€œWe have preparedโ€ means that we interred them; โ€œand sanctifiedโ€ means that we sanctified other vessels in their stead, as the vessels used by Ahaz were forbidden, and the same applies to the vessels from the temple of Onias.

ืœื™ืžื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ื” ื’ื ื–ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ ืืช ืื‘ื ื™ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ืฉืฉืงืฆื• ืื ืฉื™ ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืฉืฉืงืฆื• ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื”

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that the mishna supports Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s opinion (Middot 1:6): The northeast chamber of the Chamber of the Hearth was the chamber in which the Hasmoneans sequestered the altar stones that the people of Greece desecrated. And Rav Sheshet says: This means that they desecrated the stones by using them for idol worship. This indicates that Temple vessels that were used in idolatrous worship can no longer be used and must be sequestered.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ืชื ืงืจื ืืฉื›ื— ื•ื“ืจืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ืื• ื‘ื” ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื—ืœืœื•ื”

Rav Pappa said: That case of the altarโ€™s stones is different, because there a Sage found a verse and interpreted it homiletically, as it is written: โ€œAnd they shall profane My secret place, and robbers shall enter into it and profane itโ€ (Ezekiel 7:22). The verse indicates that when the gentiles entered the Temple and desecrated it, the altar was desacralized and acquired non-sacred status. Consequently, when the stones were subsequently used for idolatrous worship they were rendered forbidden even for non-sacred use.

ืืžืจื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื ื™ืชื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื• ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื ื ืกืจื™ื ื”ื• ืœื ืชื ื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื‘ืจื–ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื

The Gemara explains why the altarโ€™s stones were sequestered: The Hasmoneans said: What should we do to revoke the stoneโ€™s forbidden status? Shall we break them? That is not possible, as the Merciful One states in the Torah: โ€œYou shall build the altar of the Lord your God of unhewn stonesโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:6). Shall we saw them without breaking them? That is also not a viable option, as the Merciful One states in the Torah: โ€œYou shall lift up no iron tool upon themโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:5). There was therefore no alternative to sequestering the stones.

ื•ืืžืื™ ืœื™ืชื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืœื™ืฉืงืœื™ื ื”ื• ืœื ืคืฉื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื’ื ื•ื– ื›ืœ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ืกืคื ื•ื“ื”ื‘ื ืฉืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื”ื•ื™ื ืจื•ื‘ื ื“ืขืœืžื

The Gemara asks: But why did the Hasmoneans have no alternative? Let them break the stones and take them for themselves. Didnโ€™t Rav Oshaya say: The Sages wished to sequester all of the silver and gold in the world because of the silver and gold of Jerusalem, most of which was consecrated to the Temple treasury and became mixed with other silver and gold. And we discussed it and asked: Is Jerusalem the majority of the world that all of the silver and gold of the world should be forbidden as perhaps it came from Jerusalem?

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื’ื ื•ื– ื“ื™ื ืจื ื”ื“ืจื™ื™ืื ื ื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื ืฉื™ืคื ืžืคื ื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื” ืฉืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืžืฆืื• ืœื” ืžืงืจื ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื‘ืื• ื‘ื” ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื—ืœืœื•ื”

Rather, Abaye said: The Sages wished to sequester all of the worn-out dinars of Hadrian and Trajan because of the coins of Jerusalem, as it was known that these coins contained a large quantity of the Temple treasuryโ€™s gold and silver. They did not permit the use of these coins until they found a verse in the Torah indicating that it is permitted: โ€œAnd robbers shall enter into it, and profane itโ€ (Ezekiel 7:22).

ื”ืชื ืœื ืืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื”ื• ืœื’ื‘ื•ื” ื”ื›ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื• ืœื’ื‘ื•ื” ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื ืœืืฉืชืžื•ืฉื™ ื‘ื”ื• ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ื

The Gemara answers: The two cases are not comparable. There, the coins of Jerusalem had not been used in service of the Most High; they were only consecrated. Here, since the stones of the altar had been used in service of the Most High, it is not proper conduct for an ordinary person to make use of them, and therefore the Hasmoneans sequestered the stones.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื•ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื”ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ื‘ื™ื˜ืœ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื”

MISHNA: A gentile can revoke the status of his object of idol worship and the status of the idol of another gentile, but a Jew cannot revoke the status of the object of idol worship of a gentile. One who revokes the status of an object of idol worship thereby revokes the status of its accessories. But if he revokes the status of its accessories, its accessories alone are rendered permitted, but the object of idol worship itself remains prohibited.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืชื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื•ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉื ื™ืช ืœื ื• ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชืš ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื•ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื™ ืงื ืžื‘ื˜ืœื” ื•ื”ื ื•ืฉื ื‘ืกืชืจ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื•ืœืก ืœื ื ืฆืจื›ื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื‘ื” ืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช

GEMARA: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the following version of the mishna: A gentile can revoke the status of his object of idol worship and the status of the idol of another gentile. Rabbi Shimon said to him: My teacher, in your youth, i.e., when you were younger, you taught us a different version of the mishna: A gentile can revoke the status of his object of idol worship and the status of the object of idol worship of a Jew. The Gemara asks: Can the status of a Jewโ€™s idol be revoked? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15), from which the Sages derived that a Jewโ€™s idol requires interment? Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Volas, said: No, this halakha is necessary in a case where the gentile has partnership in the idol, and therefore it is possible to say that its status can be revoked.

ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ืžืื™ ืงืกื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืžืื™ ืงืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ืกื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื“ืขืชื ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืคืœื— ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื ืžื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœื” ื•ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืกื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื“ืขืชื ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืคืœื— ื›ื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: What did Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hold in his youth, and what did he hold in his old age? The Gemara answers: In his youth he held that the Jew worships the idol based on the intention of the gentile. Once the gentile revokes the status of his share in the idol, the status of the share of the Jew is also revoked. But in his old age Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held that the Jew worships the idol based on his own intentions. Therefore, when the gentile revokes the status of the object of idol worship, he revokes the status of only his own share, but the status of the share of the Jew is not revoked.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืืกื™ืคื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื”

There are those who teach Rabbi Hillelโ€™s statement with regard to the latter clause of the mishna: A Jew cannot revoke the status of the object of idol worship of a gentile. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t that obvious? Said Rabbi Hillel, son

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Avodah Zarah 52

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 52

ืชื ื”ื• ืขื ื™ืŸ ืœื›ืœื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ืืžืจื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ืื™ื ื” ืืกื•ืจื” ืืœื ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื™ื“

Since the verse does not apply to places that were themselves worshipped, apply it to the matter of vessels that were used for idol worship. It is from here that the Sages stated: A gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is not prohibited until it is worshipped, but a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship is forbidden immediately.

ื•ื”ื ื‘ื›ืœื™ื ืื•ืงื™ืžื ื ืœื” ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืฉืจ ืืชื ื™ืจืฉื™ื ืืชื ืืช ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืžืงื™ืฉ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืœื›ืœื™ื ืžื” ื›ืœื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืฃ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ื ืžื™ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืœื ืžืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืืช ื”ืคืกื™ืง ื”ืขื ื™ืŸ

The Gemara questions how the halakha with regard to an object of idol worship is derived from this verse. But didnโ€™t we interpret this verse as being stated with regard to vessels used in idolatrous worship, and not to an object of idol worship? The Gemara answers: The verse states: โ€œYou shall destroy all the places, where the nations that you are to dispossess served their godsโ€ (Deuteronomy 12:2). The verse juxtaposes โ€œtheir godsโ€ to โ€œthe places,โ€ i.e., the vessels used to serve them. Just as the vessels are not forbidden until they are used for worship, so too their gods, the idols, are also not forbidden until they are worshipped. And Rabbi Akiva, who does not consider the terms juxtaposed, he could say to you that the word โ€œet,โ€ written in the verse before the term โ€œtheir gods,โ€ separates the matter of their gods from the matter of the vessels.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืฉื›ื—ืŸ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื” ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ืกื‘ืจื ื”ื•ื ืžื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืื™ืžื ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืœืœ ื•ื›ืœืœ ืœื ื”ืฉืชื ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ื‘ืขื™ื ืื™ืชืกื•ืจื™ ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื

The Gemara asks: And as for the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, we found a source for the halakha that a gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is not prohibited until it is worshipped. From where does he derive that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship is prohibited immediately? The Gemara answers: It is based on logical reasoning. From the fact that a gentileโ€™s idol is not forbidden until it is worshipped, it stands to reason that a Jewโ€™s idol is prohibited immediately. The Gemara asks: Why not say that a Jewโ€™s idol is not forbidden at all? The Gemara answers: Now, the status of a Jewโ€™s idol cannot be revoked and the idol requires interment. Is it possible that it does not become prohibited?

ื•ืื™ืžื ื›ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืืช ื—ื˜ืืชื›ื ืืฉืจ ืขืฉื™ืชื ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœ ืžืฉืขืช ืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืงื ืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื˜ื

The Gemara challenges: But one could say that a Jewโ€™s idol is forbidden only once it is worshipped, just as a gentileโ€™s idol is forbidden only once it is worshipped. The Gemara answers: The verse states: โ€œAnd I took your sin, the calf that you had made, and I burned it with fireโ€ (Deuteronomy 9:21), which indicates that from the time of its making its worshippers were liable for the sin.

ืื™ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืงื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ื—ื˜ื ืื™ืชืกื•ืจื™ ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืจื•ืจ ื”ืื™ืฉ ืืฉืจ ื™ืขืฉื” ืคืกืœ ื•ืžืกื›ื” ืžืฉืขืช ืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืงื ืœื™ื” ื‘ืืจื•ืจ

The Gemara asks: Why not say that this matter applies only with regard to rendering the man who made the idol liable for the sin, but the object of idol worship does not become prohibited until it is worshipped? The Gemara answers: The verse states: โ€œCursed be the man who shall make a graven or molten image, an abomination to the Lord, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15), which indicates that from the time of its making the person who made the idol is liable to be cursed.

ืื™ืžื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœืžื™ืงื ื’ื‘ืจื ื‘ืืจื•ืจ ืื™ืชืกื•ืจื™ ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื ืชื•ืขื‘ืช ื”ืณ ื›ืชื™ื‘

The Gemara asks: Why not say that this matter applies only with regard to rendering the man who made the idol liable to be cursed, but the object of idol worship does not become prohibited until it is worshipped? The Gemara answers: It is written: โ€œAn abomination to the Lordโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15). This indicates that the idol itself is an abomination and is therefore prohibited from the time that it is made.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืชื•ืขื‘ื”

The Gemara asks: And as for Rabbi Akiva, who does not maintain that a Jewโ€™s idol is forbidden from the time that it is made, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva explains that the term โ€œan abominationโ€ means an object that leads to abomination but itself is not considered an abomination before it is worshipped.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืžื ื ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืขื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืคืกื™ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืชืฉืจืคื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉ ืžืฉืคืกืœื• ื ืขืฉื” ืืœื•ื”

The Gemara explains the opinion of Rabbi Akiva: And as for the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, from where does he derive that a gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is prohibited immediately? Ulla said: The verse states: โ€œThe graven images of their gods you shall burn with fire; you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them and take it for yourself, lest you be snared thereby, for it is an abomination to the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:25). The term โ€œgraven imagesโ€ indicates that from the time that the gentile engraves and carves the stone into an idol it becomes a god and is forbidden.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื’ื•ื™ ืฉืคื•ืกืœ ืืœื•ื”ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืคืกื™ืœื™ ืืœื”ื™ื”ื ืชืฉืจืคื•ืŸ ื‘ืืฉ

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Yishmael, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael requires that verse for that which Rav Yosef teaches in a baraita, as Rav Yosef teaches: From where is it derived that a gentile may revoke [sheposel] the status of an object as his god? This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œThe graven images of [pesilei] their gods you shall burn with fireโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:25).

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื ืชื—ืžื“ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืงื—ืช ืœืš ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืคืกืœื• ืœืืœื•ื” ืœื ืชื—ืžื“ ืคืกืœื• ืžืืœื•ื” ื•ืœืงื—ืช ืœืš

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Akiva, from where does he derive this halakha? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva derives it from the interpretation of Shmuel, as Shmuel raises a contradiction: It is written: โ€œThe graven images of [pesilei] their gods you shall burn with fire; you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on themโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:25), and in the continuation of the verse it is written: โ€œAnd take it for yourself,โ€ indicating that one is permitted to take the silver and gold. How can these texts be reconciled? If the gentile engraved and carved the stone as a god, it is immediately rendered forbidden and the prohibition โ€œyou shall not covetโ€ applies. If the gentile revoked [pesalo] the idolโ€™s status as a god, the continuation of the verse: โ€œAnd take it for yourself,โ€ applies.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืฉื›ื—ืŸ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ืžื ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืงืจื ื•ืฉื ื‘ืกืชืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขืฉื” ืœื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืกืชืจ

The Gemara asks: And as for the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, we found a source for the halakha that a gentileโ€™s object of idol worship is prohibited immediately. From where do we derive that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship is not forbidden until it is worshipped? Rav Yehuda said that the verse states: โ€œCursed be the man who shall make a graven or molten imageโ€ฆand shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15). This indicates that the idol is not rendered forbidden until the idolater performs in service of the idol those matters, i.e., rites, that are performed in a hidden place.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื ื‘ืกืชืจ

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Yishmael, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael requires that verse for that which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says, as Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: From where is it derived that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship requires interment? This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œAnd shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15), which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak interprets as requiring one to inter the idol in a hidden place.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื ืชื˜ืข ืœืš ืืฉืจื” ื›ืœ ืขืฅ ืืฆืœ ืžื–ื‘ื— ืžื” ืžื–ื‘ื— ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ื’ื ื™ื–ื” ืืฃ ืืฉืจื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื’ื ื™ื–ื”

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Akiva, from where does he derive this halakha? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva derives it from that which Rav แธคisda says that Rav says, as Rav แธคisda says that Rav says: From where is it derived that a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship requires interment? This is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œYou shall not plant for yourself an ashera of any kind of tree beside the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:21). The verse juxtaposes an ashera, a tree used as part of idolatrous rites, to the altar. This indicates that just as the altar requires interment, so too an ashera requires interment.

ื•ืื™ื“ืš ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขืžื™ื“ ื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื”ื’ื•ืŸ ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื•ื˜ืข ืืฉืจื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉืคื˜ื™ื ื•ืฉื˜ืจื™ื ืชืชืŸ ืœืš ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉืขืจื™ืš ื•ืกืžื™ืš ืœื™ื” ืœื ืชื˜ืข ืœืš ืืฉืจื” ื›ืœ ืขืฅ

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, Rabbi Yishmael, how does he interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yishmael requires that verse for that which Reish Lakish says, as Reish Lakish says: Anyone who appoints over the community a judge who is unfit for the position, due to his lack of knowledge or wickedness, is considered as though he plants an ashera among the Jewish people, as it is stated: โ€œJudges and officers you shall make for yourself in all of your gatesโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:18), and juxtaposed to it is the verse: โ€œYou shall not plant for yourself an ashera of any kind of tree beside the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:21).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื•ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื›ืื™ืœื• ื ื˜ืขื• ืืฆืœ ืžื–ื‘ื— ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืฆืœ ืžื–ื‘ื—

Rav Ashi says: And if one appoints an unsuitable individual as a judge in a place where there are Torah scholars, it is as though he planted an ashera next to the altar, as it is stated: โ€œBeside the altar of the Lord your God.โ€

ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืจื™ืชืš ื›ืœื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื”ื• ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ืžืืŸ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืžืฉืžืฉื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืžืฉื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืื™ืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืœื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ

ยง Rav Hamnuna raises a dilemma: If one welded [ritekh] a broken vessel for idol worship, what is the halakha? The Gemara asks: With regard to whose idol worship does Rav Hamnuna raise the dilemma? If we say that Rav Hamnuna is referring to a gentileโ€™s idol worship, that is difficult, as both according to Rabbi Yishmael and according to Rabbi Akiva vessels used in idolatrous worship are considered accessories of idol worship, and accessories of idol worship are not prohibited until they are used for worship. Rather, Rav Hamnuna is referring to a Jewsโ€™ idol worship.

ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืžืืŸ ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื”ืฉืชื ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ืคื” ืœื ืžื™ืชืกืจื ืขื“ ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืืœื ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion does Rav Hamnuna raise the dilemma? If we say that he raises the dilemma in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, this is difficult. Now that the idol itself is not prohibited until it is worshipped, is it necessary to state that its accessories are not forbidden until they are used for idol worship? Rather, perhaps Rav Hamnuna raises the dilemma in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who says that a Jewโ€™s idol is prohibited immediately.

ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืžืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ื’ืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืžื” ื”ืชื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืฃ ื”ื›ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ื• ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืžื™ื ื” ื’ืžืจ ืžื” ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื” ืžื™ื“ ืืฃ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžื™ื“

The Gemara suggest an explanation of the dilemma: What is the halakha with regard to a Jewโ€™s accessories of idol worship? Do we learn the halakha with regard to a Jewโ€™s accessories from the halakha with regard to a gentileโ€™s accessories? Just as there, in the case of a gentileโ€™s accessories of idol worship, they are not forbidden until they are used for idol worship, so too here, in the case of a Jewโ€™s accessories of idol worship, they are not forbidden until they are used for idol worship. Or perhaps the halakha is learned from the halakha with regard to a Jewโ€™s object of idol worship itself. Just as the idol itself is prohibited immediately, so too its accessories are prohibited immediately.

ืžืื™ ืื™ืจื™ื ื“ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืชืš ื›ืœื™ ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืขืฉื”

The Gemara rejects this explanation: If that is the explanation of Rav Hamnunaโ€™s dilemma, why does he specifically raise the dilemma with regard to one who welded a broken vessel? Let him raise the dilemma with regard to one who fashioned a vessel for idolatrous worship.

ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืžืฉื•ื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื™ืฉื ื” ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ืœื™ ืžืชื›ื•ืช ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื”ืŸ ื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื ืฉืชื‘ืจื• ื˜ื”ืจื• ื—ื–ืจ ื•ืขืฉืืŸ ื›ืœื™ื ื™ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื™ืฉื ื”

The Gemara answers: Rav Hamnuna is referring to a vessel that was used for idol worship before it broke, and he is raising the dilemma with regard to the matter of previous ritual impurity. As we learned in a mishna (Kelim 11:1): With regard to metal vessels, both their flat vessels, which have no repositories, and their receptacles, vessels that have repositories, are all impure if they came into contact with a primary source of ritual impurity. If they broke, they thereby became purified. But if one remade the broken vessels into new vessels, they reassume their previous impurity.

ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื“ืจื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืื‘ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœื ืฉื ื ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืฉืืจ ื˜ื•ืžืื•ืช ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ

And this is the dilemma that Rav Hamnuna is raising: When the mishna teaches that a vessel that is remade reassumes its impurity, does this matter apply only to impurity by Torah law, but in the case of impurity by rabbinic law, such as the impurity of an object of idol worship, it does not apply? Or perhaps there is no difference between impurity by Torah law and impurity by rabbinic law. The Gemara asks: If that is the explanation of Rav Hamnunaโ€™s dilemma, why does he specifically discuss a vessel used for idol worship? Let him raise the dilemma with regard to any other type of impurity by rabbinic law.

ื—ื“ื ืžื’ื• ื—ื“ื ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื™ ื”ื“ืจื ืื• ืœื ื”ื“ืจื ื•ืื ืชื™ืžืฆื™ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื ื”ื“ืจื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžืฉื•ื ื—ื•ืžืจื ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื™ ืฉื•ื™ื•ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืื• ืœื ืชื™ืงื•

The Gemara answers: Rav Hamnuna is raising two dilemmas, one of which stems from the other. Is impurity by rabbinic law reassumed, or is it not reassumed? And if you say that it is not reassumed, what is the halakha with regard to the impurity of an object of idol worship? Did the Sages render its status like that of impurity by Torah law, due to the stringency of idol worship, or not? The Gemara concludes: The dilemmas shall stand unresolved.

ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืชืงืจื•ื‘ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืžื”ื• ืžื™ ืžื”ื ื™ื ืœื”ื• ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืœื˜ื”ืจื™ื ื”ื• ืžื˜ื•ืžืื” ืื• ืœื

ยง Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raised a dilemma to Rabbi Yannai: With regard to an offering consisting of food brought in idolatrous worship, what is the halakha? Is the revocation of their status as an object of idol worship by a gentile effective to purify them from the ritual impurity of an offering brought in idolatrous worship or is it not effective?

ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœื™ื ื›ืœื™ื ืœื ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื˜ื”ืจื” ื‘ืžืงื•ื” ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื ืžื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื™ ืงืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara suggests: And let him raise the dilemma with regard to whether revocation of vesselsโ€™ status purifies vessels used in idol worship from their impurity. The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan does not raise the dilemma with regard to vessels, since they have the ability to attain purity by being immersed in a ritual bath, and therefore their impurity can certainly also be nullified. When he raises the dilemma, it is only with regard to food, which cannot be purified in a ritual bath.

ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื’ื•ืคื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื’ื•ืคื” ืœื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื”

The Gemara suggests: Let him raise the dilemma with regard to whether revoking its status purifies the object of idol worship itself in a case where it consists of food. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan does not raise the dilemma with regard to the object of idol worship itself,

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื” ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื ืžื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื” ื›ื™ ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืชืงืจื•ื‘ืช ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ืกื•ืจื™ื” ืœื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื ืžื™ ืœื ื‘ื˜ืœื” ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืื™ืกื•ืจ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ืœื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ืชื™ืงื•

as, since its prohibition is nullified, its impurity is also nullified. When he raises the dilemma, it is only with regard to an offering consisting of food brought in idolatrous worship. What is the halakha? Does one say that since its prohibition is not nullified, in accordance with the statement of Rav Giddel, who teaches that the prohibition that takes effect with regard to offerings brought in idolatrous worship is never nullified, therefore the impurity is also not nullified? Or perhaps only their prohibition, which is by Torah law, is not nullified, but their impurity, which is by rabbinic law, is nullified. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืŸ ืฉืื•ืœ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ื ื™ื• ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ

ยง Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul asked Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: With regard to vessels that were used in the temple of Onias, what is the halakha with regard to using them in the Temple?

ื•ืงื ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ื ื™ื• ืœืื• ื‘ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ื ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืฉืžืฉื• ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื•ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ

And he raised this dilemma according to the opinion of the one who says that the temple of Onias was not a temple of idol worship. As we learned in a mishna (Menaแธฅot 109a): Priests who served in the temple of Onias may not serve in the Temple that is in Jerusalem, and needless to say, those priests who served in a temple of something else, i.e., idol worship, may not serve in the Temple in Jerusalem. This distinction indicates that the temple of Onias was not a temple of idol worship. It was used for the service of God, but it violated the prohibition against sacrificing offerings outside of the Temple in Jerusalem.

ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืกื™ื ื”ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ื ื™ ื“ืขื” ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœื™ื ืœื ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืœื ืฉื ื

The Gemara explains the dilemma: Does one say that it is only the priests that the Sages penalized by preventing them from serving in the Temple, as they possess awareness and are responsible for their actions, but they did not institute a similar decree with regard to vessels, as they are inanimate? Or perhaps there is no difference, and the decree also applies to the vessels.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ืืกื•ืจื™ื ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืงืจื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื•ืฉื›ื—ื ื•ื”ื•

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul: The vessels that were used in the temple of Onias are prohibited, and we possessed knowledge of a verse from which this halakha was derived, but we forgot which verse it is.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ืืฉืจ ื”ื–ื ื™ื— ื”ืžืœืš ืื—ื– ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื• ื‘ืžืขืœื• ื”ื›ื ื• ื•ื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื”ื›ื ื• ื“ืื˜ื‘ืœื™ื ื”ื• ื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื“ืืงื“ื™ืฉื ื ื”ื•

Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul raised an objection to this ruling from a verse referring to vessels of the Temple that Ahaz had used for idol worship: โ€œAll the vessels, which King Ahaz in his reign did cast away when he acted treacherously, we have prepared and sanctified, and, behold, they are before the altar of the Lordโ€ (IIย Chronicles 29:19). What, is it not the case that the term โ€œwe have preparedโ€ means that we immersed them in a ritual bath, and the term โ€œsanctifiedโ€ means that we sanctified them to be used again in the Temple? This would indicate that the vessels may be used in the Temple even though they were used in idolatrous worship.

ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ืœืฉืžื™ื ืฉื”ื—ื–ืจืช ืœื™ ืื‘ื“ืชื™ ื”ื›ื ื• ืฉื’ื ื–ื ื•ื ื•ื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ืฉื”ืงื“ืฉื ื• ืื—ืจื™ื ืชื—ืชื™ื”ื

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul: Blessed are you to Heaven, as you have returned my lost verse to me. That verse is the forgotten source of the halakha that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi stated, and it should be interpreted as follows: โ€œWe have preparedโ€ means that we interred them; โ€œand sanctifiedโ€ means that we sanctified other vessels in their stead, as the vessels used by Ahaz were forbidden, and the same applies to the vessels from the temple of Onias.

ืœื™ืžื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ืฆืคื•ื ื™ืช ื‘ื” ื’ื ื–ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื—ืฉืžื•ื ืื™ ืืช ืื‘ื ื™ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ืฉืฉืงืฆื• ืื ืฉื™ ื™ื•ืŸ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืฉืฉืงืฆื• ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื”

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that the mishna supports Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s opinion (Middot 1:6): The northeast chamber of the Chamber of the Hearth was the chamber in which the Hasmoneans sequestered the altar stones that the people of Greece desecrated. And Rav Sheshet says: This means that they desecrated the stones by using them for idol worship. This indicates that Temple vessels that were used in idolatrous worship can no longer be used and must be sequestered.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ืชื ืงืจื ืืฉื›ื— ื•ื“ืจืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ืื• ื‘ื” ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื—ืœืœื•ื”

Rav Pappa said: That case of the altarโ€™s stones is different, because there a Sage found a verse and interpreted it homiletically, as it is written: โ€œAnd they shall profane My secret place, and robbers shall enter into it and profane itโ€ (Ezekiel 7:22). The verse indicates that when the gentiles entered the Temple and desecrated it, the altar was desacralized and acquired non-sacred status. Consequently, when the stones were subsequently used for idolatrous worship they were rendered forbidden even for non-sacred use.

ืืžืจื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื ื™ืชื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื• ืื‘ื ื™ื ืฉืœืžื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื ื ืกืจื™ื ื”ื• ืœื ืชื ื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื‘ืจื–ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื

The Gemara explains why the altarโ€™s stones were sequestered: The Hasmoneans said: What should we do to revoke the stoneโ€™s forbidden status? Shall we break them? That is not possible, as the Merciful One states in the Torah: โ€œYou shall build the altar of the Lord your God of unhewn stonesโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:6). Shall we saw them without breaking them? That is also not a viable option, as the Merciful One states in the Torah: โ€œYou shall lift up no iron tool upon themโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:5). There was therefore no alternative to sequestering the stones.

ื•ืืžืื™ ืœื™ืชื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืœื™ืฉืงืœื™ื ื”ื• ืœื ืคืฉื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื’ื ื•ื– ื›ืœ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ืกืคื ื•ื“ื”ื‘ื ืฉืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื•ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื” ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ื”ื•ื™ื ืจื•ื‘ื ื“ืขืœืžื

The Gemara asks: But why did the Hasmoneans have no alternative? Let them break the stones and take them for themselves. Didnโ€™t Rav Oshaya say: The Sages wished to sequester all of the silver and gold in the world because of the silver and gold of Jerusalem, most of which was consecrated to the Temple treasury and became mixed with other silver and gold. And we discussed it and asked: Is Jerusalem the majority of the world that all of the silver and gold of the world should be forbidden as perhaps it came from Jerusalem?

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœื’ื ื•ื– ื“ื™ื ืจื ื”ื“ืจื™ื™ืื ื ื˜ื•ืจื™ื™ื ื ืฉื™ืคื ืžืคื ื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื” ืฉืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืžืฆืื• ืœื” ืžืงืจื ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื‘ืื• ื‘ื” ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื—ืœืœื•ื”

Rather, Abaye said: The Sages wished to sequester all of the worn-out dinars of Hadrian and Trajan because of the coins of Jerusalem, as it was known that these coins contained a large quantity of the Temple treasuryโ€™s gold and silver. They did not permit the use of these coins until they found a verse in the Torah indicating that it is permitted: โ€œAnd robbers shall enter into it, and profane itโ€ (Ezekiel 7:22).

ื”ืชื ืœื ืืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื”ื• ืœื’ื‘ื•ื” ื”ื›ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื• ืœื’ื‘ื•ื” ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื ืœืืฉืชืžื•ืฉื™ ื‘ื”ื• ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ื

The Gemara answers: The two cases are not comparable. There, the coins of Jerusalem had not been used in service of the Most High; they were only consecrated. Here, since the stones of the altar had been used in service of the Most High, it is not proper conduct for an ordinary person to make use of them, and therefore the Hasmoneans sequestered the stones.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื•ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื”ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ื‘ื™ื˜ืœ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ื” ืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื”

MISHNA: A gentile can revoke the status of his object of idol worship and the status of the idol of another gentile, but a Jew cannot revoke the status of the object of idol worship of a gentile. One who revokes the status of an object of idol worship thereby revokes the status of its accessories. But if he revokes the status of its accessories, its accessories alone are rendered permitted, but the object of idol worship itself remains prohibited.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืชื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื•ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉื ื™ืช ืœื ื• ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชืš ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื•ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื™ ืงื ืžื‘ื˜ืœื” ื•ื”ื ื•ืฉื ื‘ืกืชืจ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื•ืœืก ืœื ื ืฆืจื›ื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื‘ื” ืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช

GEMARA: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi taught Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the following version of the mishna: A gentile can revoke the status of his object of idol worship and the status of the idol of another gentile. Rabbi Shimon said to him: My teacher, in your youth, i.e., when you were younger, you taught us a different version of the mishna: A gentile can revoke the status of his object of idol worship and the status of the object of idol worship of a Jew. The Gemara asks: Can the status of a Jewโ€™s idol be revoked? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd shall set it up in a hidden placeโ€ (Deuteronomy 27:15), from which the Sages derived that a Jewโ€™s idol requires interment? Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Volas, said: No, this halakha is necessary in a case where the gentile has partnership in the idol, and therefore it is possible to say that its status can be revoked.

ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ืžืื™ ืงืกื‘ืจ ื•ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืžืื™ ืงืกื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืœื“ื•ืชื• ืกื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื“ืขืชื ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืคืœื— ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ื›ืจื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื ืžื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœื” ื•ื‘ื–ืงื ื•ืชื• ืกื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื“ืขืชื ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืคืœื— ื›ื™ ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ื“ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ

The Gemara asks: What did Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi hold in his youth, and what did he hold in his old age? The Gemara answers: In his youth he held that the Jew worships the idol based on the intention of the gentile. Once the gentile revokes the status of his share in the idol, the status of the share of the Jew is also revoked. But in his old age Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held that the Jew worships the idol based on his own intentions. Therefore, when the gentile revokes the status of the object of idol worship, he revokes the status of only his own share, but the status of the share of the Jew is not revoked.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืืกื™ืคื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื˜ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ืฉืœ ื ื›ืจื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ืœืœ ื‘ืจื™ื”

There are those who teach Rabbi Hillelโ€™s statement with regard to the latter clause of the mishna: A Jew cannot revoke the status of the object of idol worship of a gentile. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t that obvious? Said Rabbi Hillel, son

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