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Today's Daf Yomi

January 21, 2018 | ื”ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Avodah Zarah 6

Study Guide Avoda Zara 6

When the mishna says three days before the holiday – does it mean including the day of the holiday (3 all together)ย  or 3 full days before plus the day of the holiday? Several sources are brought to attempt to answer the question. What is the reason for the prohibition – is it because he/she will thank theirย gods because of it or is it because you are helping them toย worship idols? What if you sold stuff to the non-Jew anyway, is it forbidden to benefit from theย money received? Why are all the case in the mishnaย forbidden both in a way where you are helping the non-Jew and also when the non-Jew is helping you?

Shiur in memory of Rachel bat Menachem Mendel and Pesha


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ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื™ื•ืœื“ืช ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืชืš ื‘ื“ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœืš ื•ื“ืœืžื ื ื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื•ื” ืชืžื™ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื”

But according to the one who says that a tereifa can give birth, what can be said? According to this opinion, a tereifa cannot be excluded by the phrase: โ€œTo keep seed alive.โ€ The Gemara answers: The verse states with regard to the animals that were brought by Noah into the ark: โ€œYou shall bring into the ark, to keep them alive with youโ€ (Genesis 6:19). The term โ€œwith youโ€ indicates that the verse is stated with regard to animals that are similar to you, but not a tereifa. The Gemara asks: But perhaps Noah himself was a tereifa. If so, one cannot exclude a tereifa from the comparison of animals to Noah. The Gemara answers: It is written about Noah that he was โ€œcompleteโ€ (Genesis 6:9).

ื•ื“ืœืžื ืชืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ื”ื™ื” ืฆื“ื™ืง ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara challenges: But perhaps the verse means that his ways were complete, but it is not referring to Noahโ€™s physical attributes. The Gemara explains: It is already written about him that he was โ€œrighteousโ€ (Genesis 6:9), which means that his actions were perfect. Consequently, when the verse says that he was also complete, it must be referring to his body.

ื“ืœืžื ืชืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ืฆื“ื™ืง ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ื” ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื ื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื•ืื™ ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื ื— ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ื•ื•ืชืš ืขื™ื™ืœ ืฉืœืžื™ืŸ ืœื ืชืขื™ื™ืœ

The Gemara challenges: But perhaps the verse means that Noah was complete in his manner, and he was righteous in his good deeds. Accordingly, the verse would not exclude the possibility that Noah himself was a tereifa. The Gemara explains: It cannot enter your mind that Noah himself was a tereifa, as, if it enters your mind that Noah was a tereifa, would the Merciful One have said to him: Bring in tereifot like you to the ark, but do not bring in whole and perfect animals?

ื•ื”ืฉืชื ื“ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžืืชืš ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื–ืจืข ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืื™ ืžืืชืš ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืœืฆื•ื•ืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื–ืงืŸ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืกืจื™ืก ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื–ืจืข

The Gemara asks: And now that it has been established that one derives the disqualification of a tereifa from the term โ€œwith you,โ€ why do I need the phrase โ€œto keep seed aliveโ€? The Gemara answers: If one could learn only from โ€œwith you,โ€ I would say that Noah brought the animals to the ark only for the purpose of company, and therefore even an animal that is elderly and even one who is castrated can come into the ark, provided that it is not a tereifa. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œTo keep seed alive,โ€ teaching that only animals that could bear offspring may be brought into the ark.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ

ยง A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When the mishna teaches that it is prohibited to conduct business with gentiles on the three days before their festival, do the three days include them, i.e., the days preceding the festival and their festival itself, in which case the prohibition applies only to the festival and the two preceding days? Or perhaps it is referring to them without their festival, i.e., the prohibition applies to three full days before the festival.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื”ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื™ื•ื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืœื”ื• ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื•ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ

The Gemara suggests a proof from a mishna (7b). Come and hear, as Rabbi Yishmael says: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles and the three days after them, these actions are prohibited. The Gemara analyzes this statement. If it enters your mind that the three days include them and their festival, this would mean that Rabbi Yishmael counts the day of their festival twice, as he counts it initially, as part of the first set of three days, and he also counts it at the end, along with the second set of three days. Clearly, the three days do not include the day of the festival itself.

ืื™ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืชื ื ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ืชื ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื”ื

The Gemara rejects this proof: It is possible that the festival is counted as one of the initial three days, i.e., the three days include them and their festival, and is not counted as part of the three days following the festival. But since Rabbi Yishmael taught that these actions are prohibited during the three days before them, he also used the same expression and taught that these actions are prohibited during the three days after them, although what he is actually teaching is that these actions are prohibited only during the two days after it.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืœืขื•ืœื ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื”ืื™ื›ื ืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ื—ืžืฉื” ื“ืฉืจื™

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from that which Rav Taแธฅlifa bar Avdimi says that Shmuel says: According to the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, it is always prohibited to engage in business with Christians, as their festival takes place every Sunday. Since the three days preceding and following their festival are included in the prohibition, one cannot engage in business with them any day of the week. And if it enters your mind that the three days of the mishna include them and their festival, i.e., only the two days preceding and following the festival are included in the prohibition, then according to Rabbi Yishmael there are still Wednesday and Thursday, on which it is permitted to engage in business with Christians.

ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืœื ืงืžื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ ื“ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื›ื™ ืงื ืžื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™

The Gemara clarifies: According to the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, I have no dilemma, as it is clear that the three days mentioned in the mishna are them without their festival. When I raise the dilemma, it is according to the opinion of the Rabbis: What days are included in the prohibition according to their opinion?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืชื ืฉืžืข ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืงืœื ื“ื ืกื˜ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ื•ืงืจื˜ืกื™ื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื ืงืœื ื“ื ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ืื—ืจ ืชืงื•ืคื” ืกื˜ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืชืงื•ืคื” ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ืื—ื•ืจ ื•ืงื“ื ืฆืจืชื ื™

Ravina says: Come and hear a proof from the continuation of the mishna (8a). And these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis. And Rav แธคanin bar Rava says in explanation of that mishna: When do these festivals occur? Kalenda is held during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is held during the eight days before the winter solstice. And your mnemonic to remember which festival is which is that the festival that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first and the festival that takes place before it is mentioned later, as in the verse: โ€œYou have hemmed me in behind and beforeโ€ (Psalms 139:5), where the word โ€œbeforeโ€ appears after the term โ€œbehind.โ€

ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืขืฉืจื” ื”ื•ื• ืชื ื ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ืงืœื ื“ื ื—ื“ ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืœื™ื”

Ravina explains the proof: And if it enters your mind that the tanna of the mishna counts them and their festival, in this case there are ten days that are included in the prohibition: The eight days of the festival and the two days beforehand. Why, then, would the mishna say that the prohibition applies for only three days? If the three days do not include the festivals themselves, then this difficulty does not apply, as although in practice the prohibition lasts for eleven days, the mishna is not referring to the period of the festival. The Gemara responds: This proof is inconclusive, as the tanna counts all of the festival of Kalenda as one day.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื

Rav Ashi says: Come and hear a proof from the mishna, which specifies that the time that the actions are prohibited is: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles. And if it enters your mind that the mishna is referring to them and their festival, let it teach: At the time of the festivals of gentiles, it is prohibited to engage in business with them for three days. The wording of the mishna indicates that all three days are before the festival.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ืื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”

And if you would say: That which is taught in the mishna: Before the festivals of the gentiles, serves to exclude the days following their festivals, i.e., the tanna is clearly indicating that the prohibition applies before, rather than afterward, let the mishna teach: At the time of the festivals of gentiles, it is prohibited to engage in business with them for three days beforehand. Rather, conclude from the wording employed that when the mishna states: The three days before the festivals, it is referring to them without their festival. The Gemara affirms: Conclude from here that this is the case.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื”ืจื•ื•ื—ื” ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ

ยง A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the reason for the prohibition against conducting business with gentiles in the days preceding their festivals because the gentile might profit, which will bring him joy, and he will subsequently give thanks to his idol on his festival? Or perhaps it is because this is a violation of the prohibition: โ€œAnd you shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€ (Leviticus 19:14), as one who sells an animal to a gentile thereby aids him in engaging in prohibited idol worship.

ืœืžืื™ ื ืคืงื ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ืžื” ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืžืฉื•ื ื”ืจื•ื•ื—ื” ื”ื ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืžืฉื•ื ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ ื”ื ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื”

The Gemara explains: What is the practical difference between the two options? The practical difference is in a situation where the gentile already has an animal of his own. If you say that the reason for the prohibition is because he might profit, here too the Jew causes him to profit. But if you say that the reason for the prohibition is due to the prohibition: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blind,โ€ since the gentile has his own animal, the Jew is not helping him sin.

ื•ื›ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ

The Gemara challenges: And even if he already has his own animal, does not one who assists him transgress due to the command: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan said:

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฉื™ื˜ ืื“ื ื›ื•ืก ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ืื‘ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื™ ืœื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ ื•ื”ื ื”ื›ื ื“ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ื”ื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืฉืงืœื™ ืื™ื”ื• ื•ืงืขื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ

From where is it derived that a person may not extend a cup of wine to a nazirite, who is prohibited from drinking wine, and that he may not extend a limb severed from a living animal to descendants of Noah? The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€ (Leviticus 19:14). But here, in both cases, if one does not give it to him, he can take it himself, and yet the one who provides it to him transgresses due to the prohibition: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blind.โ€

ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงืื™ ื‘ืชืจื™ ืขื‘ืจื™ ื ื”ืจื ื“ื™ืงื ื ืžื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืœื ื™ื•ืฉื™ื˜ ื•ืœื ืงืชื ื™ ืœื ื™ืชืŸ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”

The Gemara answers: Here we are dealing with a case where they are standing on the two sides of a river, and therefore the recipient could not have taken it himself. Since his help was instrumental, the one who conveyed the item has violated the prohibition of putting a stumbling block before the blind. The Gemara adds: The language of the baraita is also precise, as it teaches: A person may not extend, and it does not teach: One may not give. Learn from the usage of the term extend that the baraita is referring to one located on one side of a river, who extends the item to the one on the other side.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื“ื•ืงื

ยง A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one ignored the injunction of the mishna and engaged in business with gentiles before their festival, what is the status of the profit that he earned? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: If he engaged in business, it is prohibited to derive benefit from his profits. Reish Lakish says: If he engaged in business, it is permitted to derive benefit from his profits. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raised an objection to Reish Lakish from a baraita: With regard to the festivals of gentiles, if one engaged in business, these profits are prohibited. What, is it not referring to one who engages in business with gentiles before their festivals? Reish Lakish responded: No, the baraita is referring to business conducted specifically during their festivals.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืชื ื ืื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืงืจื™ ืœื™ื”

There are those who say that there is a different version of the above exchange. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish raised an objection to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan from a baraita: With regard to the festivals of gentiles, if one engaged in business these profits are prohibited. Isnโ€™t it correct to infer from the baraita that if the business occurred during their festivals, yes, deriving benefit from the profits is prohibited, but if it took place before their festivals, no, it is not prohibited? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan responded: No; the tanna calls both this, the days before the festival, and that, the festival itself: Their festivals.

ืชื ื™ื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื›ืฉืืžืจื• ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ื ืœื ืืกืจื• ืืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืœื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืžื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืžื”ื

The Gemara notes that it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Reish Lakish: When the Sages said that it is prohibited to engage with the gentiles in business, they prohibited it only in the case of an item that endures. But with regard to an item that does not endure, it is not prohibited. And even with regard to an item that endures, if one did engage in business with gentiles, deriving benefit from the profits is permitted. Rav Zevid taught a baraita from the school of Rabbi Oshaya: With regard to an item that does not endure, one may sell it to them, but one may not buy it from them.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ืื” ื“ืฉื“ืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ืจื ืงื™ืกืจื ืื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืฉื™ืื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื™ื“ื• ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืฉืงืœื™ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืœื ืืฉืงืœื™ื” ื”ื•ื™ื ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื˜ื•ืœ ื•ื–ืจื•ืง ืื•ืชื• ืœื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ื• ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื™ื ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ื” ื›ืœืื—ืจ ื™ื“ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžื™ื ื

The Gemara relates: There was an incident involving a certain heretic who sent a Caesarean dinar to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia on the day of the hereticโ€™s festival. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia said to Reish Lakish, who was sitting before him: What shall I do? If I take the dinar, he will go and thank his idol for the success of his endeavor, but if I do not take the dinar, he will harbor enmity toward me. Reish Lakish said to him: Take it and throw it into a pit in the presence of the heretic. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia said: All the more so, this will cause him to harbor enmity toward me. Reish Lakish explained: I said, i.e., I meant, that you should throw it in an unusual manner, so that it looks as though the dinar inadvertently fell from your hand into the pit.

ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ื•ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืงื ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื’ื–ืจื” ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืื˜ื• ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื

ยง The mishna teaches that it is prohibited to lend them items and to borrow items from them during the three days preceding their festivals. The Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited to lend the items to them, as this causes them to have a profit. But why is it prohibited to borrow the items from them during this period? Doesnโ€™t this serve to reduce for them the property they possess during the festival? Abaye said: The Sages issued a decree that it is prohibited to borrow the items from them due to the concern that he might come to lend the items to them. Rava said: All of it, lending and borrowing, is prohibited for the same reason, as in either situation the gentile might go and give thanks to his idol, as he will be pleased that the Jew was forced to borrow the items from him.

ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชื ื•ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ืืœื ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื’ื–ืจื” ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืื˜ื• ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชื ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื

The mishna further teaches that it is prohibited to lend money to them or to borrow money from them. The Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited to lend money to them, as this causes them to have a profit. But if one wants to borrow money from them, why is it prohibited? Abaye said: The Sages issued a decree that it is prohibited to borrow money from them, due to the concern that he might come to lend money to them. Rava said: All of it, lending and borrowing money, is prohibited for the same reason, as in either situation the gentile will go and give thanks to his object of idol worship.

ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ื•ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ืืœื ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ืื˜ื• ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื

The mishna also teaches that it is prohibited to repay debts owed to them and to collect payment of their debts. Once again, the Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited to repay debts owed to them, as giving them the money at this time causes them to have a profit. But why is it prohibited to collect payment of their debts? Doesnโ€™t this serve to reduce their fortune? Abaye said: The Sages issued a decree that it is prohibited to collect debts from them, due to the concern that he might come to repay their debts. Rava said: All of it, repaying and collecting debts, is prohibited for the same reason, as in either situation the gentile might go and give thanks to his idol for having had sufficient funds to pay his debts.

ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ ื“ืื™ ืชื ื ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ื“ืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืงื ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื”ื• ืฉืคื™ืจ ื“ืžื™

The Gemara notes: And all of the prohibitions listed in the mishna are necessary. As, if the mishna had taught only that it is prohibited to engage with them in business, one could have said that the reason for the prohibition is because it causes the gentile to have a profit, and he will go and give thanks to his idol. But with regard to borrowing items from them, which serves to reduce for them the property they possess during the festival, one may well do so.

ื•ืื™ ืชื ื ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืฆืขืจื ื‘ืขืœืžื ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืชื•ื‘ ืœื ื”ื“ืจื™ ื–ื•ื–ื™

And if the mishna had further taught only that it is prohibited to borrow items from them, one might have thought that this is because the matter is significant to the gentile, as he is pleased that the Jew is forced to borrow items from him, and therefore he might go and give thanks. But it might have been supposed that to borrow money from them is permitted, as there is only distress for the gentile when he lends money, as he would say: My money will not return to me again, since the borrower may never repay the loan.

ื•ืื™ ืชื ื ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื™ื” ืžื™ืคืจืขื ื ื•ื”ืฉืชื ืžื™ื”ื ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ืœื™ืคืจืข ืžื”ืŸ ื“ืชื• ืœื ื”ื“ืจื™ ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืื™ืžื ืฆืขืจื ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื

And if the mishna had taught in addition only that it is prohibited to borrow money from them, one might have thought that this is because the gentile says: I will forcibly collect payment from the Jew against his will, by means of the promissory note, and now in any event he will go and give thanks that the Jew is forced to borrow money from him. But with regard to collecting payment from them, as this money will never return to him again, one might say that he has distress about paying back the debt, and he will not go and give thanks. Since one might have reached these conclusions, it is necessary for the mishna to state each ruling explicitly.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืณ ื•ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืžื™ืฆืจ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื— ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ

ยง The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may collect the repayment of debts from them, because this causes the gentile distress. The Gemara asks: And doesnโ€™t Rabbi Yehuda accept the principle that even though he is distressed now, he will be happy afterward?

ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืืฉื” ืœื ืชืกื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื•ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืœื” ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืกื™ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืงืคืœื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืฉื˜ื•ืคืœืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืžืฆื™ืจื” ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื—ื” ื”ื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ

But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: A woman may not apply lime to her skin during the intermediate days of the Festival in order to remove bodily hair and soften her skin, because this temporarily disfigures her until the lime is removed. And Rabbi Yehuda concedes with regard to lime that she can peel off during the intermediate days of the Festival that she may apply it on the intermediate days of the Festival, as even though she is distressed now, as the lime renders her unattractive, she will be happy afterward, when the lime is removed and she becomes more attractive. It is evident from this baraita that Rabbi Yehuda does take into account the joy that will be experienced at a later time with regard to permitting an action now.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื”ื ื— ืœื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ ื“ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืžื™ืฆืจ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื—ื” ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื’ื•ื™ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืคืจืขื•ืŸ ืœืขื•ืœื ืžื™ืฆืจ

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says in response: Leave aside the halakhot of the intermediate days of a Festival. These cannot be compared to other cases, as with regard to all the labors permitted on a Festival this is the reason for the leniency: Although he is distressed by performing them now, as they involve effort and trouble, he will be happy afterward on the Festival itself that he has performed them, when he enjoys the benefits of the labor he has performed. Due to the joy they will bring him on the Festival, these labors are permitted. Ravina said that there is a different answer: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that with regard to repaying a debt a gentile is always distressed, even after the fact. But in general, Rabbi Yehuda does take into account the joy that will be experienced at a later time.

ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืœื•ื” ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ืื™ืŸ ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืœื•ื” ืขืœ ืคื” ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืžืฆื™ืœ ืžื™ื“ื

The Gemara notes: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, as it states that one may not collect payment from a gentile during the three days preceding their festivals, without differentiating between various cases. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa says: In the case of a loan with a promissory note, one may not collect payment from gentiles before their festivals, as one can demand repayment of the debt by presenting the promissory note in his possession at a later stage. By contrast, in the case of a loan by oral agreement, one may collect payment from them, because he is considered as one who salvages money from them, since he has no promissory note and cannot be sure that the gentile will repay the loan at another time.

ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื—ื•ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef sat behind Rabbi Abba in the study hall, and Rabbi Abba sat before Rav Huna, as a student before his teacher. And Rav Huna sat and said the following statements: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, and the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฆืžืจ ืœืฆื‘ืข ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืœื• ืื“ื•ื ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืฉื—ื•ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืื“ื•ื

The Gemara explains: As for the statement that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, this is referring to that which we said with regard to collecting a loan by oral agreement from gentiles during the days preceding their festivals. As for the statement that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, this is as it is taught in a mishna (Bava Kamma 100b): In the case of one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it red for him and instead he dyed it black, or one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it black and instead he dyed it red,

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Avodah Zarah 6

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 6

ืืœื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื™ื•ืœื“ืช ืžืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืชืš ื‘ื“ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœืš ื•ื“ืœืžื ื ื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื•ื” ืชืžื™ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื”

But according to the one who says that a tereifa can give birth, what can be said? According to this opinion, a tereifa cannot be excluded by the phrase: โ€œTo keep seed alive.โ€ The Gemara answers: The verse states with regard to the animals that were brought by Noah into the ark: โ€œYou shall bring into the ark, to keep them alive with youโ€ (Genesis 6:19). The term โ€œwith youโ€ indicates that the verse is stated with regard to animals that are similar to you, but not a tereifa. The Gemara asks: But perhaps Noah himself was a tereifa. If so, one cannot exclude a tereifa from the comparison of animals to Noah. The Gemara answers: It is written about Noah that he was โ€œcompleteโ€ (Genesis 6:9).

ื•ื“ืœืžื ืชืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ื”ื™ื” ืฆื“ื™ืง ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara challenges: But perhaps the verse means that his ways were complete, but it is not referring to Noahโ€™s physical attributes. The Gemara explains: It is already written about him that he was โ€œrighteousโ€ (Genesis 6:9), which means that his actions were perfect. Consequently, when the verse says that he was also complete, it must be referring to his body.

ื“ืœืžื ืชืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ืฆื“ื™ืง ื‘ืžืขืฉื™ื• ื”ื•ื” ืœื ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื ื— ื’ื•ืคื™ื” ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื•ืื™ ื“ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื“ื ื— ื˜ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ื•ื•ืชืš ืขื™ื™ืœ ืฉืœืžื™ืŸ ืœื ืชืขื™ื™ืœ

The Gemara challenges: But perhaps the verse means that Noah was complete in his manner, and he was righteous in his good deeds. Accordingly, the verse would not exclude the possibility that Noah himself was a tereifa. The Gemara explains: It cannot enter your mind that Noah himself was a tereifa, as, if it enters your mind that Noah was a tereifa, would the Merciful One have said to him: Bring in tereifot like you to the ark, but do not bring in whole and perfect animals?

ื•ื”ืฉืชื ื“ื ืคืงื ืœื™ื” ืžืืชืš ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ื–ืจืข ืœืžื” ืœื™ ืื™ ืžืืชืš ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืœืฆื•ื•ืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื–ืงืŸ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืกืจื™ืก ื›ืชื‘ ืจื—ืžื ื ื–ืจืข

The Gemara asks: And now that it has been established that one derives the disqualification of a tereifa from the term โ€œwith you,โ€ why do I need the phrase โ€œto keep seed aliveโ€? The Gemara answers: If one could learn only from โ€œwith you,โ€ I would say that Noah brought the animals to the ark only for the purpose of company, and therefore even an animal that is elderly and even one who is castrated can come into the ark, provided that it is not a tereifa. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: โ€œTo keep seed alive,โ€ teaching that only animals that could bear offspring may be brought into the ark.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ

ยง A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When the mishna teaches that it is prohibited to conduct business with gentiles on the three days before their festival, do the three days include them, i.e., the days preceding the festival and their festival itself, in which case the prohibition applies only to the festival and the two preceding days? Or perhaps it is referring to them without their festival, i.e., the prohibition applies to three full days before the festival.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื”ืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื™ื•ื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืœื”ื• ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื•ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ

The Gemara suggests a proof from a mishna (7b). Come and hear, as Rabbi Yishmael says: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles and the three days after them, these actions are prohibited. The Gemara analyzes this statement. If it enters your mind that the three days include them and their festival, this would mean that Rabbi Yishmael counts the day of their festival twice, as he counts it initially, as part of the first set of three days, and he also counts it at the end, along with the second set of three days. Clearly, the three days do not include the day of the festival itself.

ืื™ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืชื ื ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ืชื ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื”ื

The Gemara rejects this proof: It is possible that the festival is counted as one of the initial three days, i.e., the three days include them and their festival, and is not counted as part of the three days following the festival. But since Rabbi Yishmael taught that these actions are prohibited during the three days before them, he also used the same expression and taught that these actions are prohibited during the three days after them, although what he is actually teaching is that these actions are prohibited only during the two days after it.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื•ืฆืจื™ื ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืœืขื•ืœื ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื”ืื™ื›ื ืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ื—ืžืฉื” ื“ืฉืจื™

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from that which Rav Taแธฅlifa bar Avdimi says that Shmuel says: According to the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, it is always prohibited to engage in business with Christians, as their festival takes place every Sunday. Since the three days preceding and following their festival are included in the prohibition, one cannot engage in business with them any day of the week. And if it enters your mind that the three days of the mishna include them and their festival, i.e., only the two days preceding and following the festival are included in the prohibition, then according to Rabbi Yishmael there are still Wednesday and Thursday, on which it is permitted to engage in business with Christians.

ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืœื ืงืžื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ ื“ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื›ื™ ืงื ืžื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™

The Gemara clarifies: According to the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, I have no dilemma, as it is clear that the three days mentioned in the mishna are them without their festival. When I raise the dilemma, it is according to the opinion of the Rabbis: What days are included in the prohibition according to their opinion?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืชื ืฉืžืข ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืงืœื ื“ื ืกื˜ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ื•ืงืจื˜ืกื™ื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื ืงืœื ื“ื ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ืื—ืจ ืชืงื•ืคื” ืกื˜ืจื•ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืชืงื•ืคื” ื•ืกื™ืžื ืš ืื—ื•ืจ ื•ืงื“ื ืฆืจืชื ื™

Ravina says: Come and hear a proof from the continuation of the mishna (8a). And these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis. And Rav แธคanin bar Rava says in explanation of that mishna: When do these festivals occur? Kalenda is held during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is held during the eight days before the winter solstice. And your mnemonic to remember which festival is which is that the festival that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first and the festival that takes place before it is mentioned later, as in the verse: โ€œYou have hemmed me in behind and beforeโ€ (Psalms 139:5), where the word โ€œbeforeโ€ appears after the term โ€œbehind.โ€

ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืขืฉืจื” ื”ื•ื• ืชื ื ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ืงืœื ื“ื ื—ื“ ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืœื™ื”

Ravina explains the proof: And if it enters your mind that the tanna of the mishna counts them and their festival, in this case there are ten days that are included in the prohibition: The eight days of the festival and the two days beforehand. Why, then, would the mishna say that the prohibition applies for only three days? If the three days do not include the festivals themselves, then this difficulty does not apply, as although in practice the prohibition lasts for eleven days, the mishna is not referring to the period of the festival. The Gemara responds: This proof is inconclusive, as the tanna counts all of the festival of Kalenda as one day.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืชื ืฉืžืข ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื

Rav Ashi says: Come and hear a proof from the mishna, which specifies that the time that the actions are prohibited is: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles. And if it enters your mind that the mishna is referring to them and their festival, let it teach: At the time of the festivals of gentiles, it is prohibited to engage in business with them for three days. The wording of the mishna indicates that all three days are before the festival.

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ืื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืœืื—ืจ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื™ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื”ื ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”

And if you would say: That which is taught in the mishna: Before the festivals of the gentiles, serves to exclude the days following their festivals, i.e., the tanna is clearly indicating that the prohibition applies before, rather than afterward, let the mishna teach: At the time of the festivals of gentiles, it is prohibited to engage in business with them for three days beforehand. Rather, conclude from the wording employed that when the mishna states: The three days before the festivals, it is referring to them without their festival. The Gemara affirms: Conclude from here that this is the case.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื”ืจื•ื•ื—ื” ืื• ื“ืœืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ

ยง A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Is the reason for the prohibition against conducting business with gentiles in the days preceding their festivals because the gentile might profit, which will bring him joy, and he will subsequently give thanks to his idol on his festival? Or perhaps it is because this is a violation of the prohibition: โ€œAnd you shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€ (Leviticus 19:14), as one who sells an animal to a gentile thereby aids him in engaging in prohibited idol worship.

ืœืžืื™ ื ืคืงื ืžื™ื ื” ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื‘ื”ืžื” ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืžืฉื•ื ื”ืจื•ื•ื—ื” ื”ื ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืžืฉื•ื ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ ื”ื ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœื“ื™ื“ื™ื”

The Gemara explains: What is the practical difference between the two options? The practical difference is in a situation where the gentile already has an animal of his own. If you say that the reason for the prohibition is because he might profit, here too the Jew causes him to profit. But if you say that the reason for the prohibition is due to the prohibition: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blind,โ€ since the gentile has his own animal, the Jew is not helping him sin.

ื•ื›ื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ

The Gemara challenges: And even if he already has his own animal, does not one who assists him transgress due to the command: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan said:

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืœื ื™ื•ืฉื™ื˜ ืื“ื ื›ื•ืก ืฉืœ ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ืื‘ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื™ ืœื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ ื•ื”ื ื”ื›ื ื“ื›ื™ ืœื ื™ื”ื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืฉืงืœื™ ืื™ื”ื• ื•ืงืขื‘ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ืขื•ืจ ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืžื›ืฉืœ

From where is it derived that a person may not extend a cup of wine to a nazirite, who is prohibited from drinking wine, and that he may not extend a limb severed from a living animal to descendants of Noah? The verse states: โ€œAnd you shall not put a stumbling block before the blindโ€ (Leviticus 19:14). But here, in both cases, if one does not give it to him, he can take it himself, and yet the one who provides it to him transgresses due to the prohibition: โ€œYou shall not put a stumbling block before the blind.โ€

ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื“ืงืื™ ื‘ืชืจื™ ืขื‘ืจื™ ื ื”ืจื ื“ื™ืงื ื ืžื™ ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืœื ื™ื•ืฉื™ื˜ ื•ืœื ืงืชื ื™ ืœื ื™ืชืŸ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื”

The Gemara answers: Here we are dealing with a case where they are standing on the two sides of a river, and therefore the recipient could not have taken it himself. Since his help was instrumental, the one who conveyed the item has violated the prohibition of putting a stumbling block before the blind. The Gemara adds: The language of the baraita is also precise, as it teaches: A person may not extend, and it does not teach: One may not give. Learn from the usage of the term extend that the baraita is referring to one located on one side of a river, who extends the item to the one on the other side.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ื ืœื”ื• ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืืžืจ ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื“ื•ืงื

ยง A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one ignored the injunction of the mishna and engaged in business with gentiles before their festival, what is the status of the profit that he earned? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: If he engaged in business, it is prohibited to derive benefit from his profits. Reish Lakish says: If he engaged in business, it is permitted to derive benefit from his profits. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan raised an objection to Reish Lakish from a baraita: With regard to the festivals of gentiles, if one engaged in business, these profits are prohibited. What, is it not referring to one who engages in business with gentiles before their festivals? Reish Lakish responded: No, the baraita is referring to business conducted specifically during their festivals.

ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืชื ื ืื™ื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื“ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืงืจื™ ืœื™ื”

There are those who say that there is a different version of the above exchange. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish raised an objection to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan from a baraita: With regard to the festivals of gentiles, if one engaged in business these profits are prohibited. Isnโ€™t it correct to infer from the baraita that if the business occurred during their festivals, yes, deriving benefit from the profits is prohibited, but if it took place before their festivals, no, it is not prohibited? Rabbi Yoแธฅanan responded: No; the tanna calls both this, the days before the festival, and that, the festival itself: Their festivals.

ืชื ื™ื ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื›ืฉืืžืจื• ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ื ืœื ืืกืจื• ืืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืœื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ื ืฉื ื•ื ืชืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืชืงื™ื™ื ืžื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืžื”ื

The Gemara notes that it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Reish Lakish: When the Sages said that it is prohibited to engage with the gentiles in business, they prohibited it only in the case of an item that endures. But with regard to an item that does not endure, it is not prohibited. And even with regard to an item that endures, if one did engage in business with gentiles, deriving benefit from the profits is permitted. Rav Zevid taught a baraita from the school of Rabbi Oshaya: With regard to an item that does not endure, one may sell it to them, but one may not buy it from them.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ืื” ื“ืฉื“ืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ื™ื ืจื ืงื™ืกืจื ืื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืฉื™ืื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืื™ื“ื• ื”ื•ื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืงืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืฉืงืœื™ื” ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืœื ืืฉืงืœื™ื” ื”ื•ื™ื ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ื˜ื•ืœ ื•ื–ืจื•ืง ืื•ืชื• ืœื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืคื ื™ื• ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื™ื ืœื™ื” ืื™ื‘ื” ื›ืœืื—ืจ ื™ื“ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžื™ื ื

The Gemara relates: There was an incident involving a certain heretic who sent a Caesarean dinar to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia on the day of the hereticโ€™s festival. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia said to Reish Lakish, who was sitting before him: What shall I do? If I take the dinar, he will go and thank his idol for the success of his endeavor, but if I do not take the dinar, he will harbor enmity toward me. Reish Lakish said to him: Take it and throw it into a pit in the presence of the heretic. Rabbi Yehuda Nesia said: All the more so, this will cause him to harbor enmity toward me. Reish Lakish explained: I said, i.e., I meant, that you should throw it in an unusual manner, so that it looks as though the dinar inadvertently fell from your hand into the pit.

ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ื•ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืงื ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื’ื–ืจื” ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืื˜ื• ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื

ยง The mishna teaches that it is prohibited to lend them items and to borrow items from them during the three days preceding their festivals. The Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited to lend the items to them, as this causes them to have a profit. But why is it prohibited to borrow the items from them during this period? Doesnโ€™t this serve to reduce for them the property they possess during the festival? Abaye said: The Sages issued a decree that it is prohibited to borrow the items from them due to the concern that he might come to lend the items to them. Rava said: All of it, lending and borrowing, is prohibited for the same reason, as in either situation the gentile might go and give thanks to his idol, as he will be pleased that the Jew was forced to borrow the items from him.

ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชื ื•ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ืืœื ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื’ื–ืจื” ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืื˜ื• ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชื ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื

The mishna further teaches that it is prohibited to lend money to them or to borrow money from them. The Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited to lend money to them, as this causes them to have a profit. But if one wants to borrow money from them, why is it prohibited? Abaye said: The Sages issued a decree that it is prohibited to borrow money from them, due to the concern that he might come to lend money to them. Rava said: All of it, lending and borrowing money, is prohibited for the same reason, as in either situation the gentile will go and give thanks to his object of idol worship.

ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ื•ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ืืœื ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื”ื• ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ืื˜ื• ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ื”ื•ื

The mishna also teaches that it is prohibited to repay debts owed to them and to collect payment of their debts. Once again, the Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited to repay debts owed to them, as giving them the money at this time causes them to have a profit. But why is it prohibited to collect payment of their debts? Doesnโ€™t this serve to reduce their fortune? Abaye said: The Sages issued a decree that it is prohibited to collect debts from them, due to the concern that he might come to repay their debts. Rava said: All of it, repaying and collecting debts, is prohibited for the same reason, as in either situation the gentile might go and give thanks to his idol for having had sufficient funds to pay his debts.

ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ ื“ืื™ ืชื ื ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืจื•ื•ื— ืœื”ื• ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ื“ืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืงื ืžืžืขื˜ ืœื”ื• ืฉืคื™ืจ ื“ืžื™

The Gemara notes: And all of the prohibitions listed in the mishna are necessary. As, if the mishna had taught only that it is prohibited to engage with them in business, one could have said that the reason for the prohibition is because it causes the gentile to have a profit, and he will go and give thanks to his idol. But with regard to borrowing items from them, which serves to reduce for them the property they possess during the festival, one may well do so.

ื•ืื™ ืชื ื ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืฆืขืจื ื‘ืขืœืžื ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืชื•ื‘ ืœื ื”ื“ืจื™ ื–ื•ื–ื™

And if the mishna had further taught only that it is prohibited to borrow items from them, one might have thought that this is because the matter is significant to the gentile, as he is pleased that the Jew is forced to borrow items from him, and therefore he might go and give thanks. But it might have been supposed that to borrow money from them is permitted, as there is only distress for the gentile when he lends money, as he would say: My money will not return to me again, since the borrower may never repay the loan.

ื•ืื™ ืชื ื ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืจื—ื™ื” ืžื™ืคืจืขื ื ื•ื”ืฉืชื ืžื™ื”ื ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ืœื™ืคืจืข ืžื”ืŸ ื“ืชื• ืœื ื”ื“ืจื™ ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืื™ืžื ืฆืขืจื ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื

And if the mishna had taught in addition only that it is prohibited to borrow money from them, one might have thought that this is because the gentile says: I will forcibly collect payment from the Jew against his will, by means of the promissory note, and now in any event he will go and give thanks that the Jew is forced to borrow money from him. But with regard to collecting payment from them, as this money will never return to him again, one might say that he has distress about paying back the debt, and he will not go and give thanks. Since one might have reached these conclusions, it is necessary for the mishna to state each ruling explicitly.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ื›ื•ืณ ื•ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืžื™ืฆืจ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื— ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ

ยง The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may collect the repayment of debts from them, because this causes the gentile distress. The Gemara asks: And doesnโ€™t Rabbi Yehuda accept the principle that even though he is distressed now, he will be happy afterward?

ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืืฉื” ืœื ืชืกื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื•ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืœื” ื•ืžื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืกื™ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืงืคืœื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืฉื˜ื•ืคืœืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืžืฆื™ืจื” ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื—ื” ื”ื™ื ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ

But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: A woman may not apply lime to her skin during the intermediate days of the Festival in order to remove bodily hair and soften her skin, because this temporarily disfigures her until the lime is removed. And Rabbi Yehuda concedes with regard to lime that she can peel off during the intermediate days of the Festival that she may apply it on the intermediate days of the Festival, as even though she is distressed now, as the lime renders her unattractive, she will be happy afterward, when the lime is removed and she becomes more attractive. It is evident from this baraita that Rabbi Yehuda does take into account the joy that will be experienced at a later time with regard to permitting an action now.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื”ื ื— ืœื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ ื“ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืžื™ืฆืจ ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื—ื” ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื’ื•ื™ ืœืขื ื™ืŸ ืคืจืขื•ืŸ ืœืขื•ืœื ืžื™ืฆืจ

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says in response: Leave aside the halakhot of the intermediate days of a Festival. These cannot be compared to other cases, as with regard to all the labors permitted on a Festival this is the reason for the leniency: Although he is distressed by performing them now, as they involve effort and trouble, he will be happy afterward on the Festival itself that he has performed them, when he enjoys the benefits of the labor he has performed. Due to the joy they will bring him on the Festival, these labors are permitted. Ravina said that there is a different answer: Rabbi Yehuda maintains that with regard to repaying a debt a gentile is always distressed, even after the fact. But in general, Rabbi Yehuda does take into account the joy that will be experienced at a later time.

ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืœื•ื” ื‘ืฉื˜ืจ ืื™ืŸ ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืœื•ื” ืขืœ ืคื” ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืžืฆื™ืœ ืžื™ื“ื

The Gemara notes: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, as it states that one may not collect payment from a gentile during the three days preceding their festivals, without differentiating between various cases. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa says: In the case of a loan with a promissory note, one may not collect payment from gentiles before their festivals, as one can demand repayment of the debt by presenting the promissory note in his possession at a later stage. By contrast, in the case of a loan by oral agreement, one may collect payment from them, because he is considered as one who salvages money from them, since he has no promissory note and cannot be sure that the gentile will repay the loan at another time.

ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื—ื•ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืงืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ื•ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef sat behind Rabbi Abba in the study hall, and Rabbi Abba sat before Rav Huna, as a student before his teacher. And Rav Huna sat and said the following statements: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, and the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฆืžืจ ืœืฆื‘ืข ืœืฆื‘ื•ืข ืœื• ืื“ื•ื ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืฉื—ื•ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ืฆื‘ืขื• ืื“ื•ื

The Gemara explains: As for the statement that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa, this is referring to that which we said with regard to collecting a loan by oral agreement from gentiles during the days preceding their festivals. As for the statement that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, this is as it is taught in a mishna (Bava Kamma 100b): In the case of one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it red for him and instead he dyed it black, or one who gives wool to a dyer to dye it black and instead he dyed it red,

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