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Today's Daf Yomi

January 23, 2018 | 讝壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Avodah Zarah 8

The holidays on which聽one can’t do business with idol worshippers are specified and details relating to this are discussed.


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专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 住讘专 讬诇驻讬谞谉 诪诪砖讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 住讘专 诇讗 讬诇驻讬谞谉 诪诪砖讛 砖讗谞讬 诪砖讛 讚专讘 讙讜讘专讬讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讗 讻讚讘专讬 讝讛 讜诇讗 讻讚讘专讬 讝讛 讗诇讗 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua holds that we derive from the case of Moses that one should first praise God in prayer and only afterward issue personal requests. And Rabbi Eliezer holds that we do not derive from Moses how to act, since Moses is different, as his might is great, i.e., he knew how to pray to God in this order. And the Rabbis say: The halakha is not in accordance with the statement of this Sage, who says that one should issue personal requests before praying, nor is it in accordance with the statement of that Sage, who says that personal requests should follow prayer. Rather, a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer. Therefore, when Na岣m the Mede stated that this is the halakha, he was merely concurring with the opinion of the Rabbis.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗讘诇 讗诐 讘讗 诇讜诪专 讘住讜祝 讻诇 讘专讻讛 讜讘专讻讛 诪注讬谉 讻诇 讘专讻讛 讜讘专讻讛 讗讜诪专

With regard to the halakhic ruling, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is that a person requests his own needs during the Amida prayer in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, says in the name of Rav: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer, that is not the only option. Rather, if he wishes to recite at the conclusion of each and every blessing personal requests that reflect the nature of each and every blessing, he may recite them.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 讞讜诇讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讗讜诪专 讘讘专讻转 讞讜诇讬诐 讜讗诐 爪专讬讱 诇驻专谞住讛 讗讜诪专 讘讘专讻转 讛砖谞讬诐

Similarly, Rav 岣yya bar Ashi says that Rav says: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer, if he has a sick person in his house he recites a special prayer for him during the blessing of the sick. And if he is in need of sustenance, he recites a request during the blessing of the years.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗讘诇 讗诐 讘讗 诇讜诪专 讗讞专 转驻诇转讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讻住讚专 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讗讜诪专

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer; but if one wishes to recite prayers and supplications after finishing his Amida prayer, even if his personal requests are as long as the order of the confession of Yom Kippur, he may recite them.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 讗讬讚讬讛谉 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 拽诇谞讚讗 讜住讟专谞讜专讗 讜拽专讟讬住讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讙谞讜住讬讗 砖诇 诪诇讻讬讛诐 讜讬讜诐 讛诇讬讚讛 讜讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻诇 诪讬转讛 砖讬砖 讘讛 砖专讬驻讛 讬砖 讘讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜砖讗讬谉 讘讛 砖专讬驻讛 讗讬谉 讘讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗讘诇 讬讜诐 转讙诇讞转 讝拽谞讜 讜讘诇讜专讬转讜 讜讬讜诐 砖注诇讛 讘讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讬爪讗 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讜讙讜讬 砖注砖讛 诪砖转讛 诇讘谞讜 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 讘诇讘讚

MISHNA: And these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the birthday of the king, and the anniversary of the day of the death of the king. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Every death that includes public burning is a festival that includes idol worship, and any death that does not include public burning is not a festival that includes idol worship. But in the case of the day of shaving his, i.e., a gentile鈥檚, beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, and also in the case of a gentile who prepared a wedding feast for his son and celebrates on that day, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day and with that man.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 拽诇谞讚讗 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讞专 转拽讜驻讛 住讟专谞讜专讗 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 诇驻谞讬 转拽讜驻讛 讜住讬诪谞讱 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬 讜讙讜壮

GEMARA: Rav 岣nan bar Rava says: When are these festivals celebrated? Kalenda is celebrated during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is celebrated during the eight days before the winter solstice. And your mnemonic to remember which festival is that the one that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first in the mishna, and the festival that takes place before the solstice is mentioned after, as in the verse: 鈥淵ou have hemmed me in behind and before, and laid Your Hand upon me鈥 (Psalms 139:5), where the word 鈥渂efore鈥 appears after the term 鈥渂ehind.鈥

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇驻讬 砖专讗讛 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讬讜诐 砖诪转诪注讟 讜讛讜诇讱 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖诪讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖住专讞转讬 注讜诇诐 讞砖讜讱 讘注讚讬 讜讞讜讝专 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜 讜讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 砖谞拽谞住讛 注诇讬 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 注诪讚 讜讬砖讘 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讘转注谞讬转 [讜讘转驻诇讛]

With regard to the dates of these festivals, the Sages taught: When Adam the first man saw that the day was progressively diminishing, as the days become shorter from the autumnal equinox until the winter solstice, he did not yet know that this is a normal phenomenon, and therefore he said: Woe is me; perhaps because I sinned the world is becoming dark around me and will ultimately return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven, as it is written: 鈥淎nd to dust shall you return鈥 (Genesis 3:19). He arose and spent eight days in fasting and in prayer.

讻讬讜谉 砖专讗讛 转拽讜驻转 讟讘转 讜专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖诪讗专讬讱 讜讛讜诇讱 讗诪专 诪谞讛讙讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讜讗 讛诇讱 讜注砖讛 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诇砖谞讛 讛讗讞专转 注砖讗谉 诇讗诇讜 讜诇讗诇讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讜讗 拽讘注诐 诇砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讜讛诐 拽讘注讜诐 诇砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛

Once he saw that the season of Tevet, i.e., the winter solstice, had arrived, and saw that the day was progressively lengthening after the solstice, he said: Clearly, the days become shorter and then longer, and this is the order of the world. He went and observed a festival for eight days. Upon the next year, he observed both these eight days on which he had fasted on the previous year, and these eight days of his celebration, as days of festivities. He, Adam, established these festivals for the sake of Heaven, but they, the gentiles of later generations, established them for the sake of idol worship.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讬讜诪讬 讝讜讟讬 讞讝讗 讬讜诪讬 讗专讬讻讬 讗讻转讬 诇讗 讞讝讗 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘谞讬住谉 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讛讗 讞讝讗 诇讬讛 讬讜诪讬 讝讜讟讬 讜讬讜诪讬 讗专讬讻讬 讚讛讜讬 讝讜讟讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诇讗 讞讝讗

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Granted, according to the one who says that the world was created in the month of Tishrei, one can understand why Adam believed that the days were becoming shorter as part of his punishment, as he saw the short days of the winter and had not yet seen the long days of summer. But according to the one who says that the world was created in the month of Nisan, he had already seen the difference between the short days and the long days, as the days in the month of Nisan become progressively longer with the passage of time. The Gemara answers: Although Adam had experienced short days, he had not seen days that were this short, as in the days before the winter solstice.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讘讜 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讻讬讜谉 砖砖拽注讛 注诇讬讜 讞诪讛 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖讘砖讘讬诇 砖住专讞转讬 注讜诇诐 讞砖讜讱 讘注讚讬 讜讬讞讝讜专 注讜诇诐 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜 讜讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 砖谞拽谞住讛 注诇讬 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讛讬讛 讬讜砖讘 讘转注谞讬转 讜讘讜讻讛 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讞讜讛 讘讜讻讛 讻谞讙讚讜 讻讬讜谉 砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讗诪专 诪谞讛讙讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讜讗 注诪讚 讜讛拽专讬讘 砖讜专 砖拽专谞讬讜 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇驻专住讜转讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讬讟讘 诇讛壮 诪砖讜专 驻专 诪拽专谉 诪驻专讬住

The Sages taught: On the day that Adam the first man was created, when the sun set upon him he said: Woe is me, as because I sinned, the world is becoming dark around me, and the world will return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven. He spent all night fasting and crying, and Eve was crying opposite him. Once dawn broke, he said: Evidently, the sun sets and night arrives, and this is the order of the world. He arose and sacrificed a bull whose horns preceded its hoofs in the order that they were created, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns and hoofs鈥 (Psalms 69:32). This verse is referring to the one particular bull whose horns preceded its hoofs.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讜专 砖讛拽专讬讘 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 拽专谉 讗讞转 讛讬转讛 诇讜 讘诪爪讞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讬讟讘 诇讛壮 诪砖讜专 驻专 诪拽专谉 诪驻专讬住 诪拽专讬谉 转专转讬 诪砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪拽专谉 讻转讬讘

And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The bull that Adam the first man sacrificed had one horn in its forehead, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns [makrin] and hooves.鈥 The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn鈥檛 makrin plural, which indicates two horns? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: Mikkeren is written, i.e., the letter yod is missing from the word, indicating that there was only one horn.

讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 专讜诪讬 砖注砖转讛 拽诇谞讚讗 讜讻诇 讛注讬讬专讜转 讛住诪讜讻讜转 诇讛 诪砖转注讘讚讜转 诇讛 讗讜转谉 注讬讬专讜转 讗住讜专讜转 讗讜 诪讜转专讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 拽诇谞讚讗 讗住讜专讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗讬谉 讗住讜专讛 讗诇讗 诇注讜讘讚讬讛 讘诇讘讚

Rav Mattana says: Since Rome established the festival of Kalenda on a specific date, and all of the nearby towns are ruled by Rome, i.e., they pay their tax to Rome and provide its needs but do not themselves celebrate the festival, is it prohibited or permitted to engage in business transactions with the gentile residents of those towns? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is prohibited to engage in business during the time of the Kalenda with everyone. Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It is prohibited to engage in business only with its worshippers, whereas it is permitted to engage in business transactions with gentiles who do not celebrate the festival.

转谞讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 专讜诪讬 注砖转讛 拽诇谞讚讗 讜讻诇 注讬讬专讜转 讛住诪讜讻讜转 诇讛 诪砖转注讘讚讜转 诇讛 讛讬讗 注爪诪讛 讗讬谞讛 讗住讜专讛 讗诇讗 诇注讜讘讚讬讛 讘诇讘讚

The Sage taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan: Although they said that Rome has established the festival of Kalenda and all of the nearby towns are ruled by Rome, it is prohibited to engage in business only with its worshippers.

住讟专谞诇讬讗 讜拽专讟住讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讙谞讜住讬讗 砖诇 诪诇讻讬讛诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讛讜诪诇讱 讘讜 诪诇讱 诇驻谞讬讜 讗住讜专 讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专 讜讙讜讬 砖注砖讛 (讘讜) 诪砖转讛 诇讘谞讜 讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖

The baraita continues: With regard to the festivals Saturnalia and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the day on which the king was crowned, the halakha is that before the festival it is prohibited to engage in business transactions, whereas after the festival it is permitted. But in the case of a gentile who prepared a feast for his son and celebrates on that day, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day itself and with that man.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讗祝 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 转谞讬谞讗 讚拽转谞讬 讬讜诐 转讙诇讞转 讝拽谞讜 讜讘诇讜专讬转讜 讜讬讜诐 砖注诇讛 讘讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讬爪讗 讘讜 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚 讜讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖

Rav Ashi said: We learn in the mishna as well in accordance with Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 statement that the prohibition applies only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to people who are ruled by them. As the mishna teaches: With regard to the day of shaving his beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day and with that man.

讘砖诇诪讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪砖注讘讚讬讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

Rav Ashi explains the proof: Granted, the mishna specifies that the prohibition is limited to that day alone, in order to exclude the days before and after it. But when it states that the prohibition applies only to that man, what does the mishna exclude? Obviously the prohibition does not extend to all gentiles, as it is a personal festival. Doesn鈥檛 the mishna鈥檚 ruling serve to exclude those who are ruled by him? Therefore, conclude from the language of the mishna that a prohibition extends only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to those who are ruled by them.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬砖专讗诇 砖讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 注讜讘讚讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讟讛专讛 讛谉 讻讬爪讚 讙讜讬 砖注砖讛 诪砖转讛 诇讘谞讜 讜讝讬诪谉 讻诇 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 砖讘注讬专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 诪砖诇讛谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪砖诇讛谉 讜砖诪砖 砖诇讛谉 注讜诪讚 诇驻谞讬讛诐 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讛诐 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 讗讻诇讜 诪讝讘讞讬 诪转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜拽专讗 诇讱 讜讗讻诇转 诪讝讘讞讜

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael says: Jews who are outside of Eretz Yisrael are considered to engage in idol worship in purity, i.e., unwittingly. How does this occur? In the case of a gentile who prepared a feast for the marriage of his son, and invited all of the Jews in his town, even though they eat of their own kosher food and drink of their own kosher beverages, and their own attendant stands before them, the verse ascribes guilt to them as though they ate of the offerings to the dead, i.e., idols, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd sacrifice to their gods, and they call you, and you eat of their sacrifice鈥 (Exodus 34:15). Since Jews participate in a feast in which the gentile sacrifices offerings to his idol, it is as though they partook of the offering themselves.

讜讗讬诪讗 注讚 讚讗讻讬诇 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诐 讻谉 谞讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜讗讻诇转 诪讝讘讞讜 诪讗讬 讜拽专讗 诇讱 诪砖注转 拽专讬讗讛 讛诇讻讱

The Gemara asks: But why not say that the verse is criticizing the Jews only once they eat from the sacrifice? Rava said: If that is what is meant, let the verse say only: And you eat of their sacrifice. What is meant by the additional phrase: 鈥淎nd they call you鈥? This indicates that the prohibition occurs from the time of the call. Therefore,

讻诇 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讘讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 讜讘讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 讗住讜专 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 讗住讜专 讜讗讬 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 砖专讬

during all the thirty days that follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, whether he said to the Jew that the feast is due to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is prohibited to attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. From this point forward, if he said to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is prohibited to participate, but if he did not say to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is permitted to do so.

讜讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 注讚 讗讬诪转 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 注讚 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗讬诪转 讗住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 诪讻讬 专诪讜 砖注专讬 讘讗住讬谞转讬

The Gemara asks: And in a case where he said to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, until when is the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? Rav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: And initially, before the wedding, from when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: From the time when they cast barley into the mortars [ba鈥檃sintei] to prepare beer for the wedding.

讜诇讘转专 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 砖专讬 讜讛讗 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 讛讛讜讗 讙讜讬 诇讘转专 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜砖诪注讬讛 讚讗讜讚讬 讜驻讬专砖 讜诇讗 讗讻诇 砖讗谞讬 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讚讗讚诐 讞砖讜讘 讛讜讗

The Gemara asks: And after the twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding, is it always permitted to participate in a feast? But Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happened to come to the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the year had passed since his son鈥檚 wedding, and he heard the gentile giving thanks to his idol for the marriage of his son, and he withdrew from the feast and did not eat there. The Gemara answers: Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important person and therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.

讜拽专讟住讬诐 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 拽专讟住讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讜诐 砖转驻住讛 讘讜 专讜诪讬 诪诇讻讜转 讜讛转谞讬讗 拽专讟住讬诐 讜讬讜诐 砖转驻住讛 讘讜 专讜诪讬 诪诇讻讜转 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖转讬 转驻讬住讜转 转驻住讛 专讜诪讬 讗讞转 讘讬诪讬 拽诇驻讟专讗 诪诇讻转讗 讜讗讞转 砖转驻住讛 讘讬诪讬 讬讜谞讬诐

搂 The mishna teaches: And Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: What is the festival of Kratesis? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It commemorates the day when Rome seized control of an empire. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Two festivals are Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire? This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. Rav Yosef said: On two separate occasions Rome seized control of an empire. One occurred in the days of Queen Cleopatra, when they conquered Egypt, and one happened much earlier, when Rome seized control in the days of the Greeks.

讚讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 转诇转讬谉 讜转专讬谉 拽专讘讬 注讘讚讜 专讜诪讗讬 讘讛讚讬 讬讜谞讗讬 讜诇讗 讬讻诇讜 诇讛讜 注讚 讚砖转驻讬谞讛讜 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讜讛讻讬 讗转谞讜 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讗讬 诪讬谞谉 诪诇讻讬 诪谞讬讬讻讜 讛驻专讻讬 讗讬 诪谞讬讬讻讜 诪诇讻讬 诪讬谞谉 讛驻专讻讬

The Gemara elaborates: As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable to defeat them, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish people and finally vanquished the Greeks. And this is the condition that they stipulated with the Jewish people: If the kings come from among us, the governors [hiparkhei] will come from among you; and if the kings come from among you, the governors will come from among us.

讜砖诇讞讜 诇讛讜 专讜诪讗讬 诇讬讜谞讗讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 注讘讬讚谞讗 讘拽专讘讗 讛砖转讗 谞注讘讬讚 讘讚讬谞讗 诪专讙诇讬转 讜讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 讬注砖讛 讘住讬住 诇讞讘讬专讜 砖诇讞讜 诇讛讜 诪专讙诇讬转 诇讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛

And the Romans sent the following message to the Greeks: Until now, we attempted to resolve our conflict through fighting battles; now, let us settle the matter by means of judgment. In the case of a pearl and a precious stone, which one of them should serve as a base for the other? The Greeks sent them in response: The pearl should serve as the base for the precious stone, which has a greater value.

讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛 讜讗讬谞讱 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 讬注砖讛 讘住讬住 诇讞讘讬专讜 讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛 诇讗讬谞讱 讗讬谞讱 讜住驻专 转讜专讛 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 讬注砖讛 讘住讬住 诇讞讘讬专讜 讗讬谞讱 诇住驻专 转讜专讛

The Romans further inquired: If there was a precious stone and an onyx [innakh], a particularly valuable precious stone, which one of them should serve as a base for the other? The Greeks answered: The precious stone should serve as the base for the onyx. Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of an onyx and a Torah scroll, which one of them should be serve as a base for the other? The Greeks responded: The onyx should serve as the base for the Torah scroll.

砖诇讞讜 诇讛讜 [讗诐 讻谉] 讗谞谉 住驻专 转讜专讛 讙讘谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 讘讛讚谉 讻驻讜 诇讛讜 注砖专讬谉 讜砖讬转 砖谞讬谉 拽诪讜 诇讛讜 讘讛讬诪谞讜转讬讬讛讜 讘讛讚讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬砖转注讘讚讜 讘讛讜

The Romans sent this response to them: If that is so, then you should submit to us, as we have the Torah scroll with us, and the Jewish people are with us. The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore forced the Greeks to surrender and took over their world dominance. For twenty-six years the Romans stood faithfully with the Jewish people; from that point forward, they subjugated them.

诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 诪注讬拽专讗 讚专讜砖 谞住注讛 讜谞诇讻讛 讜讗诇讻讛 诇谞讙讚讱 讜诇讘住讜祝 讚专讜砖 讬注讘专 谞讗 讗讚谞讬 诇驻谞讬 注讘讚讜

The Gemara asks: Initially, when the Romans acted faithfully, what verse did they interpret, and ultimately, when they subjugated the Jews, what verse did they interpret? Initially, they interpreted the verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: 鈥淟et us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you鈥 (Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. And ultimately, they interpreted the verse that recites Jacob鈥檚 response to Esau: 鈥淟et my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant鈥 (Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob鈥檚 subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.

注砖专讬谉 讜砖讬转 砖谞讬谉 讚拽诪讜 讘讛讬诪谞讜转讬讬讛讜 讘讛讚讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻砖讞诇讛 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专 讬讜住讬 砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诪讜专 诇谞讜 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗诪专转 诇谞讜 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讬讱

The Gemara asks: With regard to the twenty-six years during which the Romans stood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do we know that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. As Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill, the Sages sent the following message to him: Our teacher, tell us two or three statements that you once told us in the name of your father, Rabbi Yosei ben 岣lafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讗讛 讜砖诪谞讬诐 砖谞讛 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讞专讘 讛讘讬转 驻砖讟讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖谞讛 注讚 诇讗 讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讙讝专讜 讟讜诪讗讛 注诇 讗专抓 讛注诪讬诐 讜注诇 讻诇讬 讝讻讜讻讬转 讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 注讚 诇讗 讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讙诇转讛 住谞讛讚专讬谉 讜讬砖讘讛 诇讛 讘讞谞讜转

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to them the following statements that were passed down to him by his father: One hundred and eighty years before the Second Temple was destroyed, the evil Roman Empire stretched forth over Israel and ruled over them. Eighty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sages decreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone and sat in the store near the Temple Mount.

诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 诇讜诪专 砖诇讗 讚谞讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讘专诐 讝讻讜专 讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 诇讟讜讘 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 砖诪讜 砖讗诇诪诇讗 讛讜讗 谞砖转讻讞讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 诪讬砖专讗诇 谞砖转讻讞讜 诇讙专住讬谞讛讜

The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avdimi said: It is necessary in order to say that they no longer judged cases of fines. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged cases of fines? But doesn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: Indeed [beram], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten from among the Jewish people. The Gemara challenges that assertion: Would the laws of fines actually have been forgotten? Let the scholars study them, so they will not be forgotten.

讗诇讗 讘讟诇讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖诪讚 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讻诇 讛住讜诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜讻诇 讛谞住诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜注讬专 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讛 转讞专讘 讜转讞讜诐 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讜 讬注拽专

Rather, his intention was to say that the laws of fines would have ceased to be implemented from among the Jewish people, as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these halakhot due to a lack of ordained judges. This is because at one time the wicked kingdom of Rome issued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish people with the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that anyone who ordains judges will be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordain the judges will be destroyed, and the areas around the boundary of the city in which they ordain judges will be uprooted. These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population.

诪讛 注砖讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讛诇讱 讜讬砖讘 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讛专讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讜讘讬谉 砖转讬 注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 转讞讜诪讬 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讗讜砖讗 诇砖驻专注诐 讜住诪讱 砖诐 讞诪砖讛 讝拽谞讬诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 砖诪讜注 讜专讘 讗讜讬讗 诪讜住讬祝 讗祝 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛

What did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities, and between two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram, i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, and there he ordained five Elders, namely: Rabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya adds that Rabbi Ne岣mya was also among those ordained.

讻讬讜谉 砖讛讻讬专讜 讘讛诐 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬 专讜爪讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬 讜讗转讛 诪讛 转讛讗 注诇讬讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛专讬谞讬 诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讻讗讘谉 砖讗讬谉 诇讛 讛讜驻讻讬谉 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讝讝讜 诪砖诐 注讚 砖谞注爪讜 诇讙讜驻讜 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 诇讜诇谞讬讗讜转 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜注砖讗讜讛讜 诇讙讜驻讜 讻讻讘专讛

When their enemies discovered them, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava said to the newly ordained rabbis: My sons, run for your lives. They said to him: Our teacher, and what will be with you? Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He said to them: In any case, I am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned; even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People said about this incident: The Roman soldiers did not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [lulniot] into his body, making his body appear like a sieve pierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avdimi鈥檚 statement.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讚谞讜 讚讬谞讬 谞驻砖讜转

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says in explanation: Do not say that after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of fines; rather, emend the statement to say that they no longer judged cases of capital law, as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讜 讚谞驻讬砖讬 诇讛讜 专讜爪讞讬谉 讜诇讗 讬讻诇讬 诇诪讬讚谉 讗诪专讜 诪讜讟讘 谞讙诇讬 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讞讬讬讘讜

The Gemara explains: What is the reason that the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? Once they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judge them and punish them with death, they said: It is better that we should be exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move from place to place, so that offenders will not be deemed liable to receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.

讚讻转讬讘 讜注砖讬转 注诇 驻讬 讛讚讘专 讗砖专 讬讙讬讚讜 诇讱 诪谉 讛诪拽讜诐 讛讛讜讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讛诪拽讜诐 讙讜专诐

The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. As it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse teaches that it is the place where the Sanhedrin resides that causes the judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.

诪讗讛 讜砖诪谞讬诐 讜转讜 诇讗 讜讛转谞讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬

The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben 岣lafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for one hundred and eighty years before the destruction of the Temple and no more? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yosei the Great, i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben 岣lafta himself, teach:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Avodah Zarah 8

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 8

专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 住讘专 讬诇驻讬谞谉 诪诪砖讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 住讘专 诇讗 讬诇驻讬谞谉 诪诪砖讛 砖讗谞讬 诪砖讛 讚专讘 讙讜讘专讬讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讗 讻讚讘专讬 讝讛 讜诇讗 讻讚讘专讬 讝讛 讗诇讗 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua holds that we derive from the case of Moses that one should first praise God in prayer and only afterward issue personal requests. And Rabbi Eliezer holds that we do not derive from Moses how to act, since Moses is different, as his might is great, i.e., he knew how to pray to God in this order. And the Rabbis say: The halakha is not in accordance with the statement of this Sage, who says that one should issue personal requests before praying, nor is it in accordance with the statement of that Sage, who says that personal requests should follow prayer. Rather, a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer. Therefore, when Na岣m the Mede stated that this is the halakha, he was merely concurring with the opinion of the Rabbis.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗讘诇 讗诐 讘讗 诇讜诪专 讘住讜祝 讻诇 讘专讻讛 讜讘专讻讛 诪注讬谉 讻诇 讘专讻讛 讜讘专讻讛 讗讜诪专

With regard to the halakhic ruling, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is that a person requests his own needs during the Amida prayer in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, says in the name of Rav: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer, that is not the only option. Rather, if he wishes to recite at the conclusion of each and every blessing personal requests that reflect the nature of each and every blessing, he may recite them.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗诐 讬砖 诇讜 讞讜诇讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜 讗讜诪专 讘讘专讻转 讞讜诇讬诐 讜讗诐 爪专讬讱 诇驻专谞住讛 讗讜诪专 讘讘专讻转 讛砖谞讬诐

Similarly, Rav 岣yya bar Ashi says that Rav says: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer, if he has a sick person in his house he recites a special prayer for him during the blessing of the sick. And if he is in need of sustenance, he recites a request during the blessing of the years.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 砖讜讗诇 讗讚诐 爪专讻讬讜 讘砖讜诪注 转驻诇讛 讗讘诇 讗诐 讘讗 诇讜诪专 讗讞专 转驻诇转讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讻住讚专 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讗讜诪专

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Although the Sages said that a person requests his own needs in the blessing ending: Who listens to prayer; but if one wishes to recite prayers and supplications after finishing his Amida prayer, even if his personal requests are as long as the order of the confession of Yom Kippur, he may recite them.

诪转谞讬壮 讜讗诇讜 讗讬讚讬讛谉 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 拽诇谞讚讗 讜住讟专谞讜专讗 讜拽专讟讬住讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讙谞讜住讬讗 砖诇 诪诇讻讬讛诐 讜讬讜诐 讛诇讬讚讛 讜讬讜诐 讛诪讬转讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻诇 诪讬转讛 砖讬砖 讘讛 砖专讬驻讛 讬砖 讘讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜砖讗讬谉 讘讛 砖专讬驻讛 讗讬谉 讘讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗讘诇 讬讜诐 转讙诇讞转 讝拽谞讜 讜讘诇讜专讬转讜 讜讬讜诐 砖注诇讛 讘讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讬爪讗 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讜讙讜讬 砖注砖讛 诪砖转讛 诇讘谞讜 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 讘诇讘讚

MISHNA: And these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the birthday of the king, and the anniversary of the day of the death of the king. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Every death that includes public burning is a festival that includes idol worship, and any death that does not include public burning is not a festival that includes idol worship. But in the case of the day of shaving his, i.e., a gentile鈥檚, beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, and also in the case of a gentile who prepared a wedding feast for his son and celebrates on that day, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day and with that man.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 拽诇谞讚讗 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讗讞专 转拽讜驻讛 住讟专谞讜专讗 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 诇驻谞讬 转拽讜驻讛 讜住讬诪谞讱 讗讞讜专 讜拽讚诐 爪专转谞讬 讜讙讜壮

GEMARA: Rav 岣nan bar Rava says: When are these festivals celebrated? Kalenda is celebrated during the eight days after the winter solstice, and Saturnalia is celebrated during the eight days before the winter solstice. And your mnemonic to remember which festival is that the one that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first in the mishna, and the festival that takes place before the solstice is mentioned after, as in the verse: 鈥淵ou have hemmed me in behind and before, and laid Your Hand upon me鈥 (Psalms 139:5), where the word 鈥渂efore鈥 appears after the term 鈥渂ehind.鈥

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇驻讬 砖专讗讛 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讬讜诐 砖诪转诪注讟 讜讛讜诇讱 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖诪讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖住专讞转讬 注讜诇诐 讞砖讜讱 讘注讚讬 讜讞讜讝专 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜 讜讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 砖谞拽谞住讛 注诇讬 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 注诪讚 讜讬砖讘 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讘转注谞讬转 [讜讘转驻诇讛]

With regard to the dates of these festivals, the Sages taught: When Adam the first man saw that the day was progressively diminishing, as the days become shorter from the autumnal equinox until the winter solstice, he did not yet know that this is a normal phenomenon, and therefore he said: Woe is me; perhaps because I sinned the world is becoming dark around me and will ultimately return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven, as it is written: 鈥淎nd to dust shall you return鈥 (Genesis 3:19). He arose and spent eight days in fasting and in prayer.

讻讬讜谉 砖专讗讛 转拽讜驻转 讟讘转 讜专讗讛 讬讜诐 砖诪讗专讬讱 讜讛讜诇讱 讗诪专 诪谞讛讙讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讜讗 讛诇讱 讜注砖讛 砖诪讜谞讛 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诇砖谞讛 讛讗讞专转 注砖讗谉 诇讗诇讜 讜诇讗诇讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讛讜讗 拽讘注诐 诇砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讜讛诐 拽讘注讜诐 诇砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛

Once he saw that the season of Tevet, i.e., the winter solstice, had arrived, and saw that the day was progressively lengthening after the solstice, he said: Clearly, the days become shorter and then longer, and this is the order of the world. He went and observed a festival for eight days. Upon the next year, he observed both these eight days on which he had fasted on the previous year, and these eight days of his celebration, as days of festivities. He, Adam, established these festivals for the sake of Heaven, but they, the gentiles of later generations, established them for the sake of idol worship.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讬讜诪讬 讝讜讟讬 讞讝讗 讬讜诪讬 讗专讬讻讬 讗讻转讬 诇讗 讞讝讗 讗诇讗 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讘谞讬住谉 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐 讛讗 讞讝讗 诇讬讛 讬讜诪讬 讝讜讟讬 讜讬讜诪讬 讗专讬讻讬 讚讛讜讬 讝讜讟讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诇讗 讞讝讗

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Granted, according to the one who says that the world was created in the month of Tishrei, one can understand why Adam believed that the days were becoming shorter as part of his punishment, as he saw the short days of the winter and had not yet seen the long days of summer. But according to the one who says that the world was created in the month of Nisan, he had already seen the difference between the short days and the long days, as the days in the month of Nisan become progressively longer with the passage of time. The Gemara answers: Although Adam had experienced short days, he had not seen days that were this short, as in the days before the winter solstice.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讘讜 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 讻讬讜谉 砖砖拽注讛 注诇讬讜 讞诪讛 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖讘砖讘讬诇 砖住专讞转讬 注讜诇诐 讞砖讜讱 讘注讚讬 讜讬讞讝讜专 注讜诇诐 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜 讜讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 砖谞拽谞住讛 注诇讬 诪谉 讛砖诪讬诐 讛讬讛 讬讜砖讘 讘转注谞讬转 讜讘讜讻讛 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讞讜讛 讘讜讻讛 讻谞讙讚讜 讻讬讜谉 砖注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讗诪专 诪谞讛讙讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讜讗 注诪讚 讜讛拽专讬讘 砖讜专 砖拽专谞讬讜 拽讜讚诪讬谉 诇驻专住讜转讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讬讟讘 诇讛壮 诪砖讜专 驻专 诪拽专谉 诪驻专讬住

The Sages taught: On the day that Adam the first man was created, when the sun set upon him he said: Woe is me, as because I sinned, the world is becoming dark around me, and the world will return to the primordial state of chaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven. He spent all night fasting and crying, and Eve was crying opposite him. Once dawn broke, he said: Evidently, the sun sets and night arrives, and this is the order of the world. He arose and sacrificed a bull whose horns preceded its hoofs in the order that they were created, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns and hoofs鈥 (Psalms 69:32). This verse is referring to the one particular bull whose horns preceded its hoofs.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 砖讜专 砖讛拽专讬讘 讗讚诐 讛专讗砖讜谉 拽专谉 讗讞转 讛讬转讛 诇讜 讘诪爪讞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讬讟讘 诇讛壮 诪砖讜专 驻专 诪拽专谉 诪驻专讬住 诪拽专讬谉 转专转讬 诪砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪拽专谉 讻转讬讘

And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The bull that Adam the first man sacrificed had one horn in its forehead, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns [makrin] and hooves.鈥 The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn鈥檛 makrin plural, which indicates two horns? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: Mikkeren is written, i.e., the letter yod is missing from the word, indicating that there was only one horn.

讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 专讜诪讬 砖注砖转讛 拽诇谞讚讗 讜讻诇 讛注讬讬专讜转 讛住诪讜讻讜转 诇讛 诪砖转注讘讚讜转 诇讛 讗讜转谉 注讬讬专讜转 讗住讜专讜转 讗讜 诪讜转专讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 拽诇谞讚讗 讗住讜专讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗讬谉 讗住讜专讛 讗诇讗 诇注讜讘讚讬讛 讘诇讘讚

Rav Mattana says: Since Rome established the festival of Kalenda on a specific date, and all of the nearby towns are ruled by Rome, i.e., they pay their tax to Rome and provide its needs but do not themselves celebrate the festival, is it prohibited or permitted to engage in business transactions with the gentile residents of those towns? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is prohibited to engage in business during the time of the Kalenda with everyone. Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It is prohibited to engage in business only with its worshippers, whereas it is permitted to engage in business transactions with gentiles who do not celebrate the festival.

转谞讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗诪专讜 专讜诪讬 注砖转讛 拽诇谞讚讗 讜讻诇 注讬讬专讜转 讛住诪讜讻讜转 诇讛 诪砖转注讘讚讜转 诇讛 讛讬讗 注爪诪讛 讗讬谞讛 讗住讜专讛 讗诇讗 诇注讜讘讚讬讛 讘诇讘讚

The Sage taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan: Although they said that Rome has established the festival of Kalenda and all of the nearby towns are ruled by Rome, it is prohibited to engage in business only with its worshippers.

住讟专谞诇讬讗 讜拽专讟住讬诐 讜讬讜诐 讙谞讜住讬讗 砖诇 诪诇讻讬讛诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讛讜诪诇讱 讘讜 诪诇讱 诇驻谞讬讜 讗住讜专 讗讞专讬讜 诪讜转专 讜讙讜讬 砖注砖讛 (讘讜) 诪砖转讛 诇讘谞讜 讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖

The baraita continues: With regard to the festivals Saturnalia and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the day on which the king was crowned, the halakha is that before the festival it is prohibited to engage in business transactions, whereas after the festival it is permitted. But in the case of a gentile who prepared a feast for his son and celebrates on that day, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day itself and with that man.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讗祝 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 转谞讬谞讗 讚拽转谞讬 讬讜诐 转讙诇讞转 讝拽谞讜 讜讘诇讜专讬转讜 讜讬讜诐 砖注诇讛 讘讜 诪谉 讛讬诐 讜讬讜诐 砖讬爪讗 讘讜 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚 讜讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖

Rav Ashi said: We learn in the mishna as well in accordance with Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 statement that the prohibition applies only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to people who are ruled by them. As the mishna teaches: With regard to the day of shaving his beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, engaging in business is prohibited only on that day and with that man.

讘砖诇诪讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪砖注讘讚讬讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

Rav Ashi explains the proof: Granted, the mishna specifies that the prohibition is limited to that day alone, in order to exclude the days before and after it. But when it states that the prohibition applies only to that man, what does the mishna exclude? Obviously the prohibition does not extend to all gentiles, as it is a personal festival. Doesn鈥檛 the mishna鈥檚 ruling serve to exclude those who are ruled by him? Therefore, conclude from the language of the mishna that a prohibition extends only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to those who are ruled by them.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讬砖专讗诇 砖讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 注讜讘讚讬 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讘讟讛专讛 讛谉 讻讬爪讚 讙讜讬 砖注砖讛 诪砖转讛 诇讘谞讜 讜讝讬诪谉 讻诇 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 砖讘注讬专讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讜讻诇讬谉 诪砖诇讛谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 诪砖诇讛谉 讜砖诪砖 砖诇讛谉 注讜诪讚 诇驻谞讬讛诐 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讛诐 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 讗讻诇讜 诪讝讘讞讬 诪转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜拽专讗 诇讱 讜讗讻诇转 诪讝讘讞讜

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael says: Jews who are outside of Eretz Yisrael are considered to engage in idol worship in purity, i.e., unwittingly. How does this occur? In the case of a gentile who prepared a feast for the marriage of his son, and invited all of the Jews in his town, even though they eat of their own kosher food and drink of their own kosher beverages, and their own attendant stands before them, the verse ascribes guilt to them as though they ate of the offerings to the dead, i.e., idols, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd sacrifice to their gods, and they call you, and you eat of their sacrifice鈥 (Exodus 34:15). Since Jews participate in a feast in which the gentile sacrifices offerings to his idol, it is as though they partook of the offering themselves.

讜讗讬诪讗 注讚 讚讗讻讬诇 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗诐 讻谉 谞讬诪讗 拽专讗 讜讗讻诇转 诪讝讘讞讜 诪讗讬 讜拽专讗 诇讱 诪砖注转 拽专讬讗讛 讛诇讻讱

The Gemara asks: But why not say that the verse is criticizing the Jews only once they eat from the sacrifice? Rava said: If that is what is meant, let the verse say only: And you eat of their sacrifice. What is meant by the additional phrase: 鈥淎nd they call you鈥? This indicates that the prohibition occurs from the time of the call. Therefore,

讻诇 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讘讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 讜讘讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 讗住讜专 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 讗住讜专 讜讗讬 诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 砖专讬

during all the thirty days that follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, whether he said to the Jew that the feast is due to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is prohibited to attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. From this point forward, if he said to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is prohibited to participate, but if he did not say to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, it is permitted to do so.

讜讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讞诪转 讛诇讜诇讗 注讚 讗讬诪转 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 注讚 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗讬诪转 讗住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 诪讻讬 专诪讜 砖注专讬 讘讗住讬谞转讬

The Gemara asks: And in a case where he said to him that the feast is due to the wedding celebration, until when is the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? Rav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: And initially, before the wedding, from when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: From the time when they cast barley into the mortars [ba鈥檃sintei] to prepare beer for the wedding.

讜诇讘转专 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 砖专讬 讜讛讗 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 讛讛讜讗 讙讜讬 诇讘转专 转专讬住专 讬专讞讬 砖转讗 讜砖诪注讬讛 讚讗讜讚讬 讜驻讬专砖 讜诇讗 讗讻诇 砖讗谞讬 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讚讗讚诐 讞砖讜讘 讛讜讗

The Gemara asks: And after the twelve months of the year have passed since the wedding, is it always permitted to participate in a feast? But Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happened to come to the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the year had passed since his son鈥檚 wedding, and he heard the gentile giving thanks to his idol for the marriage of his son, and he withdrew from the feast and did not eat there. The Gemara answers: Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important person and therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.

讜拽专讟住讬诐 讜讻讜壮 诪讗讬 拽专讟住讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讬讜诐 砖转驻住讛 讘讜 专讜诪讬 诪诇讻讜转 讜讛转谞讬讗 拽专讟住讬诐 讜讬讜诐 砖转驻住讛 讘讜 专讜诪讬 诪诇讻讜转 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖转讬 转驻讬住讜转 转驻住讛 专讜诪讬 讗讞转 讘讬诪讬 拽诇驻讟专讗 诪诇讻转讗 讜讗讞转 砖转驻住讛 讘讬诪讬 讬讜谞讬诐

搂 The mishna teaches: And Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: What is the festival of Kratesis? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: It commemorates the day when Rome seized control of an empire. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Two festivals are Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire? This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. Rav Yosef said: On two separate occasions Rome seized control of an empire. One occurred in the days of Queen Cleopatra, when they conquered Egypt, and one happened much earlier, when Rome seized control in the days of the Greeks.

讚讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 转诇转讬谉 讜转专讬谉 拽专讘讬 注讘讚讜 专讜诪讗讬 讘讛讚讬 讬讜谞讗讬 讜诇讗 讬讻诇讜 诇讛讜 注讚 讚砖转驻讬谞讛讜 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讜讛讻讬 讗转谞讜 讘讛讚讬讬讛讜 讗讬 诪讬谞谉 诪诇讻讬 诪谞讬讬讻讜 讛驻专讻讬 讗讬 诪谞讬讬讻讜 诪诇讻讬 诪讬谞谉 讛驻专讻讬

The Gemara elaborates: As when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael he said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable to defeat them, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish people and finally vanquished the Greeks. And this is the condition that they stipulated with the Jewish people: If the kings come from among us, the governors [hiparkhei] will come from among you; and if the kings come from among you, the governors will come from among us.

讜砖诇讞讜 诇讛讜 专讜诪讗讬 诇讬讜谞讗讬 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗 注讘讬讚谞讗 讘拽专讘讗 讛砖转讗 谞注讘讬讚 讘讚讬谞讗 诪专讙诇讬转 讜讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 讬注砖讛 讘住讬住 诇讞讘讬专讜 砖诇讞讜 诇讛讜 诪专讙诇讬转 诇讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛

And the Romans sent the following message to the Greeks: Until now, we attempted to resolve our conflict through fighting battles; now, let us settle the matter by means of judgment. In the case of a pearl and a precious stone, which one of them should serve as a base for the other? The Greeks sent them in response: The pearl should serve as the base for the precious stone, which has a greater value.

讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛 讜讗讬谞讱 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 讬注砖讛 讘住讬住 诇讞讘讬专讜 讗讘谉 讟讜讘讛 诇讗讬谞讱 讗讬谞讱 讜住驻专 转讜专讛 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 讬注砖讛 讘住讬住 诇讞讘讬专讜 讗讬谞讱 诇住驻专 转讜专讛

The Romans further inquired: If there was a precious stone and an onyx [innakh], a particularly valuable precious stone, which one of them should serve as a base for the other? The Greeks answered: The precious stone should serve as the base for the onyx. Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of an onyx and a Torah scroll, which one of them should be serve as a base for the other? The Greeks responded: The onyx should serve as the base for the Torah scroll.

砖诇讞讜 诇讛讜 [讗诐 讻谉] 讗谞谉 住驻专 转讜专讛 讙讘谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 讘讛讚谉 讻驻讜 诇讛讜 注砖专讬谉 讜砖讬转 砖谞讬谉 拽诪讜 诇讛讜 讘讛讬诪谞讜转讬讬讛讜 讘讛讚讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬砖转注讘讚讜 讘讛讜

The Romans sent this response to them: If that is so, then you should submit to us, as we have the Torah scroll with us, and the Jewish people are with us. The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore forced the Greeks to surrender and took over their world dominance. For twenty-six years the Romans stood faithfully with the Jewish people; from that point forward, they subjugated them.

诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 诪注讬拽专讗 讚专讜砖 谞住注讛 讜谞诇讻讛 讜讗诇讻讛 诇谞讙讚讱 讜诇讘住讜祝 讚专讜砖 讬注讘专 谞讗 讗讚谞讬 诇驻谞讬 注讘讚讜

The Gemara asks: Initially, when the Romans acted faithfully, what verse did they interpret, and ultimately, when they subjugated the Jews, what verse did they interpret? Initially, they interpreted the verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: 鈥淟et us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you鈥 (Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. And ultimately, they interpreted the verse that recites Jacob鈥檚 response to Esau: 鈥淟et my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant鈥 (Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob鈥檚 subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.

注砖专讬谉 讜砖讬转 砖谞讬谉 讚拽诪讜 讘讛讬诪谞讜转讬讬讛讜 讘讛讚讬 讬砖专讗诇 诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讗诪专 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讻砖讞诇讛 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专 讬讜住讬 砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诪讜专 诇谞讜 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗诪专转 诇谞讜 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讬讱

The Gemara asks: With regard to the twenty-six years during which the Romans stood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do we know that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. As Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill, the Sages sent the following message to him: Our teacher, tell us two or three statements that you once told us in the name of your father, Rabbi Yosei ben 岣lafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讗讛 讜砖诪谞讬诐 砖谞讛 拽讜讚诐 砖谞讞专讘 讛讘讬转 驻砖讟讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖谞讛 注讚 诇讗 讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讙讝专讜 讟讜诪讗讛 注诇 讗专抓 讛注诪讬诐 讜注诇 讻诇讬 讝讻讜讻讬转 讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 注讚 诇讗 讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讙诇转讛 住谞讛讚专讬谉 讜讬砖讘讛 诇讛 讘讞谞讜转

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to them the following statements that were passed down to him by his father: One hundred and eighty years before the Second Temple was destroyed, the evil Roman Empire stretched forth over Israel and ruled over them. Eighty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sages decreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone and sat in the store near the Temple Mount.

诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讚讬诪讬 诇讜诪专 砖诇讗 讚谞讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讘专诐 讝讻讜专 讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 诇讟讜讘 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 砖诪讜 砖讗诇诪诇讗 讛讜讗 谞砖转讻讞讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 诪讬砖专讗诇 谞砖转讻讞讜 诇讙专住讬谞讛讜

The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha is it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avdimi said: It is necessary in order to say that they no longer judged cases of fines. The Gemara asks: Does it enter your mind that at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged cases of fines? But doesn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: Indeed [beram], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten from among the Jewish people. The Gemara challenges that assertion: Would the laws of fines actually have been forgotten? Let the scholars study them, so they will not be forgotten.

讗诇讗 讘讟诇讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖诪讚 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讻诇 讛住讜诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜讻诇 讛谞住诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜注讬专 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讛 转讞专讘 讜转讞讜诐 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讜 讬注拽专

Rather, his intention was to say that the laws of fines would have ceased to be implemented from among the Jewish people, as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these halakhot due to a lack of ordained judges. This is because at one time the wicked kingdom of Rome issued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish people with the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that anyone who ordains judges will be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordain the judges will be destroyed, and the areas around the boundary of the city in which they ordain judges will be uprooted. These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population.

诪讛 注砖讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讛诇讱 讜讬砖讘 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讛专讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讜讘讬谉 砖转讬 注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 转讞讜诪讬 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讗讜砖讗 诇砖驻专注诐 讜住诪讱 砖诐 讞诪砖讛 讝拽谞讬诐 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 砖诪讜注 讜专讘 讗讜讬讗 诪讜住讬祝 讗祝 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛

What did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities, and between two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram, i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, and there he ordained five Elders, namely: Rabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya adds that Rabbi Ne岣mya was also among those ordained.

讻讬讜谉 砖讛讻讬专讜 讘讛诐 讗讜讬讘讬诐 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讘谞讬 专讜爪讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬 讜讗转讛 诪讛 转讛讗 注诇讬讱 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛专讬谞讬 诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讻讗讘谉 砖讗讬谉 诇讛 讛讜驻讻讬谉 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讝讝讜 诪砖诐 注讚 砖谞注爪讜 诇讙讜驻讜 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 诇讜诇谞讬讗讜转 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜注砖讗讜讛讜 诇讙讜驻讜 讻讻讘专讛

When their enemies discovered them, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava said to the newly ordained rabbis: My sons, run for your lives. They said to him: Our teacher, and what will be with you? Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He said to them: In any case, I am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned; even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People said about this incident: The Roman soldiers did not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [lulniot] into his body, making his body appear like a sieve pierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitz岣k bar Avdimi鈥檚 statement.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讚谞讜 讚讬谞讬 谞驻砖讜转

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says in explanation: Do not say that after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of fines; rather, emend the statement to say that they no longer judged cases of capital law, as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讜 讚谞驻讬砖讬 诇讛讜 专讜爪讞讬谉 讜诇讗 讬讻诇讬 诇诪讬讚谉 讗诪专讜 诪讜讟讘 谞讙诇讬 诪诪拽讜诐 诇诪拽讜诐 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讞讬讬讘讜

The Gemara explains: What is the reason that the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? Once they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judge them and punish them with death, they said: It is better that we should be exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move from place to place, so that offenders will not be deemed liable to receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.

讚讻转讬讘 讜注砖讬转 注诇 驻讬 讛讚讘专 讗砖专 讬讙讬讚讜 诇讱 诪谉 讛诪拽讜诐 讛讛讜讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讛诪拽讜诐 讙讜专诐

The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. As it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse teaches that it is the place where the Sanhedrin resides that causes the judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.

诪讗讛 讜砖诪谞讬诐 讜转讜 诇讗 讜讛转谞讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬

The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben 岣lafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for one hundred and eighty years before the destruction of the Temple and no more? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yosei the Great, i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben 岣lafta himself, teach:

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