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Today's Daf Yomi

April 12, 2018 | ื›ืดื– ื‘ื ื™ืกืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Horayot 12

What are the differences between different types of Kohanim?

ื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžืฉื ื’ื ื– ืืจื•ืŸ ื ื’ื ื– ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื•ืฆื ืฆื ืช ื”ืžืŸ ื•ืžืงืœื• ืฉืœ ืื”ืจืŸ ืฉืงื“ื™ื” ื•ืคืจื—ื™ื” ื•ืืจื’ื– ืฉืฉืœื—ื• ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื“ื•ืจื•ืŸ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืช ื›ืœื™ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืชื ืœื• ืืฉื ืชืฉื™ืžื• ื‘ืืจื’ื– ืžืฆื“ื• ื•ืฉืœื—ืชื ืืชื• ื•ื”ืœืš

The Gemara asks with regard to the fact that Jehoahaz was anointed: And was there anointing oil during the days of Jehoahaz? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: When the Ark of the Covenant was sequestered, the anointing oil, and the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33), and Aaronโ€™s staff with its almonds and blossoms (see Numbers 17:23), and the chest that the Philistines sent as a gift to Israel, were all sequestered with it, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall take the Ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart, and put the vessels of gold that you return Him as a guilt-offering in a chest by its side and send it away that it may goโ€ (Iย Samuel 6:8).

ื•ืžื™ ื’ื ื–ื• ื™ืืฉื™ื”ื• ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื’ื ื–ื• ืฉืจืื” ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื™ื•ืœืš ื”ืณ ืืชืš ื•ืืช ืžืœื›ืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืฆื•ื” ื•ื’ื ื–ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœืœื•ื™ื ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื ืœื”ืณ ืชื ื• ืืช ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื›ื ืžืฉื ื‘ื›ืชืฃ ืขืชื” ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื›ื ื•ืืช ืขืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ

And who sequestered the Ark? Josiah, king of Judea, sequestered it, as he saw that it is written in the Torah in the portion of rebuke: โ€œThe Lord will lead you, and your king whom you shall establish over you, unto a nation that you have not knownโ€ (Deuteronomy 28:36). He commanded and the people sequestered them, as it is stated: โ€œAnd he said to the Levites who taught all Israel, and who were sacred unto the Lord: Place the sacred Ark in the room that Solomon, son of David, king of Israel built; there shall be no more burden upon your shoulders. Now serve the Lord your God and His people Israelโ€ (IIย Chronicles 35:3).

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืชื™ื ืฉื ืฉื ืืชื™ื ืžืฉืžืจืช ืžืฉืžืจืช ืืชื™ื ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืืคืจืกืžื ื“ื›ื™ื

And Rabbi Elazar says: One derives a verbal analogy between the term: There, written with regard to the Ark (see Exodus 29:43), and the term: There, written with regard to the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33); and between the term: Keepsake, written with regard to the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33), and the term: Keepsake, written with regard to Aaronโ€™s staff (see Numbers 17:25โ€“26); and between the term: Generations, written with regard to the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33), and the term: Generations, written with regard to the anointing oil (see Exodus 30:31). By means of these verbal analogies it is derived that all of these items were sequestered. Rav Pappa said: They anointed Jehoahaz with pure balsam oil, not with anointing oil.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื•ืฉื—ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื ื–ืจ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืžืื™ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืจ ื’ื“ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืฃ ื™ื•ื ื™

ยง The Sages taught: How does one anoint the kings? One smears the oil in a manner that is similar to the form of a crown around his head. And how does one anoint the priests? One smears the oil in a shape like the Greek letter chi. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Like the Greek letter chi? Rav Menashya bar Gadda said: Like the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew letter kaf.

ืชื ื™ ื—ื“ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืžื•ืฆืงื™ืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื™ืกื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื™ืกื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžื•ืฆืงื™ื ืœื• ืฉืžืŸ ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ืขื“ื™ืคื

It is taught in one baraita: Initially, they pour oil on the priestโ€™s head, and thereafter, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes. And it is taught in a different baraita: Initially, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes, and thereafter, they pour oil on his head. The Gemara explains: It is a dispute between tannaโ€™im. Some say: Anointing with oil between his eyes is preferable and takes precedence, and some say: Pouring oil on his head is preferable and takes precedence.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฆืง ืžืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ืขืœ ืจืืฉ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื™ืžืฉื— ืืชื• ืœืงื“ืฉื• ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืงืกื‘ืจ ืฉื›ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ืืฆืœ ื›ืœื™ ืฉืจืช ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฆืง ื•ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื•ื™ืžืฉื— ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขื ื•ื™ืฆืง ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื•ื™ืžืฉื—

What is the reason for the opinion of the one who said that pouring oil on his head is preferable? It is as it is written: โ€œAnd he poured from the anointing oil upon Aaronโ€™s head and anointed him to sanctify himโ€ (Leviticus 8:12), indicating that pouring precedes anointing. And the one who said that anointing is preferable and takes precedence, what is the reason for his opinion? He holds: Anointing takes precedence as that is what you find with regard to service vessels (see Numbers 7:1). They were anointed, but the anointing oil was not poured on them. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it written with regard to the priests: โ€œAnd he poured,โ€ and ultimately: โ€œAnd anointedโ€? The Gemara answers: This is what the verse is saying: What is the reason that he poured the oil? It is due to the fact that he had already anointed them. Anointing is the primary component of the process.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืฉืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื™ืจื“ ืขืœ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ื–ืงืŸ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื˜ืคื™ ืžืจื’ืœื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืชืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืœืื”ืจืŸ ื‘ื–ืงื ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืชื ื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืกืคืจ ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืœื• ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื–ืงื ื• ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื” ื“ื•ืื’ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ืžืขืœืชื™ ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ื›ืฉืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ื˜ืœ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ืžื” ื˜ืœ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ืฉื‘ื–ืงืŸ ืื”ืจืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื”

The Sages taught: โ€œIt is like the precious oil upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaronโ€™s beard, that comes down upon the collar of his garmentsโ€ (Psalms 133:2). Two drops of anointing oil, shaped like pearls, were suspended for Aaron from his beard. Rav Pappa said that it is taught: When Aaron would speak and his beard would move, those drops would miraculously rise and settle on the roots of his beard so that they would not fall. Moses was concerned about this matter. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forfend, I misused the consecrated anointing oil and poured more than necessary, as two additional drops remain? A Divine Voice emerged and said: โ€œIt is like the precious oil upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaronโ€™s beard, that comes down upon the collar of his garments. Like the dew of Hermonโ€ (Psalms 133:2โ€“3). This analogy teaches: Just as there is no misuse of the dew of Hermon, which is not consecrated, so too, with regard to the anointing oil that is on Aaronโ€™s beard, there is no misuse of consecrated property.

ื•ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื“ื•ืื’ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื ืžืฉื” ืœื ืžืขืœ ืื‘ืœ ืื ื™ ืžืขืœืชื™ ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืœื• ื”ื ื” ืžื” ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืžื” ื ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืื—ื™ื ื’ื ื™ื—ื“ ืžื” ืžืฉื” ืœื ืžืขืœ ืืฃ ืืชื” ืœื ืžืขืœืช

And still Aaron was concerned. He said: Perhaps Moses did not misuse consecrated property; but perhaps I misused consecrated property, as the additional oil is on my beard and I enjoy it. A Divine Voice emerged and said: โ€œBehold, how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unityโ€ (Psalms 133:1). Just as your brother Moses did not misuse consecrated property, so too, you did not misuse consecrated property.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื—ื™ื ืืช ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ืืœื ืขืœ ื”ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืžืฉืš ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื”ืžืœืš ืœื”ื ืงื—ื• ืขืžื›ื ืืช ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืื“ื ื™ื›ื [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื•ื”ื•ืจื“ืชื ืืชื• ืืœ ื’ื—ื•ืŸ

The Sages taught: One anoints the kings only upon a spring, as an omen, so that their kingdom will continue like a spring, as it is stated with regard to the coronation of Solomon before the death of David: โ€œAnd the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord, and let Solomon my son ride upon my own mule, and bring him down to Gihon. And let Tzadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel and sound the shofar and say: Long live King Solomonโ€ (Iย Kings 1:33โ€“34).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื“ืข ืื™ ืžืกื™ืง ืฉืชื™ื” ืื™ ืœื ื ื™ืชืœื™ ืฉืจื’ื ื‘ืขืฉืจื” ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืœื ื ืฉื™ื‘ ื–ื™ืงื ืื™ ืžืฉื™ืš ื ื”ื•ืจื™ื” ื ื™ื“ืข ื“ืžืกื™ืง ืฉืชื™ื”

ยง Apropos good omens, the Gemara cites a statement that Rabbi Ami said: This person who seeks to know if he will complete his year or if he will not, i.e., whether or not he will remain alive in the coming year, let him light a lamp, during the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, in a house in which wind does not blow. If its light continues to burn, he knows that he will complete his year.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ืขื™ืกืงื ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืื™ ืžืฆืœื— ืื™ ืœื ืžืฆืœื— ืœื™ืจื‘ื™ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ืื™ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืคืจ ืžืฆืœื—

And one who seeks to conduct a business venture and wishes to know if he will succeed or if he will not succeed, let him raise a rooster. If the rooster grows fat and healthy, he will succeed.

ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ืคืง [ืœืื•ืจื—ื] ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืื™ ื—ื–ืจ ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืชื ืื™ ืœื ื ื™ืงื•ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ื—ื‘ืจื ืื™ ื—ื–ื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ื“ื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ืœื™ื“ืข ื“ื”ื“ืจ ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืชื ื•ืœืื• ืžืœืชื ื”ื™ื ื“ืœืžื ื—ืœืฉื ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื•ืžื™ืชืจืข ืžื–ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืžืจืช ืกื™ืžื ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื”ื™ื [ืœืขื•ืœื] ื™ื”ื ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืžื™ื—ื–ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉ ืฉืชื ืงืจื ื•ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ืจืชื™ ื•ืกื™ืœืงื ื•ืชืžืจื™

One who seeks to embark on a journey and wishes to know if he will return and come to his home or if he will not, let him go to a dark [daแธฅavara] house. If he sees the shadow of a shadow he shall know that he will return and come home. The Sages reject this: This omen is not a significant matter. Perhaps he will be disheartened if the omen fails to appear, and his fortune will suffer and it is this that causes him to fail. Abaye said: Now that you said that an omen is a significant matter, a person should always be accustomed to seeing these on Rosh HaShana: Squash, and fenugreek, leeks, and chard, and dates, as each of these grows quickly and serves as a positive omen for oneโ€™s actions during the coming year.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ืœื‘ืจื™ื” ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื™ืชื• ืžื™ืขืœ ื•ืžื™ื’ืžืจื™ ืงืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ื™ื›ื• ื’ืจืกื• ืžืชื ื™ืชื ื•ืขืœื• ืœืงืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ื™ื›ื• ื•ื›ื™ ื™ืชื‘ื™ืชื• ืงืžื™ื” ื—ื–ื• ืœืคื•ืžื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืจืื•ืช ืืช ืžื•ืจื™ืš ื•ื›ื™ ื’ืจืกื™ืชื• ื’ืจืกื• ืขืœ ื ื”ืจื ื“ืžื™ื ื“ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžืฉื›ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืฉื›ืŸ ืฉืžืขืชืชื™ื™ื›ื• ื•ืชื™ื‘ื• ืืงื™ืœืงืœื™ ื“ืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ื•ืœื ืชื™ื‘ื• ืืคื“ื ื™ ื“ืคื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืชื ื˜ื‘ ื’ืœื“ื ื ืกืจื™ื [ื“ืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ืœืžื™ื›ืœ] ืžื›ื•ืชื—ื ื“ืจืžื™ ื›ื™ืคื™

Apropos good omens, Rav Mesharshiyya said to his son: When you seek to enter and study before your teacher, study the baraita first, and only then enter before your teacher. And when you are sitting before him, look to his mouth, as it is written: โ€œAnd your eyes shall see your teacherโ€ (Isaiah 30:20). And when you study, study adjacent to a river of water; just as the water flows, your studies will flow unimpeded. He added: And it is preferable for you to sit on the rubbish heaps [akilkelei] of Mata Meแธฅasya, and do not sit in the palaces [appadnei] of Pumbedita. Better to eat the rotten fish [gildana] of Mata Meแธฅasya than to eat kutแธฅa, which displaces rocks, a metaphor for how potent it is.

ืจืžื” ืงืจื ื™ ื‘ืืœื”ื™ ืจืžื” ืงืจื ื™ ื•ืœื ืจืžื” ืคื›ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืœืžื” ืฉื ืžืฉื—ื• ื‘ืงืจืŸ ื ืžืฉื›ื” ืžืœื›ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืื•ืœ ื•ื™ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืžืฉื—ื• ื‘ืคืš ืœื ื ืžืฉื›ื” ืžืœื›ื•ืชืŸ

Apropos good omens for anointing, it is stated in the prayer of Hannah, Samuelโ€™s mother: โ€œMy horn is exalted in my Godโ€ (Iย Samuel 2:1). The Gemara infers: My horn is exalted, and my jug is not exalted. David and Solomon were anointed with oil from a horn. This was a good omen for them and their reign endured. Saul and Jehu were anointed with oil from a jug and their reign did not endure.

ื”ืžืฉื•ื— ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืœืš ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ืื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืฉื•ื— ืžืœื—ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ื•

ยง The mishna teaches: And who is the anointed priest? It is the High Priest who is anointed with the anointing oil, not the High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. The Sages taught: โ€œAnointedโ€ is written in the verse (Leviticus 6:15). One might have thought that the reference is to a king. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œPriest.โ€ If the reference is to a priest, one might have thought that the reference is to a priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnointed.โ€ If the reference is to one who is anointed, one might have thought that the reference is even to a priest anointed for war. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd the anointed priest,โ€ indicating that there is no anointed priest over him; rather, he is the highest-ranking priest.

ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื™ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื•ืžื ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืจืš ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื”ืžื™ื•ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ืžืฉื•ื—ื™ื

The Gemara asks: From where is this inferred? The Gemara answers: It is as Rava said with regard to the term โ€œthe thighโ€ in the verse: โ€œThe sciatic nerve that is on the hollow of the thighโ€ (Genesis 32:33); the reference is to the stronger of the thighs. Here too, where the verse states: โ€œThe anointed,โ€ the reference is to the most distinguished of those anointed, i.e., the High Priest.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืœืš ืžืœืš ืคืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืžื™ื ื ืขืœ ืฉื’ื’ืช ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืขืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara analyzes the baraita: The Master said: โ€œAnointedโ€ is written in the verse. One might have thought that the reference is to a king. The Gemara asks: Is it a bull that a king brings for a sin-offering? It is a male goat that he brings, as the Torah states explicitly, later in that passage. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the tanna to say this, as it may enter your mind to say: It is for the unwitting performance of an action for which all people are liable to bring a sin-offering that a king shall bring a male goat as his offering; but for absence of awareness of the matter with the unwitting performance of an action, a king shall bring a bull. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that it is only the High Priest who brings a bull.

ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื— ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื›ื•ืณ ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื“ื• ืœื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื

ยง The mishna teaches: The difference between a High Priest anointed with the anointing oil and one consecrated by donning multiple garments is only that the latter does not bring the bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as, if it was in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: A priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments brings a bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir, but the Rabbis did not concede that point to him.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื— ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืฉื™ื—

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir? It is as it is taught in a baraita: โ€œAnointedโ€ is written in the verse. I have derived only a priest anointed with the anointing oil. From where do I derive the halakha of a priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments? The verse states: โ€œThe anointed priest,โ€ from which it is derived that anyone who is appointed as the High Priest is included, even if he was not anointed.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืื•ืงื™ืžืชื™ื” ื›ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: In accordance with which opinion did you interpret the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

ืื™ืžื ืกื™ืคื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉืžืฉ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืืœื ืคืจ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืืชืืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืจืข ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžื™ื ื• ื›ื”ืŸ ืื—ืจ ืชื—ืชื™ื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื• ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ [ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื• ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืจืื•ื™ ืœื ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืœื ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜]

Say the latter clause: The difference between a High Priest currently serving in that capacity and a former High Priest is only with regard to the bull brought by the High Priest on Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah meal-offering; but with regard to all other matters the two are equal. In this clause we arrive at the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as it is taught in a baraita: If temporary disqualification befell the High Priest and he left his position and they appointed another priest in his stead, after the cause of his disqualification passes, the first priest returns to his service as High Priest. And with regard to the second priest, all of the mitzvot of the High Priesthood are still incumbent upon him; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The first returns to his service, and the second is unfit to serve in either position; he may serve neither as a High Priest nor as an ordinary priest.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืœื™ื ืžืฆืคื•ืจื™ ืฉืื™ืจืข ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžื™ื ื• ืื—ืจ ืชื—ืชื™ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื”ื• ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืœื ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื‘ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืฉื•ื ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ืŸ

The baraita continues. Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident involving the priest Yosef ben Eilim of Tzippori: When disqualification befell a High Priest and he left his position, the priests appointed another, Yosef ben Eilim, in his stead. And after the cause of the disqualification passed, his brethren the priests did not allow Yosef ben Eilim to serve, neither as a High Priest nor as an ordinary priest. The Gemara explains: Neither as a High Priest, due to enmity, jealousy, and bitterness that would be engendered if there were two High Priests with equal standing in the Temple. Nor as an ordinary priest, because the principle is: One elevates to a higher level in matters of sanctity and one does not downgrade. Once he has served as a High Priest he cannot be restored to the position of an ordinary priest.

ืจื™ืฉื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืฉื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื” ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืชื ืื™

The Gemara asks: Can it be that the first clause of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Meir, and the latter clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir? Rav แธคisda said: Indeed, the first clause of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and the latter clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. Rav Yosef said: The entire mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he formulates the mishna according to different tannaโ€™im. It is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis with regard to a High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments, and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to a former High Priest.

ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื•ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื‘ื—ื“ื ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื

Rava said: The entire mishna is stating the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to one matter and disagrees with him with regard to one matter.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืืœื• ื”ื ืคืจ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ืคืจ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ื•ืœื ืคื•ืจืข ื•ืœื ืคื•ืจื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืœืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื•ื–ื”ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืจื•ืฆื—

This is as it is taught in a baraita: These are matters with regard to which there are differences between a High Priest and an ordinary priest: The High Priest brings the bull that comes for any of the mitzvot, and the bull of Yom Kippur, and the daily tenth of an ephah meal-offering. And he may not grow his hair long and may not rend his garments as expressions of mourning; but he rends his garment from below in an inconspicuous manner, and the ordinary priest rends his garment from above, in the typical manner. And the High Priest may not render himself impure with impurity imparted by a corpse even in the event that one of his relatives dies, and he is warned to marry a virgin, and it is prohibited for him to marry a widow, and when he dies he restores the unwitting murderer to his home from the city of refuge.

ื•ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืื•ื ืŸ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืื•ื›ืœ [ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืœืง] ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื—ืœืง ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื—ืœืง ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ืžืฉืžืฉ ื‘ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื›ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ืช ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื™ื ื” ื›ืฉืจื” ืืœื ื‘ื• ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื•

The baraita continues: And the High Priest sacrifices offerings even as an acute mourner on the day that a close relative dies, but he may not partake of the offerings on that day and he does not receive a share of those offerings. He sacrifices a portion at the head of the priests, i.e., whenever he chooses, and takes a portion at the head, i.e., he takes a portion from any offering that he chooses. And he performs the Temple service wearing eight priestly garments, and the entire Yom Kippur service is valid only when performed by him, and he is exempt from bringing a sliding-scale offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods.

ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืคืจ ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืขื‘ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืคืจ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื•ื— ืžืœื—ืžื” ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื—ืžืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจืฉื” ืœื ืคื•ืจืข ื•ืœื ืคื•ืจื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืœืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื•ื–ื”ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืจื•ืฆื— ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ

The baraita continues: And all these halakhot are in effect with regard to the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments, except for the bull the High Priest brings for all the mitzvot. And all these halakhot are in effect with regard to a former anointed High Priest, except for the bull of Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah. And all these halakhot are not in effect with regard to a priest anointed for war, except for the five matters stated in the portion where the halakhot of the High Priest are enumerated (see Leviticus, chapter 21): He may not grow his hair long and may not rend his garments, and he may not render himself impure with impurity imparted by a corpse even in the event that one of his relatives dies, and he is warned to marry a virgin, and it is prohibited for him to marry a widow, and when he dies he restores the unwitting murderer to his home from the city of refuge; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: He does not restore the unwitting murderer to his home.

ื•ื”ืื™ ืžืžืื™ ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ

The Gemara asks: And with regard to this baraita, from where can it be derived that the tanna is Rabbi Shimon? Rav Pappa said: Whom did you hear who says: A High Priest is exempt from bringing a sliding-scale offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods? It is Rabbi Shimon. He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to a former High Priest, and in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis with regard to the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments, who does not bring a bull for absence of awareness of the matter with the unwitting performance of an action.

ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื—ืžืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจืฉื” ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ื–ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืฆืง ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื–ื” ืžืฉื•ื— ืžืœื—ืžื” ื•ืžืœื ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืœืœื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื–ื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืจืืฉื• ืœื ื™ืคืจืข ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืคืจื ื•ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืช ืžืช ืœื ื™ื‘ื

ยง The baraita teaches: And all these halakhot are not in effect with regard to a priest anointed for war, except for the five matters stated in the portion where the halakhot of the High Priest are enumerated. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? The Gemara answers: It is as the Sages taught: โ€œAnd the priest who is greater than his brethrenโ€ (Leviticus 21:10); this is a High Priest. โ€œUpon whose head the anointing oil is pouredโ€; this is the priest anointed for war. โ€œAnd who is consecrated to don the garmentsโ€; this is the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments. With regard to all of them, the verse states: โ€œHe shall neither let the hair of his head grow, nor rend his garments, neither shall he come upon any dead bodyโ€ (Leviticus 21:10โ€“11).

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืงืจื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื ื–ืจ ืฉืžืŸ ืžืฉื—ืช ืืœื”ื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืœื ืขืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืœืงื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ื”ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื

One might have thought that all of these priests sacrifice offerings as acute mourners. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œFor the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon himโ€ (Leviticus 21:12), from which it is derived: โ€œUpon him,โ€ the High Priest, but not upon another priest. And after the verse differentiated the priest anointed for war, one might have thought that he would not be commanded to marry a virgin, a mitzva that appears in the following verse. Therefore, the verse states with the letter vav as a prefix: โ€œAnd he shall take a wife in her virginityโ€ (Leviticus 21:13), which serves to include the priest anointed for war.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ืืฉื” ื‘ื‘ืชื•ืœื™ื” ื™ืงื— ืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืœืง ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืจื™ื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ืžืช ืงืจื™ื• ืžื—ืžืช ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื

The Gemara comments: This is parallel to a dispute between tannaโ€™im with regard to the verse โ€œAnd he shall take a wife in her virginity.โ€ Once the verse had distinguished between a priest anointed for war and a High Priest in terms of bringing offerings as an acute mourner, it included the priest anointed for war with regard to the halakhot that follow; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: I have derived only that the High Priest who stepped down for a brief period due to his seminal emission is commanded to marry a virgin. From where do I derive that a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes, who will remain disqualified, is commanded to marry a virgin? Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd he,โ€ to include a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes. According to Rabbi Akiva, there is no source available to include the priest anointed for war.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉื ืฆื˜ืจืข ืžื”ื• ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ืžื™ื“ื—ื ื“ื—ื™ ืื• ืžื™ืคื˜ืจ ืคื˜ืจ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”

Rava raised a dilemma before Rav Naแธฅman: In the case of an anointed High Priest who was afflicted with leprosy, what is the halakha with regard to marrying a widow? Is he temporarily disqualified from service, i.e., does he remain a High Priest and is it therefore prohibited for him marry a widow? Or is he totally absolved of his status as High Priest and therefore it is permitted for him to marry a widow? The answer was not available to him.

ื–ื™ืžื ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืงืžื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœืจื‘ ืคืคื ืชื ื™ื ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ืžืช ืงืจื™ื• ืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ืžืช ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ืงื ื ืฉืงื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื” ื•ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืจืชื™ื”

On another occasion, Rav Pappa was sitting and he raised the same dilemma. Huna, son of Rav Naแธฅman, said to Rav Pappa: We learn in a baraita: I have derived only that the High Priest who stepped down for a brief period due to his seminal emission is commanded to marry a virgin. From where do I derive that a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes, who will remain disqualified, is commanded to marry a virgin? The verse states: โ€œAnd he.โ€ Leprosy is an example of a blemish, so it is prohibited for a High priest afflicted with leprosy to marry a widow. When Rav Pappa heard this baraita, he arose and kissed him on his head and gave him his daughter to marry, due to his appreciation for his expertise in Torah study.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืคื•ืจื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืื•ื ืŸ ื•ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืœื ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื•ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ

MISHNA: A High Priest rends his garments from below when he is in mourning, and an ordinary priest rends his garments from above like a non-priest. A High Priest sacrifices offerings as an acute mourner, i.e., on the day of the death of one of his close relatives, but he may not eat from those offerings. And an ordinary priest who is an acute mourner neither sacrifices offerings nor eats from those offerings.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ [ืจื‘] ืœืžื˜ื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืžืฉ ืœืžืขืœื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืžืฉ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืœืžื˜ื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ื•ื–ื” ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืฆื•ืืจ

GEMARA: Rav says: From below, written with regard to the High Priest, means actually from below, from the bottom of the garment, and from above means actually from above, from the top of the garment. And Shmuel said: From below means from below the neckline, and from above means from above the neckline, i.e., from the neckline itself, and both this High Priest and that ordinary priest rend their garments at the neck of their garment.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืจืฆื” ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ืฉืœื• ืจืฆื” ืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ืฉืœื• ืขืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืขืœ ืืžื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื™ ืงืจืข ืงืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืคืจื

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Shmuel from a baraita: For all the dead relatives for whom one rends his garments, if he wishes he rends the neckline of his garment asunder; if he wishes he does not rend the neckline of his garment asunder. If he is rending his garments for his father or for his mother he rends the neckline asunder. Since in general, it is a tear even without rending the neckline asunder, one can read here with regard to the High Priest: โ€œNor rend his garmentsโ€ (Leviticus 21:10). This supports the opinion of Rav that the High Priest does not rend his garments from above like others do; rather, he rends his garments from below.

ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืงืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืฉืคื” ืฉืœื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืงืจืข ืฉืœ ืชืคืœื•ืช ื•ืžื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืจื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara answers: Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who says: Any tear that does not rend his neckline asunder is only a gratuitous tear that serves no purpose. Since according to Rabbi Yehuda rending of garments involves rending the neckline, the High Priest may rend his garment from above provided that he does not rend the neckline. The Gemara asks: And is Rabbi Yehuda of the opinion that there is rending of garments for a High Priest?

ื•ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืœื• ื ืืžืจ ืจืืฉ ืœื ื™ืคืจืข ื•ื‘ื’ื“ ืœื ื™ืคืจื ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื‘ื’ื“ ืฉืœ ืกื•ื˜ื” ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืช ืจืืฉื• ืœื ื™ืคืจืข ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืคืจื ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืคืจื™ืขื” ื•ืคืจื™ืžื” ื›ืœ ืขื™ืงืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืจื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืคื•ืจืžื™ืŸ ืืœื ื”ื•ื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืœืžืขืœื”

But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Had it been stated: He shall neither let the hair of a head grow, nor rend garments, I would have said: It is with regard to the head and the garment of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] that the verse is speaking, and it means that the High Priest must not loosen her hair or rend her garments, in the manner that an ordinary priest does to the sota. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œHe shall neither let the hair of his head grow, nor rend his garmentsโ€ (Leviticus 21:10), indicating that he is not included in the mitzva to grow long hair and rend garments at all; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yishmael says: He does not rend his garments in the manner that people typically rend their garments. Rather, he rends his garment from below and an ordinary priest rends his garments from above. Apparently, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, the High Priest does not rend his garments at all.

ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื

The Gemara answers: Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to one matter, i.e., the way in which garments are rent, and disagrees with him with regard to one matter, as Shmuel holds that the High Priest rends his garments.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ืชื“ื™ืจ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื“ื ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื“ื ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืคืจ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ืคืจ ื”ืขื“ื” ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืคืจ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ืงื•ื“ื ืœืคืจ ื”ืขื“ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื•

MISHNA: Any mitzva that is more frequent than another mitzva precedes that other mitzva if the opportunity to fulfill one of them coincides with an opportunity to fulfill the other. And anyone who is more sanctified than another precedes that other person. If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation, which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions, i.e., its sacrificial rites.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืžืœื‘ื“ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ื‘ืงืจ ืืฉืจ ืœืขื•ืœืช ื”ืชืžื™ื“ (ืœืžื” ืœื™) ืžื›ื“ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ื‘ืงืจ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ืชืžื™ื“ ืœืžื” ืœื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืœ ื“ืชื“ื™ืจื” ืงื“ืžื”

GEMARA: The Gemara questions the statement in the mishna that the more frequent matter takes precedence: From where are these matters derived? Abaye said: It is as the verse states concerning the additional offerings brought on Festivals: โ€œBeside the burnt-offering of the morning, which is for a daily burnt-offeringโ€ (Numbers 28:23). Once it is written: โ€œThe burnt-offering of the morning,โ€ why do I need: โ€œA daily burnt-offeringโ€? Clearly the reference is to the daily burnt-offering of the morning. This is what the Merciful One is saying: Any matter that is more frequent takes precedence. Since it is a daily offering, it is more frequent. Therefore, it precedes other offerings.

ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื• ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืœืคืชื•ื— ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืจืš ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืžื ื” ื™ืคื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

The mishna continues: And anyone who is more sanctified than another precedes that other person. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive these matters? It is as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught, that from the verse written with regard to a priest: โ€œAnd you shall sanctify him, as he sacrifices the bread of your God, he shall be holy unto youโ€ (Leviticus 21:8), it is derived that a priest should be esteemed and granted precedence with regard to any matter of sanctity. He should be the one to open first in the reading of the Torah, and to recite the blessing of the zimmun first, and to take a fine portion first. The priest who is more sanctified takes precedence.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Horayot 12

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Horayot 12

ื•ืžื™ ื”ื•ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžืฉื ื’ื ื– ืืจื•ืŸ ื ื’ื ื– ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื•ืฆื ืฆื ืช ื”ืžืŸ ื•ืžืงืœื• ืฉืœ ืื”ืจืŸ ืฉืงื“ื™ื” ื•ืคืจื—ื™ื” ื•ืืจื’ื– ืฉืฉืœื—ื• ืคืœืฉืชื™ื ื“ื•ืจื•ืŸ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืช ื›ืœื™ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ืืฉืจ ื”ืฉื‘ืชื ืœื• ืืฉื ืชืฉื™ืžื• ื‘ืืจื’ื– ืžืฆื“ื• ื•ืฉืœื—ืชื ืืชื• ื•ื”ืœืš

The Gemara asks with regard to the fact that Jehoahaz was anointed: And was there anointing oil during the days of Jehoahaz? But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: When the Ark of the Covenant was sequestered, the anointing oil, and the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33), and Aaronโ€™s staff with its almonds and blossoms (see Numbers 17:23), and the chest that the Philistines sent as a gift to Israel, were all sequestered with it, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall take the Ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart, and put the vessels of gold that you return Him as a guilt-offering in a chest by its side and send it away that it may goโ€ (Iย Samuel 6:8).

ื•ืžื™ ื’ื ื–ื• ื™ืืฉื™ื”ื• ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื’ื ื–ื• ืฉืจืื” ืฉื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื™ื•ืœืš ื”ืณ ืืชืš ื•ืืช ืžืœื›ืš ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืฆื•ื” ื•ื’ื ื–ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืœืœื•ื™ื ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ื ืœื”ืณ ืชื ื• ืืช ืืจื•ืŸ ื”ืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœืžื” ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ืžืœืš ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื›ื ืžืฉื ื‘ื›ืชืฃ ืขืชื” ืขื‘ื“ื• ืืช ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื›ื ื•ืืช ืขืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ

And who sequestered the Ark? Josiah, king of Judea, sequestered it, as he saw that it is written in the Torah in the portion of rebuke: โ€œThe Lord will lead you, and your king whom you shall establish over you, unto a nation that you have not knownโ€ (Deuteronomy 28:36). He commanded and the people sequestered them, as it is stated: โ€œAnd he said to the Levites who taught all Israel, and who were sacred unto the Lord: Place the sacred Ark in the room that Solomon, son of David, king of Israel built; there shall be no more burden upon your shoulders. Now serve the Lord your God and His people Israelโ€ (IIย Chronicles 35:3).

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืชื™ื ืฉื ืฉื ืืชื™ื ืžืฉืžืจืช ืžืฉืžืจืช ืืชื™ื ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ืืคืจืกืžื ื“ื›ื™ื

And Rabbi Elazar says: One derives a verbal analogy between the term: There, written with regard to the Ark (see Exodus 29:43), and the term: There, written with regard to the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33); and between the term: Keepsake, written with regard to the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33), and the term: Keepsake, written with regard to Aaronโ€™s staff (see Numbers 17:25โ€“26); and between the term: Generations, written with regard to the jar of manna (see Exodus 16:33), and the term: Generations, written with regard to the anointing oil (see Exodus 30:31). By means of these verbal analogies it is derived that all of these items were sequestered. Rav Pappa said: They anointed Jehoahaz with pure balsam oil, not with anointing oil.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื•ืฉื—ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื ื–ืจ ื•ืืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืžืื™ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืจ ื’ื“ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืฃ ื™ื•ื ื™

ยง The Sages taught: How does one anoint the kings? One smears the oil in a manner that is similar to the form of a crown around his head. And how does one anoint the priests? One smears the oil in a shape like the Greek letter chi. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Like the Greek letter chi? Rav Menashya bar Gadda said: Like the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew letter kaf.

ืชื ื™ ื—ื“ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืžื•ืฆืงื™ืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื™ืกื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืชื ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื™ืกื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžื•ืฆืงื™ื ืœื• ืฉืžืŸ ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ืขื“ื™ืคื

It is taught in one baraita: Initially, they pour oil on the priestโ€™s head, and thereafter, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes. And it is taught in a different baraita: Initially, they place oil for him between the lashes of his eyes, and thereafter, they pour oil on his head. The Gemara explains: It is a dispute between tannaโ€™im. Some say: Anointing with oil between his eyes is preferable and takes precedence, and some say: Pouring oil on his head is preferable and takes precedence.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฆืง ืžืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ืขืœ ืจืืฉ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื™ืžืฉื— ืืชื• ืœืงื“ืฉื• ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืขื“ื™ืคื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืงืกื‘ืจ ืฉื›ืŸ ืืชื” ืžื•ืฆื ืืฆืœ ื›ืœื™ ืฉืจืช ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืฆืง ื•ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื•ื™ืžืฉื— ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขื ื•ื™ืฆืง ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื•ื™ืžืฉื—

What is the reason for the opinion of the one who said that pouring oil on his head is preferable? It is as it is written: โ€œAnd he poured from the anointing oil upon Aaronโ€™s head and anointed him to sanctify himโ€ (Leviticus 8:12), indicating that pouring precedes anointing. And the one who said that anointing is preferable and takes precedence, what is the reason for his opinion? He holds: Anointing takes precedence as that is what you find with regard to service vessels (see Numbers 7:1). They were anointed, but the anointing oil was not poured on them. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it written with regard to the priests: โ€œAnd he poured,โ€ and ultimately: โ€œAnd anointedโ€? The Gemara answers: This is what the verse is saying: What is the reason that he poured the oil? It is due to the fact that he had already anointed them. Anointing is the primary component of the process.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืฉืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื™ืจื“ ืขืœ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ื–ืงืŸ ืื”ืจืŸ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ื˜ืคื™ ืžืจื’ืœื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืชืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืœืื”ืจืŸ ื‘ื–ืงื ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืชื ื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืกืคืจ ืขื•ืœื•ืช ื•ื™ื•ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืœื• ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื–ืงื ื• ื•ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืžืฉื” ื“ื•ืื’ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ืžืขืœืชื™ ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ื›ืฉืžืŸ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื›ื˜ืœ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ืžื” ื˜ืœ ื—ืจืžื•ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ืฉื‘ื–ืงืŸ ืื”ืจืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืขื™ืœื”

The Sages taught: โ€œIt is like the precious oil upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaronโ€™s beard, that comes down upon the collar of his garmentsโ€ (Psalms 133:2). Two drops of anointing oil, shaped like pearls, were suspended for Aaron from his beard. Rav Pappa said that it is taught: When Aaron would speak and his beard would move, those drops would miraculously rise and settle on the roots of his beard so that they would not fall. Moses was concerned about this matter. He said: Perhaps, Heaven forfend, I misused the consecrated anointing oil and poured more than necessary, as two additional drops remain? A Divine Voice emerged and said: โ€œIt is like the precious oil upon the head coming down upon the beard, Aaronโ€™s beard, that comes down upon the collar of his garments. Like the dew of Hermonโ€ (Psalms 133:2โ€“3). This analogy teaches: Just as there is no misuse of the dew of Hermon, which is not consecrated, so too, with regard to the anointing oil that is on Aaronโ€™s beard, there is no misuse of consecrated property.

ื•ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืื”ืจืŸ ื“ื•ืื’ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื ืžืฉื” ืœื ืžืขืœ ืื‘ืœ ืื ื™ ืžืขืœืชื™ ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืœื• ื”ื ื” ืžื” ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืžื” ื ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ืช ืื—ื™ื ื’ื ื™ื—ื“ ืžื” ืžืฉื” ืœื ืžืขืœ ืืฃ ืืชื” ืœื ืžืขืœืช

And still Aaron was concerned. He said: Perhaps Moses did not misuse consecrated property; but perhaps I misused consecrated property, as the additional oil is on my beard and I enjoy it. A Divine Voice emerged and said: โ€œBehold, how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unityโ€ (Psalms 133:1). Just as your brother Moses did not misuse consecrated property, so too, you did not misuse consecrated property.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื—ื™ื ืืช ื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ืืœื ืขืœ ื”ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชืžืฉืš ืžืœื›ื•ืชื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื”ืžืœืš ืœื”ื ืงื—ื• ืขืžื›ื ืืช ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืื“ื ื™ื›ื [ื•ื’ื•ืณ] ื•ื”ื•ืจื“ืชื ืืชื• ืืœ ื’ื—ื•ืŸ

The Sages taught: One anoints the kings only upon a spring, as an omen, so that their kingdom will continue like a spring, as it is stated with regard to the coronation of Solomon before the death of David: โ€œAnd the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord, and let Solomon my son ride upon my own mule, and bring him down to Gihon. And let Tzadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel and sound the shofar and say: Long live King Solomonโ€ (Iย Kings 1:33โ€“34).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื“ืข ืื™ ืžืกื™ืง ืฉืชื™ื” ืื™ ืœื ื ื™ืชืœื™ ืฉืจื’ื ื‘ืขืฉืจื” ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ืœื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืœื ื ืฉื™ื‘ ื–ื™ืงื ืื™ ืžืฉื™ืš ื ื”ื•ืจื™ื” ื ื™ื“ืข ื“ืžืกื™ืง ืฉืชื™ื”

ยง Apropos good omens, the Gemara cites a statement that Rabbi Ami said: This person who seeks to know if he will complete his year or if he will not, i.e., whether or not he will remain alive in the coming year, let him light a lamp, during the ten days that are between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, in a house in which wind does not blow. If its light continues to burn, he knows that he will complete his year.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ื‘ืขื™ืกืงื ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืื™ ืžืฆืœื— ืื™ ืœื ืžืฆืœื— ืœื™ืจื‘ื™ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ืื™ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ื•ืฉืคืจ ืžืฆืœื—

And one who seeks to conduct a business venture and wishes to know if he will succeed or if he will not succeed, let him raise a rooster. If the rooster grows fat and healthy, he will succeed.

ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ืคืง [ืœืื•ืจื—ื] ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ื“ืข ืื™ ื—ื–ืจ ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืชื ืื™ ืœื ื ื™ืงื•ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ื—ื‘ืจื ืื™ ื—ื–ื™ ื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ื“ื‘ื‘ื•ืื” ืœื™ื“ืข ื“ื”ื“ืจ ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืชื ื•ืœืื• ืžืœืชื ื”ื™ื ื“ืœืžื ื—ืœืฉื ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื•ืžื™ืชืจืข ืžื–ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืžืจืช ืกื™ืžื ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื”ื™ื [ืœืขื•ืœื] ื™ื”ื ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืžื™ื—ื–ื™ ื‘ืจื™ืฉ ืฉืชื ืงืจื ื•ืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื›ืจืชื™ ื•ืกื™ืœืงื ื•ืชืžืจื™

One who seeks to embark on a journey and wishes to know if he will return and come to his home or if he will not, let him go to a dark [daแธฅavara] house. If he sees the shadow of a shadow he shall know that he will return and come home. The Sages reject this: This omen is not a significant matter. Perhaps he will be disheartened if the omen fails to appear, and his fortune will suffer and it is this that causes him to fail. Abaye said: Now that you said that an omen is a significant matter, a person should always be accustomed to seeing these on Rosh HaShana: Squash, and fenugreek, leeks, and chard, and dates, as each of these grows quickly and serves as a positive omen for oneโ€™s actions during the coming year.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ืœื‘ืจื™ื” ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื™ืชื• ืžื™ืขืœ ื•ืžื™ื’ืžืจื™ ืงืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ื™ื›ื• ื’ืจืกื• ืžืชื ื™ืชื ื•ืขืœื• ืœืงืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ื™ื›ื• ื•ื›ื™ ื™ืชื‘ื™ืชื• ืงืžื™ื” ื—ื–ื• ืœืคื•ืžื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืขื™ื ื™ืš ืจืื•ืช ืืช ืžื•ืจื™ืš ื•ื›ื™ ื’ืจืกื™ืชื• ื’ืจืกื• ืขืœ ื ื”ืจื ื“ืžื™ื ื“ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืžืฉื›ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืฉื›ืŸ ืฉืžืขืชืชื™ื™ื›ื• ื•ืชื™ื‘ื• ืืงื™ืœืงืœื™ ื“ืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ื•ืœื ืชื™ื‘ื• ืืคื“ื ื™ ื“ืคื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืชื ื˜ื‘ ื’ืœื“ื ื ืกืจื™ื [ื“ืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ืœืžื™ื›ืœ] ืžื›ื•ืชื—ื ื“ืจืžื™ ื›ื™ืคื™

Apropos good omens, Rav Mesharshiyya said to his son: When you seek to enter and study before your teacher, study the baraita first, and only then enter before your teacher. And when you are sitting before him, look to his mouth, as it is written: โ€œAnd your eyes shall see your teacherโ€ (Isaiah 30:20). And when you study, study adjacent to a river of water; just as the water flows, your studies will flow unimpeded. He added: And it is preferable for you to sit on the rubbish heaps [akilkelei] of Mata Meแธฅasya, and do not sit in the palaces [appadnei] of Pumbedita. Better to eat the rotten fish [gildana] of Mata Meแธฅasya than to eat kutแธฅa, which displaces rocks, a metaphor for how potent it is.

ืจืžื” ืงืจื ื™ ื‘ืืœื”ื™ ืจืžื” ืงืจื ื™ ื•ืœื ืจืžื” ืคื›ื™ ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืœืžื” ืฉื ืžืฉื—ื• ื‘ืงืจืŸ ื ืžืฉื›ื” ืžืœื›ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืื•ืœ ื•ื™ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืžืฉื—ื• ื‘ืคืš ืœื ื ืžืฉื›ื” ืžืœื›ื•ืชืŸ

Apropos good omens for anointing, it is stated in the prayer of Hannah, Samuelโ€™s mother: โ€œMy horn is exalted in my Godโ€ (Iย Samuel 2:1). The Gemara infers: My horn is exalted, and my jug is not exalted. David and Solomon were anointed with oil from a horn. This was a good omen for them and their reign endured. Saul and Jehu were anointed with oil from a jug and their reign did not endure.

ื”ืžืฉื•ื— ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืœืš ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื”ืŸ ืื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืฉื•ื— ืžืœื—ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืฉื™ื— ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ื•

ยง The mishna teaches: And who is the anointed priest? It is the High Priest who is anointed with the anointing oil, not the High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. The Sages taught: โ€œAnointedโ€ is written in the verse (Leviticus 6:15). One might have thought that the reference is to a king. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œPriest.โ€ If the reference is to a priest, one might have thought that the reference is to a priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnointed.โ€ If the reference is to one who is anointed, one might have thought that the reference is even to a priest anointed for war. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd the anointed priest,โ€ indicating that there is no anointed priest over him; rather, he is the highest-ranking priest.

ืžืื™ ืžืฉืžืข ื›ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื™ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื•ืžื ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืจืš ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื”ืžื™ื•ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ืžืฉื•ื—ื™ื

The Gemara asks: From where is this inferred? The Gemara answers: It is as Rava said with regard to the term โ€œthe thighโ€ in the verse: โ€œThe sciatic nerve that is on the hollow of the thighโ€ (Genesis 32:33); the reference is to the stronger of the thighs. Here too, where the verse states: โ€œThe anointed,โ€ the reference is to the most distinguished of those anointed, i.e., the High Priest.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ืžืฉื™ื— ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืœืš ืžืœืš ืคืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืืžื™ื ื ืขืœ ืฉื’ื’ืช ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื‘ื™ื ืฉืขื™ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืขืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara analyzes the baraita: The Master said: โ€œAnointedโ€ is written in the verse. One might have thought that the reference is to a king. The Gemara asks: Is it a bull that a king brings for a sin-offering? It is a male goat that he brings, as the Torah states explicitly, later in that passage. The Gemara answers: It was necessary for the tanna to say this, as it may enter your mind to say: It is for the unwitting performance of an action for which all people are liable to bring a sin-offering that a king shall bring a male goat as his offering; but for absence of awareness of the matter with the unwitting performance of an action, a king shall bring a bull. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that it is only the High Priest who brings a bull.

ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื— ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื›ื•ืณ ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืžื‘ื™ื ืคืจ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื“ื• ืœื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื

ยง The mishna teaches: The difference between a High Priest anointed with the anointing oil and one consecrated by donning multiple garments is only that the latter does not bring the bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as, if it was in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: A priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments brings a bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir, but the Rabbis did not concede that point to him.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื— ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืฉื™ื—

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Meir? It is as it is taught in a baraita: โ€œAnointedโ€ is written in the verse. I have derived only a priest anointed with the anointing oil. From where do I derive the halakha of a priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments? The verse states: โ€œThe anointed priest,โ€ from which it is derived that anyone who is appointed as the High Priest is included, even if he was not anointed.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืื•ืงื™ืžืชื™ื” ื›ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: In accordance with which opinion did you interpret the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

ืื™ืžื ืกื™ืคื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉืžืฉ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืืœื ืคืจ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ืืชืืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืจืข ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžื™ื ื• ื›ื”ืŸ ืื—ืจ ืชื—ืชื™ื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื• ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืขืœื™ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ [ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ืชื• ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืจืื•ื™ ืœื ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืœื ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜]

Say the latter clause: The difference between a High Priest currently serving in that capacity and a former High Priest is only with regard to the bull brought by the High Priest on Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah meal-offering; but with regard to all other matters the two are equal. In this clause we arrive at the opinion of Rabbi Meir, as it is taught in a baraita: If temporary disqualification befell the High Priest and he left his position and they appointed another priest in his stead, after the cause of his disqualification passes, the first priest returns to his service as High Priest. And with regard to the second priest, all of the mitzvot of the High Priesthood are still incumbent upon him; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The first returns to his service, and the second is unfit to serve in either position; he may serve neither as a High Priest nor as an ordinary priest.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืŸ ืื™ืœื™ื ืžืฆืคื•ืจื™ ืฉืื™ืจืข ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžื™ื ื• ืื—ืจ ืชื—ืชื™ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื”ื• ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืœื ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื‘ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืฉื•ื ืžืขืœื™ืŸ ื‘ืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ืŸ

The baraita continues. Rabbi Yosei said: There was an incident involving the priest Yosef ben Eilim of Tzippori: When disqualification befell a High Priest and he left his position, the priests appointed another, Yosef ben Eilim, in his stead. And after the cause of the disqualification passed, his brethren the priests did not allow Yosef ben Eilim to serve, neither as a High Priest nor as an ordinary priest. The Gemara explains: Neither as a High Priest, due to enmity, jealousy, and bitterness that would be engendered if there were two High Priests with equal standing in the Temple. Nor as an ordinary priest, because the principle is: One elevates to a higher level in matters of sanctity and one does not downgrade. Once he has served as a High Priest he cannot be restored to the position of an ordinary priest.

ืจื™ืฉื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืฉื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื™ื ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื” ืืœื™ื‘ื ื“ืชื ืื™

The Gemara asks: Can it be that the first clause of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Meir, and the latter clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir? Rav แธคisda said: Indeed, the first clause of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and the latter clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir. Rav Yosef said: The entire mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he formulates the mishna according to different tannaโ€™im. It is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis with regard to a High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments, and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to a former High Priest.

ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื•ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื‘ื—ื“ื ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื

Rava said: The entire mishna is stating the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, and he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to one matter and disagrees with him with regard to one matter.

ื“ืชื ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืืœื• ื”ื ืคืจ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ืคืจ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ื•ืœื ืคื•ืจืข ื•ืœื ืคื•ืจื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืœืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื•ื–ื”ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืจื•ืฆื—

This is as it is taught in a baraita: These are matters with regard to which there are differences between a High Priest and an ordinary priest: The High Priest brings the bull that comes for any of the mitzvot, and the bull of Yom Kippur, and the daily tenth of an ephah meal-offering. And he may not grow his hair long and may not rend his garments as expressions of mourning; but he rends his garment from below in an inconspicuous manner, and the ordinary priest rends his garment from above, in the typical manner. And the High Priest may not render himself impure with impurity imparted by a corpse even in the event that one of his relatives dies, and he is warned to marry a virgin, and it is prohibited for him to marry a widow, and when he dies he restores the unwitting murderer to his home from the city of refuge.

ื•ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืื•ื ืŸ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืื•ื›ืœ [ื•ืื™ื ื• ื—ื•ืœืง] ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื—ืœืง ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื ื•ื˜ืœ ื—ืœืง ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ืžืฉืžืฉ ื‘ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื›ืœื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืขื‘ื•ื“ืช ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืื™ื ื” ื›ืฉืจื” ืืœื ื‘ื• ื•ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื•

The baraita continues: And the High Priest sacrifices offerings even as an acute mourner on the day that a close relative dies, but he may not partake of the offerings on that day and he does not receive a share of those offerings. He sacrifices a portion at the head of the priests, i.e., whenever he chooses, and takes a portion at the head, i.e., he takes a portion from any offering that he chooses. And he performs the Temple service wearing eight priestly garments, and the entire Yom Kippur service is valid only when performed by him, and he is exempt from bringing a sliding-scale offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods.

ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืคืจ ื”ืžื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืขื‘ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืคืจ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื•ืขืฉื™ืจื™ืช ื”ืื™ืคื” ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ื”ื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืฉื•ื— ืžืœื—ืžื” ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื—ืžืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจืฉื” ืœื ืคื•ืจืข ื•ืœื ืคื•ืจื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืœืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžื•ื–ื”ืจ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ื•ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ื•ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ ืืช ื”ืจื•ืฆื— ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืžื—ื–ื™ืจ

The baraita continues: And all these halakhot are in effect with regard to the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments, except for the bull the High Priest brings for all the mitzvot. And all these halakhot are in effect with regard to a former anointed High Priest, except for the bull of Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah. And all these halakhot are not in effect with regard to a priest anointed for war, except for the five matters stated in the portion where the halakhot of the High Priest are enumerated (see Leviticus, chapter 21): He may not grow his hair long and may not rend his garments, and he may not render himself impure with impurity imparted by a corpse even in the event that one of his relatives dies, and he is warned to marry a virgin, and it is prohibited for him to marry a widow, and when he dies he restores the unwitting murderer to his home from the city of refuge; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: He does not restore the unwitting murderer to his home.

ื•ื”ืื™ ืžืžืื™ ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืงื“ืฉื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ

The Gemara asks: And with regard to this baraita, from where can it be derived that the tanna is Rabbi Shimon? Rav Pappa said: Whom did you hear who says: A High Priest is exempt from bringing a sliding-scale offering for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods? It is Rabbi Shimon. He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to a former High Priest, and in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis with regard to the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments, who does not bring a bull for absence of awareness of the matter with the unwitting performance of an action.

ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื—ืžืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืคืจืฉื” ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืื—ื™ื• ื–ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืืฉืจ ื™ื•ืฆืง ืขืœ ืจืืฉื• ืฉืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉื—ื” ื–ื” ืžืฉื•ื— ืžืœื—ืžื” ื•ืžืœื ืืช ื™ื“ื• ืœืœื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื–ื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืขืœ ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืจืืฉื• ืœื ื™ืคืจืข ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืคืจื ื•ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉืช ืžืช ืœื ื™ื‘ื

ยง The baraita teaches: And all these halakhot are not in effect with regard to a priest anointed for war, except for the five matters stated in the portion where the halakhot of the High Priest are enumerated. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? The Gemara answers: It is as the Sages taught: โ€œAnd the priest who is greater than his brethrenโ€ (Leviticus 21:10); this is a High Priest. โ€œUpon whose head the anointing oil is pouredโ€; this is the priest anointed for war. โ€œAnd who is consecrated to don the garmentsโ€; this is the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments. With regard to all of them, the verse states: โ€œHe shall neither let the hair of his head grow, nor rend his garments, neither shall he come upon any dead bodyโ€ (Leviticus 21:10โ€“11).

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื• ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืžืงืจื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื•ื ื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ ื ื–ืจ ืฉืžืŸ ืžืฉื—ืช ืืœื”ื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืœื ืขืœ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืœืงื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ื”ื ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืชื•ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื

One might have thought that all of these priests sacrifice offerings as acute mourners. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œFor the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon himโ€ (Leviticus 21:12), from which it is derived: โ€œUpon him,โ€ the High Priest, but not upon another priest. And after the verse differentiated the priest anointed for war, one might have thought that he would not be commanded to marry a virgin, a mitzva that appears in the following verse. Therefore, the verse states with the letter vav as a prefix: โ€œAnd he shall take a wife in her virginityโ€ (Leviticus 21:13), which serves to include the priest anointed for war.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ืืฉื” ื‘ื‘ืชื•ืœื™ื” ื™ืงื— ืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืœืง ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืจื™ื‘ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ืžืช ืงืจื™ื• ืžื—ืžืช ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื

The Gemara comments: This is parallel to a dispute between tannaโ€™im with regard to the verse โ€œAnd he shall take a wife in her virginity.โ€ Once the verse had distinguished between a priest anointed for war and a High Priest in terms of bringing offerings as an acute mourner, it included the priest anointed for war with regard to the halakhot that follow; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: I have derived only that the High Priest who stepped down for a brief period due to his seminal emission is commanded to marry a virgin. From where do I derive that a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes, who will remain disqualified, is commanded to marry a virgin? Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd he,โ€ to include a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes. According to Rabbi Akiva, there is no source available to include the priest anointed for war.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉื ืฆื˜ืจืข ืžื”ื• ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ืžื™ื“ื—ื ื“ื—ื™ ืื• ืžื™ืคื˜ืจ ืคื˜ืจ ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื”

Rava raised a dilemma before Rav Naแธฅman: In the case of an anointed High Priest who was afflicted with leprosy, what is the halakha with regard to marrying a widow? Is he temporarily disqualified from service, i.e., does he remain a High Priest and is it therefore prohibited for him marry a widow? Or is he totally absolved of his status as High Priest and therefore it is permitted for him to marry a widow? The answer was not available to him.

ื–ื™ืžื ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืงืžื‘ืขื™ื ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืœืจื‘ ืคืคื ืชื ื™ื ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ืฉืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ืžืช ืงืจื™ื• ืขื‘ืจ ืžื—ืžืช ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ืงื ื ืฉืงื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ืฉื™ื” ื•ื™ื”ื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืจืชื™ื”

On another occasion, Rav Pappa was sitting and he raised the same dilemma. Huna, son of Rav Naแธฅman, said to Rav Pappa: We learn in a baraita: I have derived only that the High Priest who stepped down for a brief period due to his seminal emission is commanded to marry a virgin. From where do I derive that a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes, who will remain disqualified, is commanded to marry a virgin? The verse states: โ€œAnd he.โ€ Leprosy is an example of a blemish, so it is prohibited for a High priest afflicted with leprosy to marry a widow. When Rav Pappa heard this baraita, he arose and kissed him on his head and gave him his daughter to marry, due to his appreciation for his expertise in Torah study.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืคื•ืจื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืื•ื ืŸ ื•ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืœื ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื•ืœื ืื•ื›ืœ

MISHNA: A High Priest rends his garments from below when he is in mourning, and an ordinary priest rends his garments from above like a non-priest. A High Priest sacrifices offerings as an acute mourner, i.e., on the day of the death of one of his close relatives, but he may not eat from those offerings. And an ordinary priest who is an acute mourner neither sacrifices offerings nor eats from those offerings.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ [ืจื‘] ืœืžื˜ื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืžืฉ ืœืžืขืœื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืžืฉ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืœืžื˜ื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ื•ื–ื” ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืฆื•ืืจ

GEMARA: Rav says: From below, written with regard to the High Priest, means actually from below, from the bottom of the garment, and from above means actually from above, from the top of the garment. And Shmuel said: From below means from below the neckline, and from above means from above the neckline, i.e., from the neckline itself, and both this High Priest and that ordinary priest rend their garments at the neck of their garment.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชื™ื ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืจืฆื” ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ืฉืœื• ืจืฆื” ืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืงืžื™ ืฉืคื” ืฉืœื• ืขืœ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืขืœ ืืžื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื™ ืงืจืข ืงืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืคืจื

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Shmuel from a baraita: For all the dead relatives for whom one rends his garments, if he wishes he rends the neckline of his garment asunder; if he wishes he does not rend the neckline of his garment asunder. If he is rending his garments for his father or for his mother he rends the neckline asunder. Since in general, it is a tear even without rending the neckline asunder, one can read here with regard to the High Priest: โ€œNor rend his garmentsโ€ (Leviticus 21:10). This supports the opinion of Rav that the High Priest does not rend his garments from above like others do; rather, he rends his garments from below.

ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืงืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืฉืคื” ืฉืœื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืงืจืข ืฉืœ ืชืคืœื•ืช ื•ืžื™ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงืจื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara answers: Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who says: Any tear that does not rend his neckline asunder is only a gratuitous tear that serves no purpose. Since according to Rabbi Yehuda rending of garments involves rending the neckline, the High Priest may rend his garment from above provided that he does not rend the neckline. The Gemara asks: And is Rabbi Yehuda of the opinion that there is rending of garments for a High Priest?

ื•ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืœื• ื ืืžืจ ืจืืฉ ืœื ื™ืคืจืข ื•ื‘ื’ื“ ืœื ื™ืคืจื ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื‘ื’ื“ ืฉืœ ืกื•ื˜ื” ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืช ืจืืฉื• ืœื ื™ืคืจืข ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืคืจื ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืคืจื™ืขื” ื•ืคืจื™ืžื” ื›ืœ ืขื™ืงืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืจื ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืคื•ืจืžื™ืŸ ืืœื ื”ื•ื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ื”ื”ื“ื™ื•ื˜ ืžืœืžืขืœื”

But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Had it been stated: He shall neither let the hair of a head grow, nor rend garments, I would have said: It is with regard to the head and the garment of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [sota] that the verse is speaking, and it means that the High Priest must not loosen her hair or rend her garments, in the manner that an ordinary priest does to the sota. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œHe shall neither let the hair of his head grow, nor rend his garmentsโ€ (Leviticus 21:10), indicating that he is not included in the mitzva to grow long hair and rend garments at all; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yishmael says: He does not rend his garments in the manner that people typically rend their garments. Rather, he rends his garment from below and an ordinary priest rends his garments from above. Apparently, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, the High Priest does not rend his garments at all.

ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื ื•ืคืœื™ื’ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื

The Gemara answers: Shmuel holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda with regard to one matter, i.e., the way in which garments are rent, and disagrees with him with regard to one matter, as Shmuel holds that the High Priest rends his garments.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ืชื“ื™ืจ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื“ื ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืงื•ื“ื ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืคืจ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ืคืจ ื”ืขื“ื” ืขื•ืžื“ื™ื ืคืจ ื”ืžืฉื™ื— ืงื•ื“ื ืœืคืจ ื”ืขื“ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื•

MISHNA: Any mitzva that is more frequent than another mitzva precedes that other mitzva if the opportunity to fulfill one of them coincides with an opportunity to fulfill the other. And anyone who is more sanctified than another precedes that other person. If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation, which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions, i.e., its sacrificial rites.

ื’ืžืณ ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืžืœื‘ื“ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ื‘ืงืจ ืืฉืจ ืœืขื•ืœืช ื”ืชืžื™ื“ (ืœืžื” ืœื™) ืžื›ื“ื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ื‘ืงืจ ืขื•ืœืช ื”ืชืžื™ื“ ืœืžื” ืœื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื›ืœ ื“ืชื“ื™ืจื” ืงื“ืžื”

GEMARA: The Gemara questions the statement in the mishna that the more frequent matter takes precedence: From where are these matters derived? Abaye said: It is as the verse states concerning the additional offerings brought on Festivals: โ€œBeside the burnt-offering of the morning, which is for a daily burnt-offeringโ€ (Numbers 28:23). Once it is written: โ€œThe burnt-offering of the morning,โ€ why do I need: โ€œA daily burnt-offeringโ€? Clearly the reference is to the daily burnt-offering of the morning. This is what the Merciful One is saying: Any matter that is more frequent takes precedence. Since it is a daily offering, it is more frequent. Therefore, it precedes other offerings.

ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื•ืงื“ืฉืชื• ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉื‘ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืœืคืชื•ื— ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื‘ืจืš ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืžื ื” ื™ืคื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

The mishna continues: And anyone who is more sanctified than another precedes that other person. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive these matters? It is as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught, that from the verse written with regard to a priest: โ€œAnd you shall sanctify him, as he sacrifices the bread of your God, he shall be holy unto youโ€ (Leviticus 21:8), it is derived that a priest should be esteemed and granted precedence with regard to any matter of sanctity. He should be the one to open first in the reading of the Torah, and to recite the blessing of the zimmun first, and to take a fine portion first. The priest who is more sanctified takes precedence.

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