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Today's Daf Yomi

September 11, 2022 | 讟状讜 讘讗诇讜诇 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Sami Groff in honor of Shoshana Keats Jaskoll and Chochmat Nashim.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Ketubot 67

Today’s daf is sponsored by Debbie Schreiber in loving memory of Elliot Schreiber, her father-in-law, on his 1st yahrzeit. “He was my other father, personal rabbi & brilliant confidante. With semicha from Mercaz Harav he moved with the times & loved discussing halacha with my daughters as well as my sons. His opinion meant so much to me because he was fair, smart & never steered me wrong.聽聽When my father was niftar he helped me more than he could imagine & I am forever grateful.”
Today’s daf is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Devora Shulamit bat Yocheved Chana.聽

What was wrong with the way that Nakdimon ben Gurion fulfilled the mitzva of tzedaka? If a woman brings gold bricks into her dowry, at what value does she get them back? Rabbi Yochanan says at their exact value. However, a braita is brought to contradict. How is it resolved? How much is the minimum amount for a dowry? What about if it is being paid for by charity? Who gets taken care of first, a male or female orphan? Rabbi Yochanan ruled If an orphan needs tzedakah to get married, what do we provide him with? Tzedaka is given according to what the person was used to before they became poor. What is the best way to give tzedaka? How do you give tzedakah to someone who doesn鈥檛 want to take tzedaka? What do you do with someone who has money but wants to take tzedaka anyway? Several stories are brought highlighting these different issues.

诪爪讬注讬谉 转讞转讬讜 讜讘讗讬谉 注谞讬讬诐 讜诪拽驻诇讬谉 讗讜转谉 诪讗讞专讬讜 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讚讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪讬注讘讚 诇讗 注讘讚 讻讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 诇驻讜诐 讙诪诇讗 砖讬讞谞讗


spread underneath him to walk on, and with his blessing, the poor would come and fold them up from behind him for themselves? Clearly he gave abundant charity. The Gemara offers two possible explanations: If you wish, say that he acted that way for his own honor, to demonstrate that he considered the exorbitant expense trivial. And if you wish, say that as he should have done, he did not do. As people say, according to the camel is the burden. The stronger the camel, the heavier the load it must bear. Even if he gave altruistically, Nakdimon ben Guryon did not give as much as he was expected to give.


转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讗专讗讛 讘谞讞诪讛 讗诐 诇讗 专讗讬转讬讛 砖讛讬转讛 诪诇拽讟转 砖注讜专讬诐 诪讘讬谉 讟诇驻讬 住讜住讬诐 讘注讻讜 拽专讗转讬 注诇讬讛 诪拽专讗 讝讛 讗诐 诇讗 转讚注讬 诇讱 讛讬驻讛 讘谞砖讬诐 爪讗讬 诇讱 讘注拽讘讬 讛爪讗谉 讜专注讬 讗转 讙讚讬讜转讬讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讙讚讬讜转讬讱 讗诇讗 讙讜讬讜转讬讱:


It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 5:8) with regard to the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said in the form of an oath: I pray that I will not see the consolation of the Jewish people if I did not see her gathering barley kernels from between the hooves of horses in Akko. I recited this verse about her: 鈥淚f you know not, O you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds鈥 tents鈥 (Song of Songs 1:8). Do not read it as 鈥測our kids [gediyotayikh]鈥 but rather read it as your bodies [geviyotayikh]. This woman is compelled to follow the sheep to the pastures in order to sustain her own body from the leftovers of their food.


讗诪专 专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻谞讬住讛 诇讜 讝讛讘 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻砖讜讜讬讜 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讻讻诇讬诐 砖诇 讻住祝 讚驻讞转讬 诇讗 讻讻诇讬诐 砖诇 讝讛讘 讚诇讗 驻讞转讬 讗诐 讻谉 讻讻诇讬讜 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛


搂 The Gemara returns to the topic of how the groom records the bride鈥檚 dowry in the marriage contract: Rav Shemen bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: If she brings him gold in her dowry, the court appraises it, and it is recorded in the marriage contract according to its value, without additions or subtractions. The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: The halakha is that the gold is like utensils and not like cash for purposes of the dowry. The Gemara qualifies its objection: What, is it not that gold is like silver vessels, which diminish, so that they resemble all other goods in the dowry whose values are reduced in the marriage contract? The Gemara responds: No, the intent is that gold is like utensils of gold, which do not diminish. The Gemara asks: If so, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils, which would demonstrate that gold is appraised according to its true value. Evidently, then, this is not true of gold.


讜注讜讚 转谞讬讗 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 讚讬谞专讬 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讻住驻讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转谉 讜讛专讬 讛谉 讘砖讜讜讬讛谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讛讬讬讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗住讬驻讗 诪讻诇诇 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 讛讗 诇讗 谞驻拽讬


And moreover, one can ask: It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 6:2) that the halakha is that gold is like utensils and that gold dinars are like silver coins. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises them, and they are recorded at their appraised worth, no more or less. The Gemara clarifies: To which clause is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel referring, when he comments that they are not exchanged? If we say he is commenting on the latter clause concerning the gold dinars, by inference it may be understood that the first tanna holds that gold dinars have the same status as cash, even in a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them. But they are not used and do not function as liquid money in a place where they are not exchanged. Why, then, does the husband need to raise the value as though they were functional cash?


讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讗专讬砖讗 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 诪讗讬 讻诇讬诐 讻诇讬诐 砖诇 讻住祝 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讚讬谞专讬谉 砖诇 讝讛讘 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉


Rather, is it not that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the first clause of the baraita, and this is what the baraita is saying: The halakha is that gold is like utensils. What is meant by the ambiguous term utensils? Utensils of silver. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies this ruling and says: The halakha is that it is like gold dinars, whose value remains constant, in a place where they are accustomed not to exchange it or use it for business. In any event, the opinion of the first tanna in this baraita, that gold is treated like silver utensils, contradicts the previous assertion that gold must have the status of gold utensils, not silver utensils.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗住讬驻讗 讜讚谞驻拽讬 注诇 讬讚讬 讛讚讞拽 讜讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 讻讬讜谉 讚谞驻拽讬 诪砖讘讞讬谞谉 诇讛 讜诪专 住讘专 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 谞驻拽讬 讗诇讗 注诇 讬讚讬 讛讚讞拽 诇讗 诪砖讘讞讬谞谉 诇讛


The Gemara responds: No, actually it must be that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the latter clause of the baraita, which deals with gold dinars, and they are not exchanged because they are used as cash only with difficulty. They are not typically used for business, but they could be used when necessary. And consequently, they disagree about this: One Sage, the first tanna, holds since they are used when necessary, we increase the value of gold dinars for the wife in the dowry, and the husband writes an increased sum in the marriage contract. And one Sage, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, holds since they are used for commerce only with difficulty, we do not increase the value of gold dinars for her. According to this interpretation, the first opinion can still subscribe to the notion that gold pieces, like gold utensils, are appraised at their actual value.


讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讜诇讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讗 讜讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 讚讬谞专讬 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讻住驻讬诐 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇驻讜专讟谉 讗讘诇 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转诐 讜讛专讬 讛谉 讘砖讜讜讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转诐 讜讛专讬 讛谉 讘砖讜讜讬讛谉


If you wish, say instead that the entire baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and the baraita is incomplete and this is what it is teaching: The halakha is that a piece of gold is like utensils and gold dinars are like money. In what case is this statement said? In a place where the people were accustomed to exchange the dinars. However, in a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange the dinars, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth. This is the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth.


诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讻讻诇讬讜 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 拽砖讬讗 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讚讛讘讗 驻专讬讻讗 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讘诪诪诇讗


The contradiction from this baraita has been resolved, but in any case, a difficulty remains: If the status of gold is similar to that of gold utensils and it is appraised at its actual value, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils and not simply like any utensils. The Gemara answers: The language is difficult. If you wish, say the following answer instead: With what are we dealing here? With smashed gold fragments. Rav Ashi said: We are dealing with granules of gold. Certainly, then, they are not treated as gold utensils, but the novel element of the baraita is that they have the status of regular utensils and not of gold dinars.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 讗谞讟讜讻讬讗 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讻住驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讙诪诇讬诐 砖诇 注专讘讬讗 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛诐


搂 Apropos the preceding discussion concerning the appraisal of objects used for commerce, the Gemara cites a series of related comments. Rabbi Yannai said: With regard to spices in Antioch, they are like money. Since in Antioch they would conduct business with spices, they should be treated like cash when a woman brings them in her dowry. Similarly, Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Concerning camels in Arabia, a woman may collect the amount of her marriage settlement from them. Since they conduct business using camels in Arabia, the camels are consequently given the status that money has in other places.


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讬 讛谞讬 转讜转讘讬 讚讘讬 诪讻住讬 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讬 讛谞讬 砖拽讬 讚专讜讚讬讗 讜讗砖诇讬 讚拽诪讞讜谞讬讗 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛谉 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪专讬砖 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讛谞讬 讗专谞拽讬 讚诪讞讜讝讗 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛诐 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗住诪讻转讬讬讛讜 注诇讬讬讛讜 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗讬 讚砖拽诇讬 诇讛讜 讜谞驻拽讬 讜讻讬 诪砖讻讞讬 讗专注讗 讝讘谞讬 讘讛讜 讗诪讬谞讗 讗住诪讻转讬讬讛讜 讗讗专注讗 讛讜讗:


Similarly, Rav Pappi said: With regard to those robes in Bei Mikhsei, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them because they use dresses for commerce. And Rav Pappi said: With regard to these sacks in Rodya and ropes in Kim岣nya, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. Rava said: Initially, I would have said that concerning those money pouches [arnakei] in Me岣za, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. What is the reason? They rely on them, and they serve the commercial function served by real estate in other places. Once I saw that they take them and the pouches are used, and when they find land they buy it with them and do not retain them, I said that they too rely on land. The money pouches are used in a fluid manner, but these pouches do not serve the same role served by real estate.


诪转谞讬壮 讛诪砖讬讗 讗转 讘转讜 住转诐 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诇讛 诪讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝 驻住拽 诇讛讻谞讬住讛 注专讜诪讛 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讛讘注诇 讻砖讗讻谞讬住谞讛 诇讘讬转讬 讗讻住谞讛 讘讻住讜转讬 讗诇讗 诪讻住讛 讜注讜讚讛 讘讘讬转 讗讘讬讛 讜讻谉 讛诪砖讬讗 讗转 讛讬转讜诪讛 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诇讛 诪讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝 讗诐 讬砖 讘讻讬住 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗讜转讛 诇驻讬 讻讘讜讚讛:


MISHNA: With regard to one who marries off his daughter with the terms of the dowry unspecified, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If the bride鈥檚 father pledged to bring her into the marriage bare, by saying that he refuses to give her anything, the husband should not say: When I bring her into my house, I will clothe her with my clothing, but not beforehand. Rather, he must clothe her while she is yet in her father鈥檚 house, and she enters the marriage with the clothing in hand. And similarly, with regard to a charity administrator who marries off an orphan girl, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide even more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝讬 驻砖讬讟讬 诪诪讗讬 诪讚拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讗诐 讬砖 讘讻讬住 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗讜转讛 诇驻讬 讻讘讜讚讛 讜讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讻讬住 讗诪专 专讞讘讛 讗专谞拽讬 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讬谉 讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝讬 诪诪砖 讗诐 讬砖 讘讻讬住 讻诪讛 讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讛 讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝讬 驻砖讬讟讬


GEMARA: Abaye said: The fifty dinars mentioned in the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars, each of which is worth one-eighth the amount of a standard dinar. From where do I know that this is so? From the fact that the latter clause teaches: If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity. And we say: What is this fund? Ra岣va said: The charity fund. And if it enters our minds to say that the mishna is referring to fifty actual, i.e., standard, dinars, if there are sufficient resources in the fund, how many standard dinars do we give him? Fifty standard dinars is already a sizable sum to distribute as charity. Rather, conclude from this comment that the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬转讜诐 讜讬转讜诪讛 砖讘讗讜 诇讛转驻专谞住 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诪讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讗讬砖 讚专讻讜 诇讞讝讜专 注诇 讛驻转讞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讗砖讛 讚专讻讛 诇讞讝讜专 讬转讜诐 讜讬转讜诪讛


The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy and an orphan girl who have come and appealed to be supported by the charity fund, the distributors provide for the orphan girl first and afterward they provide for the orphan boy. This is because it is the way of a man to circulate about the entryways to ask for charity, and it is not a woman鈥檚 way to circulate for charity. Therefore, her need is greater. Concerning an orphan boy and orphan girl


砖讘讗讜 诇讬谞砖讗 诪砖讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诪讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪砖讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讘讜砖转讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 诪专讜讘讛 诪砖诇 讗讬砖:


who have come to appeal to the charity fund to be married off, the administrators marry off the orphan girl first and afterward they marry off the orphan boy, because the humiliation of a woman who is not married is greater than that of an unmarried man.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬转讜诐 砖讘讗 诇讬砖讗 砖讜讻专讬谉 诇讜 讘讬转 讜诪爪讬注讬谉 诇讜 诪讟讛 讜讻诇 讻诇讬 转砖诪讬砖讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讜 讗砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讚讬 诪讞住讜专讜 讗砖专 讬讞住专 诇讜 讚讬 诪讞住讜专讜 讝讛 讛讘讬转 讗砖专 讬讞住专 讝讛 诪讟讛 讜砖诇讞谉 诇讜 讝讜 讗砖讛 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗注砖讛 诇讜 注讝专 讻谞讙讚讜:


The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy who has come to marry, the community tries its utmost to provide for all of his needs. The charities rent a house for him, arrange for him a bed and all his utensils, and thereafter they marry him a wife, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his deficiency in that which is deficient for him鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:8). With regard to the phrase 鈥渟ufficient for his deficiency,鈥 this is referring to the house. 鈥淲hich is deficient鈥; this is referring to a bed and table. 鈥淔or him [lo]鈥; this is referring to a wife. And similarly the verse states: 鈥淚 will make him [lo] a helpmate for him鈥 (Genesis 2:18), when God created a wife for Adam.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚讬 诪讞住讜专讜 讗转讛 诪爪讜讜讛 注诇讬讜 诇驻专谞住讜 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪爪讜讜讛 注诇讬讜 诇注砖专讜 讗砖专 讬讞住专 诇讜 讗驻讬诇讜 住讜住 诇专讻讜讘 注诇讬讜 讜注讘讚 诇专讜抓 诇驻谞讬讜 讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 注诇 讛诇诇 讛讝拽谉 砖诇拽讞 诇注谞讬 讘谉 讟讜讘讬诐 讗讞讚 住讜住 诇专讻讜讘 注诇讬讜 讜注讘讚 诇专讜抓 诇驻谞讬讜 驻注诐 讗讞转 诇讗 诪爪讗 注讘讚 诇专讜抓 诇驻谞讬讜 讜专抓 诇驻谞讬讜 砖诇砖讛 诪讬诇讬谉:


Concerning this issue, the Sages taught: 鈥淪ufficient for his deficiency鈥; this teaches that you are commanded with respect to the pauper to support him, but you are not commanded with respect to him to make him wealthy, as the obligation encompasses only that which he lacks, as indicated by the word deficient. However, the verse also states: 鈥淲hich is deficient for him鈥; this includes even a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him for the sake of his stature, if necessary. For someone accustomed to these advantages, their absences constitute a true deficiency, not an extravagant indulgence. The Gemara relates: They said about Hillel the Elder that he obtained for a poor person of noble descent a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him. One time he did not find a servant to run in front of him, and Hillel himself ran in front of him for three mil, to fulfill the dictate 鈥渨hich is deficient for him.鈥


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖讛 讘讗谞砖讬 讙诇讬诇 讛注诇讬讜谉 砖诇拽讞讜 诇注谞讬 讘谉 讟讜讘讬诐 讗讞讚 诪爪讬驻讜专讬 诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 诪讗讬 专讘讜转讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 诪砖诇 注讜驻讜转 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 诪诪砖 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讛转诐 讻驻专 拽讟谉 讛讬讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 诪驻住讚讬 讞讬讜转讗 讗诪讟讜诇转讬讛:


The Sages taught: There was an incident involving the people of the Upper Galilee, who bought for a poor person of noble descent from the city of Tzippori a litra of meat every day. The Gemara asks: If they provided him with the reasonable ration of a litra of meat, what is the novelty in this incident? Why does it bear repeating? Rav Huna said: It was a litra of meat of poultry, which is very expensive. And if you wish, say instead that for the weight of a litra of coins, they bought him actual red meat. The price of ordinary meat was so expensive that they had to pay the exorbitant price of a litra of coins. Rav Ashi said they did not spend a litra of coins for him. Rather, there, in the Galilee, it was a small village, and every day they would lose an entire animal just for him. They would slaughter an animal daily, simply to provide him with fresh meat, although there was otherwise no market for such a plentiful supply of meat in the village.


讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪讛 讗转讛 住讜注讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讘砖专 砖诪谉 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 专爪讜谞讱 砖转讙诇讙诇 注诪讬 讘注讚砖讬诐 讙诇讙诇 注诪讜 讘注讚砖讬诐 讜诪转 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇讝讛 砖讛专讙讜 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讚专讘讛 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇谞讞诪讬讛 砖讛专讙讜 诇讝讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讗诇讗 讗讬讛讜 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇驻谞讜拽讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬


The Gemara relates another incident concerning charity. A certain person came before Rabbi Ne岣mya to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: I usually dine on fatty meat and aged wine. Rabbi Ne岣mya asked him: Is it your wish to belittle yourself and partake together with me in a meal of lentils, which is my regular food? He partook with him of lentils, and he died, since he was not accustomed to this food. Rabbi Ne岣mya said: Woe to this one who was killed by Ne岣mya. The Gemara wonders: On the contrary, Rabbi Ne岣mya should have said: Woe to Ne岣mya who killed this one. The Gemara responds: Rather, Rabbi Ne岣mya meant that it was he, the pauper, who should not have pampered himself so much. The poor man was to blame for his own death. His excessive indulgence rendered him incapable of digesting simple foods such as lentils.


讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讘诪讛 讗转讛 住讜注讚 讗诪专 诇讜 讘转专谞讙讜诇转 驻讟讜诪讛 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 讞讬讬砖转 诇讚讜讞拽讗 讚爪讬讘讜专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讟讜 诪讚讬讚讛讜 拽讗讻讬诇谞讗 诪讚专讞诪谞讗 拽讗讻讬诇谞讗 讚转谞讬谞讗 注讬谞讬 讻诇 讗诇讬讱 讬砖讘专讜 讜讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讛诐 讗转 讗讻诇诐 讘注转讜 讘注转诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讘注转讜 诪诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 驻专谞住转讜 讘注转讜


The Gemara relates another story. A certain person came before Rava to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: On a fattened hen and aged wine. He said to him: And were you not concerned for causing a burden to the community by expecting such opulent foods? He said to him: Is that to say that it is from their funds that I eat? I eat from the support of the Merciful One. This would seem to be a reasonable argument, as we already learned that in the verse 鈥渢he eyes of all wait for You, and You give them their food in its time鈥 (Psalms 145:15), the phrase: At their time, is not stated, rather 鈥渋n its time.鈥 This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gives each and every one his personally appropriate sustenance at its proper time, and the community is merely His agent in discharging His will. Therefore, the man is justified in maintaining his standard.


讗讚讛讻讬 讗转讗讬 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘讗 讚诇讗 讞讝讬讗 诇讬讛 转诇讬住专讬 砖谞讬 讜讗转讬讗 诇讬讛 转专谞讙讜诇转 驻讟讜诪讛 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讚拽诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞注谞转讬 诇讱 拽讜诐 讗讻讜诇


In the meantime, while they were talking, Rava鈥檚 sister, who had not seen him for thirteen years, came. And as a gift, she brought him a fattened hen and aged wine. Rava said to himself: What is this that happened in front of me that suddenly I am brought food that I do not usually eat? He then understood that this was a providential response to what he had earlier said to the man. Rava said to him: I have responded [na鈥檃neti] to your contention. Arise and eat.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 讛诇讜讗讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 讛诇讜讗讛 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讛讗 诇讗 砖拽讬诇 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇驻转讜讞 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛


The Sages taught: If an individual does not have sufficient means of support and does not want to be supported from charity funds, the charities provide him funds as a loan in a dignified manner, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a gift; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: They give him funds as a gift, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a loan. The Gemara wonders about the Rabbis鈥 ruling: How can we give it as a gift? After all, he does not want to take it as a gift. The Gemara answers that Rava said: The Rabbis鈥 instruction is to begin discussions with him by offering the assistance as a gift. If he refuses, the charities give it to him as a loan, but they treat it as a gift and refrain from attempting to collect a debt.


讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞驻专注讬谉 诪诪谞讜 讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞驻专注讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 转讜 诇讗 砖拽讬诇 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讞专 诪讬转讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 讗讬谉 谞讝拽拽讬谉 诇讜 讗讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讘讗 诪砖讻讜谉 讜讟讜诇 讻讚讬 砖转讝讜讞 讚注转讜 注诇讬讜


If he has sufficient funds of his own but does not want to support himself by his own funds without the assistance of charity, the charities give him aid as a gift, and then they go back and collect the debt from him. The Gemara asks: How can the administrators of the fund go back and collect from him? Would their efforts not be in vain, as subsequently he would not take their support, knowing that he would still have to pay for it? Rav Pappa said: The charities collect the accrued debt from his estate only after his death. The baraita continues: Rabbi Shimon says, disputing the opinion of the Rabbis: If he has sufficient funds and does not want to be supported by his own means, they do not get involved with him, as the community is not obligated to support him. If he does not have and does not want to be supported from charity, the charities say to him: Bring collateral and take a loan, so that his mindset should be raised for him, with the false impression that he is not receiving a handout.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛注讘讟 讝讛 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 砖谞讜转谞讬诐 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 讛诇讜讗讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 转注讘讬讟谞讜 讝讛 砖讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞驻专注讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 诇讗讞专 诪讬转讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛


The Gemara cites a dispute related to the previous discussions. The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the double expression in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall open your hand to him [ha鈥檃vet ta鈥檃vitenu]鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:8). Ha鈥檃vet鈥; this is referring to one who does not have funds and does not want to be supported by charity. The policy is that the charities provide him funds as a loan and go back and give the funds to him as a gift. 鈥Ta鈥檃vitenu鈥; this is referring to one who has means and does not want to support himself. The policy is that the charities provide money as a gift, and then they go back and collect from his estate after his death. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.


讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 讗讬谉 谞讝拽拽讬谉 诇讜 讜讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 转注讘讬讟谞讜 讚讘专讛 转讜专讛 讻诇砖讜谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐


The baraita continues: And the Rabbis say: If he has money and does not want to support himself, they do not get involved with him. The baraita asks: How then do I uphold the double expression ha鈥檃vet ta鈥檃vitenu鈥? The baraita answers: The Torah spoke in the language of men, and the double form does not have halakhic significance.


诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讛讜讛 注谞讬讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讚砖讚讬 诇讬讛 讗专讘注讛 讝讜讝讬 讘爪讬谞讜专讗 讚讚砖讗 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬讞讝讬 诪讗谉 拽注讘讬讚 讘讬 讛讛讜讗 讟讬讘讜转讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 谞讙讛讗 诇讬讛 诇诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗转讬讗 讚讘讬转讛讜 讘讛讚讬讛


The Gemara recounts another incident related to charity. Mar Ukva had a pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed every day to toss four dinars for him into the slot adjacent to the hinge of the door. One day the poor person said: I will go and see who is doing this service for me. That day Mar Ukva was delayed in the study hall, and his wife came with him to distribute the charity.


讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讬讜讛 讚拽讗 诪爪诇讬 诇讬讛 诇讚砖讗 谞驻拽 讘转专讬讬讛讜 专讛讜讟 诪拽诪讬讛 注讬讬诇讬 诇讛讛讜讗 讗转讜谞讗 讚讛讜讛 讙专讜驻讛 谞讜专讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讬拽诇讬讬谉 讻专注讬讛 讚诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讚讘讬转讛讜 砖拽讜诇 讻专注讬讱 讗讜转讬讘 讗讻专注讗讬 讞诇砖 讚注转讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 砖讻讬讞谞讗 讘讙讜讬讛 讚讘讬转讗 讜诪拽专讘讗 讗讛谞讬讬转讬


When the people in the poor man鈥檚 house saw that someone was turning the door, the pauper went out after them to see who it was. Mar Ukva and his wife ran away from before him so that he would not determine their identity, and they entered a certain furnace whose fire was already raked over and tempered but was still burning. Mar Ukva鈥檚 legs were being singed, and his wife said to him: Raise your legs and set them on my legs, which are not burned. Understanding that only his wife was spared from burns, because she was more worthy, Mar Ukva became distraught. By way of explanation, she said to him: I am normally found inside the house, and when I give charity, my assistance is ready and immediate, insofar as I distribute actual food items. Since you distribute money, which is not as readily helpful, my aid is greater than yours.


讜诪讗讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讚讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专 讟讜讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬诪住讜专 注爪诪讜 诇转讜讱 讻讘砖谉 讛讗砖 讜讗诇 讬诇讘讬谉 驻谞讬 讞讘专讜 讘专讘讬诐 诪谞讗 诇谉 诪转诪专 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬讗 诪讜爪讗转


The Gemara asks: And what is all this? Why did they go to such extreme lengths to avoid being discovered? The Gemara answers: It is as Mar Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said, and some say that Rav Huna bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida said, and some say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: It is preferable for a person to deliver himself into a fiery furnace so that he not whiten the face of, i.e., embarrass, his friend in public. From where do we derive this? From the conduct of Tamar, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man, whose these are, am I with child鈥 (Genesis 38:24鈥25). Although Tamar was taken to be executed by burning, she privately and directly appealed to Judah, rather than publicly identifying him as the father of her unborn children and causing him embarrassment.


诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讛讜讛 注谞讬讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 诇砖讚讜专讬 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讝讜讝讬 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻讬驻讜专讗 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖讚专讬谞讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讘讬讚 讘专讬讛 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 讞讝讗讬 讚拽讗 诪讝诇驻讬 诇讬讛 讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讗诪专 诪驻谞拽 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 注讬讬驻讬谞讛讜 讜砖讚专讬谞讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬讛


The Gemara relates another incident involving Mar Ukva. Mar Ukva had another pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed to send to him four hundred dinars every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he sent the money to him by the hand of his son. The son returned and said to him: The poor individual does not need the charity. Mar Ukva said: What did you see that prompted you to say this? He said to him: I saw them spilling old wine on the ground for him, to give the room a pleasant smell. Mar Ukva said: If he is pampered this much and requires even this luxury, then he needs even more money. He doubled the funds and sent them to him.


讻讬 拽讗 谞讬讞讗 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪专 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬 讞讜砖讘谞讗讬 讚爪讚拽讛 讗砖讻讞 讚讛讜讛 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 砖讘注转 讗诇驻讬 讚讬谞专讬 住讬讗谞拽讬 讗诪专 讝讜讜讚讗讬 拽诇讬诇讬 讜讗讜专讞讗 专讞讬拽转讗 拽诐 讘讝讘讝讬讛 诇驻诇讙讬讛 诪诪讜谞讬讛 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗讬 讘讗讜砖讗 讛转拽讬谞讜 讛诪讘讝讘讝 讗诇 讬讘讝讘讝 讬讜转专 诪讞讜诪砖 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪讞讬讬诐 砖诪讗 讬专讚 诪谞讻住讬讜 讗讘诇 诇讗讞专 诪讬转讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛:


When Mar Ukva was dying, he said: Bring me my charity records. He found that it was written there that he had given seven thousand fine, siankei, i.e., gold, dinars, to charity. He said: My provisions are light, and the way is far. This meager sum is insufficient for me to merit the World-to-Come. He got up and spent half of his remaining money on charity. The Gemara asks: How did he do this? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Ilai say: In Usha they instituted: One who spends money on charity, he should not spend more than one-fifth of his money for this purpose. The Gemara answers: This restriction on giving too much charity applies only while he is alive, because perhaps he will descend from his holdings and become destitute. Therefore, for his own financial security, he should never distribute more than one-fifth. But after death, we have no problem with it. One need not save money in his estate anymore.


专讘讬 讗讘讗 讛讜讛 爪讬讬专 讝讜讝讬 讘住讜讚专讬讛 讜砖讚讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讞讜专讬讛 讜诪诪爪讬 谞驻砖讬讛 诇讘讬 注谞讬讬 讜诪爪诇讬 注讬谞讬讛 诪专诪讗讬


The Gemara recounts more stories related to charity. Rabbi Abba would wrap coins in his scarf and toss the money behind him over his shoulder. And he would place himself at the homes of the poor without being seen, so the poor could receive the aid without being embarrassed. And he would incline his eyes just enough so he could safeguard the handouts from swindlers who might take the money dishonestly.


专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讜讛 讛讛讜讗 注谞讬讗 讚讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 诇砖讚讜专讬 诇讬讛 讗专讘注讛 讝讜讝讬 讻诇 诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖讚专讬谞讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讘讬讚 讚讘讬转讛讜 讗转讗讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱 诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 砖诪注讬 讚讛讜讛 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讘诪讛 讗转讛 住讜注讚


Rabbi 岣nina knew a certain pauper and was accustomed to send to him four dinars on every Shabbat eve. One day he sent it in the hand of his wife. She came back home and said to him: The man does not need charity. Rabbi 岣nina asked her: What did you see that prompted you to say this? She said to him: I heard them saying to him inside the house: With what do you normally dine:


  • This month's learning is sponsored by Sami Groff in honor of Shoshana Keats Jaskoll and Chochmat Nashim.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

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Ketubot 67

诪爪讬注讬谉 转讞转讬讜 讜讘讗讬谉 注谞讬讬诐 讜诪拽驻诇讬谉 讗讜转谉 诪讗讞专讬讜 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讛讜讗 讚注讘讚 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讚讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪讬注讘讚 诇讗 注讘讚 讻讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 诇驻讜诐 讙诪诇讗 砖讬讞谞讗


spread underneath him to walk on, and with his blessing, the poor would come and fold them up from behind him for themselves? Clearly he gave abundant charity. The Gemara offers two possible explanations: If you wish, say that he acted that way for his own honor, to demonstrate that he considered the exorbitant expense trivial. And if you wish, say that as he should have done, he did not do. As people say, according to the camel is the burden. The stronger the camel, the heavier the load it must bear. Even if he gave altruistically, Nakdimon ben Guryon did not give as much as he was expected to give.


转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讗专讗讛 讘谞讞诪讛 讗诐 诇讗 专讗讬转讬讛 砖讛讬转讛 诪诇拽讟转 砖注讜专讬诐 诪讘讬谉 讟诇驻讬 住讜住讬诐 讘注讻讜 拽专讗转讬 注诇讬讛 诪拽专讗 讝讛 讗诐 诇讗 转讚注讬 诇讱 讛讬驻讛 讘谞砖讬诐 爪讗讬 诇讱 讘注拽讘讬 讛爪讗谉 讜专注讬 讗转 讙讚讬讜转讬讱 讗诇 转拽专讬 讙讚讬讜转讬讱 讗诇讗 讙讜讬讜转讬讱:


It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 5:8) with regard to the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said in the form of an oath: I pray that I will not see the consolation of the Jewish people if I did not see her gathering barley kernels from between the hooves of horses in Akko. I recited this verse about her: 鈥淚f you know not, O you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherds鈥 tents鈥 (Song of Songs 1:8). Do not read it as 鈥測our kids [gediyotayikh]鈥 but rather read it as your bodies [geviyotayikh]. This woman is compelled to follow the sheep to the pastures in order to sustain her own body from the leftovers of their food.


讗诪专 专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻谞讬住讛 诇讜 讝讛讘 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻砖讜讜讬讜 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讻讻诇讬诐 砖诇 讻住祝 讚驻讞转讬 诇讗 讻讻诇讬诐 砖诇 讝讛讘 讚诇讗 驻讞转讬 讗诐 讻谉 讻讻诇讬讜 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛


搂 The Gemara returns to the topic of how the groom records the bride鈥檚 dowry in the marriage contract: Rav Shemen bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: If she brings him gold in her dowry, the court appraises it, and it is recorded in the marriage contract according to its value, without additions or subtractions. The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: The halakha is that the gold is like utensils and not like cash for purposes of the dowry. The Gemara qualifies its objection: What, is it not that gold is like silver vessels, which diminish, so that they resemble all other goods in the dowry whose values are reduced in the marriage contract? The Gemara responds: No, the intent is that gold is like utensils of gold, which do not diminish. The Gemara asks: If so, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils, which would demonstrate that gold is appraised according to its true value. Evidently, then, this is not true of gold.


讜注讜讚 转谞讬讗 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 讚讬谞专讬 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讻住驻讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转谉 讜讛专讬 讛谉 讘砖讜讜讬讛谉 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讛讬讬讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗住讬驻讗 诪讻诇诇 讚转谞讗 拽诪讗 住讘专 讗驻讬诇讜 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 讛讗 诇讗 谞驻拽讬


And moreover, one can ask: It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 6:2) that the halakha is that gold is like utensils and that gold dinars are like silver coins. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises them, and they are recorded at their appraised worth, no more or less. The Gemara clarifies: To which clause is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel referring, when he comments that they are not exchanged? If we say he is commenting on the latter clause concerning the gold dinars, by inference it may be understood that the first tanna holds that gold dinars have the same status as cash, even in a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them. But they are not used and do not function as liquid money in a place where they are not exchanged. Why, then, does the husband need to raise the value as though they were functional cash?


讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讗专讬砖讗 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 诪讗讬 讻诇讬诐 讻诇讬诐 砖诇 讻住祝 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讚讬谞专讬谉 砖诇 讝讛讘 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉


Rather, is it not that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the first clause of the baraita, and this is what the baraita is saying: The halakha is that gold is like utensils. What is meant by the ambiguous term utensils? Utensils of silver. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies this ruling and says: The halakha is that it is like gold dinars, whose value remains constant, in a place where they are accustomed not to exchange it or use it for business. In any event, the opinion of the first tanna in this baraita, that gold is treated like silver utensils, contradicts the previous assertion that gold must have the status of gold utensils, not silver utensils.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讗住讬驻讗 讜讚谞驻拽讬 注诇 讬讚讬 讛讚讞拽 讜讘讛讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 讻讬讜谉 讚谞驻拽讬 诪砖讘讞讬谞谉 诇讛 讜诪专 住讘专 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 谞驻拽讬 讗诇讗 注诇 讬讚讬 讛讚讞拽 诇讗 诪砖讘讞讬谞谉 诇讛


The Gemara responds: No, actually it must be that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the latter clause of the baraita, which deals with gold dinars, and they are not exchanged because they are used as cash only with difficulty. They are not typically used for business, but they could be used when necessary. And consequently, they disagree about this: One Sage, the first tanna, holds since they are used when necessary, we increase the value of gold dinars for the wife in the dowry, and the husband writes an increased sum in the marriage contract. And one Sage, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, holds since they are used for commerce only with difficulty, we do not increase the value of gold dinars for her. According to this interpretation, the first opinion can still subscribe to the notion that gold pieces, like gold utensils, are appraised at their actual value.


讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讜诇讛 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讛讬讗 讜讞住讜专讬 诪讬讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻诇讬诐 讚讬谞专讬 讝讛讘 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讻住驻讬诐 讘诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 讗诪讜专讬诐 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇驻讜专讟谉 讗讘诇 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转诐 讜讛专讬 讛谉 讘砖讜讜讬讛谉 讚讘专讬 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇驻讜专讟谉 砖诪讬谉 讗讜转诐 讜讛专讬 讛谉 讘砖讜讜讬讛谉


If you wish, say instead that the entire baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and the baraita is incomplete and this is what it is teaching: The halakha is that a piece of gold is like utensils and gold dinars are like money. In what case is this statement said? In a place where the people were accustomed to exchange the dinars. However, in a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange the dinars, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth. This is the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth.


诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讻讻诇讬讜 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 拽砖讬讗 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讚讛讘讗 驻专讬讻讗 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讘诪诪诇讗


The contradiction from this baraita has been resolved, but in any case, a difficulty remains: If the status of gold is similar to that of gold utensils and it is appraised at its actual value, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils and not simply like any utensils. The Gemara answers: The language is difficult. If you wish, say the following answer instead: With what are we dealing here? With smashed gold fragments. Rav Ashi said: We are dealing with granules of gold. Certainly, then, they are not treated as gold utensils, but the novel element of the baraita is that they have the status of regular utensils and not of gold dinars.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘砖诪讬诐 砖诇 讗谞讟讜讻讬讗 讛专讬 讛谉 讻讻住驻讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讙诪诇讬诐 砖诇 注专讘讬讗 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛诐


搂 Apropos the preceding discussion concerning the appraisal of objects used for commerce, the Gemara cites a series of related comments. Rabbi Yannai said: With regard to spices in Antioch, they are like money. Since in Antioch they would conduct business with spices, they should be treated like cash when a woman brings them in her dowry. Similarly, Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Concerning camels in Arabia, a woman may collect the amount of her marriage settlement from them. Since they conduct business using camels in Arabia, the camels are consequently given the status that money has in other places.


讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讬 讛谞讬 转讜转讘讬 讚讘讬 诪讻住讬 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛诐 讜讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讬 讛谞讬 砖拽讬 讚专讜讚讬讗 讜讗砖诇讬 讚拽诪讞讜谞讬讗 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛谉 讗诪专 专讘讗 诪专讬砖 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讛谞讬 讗专谞拽讬 讚诪讞讜讝讗 讗砖讛 讙讜讘讛 驻专谞讗 诪讛诐 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗住诪讻转讬讬讛讜 注诇讬讬讛讜 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗讬 讚砖拽诇讬 诇讛讜 讜谞驻拽讬 讜讻讬 诪砖讻讞讬 讗专注讗 讝讘谞讬 讘讛讜 讗诪讬谞讗 讗住诪讻转讬讬讛讜 讗讗专注讗 讛讜讗:


Similarly, Rav Pappi said: With regard to those robes in Bei Mikhsei, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them because they use dresses for commerce. And Rav Pappi said: With regard to these sacks in Rodya and ropes in Kim岣nya, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. Rava said: Initially, I would have said that concerning those money pouches [arnakei] in Me岣za, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. What is the reason? They rely on them, and they serve the commercial function served by real estate in other places. Once I saw that they take them and the pouches are used, and when they find land they buy it with them and do not retain them, I said that they too rely on land. The money pouches are used in a fluid manner, but these pouches do not serve the same role served by real estate.


诪转谞讬壮 讛诪砖讬讗 讗转 讘转讜 住转诐 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诇讛 诪讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝 驻住拽 诇讛讻谞讬住讛 注专讜诪讛 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讛讘注诇 讻砖讗讻谞讬住谞讛 诇讘讬转讬 讗讻住谞讛 讘讻住讜转讬 讗诇讗 诪讻住讛 讜注讜讚讛 讘讘讬转 讗讘讬讛 讜讻谉 讛诪砖讬讗 讗转 讛讬转讜诪讛 诇讗 讬驻讞讜转 诇讛 诪讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝 讗诐 讬砖 讘讻讬住 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗讜转讛 诇驻讬 讻讘讜讚讛:


MISHNA: With regard to one who marries off his daughter with the terms of the dowry unspecified, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If the bride鈥檚 father pledged to bring her into the marriage bare, by saying that he refuses to give her anything, the husband should not say: When I bring her into my house, I will clothe her with my clothing, but not beforehand. Rather, he must clothe her while she is yet in her father鈥檚 house, and she enters the marriage with the clothing in hand. And similarly, with regard to a charity administrator who marries off an orphan girl, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide even more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝讬 驻砖讬讟讬 诪诪讗讬 诪讚拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讗诐 讬砖 讘讻讬住 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗讜转讛 诇驻讬 讻讘讜讚讛 讜讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讻讬住 讗诪专 专讞讘讛 讗专谞拽讬 砖诇 爪讚拽讛 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讬谉 讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝讬 诪诪砖 讗诐 讬砖 讘讻讬住 讻诪讛 讬讛讘讬谞谉 诇讛 讗诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讞诪砖讬诐 讝讜讝讬 驻砖讬讟讬


GEMARA: Abaye said: The fifty dinars mentioned in the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars, each of which is worth one-eighth the amount of a standard dinar. From where do I know that this is so? From the fact that the latter clause teaches: If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity. And we say: What is this fund? Ra岣va said: The charity fund. And if it enters our minds to say that the mishna is referring to fifty actual, i.e., standard, dinars, if there are sufficient resources in the fund, how many standard dinars do we give him? Fifty standard dinars is already a sizable sum to distribute as charity. Rather, conclude from this comment that the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬转讜诐 讜讬转讜诪讛 砖讘讗讜 诇讛转驻专谞住 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诪讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪驻专谞住讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讗讬砖 讚专讻讜 诇讞讝讜专 注诇 讛驻转讞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讗砖讛 讚专讻讛 诇讞讝讜专 讬转讜诐 讜讬转讜诪讛


The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy and an orphan girl who have come and appealed to be supported by the charity fund, the distributors provide for the orphan girl first and afterward they provide for the orphan boy. This is because it is the way of a man to circulate about the entryways to ask for charity, and it is not a woman鈥檚 way to circulate for charity. Therefore, her need is greater. Concerning an orphan boy and orphan girl


砖讘讗讜 诇讬谞砖讗 诪砖讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诪讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪砖讬讗讬谉 讗转 讛讬转讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讘讜砖转讛 砖诇 讗砖讛 诪专讜讘讛 诪砖诇 讗讬砖:


who have come to appeal to the charity fund to be married off, the administrators marry off the orphan girl first and afterward they marry off the orphan boy, because the humiliation of a woman who is not married is greater than that of an unmarried man.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬转讜诐 砖讘讗 诇讬砖讗 砖讜讻专讬谉 诇讜 讘讬转 讜诪爪讬注讬谉 诇讜 诪讟讛 讜讻诇 讻诇讬 转砖诪讬砖讜 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诇讜 讗砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讚讬 诪讞住讜专讜 讗砖专 讬讞住专 诇讜 讚讬 诪讞住讜专讜 讝讛 讛讘讬转 讗砖专 讬讞住专 讝讛 诪讟讛 讜砖诇讞谉 诇讜 讝讜 讗砖讛 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗注砖讛 诇讜 注讝专 讻谞讙讚讜:


The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy who has come to marry, the community tries its utmost to provide for all of his needs. The charities rent a house for him, arrange for him a bed and all his utensils, and thereafter they marry him a wife, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his deficiency in that which is deficient for him鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:8). With regard to the phrase 鈥渟ufficient for his deficiency,鈥 this is referring to the house. 鈥淲hich is deficient鈥; this is referring to a bed and table. 鈥淔or him [lo]鈥; this is referring to a wife. And similarly the verse states: 鈥淚 will make him [lo] a helpmate for him鈥 (Genesis 2:18), when God created a wife for Adam.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚讬 诪讞住讜专讜 讗转讛 诪爪讜讜讛 注诇讬讜 诇驻专谞住讜 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪爪讜讜讛 注诇讬讜 诇注砖专讜 讗砖专 讬讞住专 诇讜 讗驻讬诇讜 住讜住 诇专讻讜讘 注诇讬讜 讜注讘讚 诇专讜抓 诇驻谞讬讜 讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 注诇 讛诇诇 讛讝拽谉 砖诇拽讞 诇注谞讬 讘谉 讟讜讘讬诐 讗讞讚 住讜住 诇专讻讜讘 注诇讬讜 讜注讘讚 诇专讜抓 诇驻谞讬讜 驻注诐 讗讞转 诇讗 诪爪讗 注讘讚 诇专讜抓 诇驻谞讬讜 讜专抓 诇驻谞讬讜 砖诇砖讛 诪讬诇讬谉:


Concerning this issue, the Sages taught: 鈥淪ufficient for his deficiency鈥; this teaches that you are commanded with respect to the pauper to support him, but you are not commanded with respect to him to make him wealthy, as the obligation encompasses only that which he lacks, as indicated by the word deficient. However, the verse also states: 鈥淲hich is deficient for him鈥; this includes even a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him for the sake of his stature, if necessary. For someone accustomed to these advantages, their absences constitute a true deficiency, not an extravagant indulgence. The Gemara relates: They said about Hillel the Elder that he obtained for a poor person of noble descent a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him. One time he did not find a servant to run in front of him, and Hillel himself ran in front of him for three mil, to fulfill the dictate 鈥渨hich is deficient for him.鈥


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖讛 讘讗谞砖讬 讙诇讬诇 讛注诇讬讜谉 砖诇拽讞讜 诇注谞讬 讘谉 讟讜讘讬诐 讗讞讚 诪爪讬驻讜专讬 诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 诪讗讬 专讘讜转讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 诪砖诇 注讜驻讜转 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘诇讬讟专讗 讘砖专 诪诪砖 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讛转诐 讻驻专 拽讟谉 讛讬讛 讘讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 诪驻住讚讬 讞讬讜转讗 讗诪讟讜诇转讬讛:


The Sages taught: There was an incident involving the people of the Upper Galilee, who bought for a poor person of noble descent from the city of Tzippori a litra of meat every day. The Gemara asks: If they provided him with the reasonable ration of a litra of meat, what is the novelty in this incident? Why does it bear repeating? Rav Huna said: It was a litra of meat of poultry, which is very expensive. And if you wish, say instead that for the weight of a litra of coins, they bought him actual red meat. The price of ordinary meat was so expensive that they had to pay the exorbitant price of a litra of coins. Rav Ashi said they did not spend a litra of coins for him. Rather, there, in the Galilee, it was a small village, and every day they would lose an entire animal just for him. They would slaughter an animal daily, simply to provide him with fresh meat, although there was otherwise no market for such a plentiful supply of meat in the village.


讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪讛 讗转讛 住讜注讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讘砖专 砖诪谉 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 专爪讜谞讱 砖转讙诇讙诇 注诪讬 讘注讚砖讬诐 讙诇讙诇 注诪讜 讘注讚砖讬诐 讜诪转 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇讝讛 砖讛专讙讜 谞讞诪讬讛 讗讚专讘讛 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇谞讞诪讬讛 砖讛专讙讜 诇讝讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讗诇讗 讗讬讛讜 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讗讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇驻谞讜拽讬 谞驻砖讬讛 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬


The Gemara relates another incident concerning charity. A certain person came before Rabbi Ne岣mya to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: I usually dine on fatty meat and aged wine. Rabbi Ne岣mya asked him: Is it your wish to belittle yourself and partake together with me in a meal of lentils, which is my regular food? He partook with him of lentils, and he died, since he was not accustomed to this food. Rabbi Ne岣mya said: Woe to this one who was killed by Ne岣mya. The Gemara wonders: On the contrary, Rabbi Ne岣mya should have said: Woe to Ne岣mya who killed this one. The Gemara responds: Rather, Rabbi Ne岣mya meant that it was he, the pauper, who should not have pampered himself so much. The poor man was to blame for his own death. His excessive indulgence rendered him incapable of digesting simple foods such as lentils.


讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讘诪讛 讗转讛 住讜注讚 讗诪专 诇讜 讘转专谞讙讜诇转 驻讟讜诪讛 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗 讞讬讬砖转 诇讚讜讞拽讗 讚爪讬讘讜专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讟讜 诪讚讬讚讛讜 拽讗讻讬诇谞讗 诪讚专讞诪谞讗 拽讗讻讬诇谞讗 讚转谞讬谞讗 注讬谞讬 讻诇 讗诇讬讱 讬砖讘专讜 讜讗转讛 谞讜转谉 诇讛诐 讗转 讗讻诇诐 讘注转讜 讘注转诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讘注转讜 诪诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜转谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 驻专谞住转讜 讘注转讜


The Gemara relates another story. A certain person came before Rava to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: On a fattened hen and aged wine. He said to him: And were you not concerned for causing a burden to the community by expecting such opulent foods? He said to him: Is that to say that it is from their funds that I eat? I eat from the support of the Merciful One. This would seem to be a reasonable argument, as we already learned that in the verse 鈥渢he eyes of all wait for You, and You give them their food in its time鈥 (Psalms 145:15), the phrase: At their time, is not stated, rather 鈥渋n its time.鈥 This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gives each and every one his personally appropriate sustenance at its proper time, and the community is merely His agent in discharging His will. Therefore, the man is justified in maintaining his standard.


讗讚讛讻讬 讗转讗讬 讗讞转讬讛 讚专讘讗 讚诇讗 讞讝讬讗 诇讬讛 转诇讬住专讬 砖谞讬 讜讗转讬讗 诇讬讛 转专谞讙讜诇转 驻讟讜诪讛 讜讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讚拽诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞注谞转讬 诇讱 拽讜诐 讗讻讜诇


In the meantime, while they were talking, Rava鈥檚 sister, who had not seen him for thirteen years, came. And as a gift, she brought him a fattened hen and aged wine. Rava said to himself: What is this that happened in front of me that suddenly I am brought food that I do not usually eat? He then understood that this was a providential response to what he had earlier said to the man. Rava said to him: I have responded [na鈥檃neti] to your contention. Arise and eat.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 讛诇讜讗讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 讛诇讜讗讛 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讛讗 诇讗 砖拽讬诇 讗诪专 专讘讗 诇驻转讜讞 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛


The Sages taught: If an individual does not have sufficient means of support and does not want to be supported from charity funds, the charities provide him funds as a loan in a dignified manner, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a gift; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: They give him funds as a gift, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a loan. The Gemara wonders about the Rabbis鈥 ruling: How can we give it as a gift? After all, he does not want to take it as a gift. The Gemara answers that Rava said: The Rabbis鈥 instruction is to begin discussions with him by offering the assistance as a gift. If he refuses, the charities give it to him as a loan, but they treat it as a gift and refrain from attempting to collect a debt.


讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞驻专注讬谉 诪诪谞讜 讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞驻专注讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 转讜 诇讗 砖拽讬诇 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讞专 诪讬转讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 讗讬谉 谞讝拽拽讬谉 诇讜 讗讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讛讘讗 诪砖讻讜谉 讜讟讜诇 讻讚讬 砖转讝讜讞 讚注转讜 注诇讬讜


If he has sufficient funds of his own but does not want to support himself by his own funds without the assistance of charity, the charities give him aid as a gift, and then they go back and collect the debt from him. The Gemara asks: How can the administrators of the fund go back and collect from him? Would their efforts not be in vain, as subsequently he would not take their support, knowing that he would still have to pay for it? Rav Pappa said: The charities collect the accrued debt from his estate only after his death. The baraita continues: Rabbi Shimon says, disputing the opinion of the Rabbis: If he has sufficient funds and does not want to be supported by his own means, they do not get involved with him, as the community is not obligated to support him. If he does not have and does not want to be supported from charity, the charities say to him: Bring collateral and take a loan, so that his mindset should be raised for him, with the false impression that he is not receiving a handout.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛注讘讟 讝讛 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 砖谞讜转谞讬诐 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 讛诇讜讗讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 转注讘讬讟谞讜 讝讛 砖讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 砖谞讜转谞讬谉 诇讜 诇砖讜诐 诪转谞讛 讜讞讜讝专讬谉 讜谞驻专注讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 诇讗讞专 诪讬转讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛


The Gemara cites a dispute related to the previous discussions. The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the double expression in the Torah: 鈥淵ou shall open your hand to him [ha鈥檃vet ta鈥檃vitenu]鈥 (Deuteronomy 15:8). Ha鈥檃vet鈥; this is referring to one who does not have funds and does not want to be supported by charity. The policy is that the charities provide him funds as a loan and go back and give the funds to him as a gift. 鈥Ta鈥檃vitenu鈥; this is referring to one who has means and does not want to support himself. The policy is that the charities provide money as a gift, and then they go back and collect from his estate after his death. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.


讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讬砖 诇讜 讜讗讬谞讜 专讜爪讛 诇讛转驻专谞住 讗讬谉 谞讝拽拽讬谉 诇讜 讜讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 转注讘讬讟谞讜 讚讘专讛 转讜专讛 讻诇砖讜谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐


The baraita continues: And the Rabbis say: If he has money and does not want to support himself, they do not get involved with him. The baraita asks: How then do I uphold the double expression ha鈥檃vet ta鈥檃vitenu鈥? The baraita answers: The Torah spoke in the language of men, and the double form does not have halakhic significance.


诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讛讜讛 注谞讬讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讚砖讚讬 诇讬讛 讗专讘注讛 讝讜讝讬 讘爪讬谞讜专讗 讚讚砖讗 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬讞讝讬 诪讗谉 拽注讘讬讚 讘讬 讛讛讜讗 讟讬讘讜转讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 谞讙讛讗 诇讬讛 诇诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗转讬讗 讚讘讬转讛讜 讘讛讚讬讛


The Gemara recounts another incident related to charity. Mar Ukva had a pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed every day to toss four dinars for him into the slot adjacent to the hinge of the door. One day the poor person said: I will go and see who is doing this service for me. That day Mar Ukva was delayed in the study hall, and his wife came with him to distribute the charity.


讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讬讜讛 讚拽讗 诪爪诇讬 诇讬讛 诇讚砖讗 谞驻拽 讘转专讬讬讛讜 专讛讜讟 诪拽诪讬讛 注讬讬诇讬 诇讛讛讜讗 讗转讜谞讗 讚讛讜讛 讙专讜驻讛 谞讜专讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讬拽诇讬讬谉 讻专注讬讛 讚诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讚讘讬转讛讜 砖拽讜诇 讻专注讬讱 讗讜转讬讘 讗讻专注讗讬 讞诇砖 讚注转讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 砖讻讬讞谞讗 讘讙讜讬讛 讚讘讬转讗 讜诪拽专讘讗 讗讛谞讬讬转讬


When the people in the poor man鈥檚 house saw that someone was turning the door, the pauper went out after them to see who it was. Mar Ukva and his wife ran away from before him so that he would not determine their identity, and they entered a certain furnace whose fire was already raked over and tempered but was still burning. Mar Ukva鈥檚 legs were being singed, and his wife said to him: Raise your legs and set them on my legs, which are not burned. Understanding that only his wife was spared from burns, because she was more worthy, Mar Ukva became distraught. By way of explanation, she said to him: I am normally found inside the house, and when I give charity, my assistance is ready and immediate, insofar as I distribute actual food items. Since you distribute money, which is not as readily helpful, my aid is greater than yours.


讜诪讗讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 讚讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讘专 讟讜讘讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬诪住讜专 注爪诪讜 诇转讜讱 讻讘砖谉 讛讗砖 讜讗诇 讬诇讘讬谉 驻谞讬 讞讘专讜 讘专讘讬诐 诪谞讗 诇谉 诪转诪专 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬讗 诪讜爪讗转


The Gemara asks: And what is all this? Why did they go to such extreme lengths to avoid being discovered? The Gemara answers: It is as Mar Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said, and some say that Rav Huna bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida said, and some say that Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i: It is preferable for a person to deliver himself into a fiery furnace so that he not whiten the face of, i.e., embarrass, his friend in public. From where do we derive this? From the conduct of Tamar, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man, whose these are, am I with child鈥 (Genesis 38:24鈥25). Although Tamar was taken to be executed by burning, she privately and directly appealed to Judah, rather than publicly identifying him as the father of her unborn children and causing him embarrassment.


诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讛讜讛 注谞讬讗 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 诇砖讚讜专讬 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讝讜讝讬 讻诇 诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻讬驻讜专讗 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖讚专讬谞讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讘讬讚 讘专讬讛 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 讞讝讗讬 讚拽讗 诪讝诇驻讬 诇讬讛 讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讗诪专 诪驻谞拽 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 注讬讬驻讬谞讛讜 讜砖讚专讬谞讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬讛


The Gemara relates another incident involving Mar Ukva. Mar Ukva had another pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed to send to him four hundred dinars every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he sent the money to him by the hand of his son. The son returned and said to him: The poor individual does not need the charity. Mar Ukva said: What did you see that prompted you to say this? He said to him: I saw them spilling old wine on the ground for him, to give the room a pleasant smell. Mar Ukva said: If he is pampered this much and requires even this luxury, then he needs even more money. He doubled the funds and sent them to him.


讻讬 拽讗 谞讬讞讗 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪专 讗讬讬转讜 诇讬 讞讜砖讘谞讗讬 讚爪讚拽讛 讗砖讻讞 讚讛讜讛 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 砖讘注转 讗诇驻讬 讚讬谞专讬 住讬讗谞拽讬 讗诪专 讝讜讜讚讗讬 拽诇讬诇讬 讜讗讜专讞讗 专讞讬拽转讗 拽诐 讘讝讘讝讬讛 诇驻诇讙讬讛 诪诪讜谞讬讛 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚 讛讻讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗讬 讘讗讜砖讗 讛转拽讬谞讜 讛诪讘讝讘讝 讗诇 讬讘讝讘讝 讬讜转专 诪讞讜诪砖 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪讞讬讬诐 砖诪讗 讬专讚 诪谞讻住讬讜 讗讘诇 诇讗讞专 诪讬转讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛:


When Mar Ukva was dying, he said: Bring me my charity records. He found that it was written there that he had given seven thousand fine, siankei, i.e., gold, dinars, to charity. He said: My provisions are light, and the way is far. This meager sum is insufficient for me to merit the World-to-Come. He got up and spent half of his remaining money on charity. The Gemara asks: How did he do this? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Ilai say: In Usha they instituted: One who spends money on charity, he should not spend more than one-fifth of his money for this purpose. The Gemara answers: This restriction on giving too much charity applies only while he is alive, because perhaps he will descend from his holdings and become destitute. Therefore, for his own financial security, he should never distribute more than one-fifth. But after death, we have no problem with it. One need not save money in his estate anymore.


专讘讬 讗讘讗 讛讜讛 爪讬讬专 讝讜讝讬 讘住讜讚专讬讛 讜砖讚讬 诇讬讛 诇讗讞讜专讬讛 讜诪诪爪讬 谞驻砖讬讛 诇讘讬 注谞讬讬 讜诪爪诇讬 注讬谞讬讛 诪专诪讗讬


The Gemara recounts more stories related to charity. Rabbi Abba would wrap coins in his scarf and toss the money behind him over his shoulder. And he would place himself at the homes of the poor without being seen, so the poor could receive the aid without being embarrassed. And he would incline his eyes just enough so he could safeguard the handouts from swindlers who might take the money dishonestly.


专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讜讛 讛讛讜讗 注谞讬讗 讚讛讜讛 专讙讬诇 诇砖讚讜专讬 诇讬讛 讗专讘注讛 讝讜讝讬 讻诇 诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖讚专讬谞讛讜 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讘讬讚 讚讘讬转讛讜 讗转讗讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诇讗 爪专讬讱 诪讗讬 讞讝讬转 砖诪注讬 讚讛讜讛 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讘诪讛 讗转讛 住讜注讚


Rabbi 岣nina knew a certain pauper and was accustomed to send to him four dinars on every Shabbat eve. One day he sent it in the hand of his wife. She came back home and said to him: The man does not need charity. Rabbi 岣nina asked her: What did you see that prompted you to say this? She said to him: I heard them saying to him inside the house: With what do you normally dine:


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