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Today's Daf Yomi

September 11, 2022 | ื˜ืดื• ื‘ืืœื•ืœ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Ketubot 67

Today’s daf is sponsored by Debbie Schreiber in loving memory of Elliot Schreiber, her father-in-law, on his 1st yahrzeit. “He was my other father, personal rabbi & brilliant confidante. With semicha from Mercaz Harav he moved with the times & loved discussing halacha with my daughters as well as my sons. His opinion meant so much to me because he was fair, smart & never steered me wrong.ย ย When my father was niftar he helped me more than he could imagine & I am forever grateful.”
Today’s daf is dedicated for a refuah shleima for Devora Shulamit bat Yocheved Chana.ย 

What was wrong with the way that Nakdimon ben Gurion fulfilled the mitzva of tzedaka? If a woman brings gold bricks into her dowry, at what value does she get them back? Rabbi Yochanan says at their exact value. However, a braita is brought to contradict. How is it resolved? How much is the minimum amount for a dowry? What about if it is being paid for by charity? Who gets taken care of first, a male or female orphan? Rabbi Yochanan ruled If an orphan needs tzedakah to get married, what do we provide him with? Tzedaka is given according to what the person was used to before they became poor. What is the best way to give tzedaka? How do you give tzedakah to someone who doesnโ€™t want to take tzedaka? What do you do with someone who has money but wants to take tzedaka anyway? Several stories are brought highlighting these different issues.

ืžืฆื™ืขื™ืŸ ืชื—ืชื™ื• ื•ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื•ืžืงืคืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืžืื—ืจื™ื• ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ืœื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืœืคื•ื ื’ืžืœื ืฉื™ื—ื ื

spread underneath him to walk on, and with his blessing, the poor would come and fold them up from behind him for themselves? Clearly he gave abundant charity. The Gemara offers two possible explanations: If you wish, say that he acted that way for his own honor, to demonstrate that he considered the exorbitant expense trivial. And if you wish, say that as he should have done, he did not do. As people say, according to the camel is the burden. The stronger the camel, the heavier the load it must bear. Even if he gave altruistically, Nakdimon ben Guryon did not give as much as he was expected to give.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืืจืื” ื‘ื ื—ืžื” ืื ืœื ืจืื™ืชื™ื” ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืžืœืงื˜ืช ืฉืขื•ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ืœืคื™ื™ ืกื•ืกื™ื ื‘ืขื›ื• ืงืจืืชื™ ืขืœื™ื” ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ืื ืœื ืชื“ืขื™ ืœืš ื”ื™ืคื” ื‘ื ืฉื™ื ืฆืื™ ืœืš ื‘ืขืงื‘ื™ ื”ืฆืืŸ ื•ืจืขื™ ืืช ื’ื“ื™ื•ืชื™ืš ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื’ื“ื™ื•ืชื™ืš ืืœื ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชื™ืš

It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 5:8) with regard to the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said in the form of an oath: I pray that I will not see the consolation of the Jewish people if I did not see her gathering barley kernels from between the hooves of horses in Akko. I recited this verse about her: โ€œIf you know not, O you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherdsโ€™ tentsโ€ (Song of Songs 1:8). Do not read it as โ€œyour kids [gediyotayikh]โ€ but rather read it as your bodies [geviyotayikh]. This woman is compelled to follow the sheep to the pastures in order to sustain her own body from the leftovers of their food.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœื• ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ืฉื•ื•ื™ื• ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืกืฃ ื“ืคื—ืชื™ ืœื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื“ืœื ืคื—ืชื™ ืื ื›ืŸ ื›ื›ืœื™ื• ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื”

ยง The Gemara returns to the topic of how the groom records the brideโ€™s dowry in the marriage contract: Rav Shemen bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: If she brings him gold in her dowry, the court appraises it, and it is recorded in the marriage contract according to its value, without additions or subtractions. The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: The halakha is that the gold is like utensils and not like cash for purposes of the dowry. The Gemara qualifies its objection: What, is it not that gold is like silver vessels, which diminish, so that they resemble all other goods in the dowry whose values are reduced in the marriage contract? The Gemara responds: No, the intent is that gold is like utensils of gold, which do not diminish. The Gemara asks: If so, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils, which would demonstrate that gold is appraised according to its true value. Evidently, then, this is not true of gold.

ื•ืขื•ื“ ืชื ื™ื ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืกืคื™ื ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื”ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื”ื™ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืืกื™ืคื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืชื ื ืงืžื ืกื‘ืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ื”ื ืœื ื ืคืงื™

And moreover, one can ask: It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 6:2) that the halakha is that gold is like utensils and that gold dinars are like silver coins. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises them, and they are recorded at their appraised worth, no more or less. The Gemara clarifies: To which clause is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel referring, when he comments that they are not exchanged? If we say he is commenting on the latter clause concerning the gold dinars, by inference it may be understood that the first tanna holds that gold dinars have the same status as cash, even in a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them. But they are not used and do not function as liquid money in a place where they are not exchanged. Why, then, does the husband need to raise the value as though they were functional cash?

ืืœื ืœืื• ืืจื™ืฉื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืžืื™ ื›ืœื™ื ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืกืฃ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื“ื™ื ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ

Rather, is it not that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the first clause of the baraita, and this is what the baraita is saying: The halakha is that gold is like utensils. What is meant by the ambiguous term utensils? Utensils of silver. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies this ruling and says: The halakha is that it is like gold dinars, whose value remains constant, in a place where they are accustomed not to exchange it or use it for business. In any event, the opinion of the first tanna in this baraita, that gold is treated like silver utensils, contradicts the previous assertion that gold must have the status of gold utensils, not silver utensils.

ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืกื™ืคื ื•ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื—ืง ื•ื‘ื”ื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืžืฉื‘ื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื•ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ื ืคืงื™ ืืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื—ืง ืœื ืžืฉื‘ื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื”

The Gemara responds: No, actually it must be that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the latter clause of the baraita, which deals with gold dinars, and they are not exchanged because they are used as cash only with difficulty. They are not typically used for business, but they could be used when necessary. And consequently, they disagree about this: One Sage, the first tanna, holds since they are used when necessary, we increase the value of gold dinars for the wife in the dowry, and the husband writes an increased sum in the marriage contract. And one Sage, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, holds since they are used for commerce only with difficulty, we do not increase the value of gold dinars for her. According to this interpretation, the first opinion can still subscribe to the notion that gold pieces, like gold utensils, are appraised at their actual value.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื™ื ื•ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืกืคื™ื ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืฉืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื”ืŸ

If you wish, say instead that the entire baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and the baraita is incomplete and this is what it is teaching: The halakha is that a piece of gold is like utensils and gold dinars are like money. In what case is this statement said? In a place where the people were accustomed to exchange the dinars. However, in a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange the dinars, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth. This is the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth.

ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื• ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืงืฉื™ื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื“ื”ื‘ื ืคืจื™ื›ื ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื‘ืžืžืœื

The contradiction from this baraita has been resolved, but in any case, a difficulty remains: If the status of gold is similar to that of gold utensils and it is appraised at its actual value, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils and not simply like any utensils. The Gemara answers: The language is difficult. If you wish, say the following answer instead: With what are we dealing here? With smashed gold fragments. Rav Ashi said: We are dealing with granules of gold. Certainly, then, they are not treated as gold utensils, but the novel element of the baraita is that they have the status of regular utensils and not of gold dinars.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืกืคื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ื™ื ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ื

ยง Apropos the preceding discussion concerning the appraisal of objects used for commerce, the Gemara cites a series of related comments. Rabbi Yannai said: With regard to spices in Antioch, they are like money. Since in Antioch they would conduct business with spices, they should be treated like cash when a woman brings them in her dowry. Similarly, Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Concerning camels in Arabia, a woman may collect the amount of her marriage settlement from them. Since they conduct business using camels in Arabia, the camels are consequently given the status that money has in other places.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ื”ื ื™ ืชื•ืชื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืžื›ืกื™ ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ื”ื ื™ ืฉืงื™ ื“ืจื•ื“ื™ื ื•ืืฉืœื™ ื“ืงืžื—ื•ื ื™ื ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืจื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ื”ื ื™ ืืจื ืงื™ ื“ืžื—ื•ื–ื ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืกืžื›ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ืื™ ื“ืฉืงืœื™ ืœื”ื• ื•ื ืคืงื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืžืฉื›ื—ื™ ืืจืขื ื–ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื”ื• ืืžื™ื ื ืืกืžื›ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืืจืขื ื”ื•ื

Similarly, Rav Pappi said: With regard to those robes in Bei Mikhsei, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them because they use dresses for commerce. And Rav Pappi said: With regard to these sacks in Rodya and ropes in Kimแธฅonya, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. Rava said: Initially, I would have said that concerning those money pouches [arnakei] in Meแธฅoza, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. What is the reason? They rely on them, and they serve the commercial function served by real estate in other places. Once I saw that they take them and the pouches are used, and when they find land they buy it with them and do not retain them, I said that they too rely on land. The money pouches are used in a fluid manner, but these pouches do not serve the same role served by real estate.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืžืฉื™ื ืืช ื‘ืชื• ืกืชื ืœื ื™ืคื—ื•ืช ืœื” ืžื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื– ืคืกืง ืœื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืขืจื•ืžื” ืœื ื™ืืžืจ ื”ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืฉืื›ื ื™ืกื ื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ ืื›ืกื ื” ื‘ื›ืกื•ืชื™ ืืœื ืžื›ืกื” ื•ืขื•ื“ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืžืฉื™ื ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื” ืœื ื™ืคื—ื•ืช ืœื” ืžื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื– ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื™ืก ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืœืคื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื”

MISHNA: With regard to one who marries off his daughter with the terms of the dowry unspecified, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If the brideโ€™s father pledged to bring her into the marriage bare, by saying that he refuses to give her anything, the husband should not say: When I bring her into my house, I will clothe her with my clothing, but not beforehand. Rather, he must clothe her while she is yet in her fatherโ€™s house, and she enters the marriage with the clothing in hand. And similarly, with regard to a charity administrator who marries off an orphan girl, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide even more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื™ ืžืžืื™ ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื™ืก ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืœืคื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื” ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื›ื™ืก ืืžืจ ืจื—ื‘ื” ืืจื ืงื™ ืฉืœ ืฆื“ืงื” ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชื™ืŸ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืžืžืฉ ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื™ืก ื›ืžื” ื™ื”ื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื™

GEMARA: Abaye said: The fifty dinars mentioned in the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars, each of which is worth one-eighth the amount of a standard dinar. From where do I know that this is so? From the fact that the latter clause teaches: If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity. And we say: What is this fund? Raแธฅava said: The charity fund. And if it enters our minds to say that the mishna is referring to fifty actual, i.e., standard, dinars, if there are sufficient resources in the fund, how many standard dinars do we give him? Fifty standard dinars is already a sizable sum to distribute as charity. Rather, conclude from this comment that the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืชื•ื ื•ื™ืชื•ืžื” ืฉื‘ืื• ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืื™ืฉ ื“ืจื›ื• ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืคืชื—ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืืฉื” ื“ืจื›ื” ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื™ืชื•ื ื•ื™ืชื•ืžื”

The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy and an orphan girl who have come and appealed to be supported by the charity fund, the distributors provide for the orphan girl first and afterward they provide for the orphan boy. This is because it is the way of a man to circulate about the entryways to ask for charity, and it is not a womanโ€™s way to circulate for charity. Therefore, her need is greater. Concerning an orphan boy and orphan girl

ืฉื‘ืื• ืœื™ื ืฉื ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื‘ื•ืฉืชื” ืฉืœ ืืฉื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžืฉืœ ืื™ืฉ

who have come to appeal to the charity fund to be married off, the administrators marry off the orphan girl first and afterward they marry off the orphan boy, because the humiliation of a woman who is not married is greater than that of an unmarried man.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืชื•ื ืฉื‘ื ืœื™ืฉื ืฉื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืžืฆื™ืขื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื˜ื” ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืœื™ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฉื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื“ื™ ืžื—ืกื•ืจื• ืืฉืจ ื™ื—ืกืจ ืœื• ื“ื™ ืžื—ืกื•ืจื• ื–ื” ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื™ื—ืกืจ ื–ื” ืžื˜ื” ื•ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืœื• ื–ื• ืืฉื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืืขืฉื” ืœื• ืขื–ืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ื•

The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy who has come to marry, the community tries its utmost to provide for all of his needs. The charities rent a house for him, arrange for him a bed and all his utensils, and thereafter they marry him a wife, as it is stated: โ€œBut you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his deficiency in that which is deficient for himโ€ (Deuteronomy 15:8). With regard to the phrase โ€œsufficient for his deficiency,โ€ this is referring to the house. โ€œWhich is deficientโ€; this is referring to a bed and table. โ€œFor him [lo]โ€; this is referring to a wife. And similarly the verse states: โ€œI will make him [lo] a helpmate for himโ€ (Genesis 2:18), when God created a wife for Adam.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื™ ืžื—ืกื•ืจื• ืืชื” ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืขืœื™ื• ืœืคืจื ืกื• ื•ืื™ ืืชื” ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืขืœื™ื• ืœืขืฉืจื• ืืฉืจ ื™ื—ืกืจ ืœื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืกื•ืก ืœืจื›ื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืžืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืขืœ ื”ืœืœ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœืงื— ืœืขื ื™ ื‘ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืกื•ืก ืœืจื›ื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืœื ืžืฆื ืขื‘ื“ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืจืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืฉืœืฉื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ

Concerning this issue, the Sages taught: โ€œSufficient for his deficiencyโ€; this teaches that you are commanded with respect to the pauper to support him, but you are not commanded with respect to him to make him wealthy, as the obligation encompasses only that which he lacks, as indicated by the word deficient. However, the verse also states: โ€œWhich is deficient for himโ€; this includes even a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him for the sake of his stature, if necessary. For someone accustomed to these advantages, their absences constitute a true deficiency, not an extravagant indulgence. The Gemara relates: They said about Hillel the Elder that he obtained for a poor person of noble descent a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him. One time he did not find a servant to run in front of him, and Hillel himself ran in front of him for three mil, to fulfill the dictate โ€œwhich is deficient for him.โ€

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื ืฉื™ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืงื—ื• ืœืขื ื™ ื‘ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื•ืชื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืฉืœ ืขื•ืคื•ืช ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื‘ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืžืฉ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืชื ื›ืคืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ืžืคืกื“ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืชื ืืžื˜ื•ืœืชื™ื”

The Sages taught: There was an incident involving the people of the Upper Galilee, who bought for a poor person of noble descent from the city of Tzippori a litra of meat every day. The Gemara asks: If they provided him with the reasonable ration of a litra of meat, what is the novelty in this incident? Why does it bear repeating? Rav Huna said: It was a litra of meat of poultry, which is very expensive. And if you wish, say instead that for the weight of a litra of coins, they bought him actual red meat. The price of ordinary meat was so expensive that they had to pay the exorbitant price of a litra of coins. Rav Ashi said they did not spend a litra of coins for him. Rather, there, in the Galilee, it was a small village, and every day they would lose an entire animal just for him. They would slaughter an animal daily, simply to provide him with fresh meat, although there was otherwise no market for such a plentiful supply of meat in the village.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื” ืืชื” ืกื•ืขื“ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืฉืชื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื™ ื‘ืขื“ืฉื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื• ื‘ืขื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืช ืืžืจ ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื–ื” ืฉื”ืจื’ื• ื ื—ืžื™ื” ืื“ืจื‘ื” ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื ื—ืžื™ื” ืฉื”ืจื’ื• ืœื–ื” ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืืœื ืื™ื”ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืœื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืคื ื•ืงื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™

The Gemara relates another incident concerning charity. A certain person came before Rabbi Neแธฅemya to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: I usually dine on fatty meat and aged wine. Rabbi Neแธฅemya asked him: Is it your wish to belittle yourself and partake together with me in a meal of lentils, which is my regular food? He partook with him of lentils, and he died, since he was not accustomed to this food. Rabbi Neแธฅemya said: Woe to this one who was killed by Neแธฅemya. The Gemara wonders: On the contrary, Rabbi Neแธฅemya should have said: Woe to Neแธฅemya who killed this one. The Gemara responds: Rather, Rabbi Neแธฅemya meant that it was he, the pauper, who should not have pampered himself so much. The poor man was to blame for his own death. His excessive indulgence rendered him incapable of digesting simple foods such as lentils.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ืžื” ืืชื” ืกื•ืขื“ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืคื˜ื•ืžื” ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉืช ืœื“ื•ื—ืงื ื“ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื˜ื• ืžื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ืงืื›ื™ืœื ื ืžื“ืจื—ืžื ื ืงืื›ื™ืœื ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื ืขื™ื ื™ ื›ืœ ืืœื™ืš ื™ืฉื‘ืจื• ื•ืืชื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื”ื ืืช ืื›ืœื ื‘ืขืชื• ื‘ืขืชื ืœื ื ืืžืจ ืืœื ื‘ืขืชื• ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื ื•ืชืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืคืจื ืกืชื• ื‘ืขืชื•

The Gemara relates another story. A certain person came before Rava to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: On a fattened hen and aged wine. He said to him: And were you not concerned for causing a burden to the community by expecting such opulent foods? He said to him: Is that to say that it is from their funds that I eat? I eat from the support of the Merciful One. This would seem to be a reasonable argument, as we already learned that in the verse โ€œthe eyes of all wait for You, and You give them their food in its timeโ€ (Psalms 145:15), the phrase: At their time, is not stated, rather โ€œin its time.โ€ This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gives each and every one his personally appropriate sustenance at its proper time, and the community is merely His agent in discharging His will. Therefore, the man is justified in maintaining his standard.

ืื“ื”ื›ื™ ืืชืื™ ืื—ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ื ืœื™ื” ืชืœื™ืกืจื™ ืฉื ื™ ื•ืืชื™ื ืœื™ื” ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืคื˜ื•ืžื” ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื“ืงืžื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืขื ืชื™ ืœืš ืงื•ื ืื›ื•ืœ

In the meantime, while they were talking, Ravaโ€™s sister, who had not seen him for thirteen years, came. And as a gift, she brought him a fattened hen and aged wine. Rava said to himself: What is this that happened in front of me that suddenly I am brought food that I do not usually eat? He then understood that this was a providential response to what he had earlier said to the man. Rava said to him: I have responded [naโ€™aneti] to your contention. Arise and eat.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ื”ืœื•ืื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ื”ืœื•ืื” ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื”ื ืœื ืฉืงื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืœืคืชื•ื— ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื”

ยง The Sages taught: If an individual does not have sufficient means of support and does not want to be supported from charity funds, the charities provide him funds as a loan in a dignified manner, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a gift; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: They give him funds as a gift, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a loan. The Gemara wonders about the Rabbisโ€™ ruling: How can we give it as a gift? After all, he does not want to take it as a gift. The Gemara answers that Rava said: The Rabbisโ€™ instruction is to begin discussions with him by offering the assistance as a gift. If he refuses, the charities give it to him as a loan, but they treat it as a gift and refrain from attempting to collect a debt.

ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžืžื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืชื• ืœื ืฉืงื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืื™ืŸ ื ื–ืงืงื™ืŸ ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ื”ื‘ื ืžืฉื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื˜ื•ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื–ื•ื— ื“ืขืชื• ืขืœื™ื•

If he has sufficient funds of his own but does not want to support himself by his own funds without the assistance of charity, the charities give him aid as a gift, and then they go back and collect the debt from him. The Gemara asks: How can the administrators of the fund go back and collect from him? Would their efforts not be in vain, as subsequently he would not take their support, knowing that he would still have to pay for it? Rav Pappa said: The charities collect the accrued debt from his estate only after his death. The baraita continues: Rabbi Shimon says, disputing the opinion of the Rabbis: If he has sufficient funds and does not want to be supported by his own means, they do not get involved with him, as the community is not obligated to support him. If he does not have and does not want to be supported from charity, the charities say to him: Bring collateral and take a loan, so that his mindset should be raised for him, with the false impression that he is not receiving a handout.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืขื‘ื˜ ื–ื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืฉื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ื”ืœื•ืื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ืชืขื‘ื™ื˜ื ื• ื–ื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืฉื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The Gemara cites a dispute related to the previous discussions. The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the double expression in the Torah: โ€œYou shall open your hand to him [haโ€™avet taโ€™avitenu]โ€ (Deuteronomy 15:8). โ€œHaโ€™avetโ€; this is referring to one who does not have funds and does not want to be supported by charity. The policy is that the charities provide him funds as a loan and go back and give the funds to him as a gift. โ€œTaโ€™avitenuโ€; this is referring to one who has means and does not want to support himself. The policy is that the charities provide money as a gift, and then they go back and collect from his estate after his death. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืื™ืŸ ื ื–ืงืงื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืืœื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ืชืขื‘ื™ื˜ื ื• ื“ื‘ืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื

The baraita continues: And the Rabbis say: If he has money and does not want to support himself, they do not get involved with him. The baraita asks: How then do I uphold the double expression โ€œhaโ€™avet taโ€™avitenuโ€? The baraita answers: The Torah spoke in the language of men, and the double form does not have halakhic significance.

ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืขื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืฉื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื‘ืขื” ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื‘ืฆื™ื ื•ืจื ื“ื“ืฉื ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ื—ื–ื™ ืžืืŸ ืงืขื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื ื’ื”ื ืœื™ื” ืœืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ืœื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ืืชื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื”

The Gemara recounts another incident related to charity. Mar Ukva had a pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed every day to toss four dinars for him into the slot adjacent to the hinge of the door. One day the poor person said: I will go and see who is doing this service for me. That day Mar Ukva was delayed in the study hall, and his wife came with him to distribute the charity.

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ื™ื•ื” ื“ืงื ืžืฆืœื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื“ืฉื ื ืคืง ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื• ืจื”ื•ื˜ ืžืงืžื™ื” ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืืชื•ื ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื’ืจื•ืคื” ื ื•ืจื ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžื™ืงืœื™ื™ืŸ ื›ืจืขื™ื” ื“ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืจืขื™ืš ืื•ืชื™ื‘ ืื›ืจืขืื™ ื—ืœืฉ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืฉื›ื™ื—ื ื ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื” ื“ื‘ื™ืชื ื•ืžืงืจื‘ื ืื”ื ื™ื™ืชื™

When the people in the poor manโ€™s house saw that someone was turning the door, the pauper went out after them to see who it was. Mar Ukva and his wife ran away from before him so that he would not determine their identity, and they entered a certain furnace whose fire was already raked over and tempered but was still burning. Mar Ukvaโ€™s legs were being singed, and his wife said to him: Raise your legs and set them on my legs, which are not burned. Understanding that only his wife was spared from burns, because she was more worthy, Mar Ukva became distraught. By way of explanation, she said to him: I am normally found inside the house, and when I give charity, my assistance is ready and immediate, insofar as I distribute actual food items. Since you distribute money, which is not as readily helpful, my aid is greater than yours.

ื•ืžืื™ ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ื ื•ื— ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ืžืกื•ืจ ืขืฆืžื• ืœืชื•ืš ื›ื‘ืฉืŸ ื”ืืฉ ื•ืืœ ื™ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืคื ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื• ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื ื ืœืŸ ืžืชืžืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื™ื ืžื•ืฆืืช

The Gemara asks: And what is all this? Why did they go to such extreme lengths to avoid being discovered? The Gemara answers: It is as Mar Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said, and some say that Rav Huna bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida said, and some say that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: It is preferable for a person to deliver himself into a fiery furnace so that he not whiten the face of, i.e., embarrass, his friend in public. From where do we derive this? From the conduct of Tamar, as it is written: โ€œAnd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man, whose these are, am I with childโ€ (Genesis 38:24โ€“25). Although Tamar was taken to be executed by burning, she privately and directly appealed to Judah, rather than publicly identifying him as the father of her unborn children and causing him embarrassment.

ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืขื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืฉื“ื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื” ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืขืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ืฉื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ืจื™ื” ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ื—ื–ืื™ ื“ืงื ืžื–ืœืคื™ ืœื™ื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ืง ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืขื™ื™ืคื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืฉื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื”

The Gemara relates another incident involving Mar Ukva. Mar Ukva had another pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed to send to him four hundred dinars every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he sent the money to him by the hand of his son. The son returned and said to him: The poor individual does not need the charity. Mar Ukva said: What did you see that prompted you to say this? He said to him: I saw them spilling old wine on the ground for him, to give the room a pleasant smell. Mar Ukva said: If he is pampered this much and requires even this luxury, then he needs even more money. He doubled the funds and sent them to him.

ื›ื™ ืงื ื ื™ื—ื ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ืื™ื™ืชื• ืœื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ืื™ ื“ืฆื“ืงื” ืืฉื›ื— ื“ื”ื•ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื‘ืขืช ืืœืคื™ ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ืกื™ืื ืงื™ ืืžืจ ื–ื•ื•ื“ืื™ ืงืœื™ืœื™ ื•ืื•ืจื—ื ืจื—ื™ืงืชื ืงื ื‘ื–ื‘ื–ื™ื” ืœืคืœื’ื™ื” ืžืžื•ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขืื™ ื‘ืื•ืฉื ื”ืชืงื™ื ื• ื”ืžื‘ื–ื‘ื– ืืœ ื™ื‘ื–ื‘ื– ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื—ื•ืžืฉ ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืžื ื™ืจื“ ืžื ื›ืกื™ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”

When Mar Ukva was dying, he said: Bring me my charity records. He found that it was written there that he had given seven thousand fine, siankei, i.e., gold, dinars, to charity. He said: My provisions are light, and the way is far. This meager sum is insufficient for me to merit the World-to-Come. He got up and spent half of his remaining money on charity. The Gemara asks: How did he do this? But didnโ€™t Rabbi Ilai say: In Usha they instituted: One who spends money on charity, he should not spend more than one-fifth of his money for this purpose. The Gemara answers: This restriction on giving too much charity applies only while he is alive, because perhaps he will descend from his holdings and become destitute. Therefore, for his own financial security, he should never distribute more than one-fifth. But after death, we have no problem with it. One need not save money in his estate anymore.

ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืฆื™ื™ืจ ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื‘ืกื•ื“ืจื™ื” ื•ืฉื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืžืžืฆื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ ื•ืžืฆืœื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื” ืžืจืžืื™

The Gemara recounts more stories related to charity. Rabbi Abba would wrap coins in his scarf and toss the money behind him over his shoulder. And he would place himself at the homes of the poor without being seen, so the poor could receive the aid without being embarrassed. And he would incline his eyes just enough so he could safeguard the handouts from swindlers who might take the money dishonestly.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืขื ื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืฉื“ื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื‘ืขื” ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืขืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ืฉื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ืืชืื™ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ืฉืžืขื™ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื” ืืชื” ืกื•ืขื“

Rabbi แธคanina knew a certain pauper and was accustomed to send to him four dinars on every Shabbat eve. One day he sent it in the hand of his wife. She came back home and said to him: The man does not need charity. Rabbi แธคanina asked her: What did you see that prompted you to say this? She said to him: I heard them saying to him inside the house: With what do you normally dine:

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

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Ketubot 67

ืžืฆื™ืขื™ืŸ ืชื—ืชื™ื• ื•ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื•ืžืงืคืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืžืื—ืจื™ื• ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืขื‘ื“ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื“ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ืœื ืขื‘ื“ ื›ื“ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ืœืคื•ื ื’ืžืœื ืฉื™ื—ื ื

spread underneath him to walk on, and with his blessing, the poor would come and fold them up from behind him for themselves? Clearly he gave abundant charity. The Gemara offers two possible explanations: If you wish, say that he acted that way for his own honor, to demonstrate that he considered the exorbitant expense trivial. And if you wish, say that as he should have done, he did not do. As people say, according to the camel is the burden. The stronger the camel, the heavier the load it must bear. Even if he gave altruistically, Nakdimon ben Guryon did not give as much as he was expected to give.

ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืฆื“ื•ืง ืืจืื” ื‘ื ื—ืžื” ืื ืœื ืจืื™ืชื™ื” ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ืžืœืงื˜ืช ืฉืขื•ืจื™ื ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ืœืคื™ื™ ืกื•ืกื™ื ื‘ืขื›ื• ืงืจืืชื™ ืขืœื™ื” ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ืื ืœื ืชื“ืขื™ ืœืš ื”ื™ืคื” ื‘ื ืฉื™ื ืฆืื™ ืœืš ื‘ืขืงื‘ื™ ื”ืฆืืŸ ื•ืจืขื™ ืืช ื’ื“ื™ื•ืชื™ืš ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื’ื“ื™ื•ืชื™ืš ืืœื ื’ื•ื™ื•ืชื™ืš

It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 5:8) with regard to the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said in the form of an oath: I pray that I will not see the consolation of the Jewish people if I did not see her gathering barley kernels from between the hooves of horses in Akko. I recited this verse about her: โ€œIf you know not, O you fairest among women, go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock and feed your kids, beside the shepherdsโ€™ tentsโ€ (Song of Songs 1:8). Do not read it as โ€œyour kids [gediyotayikh]โ€ but rather read it as your bodies [geviyotayikh]. This woman is compelled to follow the sheep to the pastures in order to sustain her own body from the leftovers of their food.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœื• ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ืฉื•ื•ื™ื• ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืกืฃ ื“ืคื—ืชื™ ืœื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื“ืœื ืคื—ืชื™ ืื ื›ืŸ ื›ื›ืœื™ื• ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื”

ยง The Gemara returns to the topic of how the groom records the brideโ€™s dowry in the marriage contract: Rav Shemen bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: If she brings him gold in her dowry, the court appraises it, and it is recorded in the marriage contract according to its value, without additions or subtractions. The Gemara raises an objection from that which was taught in a baraita: The halakha is that the gold is like utensils and not like cash for purposes of the dowry. The Gemara qualifies its objection: What, is it not that gold is like silver vessels, which diminish, so that they resemble all other goods in the dowry whose values are reduced in the marriage contract? The Gemara responds: No, the intent is that gold is like utensils of gold, which do not diminish. The Gemara asks: If so, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils, which would demonstrate that gold is appraised according to its true value. Evidently, then, this is not true of gold.

ื•ืขื•ื“ ืชื ื™ื ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืกืคื™ื ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื”ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื”ื™ื™ื ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืืกื™ืคื ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ืชื ื ืงืžื ืกื‘ืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ื”ื ืœื ื ืคืงื™

And moreover, one can ask: It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 6:2) that the halakha is that gold is like utensils and that gold dinars are like silver coins. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises them, and they are recorded at their appraised worth, no more or less. The Gemara clarifies: To which clause is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel referring, when he comments that they are not exchanged? If we say he is commenting on the latter clause concerning the gold dinars, by inference it may be understood that the first tanna holds that gold dinars have the same status as cash, even in a place where people were accustomed not to exchange them. But they are not used and do not function as liquid money in a place where they are not exchanged. Why, then, does the husband need to raise the value as though they were functional cash?

ืืœื ืœืื• ืืจื™ืฉื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ืžืื™ ื›ืœื™ื ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืœ ื›ืกืฃ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื“ื™ื ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ

Rather, is it not that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the first clause of the baraita, and this is what the baraita is saying: The halakha is that gold is like utensils. What is meant by the ambiguous term utensils? Utensils of silver. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies this ruling and says: The halakha is that it is like gold dinars, whose value remains constant, in a place where they are accustomed not to exchange it or use it for business. In any event, the opinion of the first tanna in this baraita, that gold is treated like silver utensils, contradicts the previous assertion that gold must have the status of gold utensils, not silver utensils.

ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ืืกื™ืคื ื•ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื—ืง ื•ื‘ื”ื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืžืฉื‘ื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ื•ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ื ืคืงื™ ืืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื—ืง ืœื ืžืฉื‘ื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื”

The Gemara responds: No, actually it must be that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel commented on the latter clause of the baraita, which deals with gold dinars, and they are not exchanged because they are used as cash only with difficulty. They are not typically used for business, but they could be used when necessary. And consequently, they disagree about this: One Sage, the first tanna, holds since they are used when necessary, we increase the value of gold dinars for the wife in the dowry, and the husband writes an increased sum in the marriage contract. And one Sage, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, holds since they are used for commerce only with difficulty, we do not increase the value of gold dinars for her. According to this interpretation, the first opinion can still subscribe to the notion that gold pieces, like gold utensils, are appraised at their actual value.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื•ืœื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื™ื ื•ื—ืกื•ืจื™ ืžื™ื—ืกืจื ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืชื ื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืกืคื™ื ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื”ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืฉืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ื”ื’ื• ืฉืœื ืœืคื•ืจื˜ืŸ ืฉืžื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื•ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื‘ืฉื•ื•ื™ื”ืŸ

If you wish, say instead that the entire baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, and the baraita is incomplete and this is what it is teaching: The halakha is that a piece of gold is like utensils and gold dinars are like money. In what case is this statement said? In a place where the people were accustomed to exchange the dinars. However, in a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange the dinars, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth. This is the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In a place where the people were accustomed not to exchange them, the court appraises their worth, and they are recorded at their appraised worth.

ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื›ื›ืœื™ื• ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืงืฉื™ื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื“ื”ื‘ื ืคืจื™ื›ื ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื‘ืžืžืœื

The contradiction from this baraita has been resolved, but in any case, a difficulty remains: If the status of gold is similar to that of gold utensils and it is appraised at its actual value, the baraita should have stated that gold is like its own utensils and not simply like any utensils. The Gemara answers: The language is difficult. If you wish, say the following answer instead: With what are we dealing here? With smashed gold fragments. Rav Ashi said: We are dealing with granules of gold. Certainly, then, they are not treated as gold utensils, but the novel element of the baraita is that they have the status of regular utensils and not of gold dinars.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ืฉืœ ืื ื˜ื•ื›ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืกืคื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื ื—ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ื™ื ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ื

ยง Apropos the preceding discussion concerning the appraisal of objects used for commerce, the Gemara cites a series of related comments. Rabbi Yannai said: With regard to spices in Antioch, they are like money. Since in Antioch they would conduct business with spices, they should be treated like cash when a woman brings them in her dowry. Similarly, Rabbi Shmuel bar Naแธฅmani said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Concerning camels in Arabia, a woman may collect the amount of her marriage settlement from them. Since they conduct business using camels in Arabia, the camels are consequently given the status that money has in other places.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ื”ื ื™ ืชื•ืชื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืžื›ืกื™ ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ื”ื ื™ ืฉืงื™ ื“ืจื•ื“ื™ื ื•ืืฉืœื™ ื“ืงืžื—ื•ื ื™ื ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืจื™ืฉ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ื”ื ื™ ืืจื ืงื™ ื“ืžื—ื•ื–ื ืืฉื” ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืคืจื ื ืžื”ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืกืžื›ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ืื™ ื“ืฉืงืœื™ ืœื”ื• ื•ื ืคืงื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืžืฉื›ื—ื™ ืืจืขื ื–ื‘ื ื™ ื‘ื”ื• ืืžื™ื ื ืืกืžื›ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืืืจืขื ื”ื•ื

Similarly, Rav Pappi said: With regard to those robes in Bei Mikhsei, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them because they use dresses for commerce. And Rav Pappi said: With regard to these sacks in Rodya and ropes in Kimแธฅonya, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. Rava said: Initially, I would have said that concerning those money pouches [arnakei] in Meแธฅoza, a woman may collect her marriage settlement from them. What is the reason? They rely on them, and they serve the commercial function served by real estate in other places. Once I saw that they take them and the pouches are used, and when they find land they buy it with them and do not retain them, I said that they too rely on land. The money pouches are used in a fluid manner, but these pouches do not serve the same role served by real estate.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืžืฉื™ื ืืช ื‘ืชื• ืกืชื ืœื ื™ืคื—ื•ืช ืœื” ืžื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื– ืคืกืง ืœื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืขืจื•ืžื” ืœื ื™ืืžืจ ื”ื‘ืขืœ ื›ืฉืื›ื ื™ืกื ื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ ืื›ืกื ื” ื‘ื›ืกื•ืชื™ ืืœื ืžื›ืกื” ื•ืขื•ื“ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ืžืฉื™ื ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื” ืœื ื™ืคื—ื•ืช ืœื” ืžื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื– ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื™ืก ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืœืคื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื”

MISHNA: With regard to one who marries off his daughter with the terms of the dowry unspecified, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If the brideโ€™s father pledged to bring her into the marriage bare, by saying that he refuses to give her anything, the husband should not say: When I bring her into my house, I will clothe her with my clothing, but not beforehand. Rather, he must clothe her while she is yet in her fatherโ€™s house, and she enters the marriage with the clothing in hand. And similarly, with regard to a charity administrator who marries off an orphan girl, he must not give her less than fifty dinars. If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide even more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity.

ื’ืžืณ ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื™ ืžืžืื™ ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื™ืก ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืœืคื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื” ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื›ื™ืก ืืžืจ ืจื—ื‘ื” ืืจื ืงื™ ืฉืœ ืฆื“ืงื” ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชื™ืŸ ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืžืžืฉ ืื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื™ืก ื›ืžื” ื™ื”ื‘ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืืœื ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื—ืžืฉื™ื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื™

GEMARA: Abaye said: The fifty dinars mentioned in the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars, each of which is worth one-eighth the amount of a standard dinar. From where do I know that this is so? From the fact that the latter clause teaches: If there are sufficient resources in the charity fund, the charities provide more for her, furnishing a dowry and her other needs according to her dignity. And we say: What is this fund? Raแธฅava said: The charity fund. And if it enters our minds to say that the mishna is referring to fifty actual, i.e., standard, dinars, if there are sufficient resources in the fund, how many standard dinars do we give him? Fifty standard dinars is already a sizable sum to distribute as charity. Rather, conclude from this comment that the mishna is referring to fifty provincial dinars.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืชื•ื ื•ื™ืชื•ืžื” ืฉื‘ืื• ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืคืจื ืกื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืื™ืฉ ื“ืจื›ื• ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืคืชื—ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืืฉื” ื“ืจื›ื” ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื™ืชื•ื ื•ื™ืชื•ืžื”

The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy and an orphan girl who have come and appealed to be supported by the charity fund, the distributors provide for the orphan girl first and afterward they provide for the orphan boy. This is because it is the way of a man to circulate about the entryways to ask for charity, and it is not a womanโ€™s way to circulate for charity. Therefore, her need is greater. Concerning an orphan boy and orphan girl

ืฉื‘ืื• ืœื™ื ืฉื ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ืžื” ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ื™ืชื•ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื‘ื•ืฉืชื” ืฉืœ ืืฉื” ืžืจื•ื‘ื” ืžืฉืœ ืื™ืฉ

who have come to appeal to the charity fund to be married off, the administrators marry off the orphan girl first and afterward they marry off the orphan boy, because the humiliation of a woman who is not married is greater than that of an unmarried man.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืชื•ื ืฉื‘ื ืœื™ืฉื ืฉื•ื›ืจื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืžืฆื™ืขื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื˜ื” ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืœื™ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื•ืื—ืจ ื›ืš ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฉื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื“ื™ ืžื—ืกื•ืจื• ืืฉืจ ื™ื—ืกืจ ืœื• ื“ื™ ืžื—ืกื•ืจื• ื–ื” ื”ื‘ื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื™ื—ืกืจ ื–ื” ืžื˜ื” ื•ืฉืœื—ืŸ ืœื• ื–ื• ืืฉื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืืขืฉื” ืœื• ืขื–ืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ื•

The Sages taught: Concerning an orphan boy who has come to marry, the community tries its utmost to provide for all of his needs. The charities rent a house for him, arrange for him a bed and all his utensils, and thereafter they marry him a wife, as it is stated: โ€œBut you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him sufficient for his deficiency in that which is deficient for himโ€ (Deuteronomy 15:8). With regard to the phrase โ€œsufficient for his deficiency,โ€ this is referring to the house. โ€œWhich is deficientโ€; this is referring to a bed and table. โ€œFor him [lo]โ€; this is referring to a wife. And similarly the verse states: โ€œI will make him [lo] a helpmate for himโ€ (Genesis 2:18), when God created a wife for Adam.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื™ ืžื—ืกื•ืจื• ืืชื” ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืขืœื™ื• ืœืคืจื ืกื• ื•ืื™ ืืชื” ืžืฆื•ื•ื” ืขืœื™ื• ืœืขืฉืจื• ืืฉืจ ื™ื—ืกืจ ืœื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืกื•ืก ืœืจื›ื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืืžืจื• ืขืœื™ื• ืขืœ ื”ืœืœ ื”ื–ืงืŸ ืฉืœืงื— ืœืขื ื™ ื‘ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืกื•ืก ืœืจื›ื•ื‘ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืขื‘ื“ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืœื ืžืฆื ืขื‘ื“ ืœืจื•ืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืจืฅ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืฉืœืฉื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ

Concerning this issue, the Sages taught: โ€œSufficient for his deficiencyโ€; this teaches that you are commanded with respect to the pauper to support him, but you are not commanded with respect to him to make him wealthy, as the obligation encompasses only that which he lacks, as indicated by the word deficient. However, the verse also states: โ€œWhich is deficient for himโ€; this includes even a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him for the sake of his stature, if necessary. For someone accustomed to these advantages, their absences constitute a true deficiency, not an extravagant indulgence. The Gemara relates: They said about Hillel the Elder that he obtained for a poor person of noble descent a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him. One time he did not find a servant to run in front of him, and Hillel himself ran in front of him for three mil, to fulfill the dictate โ€œwhich is deficient for him.โ€

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื ืฉื™ ื’ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืงื—ื• ืœืขื ื™ ื‘ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื•ืชื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืฉืœ ืขื•ืคื•ืช ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื‘ืœื™ื˜ืจื ื‘ืฉืจ ืžืžืฉ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืชื ื›ืคืจ ืงื˜ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ืžืคืกื“ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืชื ืืžื˜ื•ืœืชื™ื”

The Sages taught: There was an incident involving the people of the Upper Galilee, who bought for a poor person of noble descent from the city of Tzippori a litra of meat every day. The Gemara asks: If they provided him with the reasonable ration of a litra of meat, what is the novelty in this incident? Why does it bear repeating? Rav Huna said: It was a litra of meat of poultry, which is very expensive. And if you wish, say instead that for the weight of a litra of coins, they bought him actual red meat. The price of ordinary meat was so expensive that they had to pay the exorbitant price of a litra of coins. Rav Ashi said they did not spend a litra of coins for him. Rather, there, in the Galilee, it was a small village, and every day they would lose an entire animal just for him. They would slaughter an animal daily, simply to provide him with fresh meat, although there was otherwise no market for such a plentiful supply of meat in the village.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื” ืืชื” ืกื•ืขื“ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื‘ืฉืจ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืจืฆื•ื ืš ืฉืชื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื™ ื‘ืขื“ืฉื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ืขืžื• ื‘ืขื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืช ืืžืจ ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื–ื” ืฉื”ืจื’ื• ื ื—ืžื™ื” ืื“ืจื‘ื” ืื•ื™ ืœื• ืœื ื—ืžื™ื” ืฉื”ืจื’ื• ืœื–ื” ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืืœื ืื™ื”ื• ื”ื•ื ื“ืœื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืคื ื•ืงื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™

The Gemara relates another incident concerning charity. A certain person came before Rabbi Neแธฅemya to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: I usually dine on fatty meat and aged wine. Rabbi Neแธฅemya asked him: Is it your wish to belittle yourself and partake together with me in a meal of lentils, which is my regular food? He partook with him of lentils, and he died, since he was not accustomed to this food. Rabbi Neแธฅemya said: Woe to this one who was killed by Neแธฅemya. The Gemara wonders: On the contrary, Rabbi Neแธฅemya should have said: Woe to Neแธฅemya who killed this one. The Gemara responds: Rather, Rabbi Neแธฅemya meant that it was he, the pauper, who should not have pampered himself so much. The poor man was to blame for his own death. His excessive indulgence rendered him incapable of digesting simple foods such as lentils.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื ืœืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ืžื” ืืชื” ืกื•ืขื“ ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืคื˜ื•ืžื” ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื ื—ื™ื™ืฉืช ืœื“ื•ื—ืงื ื“ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื˜ื• ืžื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ืงืื›ื™ืœื ื ืžื“ืจื—ืžื ื ืงืื›ื™ืœื ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื ืขื™ื ื™ ื›ืœ ืืœื™ืš ื™ืฉื‘ืจื• ื•ืืชื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื”ื ืืช ืื›ืœื ื‘ืขืชื• ื‘ืขืชื ืœื ื ืืžืจ ืืœื ื‘ืขืชื• ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื ื•ืชืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืคืจื ืกืชื• ื‘ืขืชื•

The Gemara relates another story. A certain person came before Rava to request charity. He said to him: On what do you normally dine? He said to him: On a fattened hen and aged wine. He said to him: And were you not concerned for causing a burden to the community by expecting such opulent foods? He said to him: Is that to say that it is from their funds that I eat? I eat from the support of the Merciful One. This would seem to be a reasonable argument, as we already learned that in the verse โ€œthe eyes of all wait for You, and You give them their food in its timeโ€ (Psalms 145:15), the phrase: At their time, is not stated, rather โ€œin its time.โ€ This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gives each and every one his personally appropriate sustenance at its proper time, and the community is merely His agent in discharging His will. Therefore, the man is justified in maintaining his standard.

ืื“ื”ื›ื™ ืืชืื™ ืื—ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ื“ืœื ื—ื–ื™ื ืœื™ื” ืชืœื™ืกืจื™ ืฉื ื™ ื•ืืชื™ื ืœื™ื” ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืคื˜ื•ืžื” ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื“ืงืžื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืขื ืชื™ ืœืš ืงื•ื ืื›ื•ืœ

In the meantime, while they were talking, Ravaโ€™s sister, who had not seen him for thirteen years, came. And as a gift, she brought him a fattened hen and aged wine. Rava said to himself: What is this that happened in front of me that suddenly I am brought food that I do not usually eat? He then understood that this was a providential response to what he had earlier said to the man. Rava said to him: I have responded [naโ€™aneti] to your contention. Arise and eat.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ื”ืœื•ืื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ื”ืœื•ืื” ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื”ื ืœื ืฉืงื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืœืคืชื•ื— ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื”

ยง The Sages taught: If an individual does not have sufficient means of support and does not want to be supported from charity funds, the charities provide him funds as a loan in a dignified manner, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a gift; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: They give him funds as a gift, and then they go back and give the funds to him as a loan. The Gemara wonders about the Rabbisโ€™ ruling: How can we give it as a gift? After all, he does not want to take it as a gift. The Gemara answers that Rava said: The Rabbisโ€™ instruction is to begin discussions with him by offering the assistance as a gift. If he refuses, the charities give it to him as a loan, but they treat it as a gift and refrain from attempting to collect a debt.

ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžืžื ื• ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืชื• ืœื ืฉืงื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืื™ืŸ ื ื–ืงืงื™ืŸ ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ื”ื‘ื ืžืฉื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื˜ื•ืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื–ื•ื— ื“ืขืชื• ืขืœื™ื•

If he has sufficient funds of his own but does not want to support himself by his own funds without the assistance of charity, the charities give him aid as a gift, and then they go back and collect the debt from him. The Gemara asks: How can the administrators of the fund go back and collect from him? Would their efforts not be in vain, as subsequently he would not take their support, knowing that he would still have to pay for it? Rav Pappa said: The charities collect the accrued debt from his estate only after his death. The baraita continues: Rabbi Shimon says, disputing the opinion of the Rabbis: If he has sufficient funds and does not want to be supported by his own means, they do not get involved with him, as the community is not obligated to support him. If he does not have and does not want to be supported from charity, the charities say to him: Bring collateral and take a loan, so that his mindset should be raised for him, with the false impression that he is not receiving a handout.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืขื‘ื˜ ื–ื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืฉื ื•ืชื ื™ื ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ื”ืœื•ืื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ืชืขื‘ื™ื˜ื ื• ื–ื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืฉื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœืฉื•ื ืžืชื ื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”

The Gemara cites a dispute related to the previous discussions. The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the double expression in the Torah: โ€œYou shall open your hand to him [haโ€™avet taโ€™avitenu]โ€ (Deuteronomy 15:8). โ€œHaโ€™avetโ€; this is referring to one who does not have funds and does not want to be supported by charity. The policy is that the charities provide him funds as a loan and go back and give the funds to him as a gift. โ€œTaโ€™avitenuโ€; this is referring to one who has means and does not want to support himself. The policy is that the charities provide money as a gift, and then they go back and collect from his estate after his death. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ืชืคืจื ืก ืื™ืŸ ื ื–ืงืงื™ืŸ ืœื• ื•ืืœื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ืชืขื‘ื™ื˜ื ื• ื“ื‘ืจื” ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื

The baraita continues: And the Rabbis say: If he has money and does not want to support himself, they do not get involved with him. The baraita asks: How then do I uphold the double expression โ€œhaโ€™avet taโ€™avitenuโ€? The baraita answers: The Torah spoke in the language of men, and the double form does not have halakhic significance.

ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืขื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืฉื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื‘ืขื” ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื‘ืฆื™ื ื•ืจื ื“ื“ืฉื ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื™ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ื—ื–ื™ ืžืืŸ ืงืขื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื™ ื”ื”ื•ื ื˜ื™ื‘ื•ืชื ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื ื’ื”ื ืœื™ื” ืœืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ืœื‘ื™ ืžื“ืจืฉื ืืชื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื”

The Gemara recounts another incident related to charity. Mar Ukva had a pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed every day to toss four dinars for him into the slot adjacent to the hinge of the door. One day the poor person said: I will go and see who is doing this service for me. That day Mar Ukva was delayed in the study hall, and his wife came with him to distribute the charity.

ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ื™ื•ื” ื“ืงื ืžืฆืœื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื“ืฉื ื ืคืง ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ื”ื• ืจื”ื•ื˜ ืžืงืžื™ื” ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืืชื•ื ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื’ืจื•ืคื” ื ื•ืจื ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžื™ืงืœื™ื™ืŸ ื›ืจืขื™ื” ื“ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืจืขื™ืš ืื•ืชื™ื‘ ืื›ืจืขืื™ ื—ืœืฉ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืฉื›ื™ื—ื ื ื‘ื’ื•ื™ื” ื“ื‘ื™ืชื ื•ืžืงืจื‘ื ืื”ื ื™ื™ืชื™

When the people in the poor manโ€™s house saw that someone was turning the door, the pauper went out after them to see who it was. Mar Ukva and his wife ran away from before him so that he would not determine their identity, and they entered a certain furnace whose fire was already raked over and tempered but was still burning. Mar Ukvaโ€™s legs were being singed, and his wife said to him: Raise your legs and set them on my legs, which are not burned. Understanding that only his wife was spared from burns, because she was more worthy, Mar Ukva became distraught. By way of explanation, she said to him: I am normally found inside the house, and when I give charity, my assistance is ready and immediate, insofar as I distribute actual food items. Since you distribute money, which is not as readily helpful, my aid is greater than yours.

ื•ืžืื™ ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื—ืกื™ื“ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ื ื•ื— ืœื• ืœืื“ื ืฉื™ืžืกื•ืจ ืขืฆืžื• ืœืชื•ืš ื›ื‘ืฉืŸ ื”ืืฉ ื•ืืœ ื™ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ืคื ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื• ื‘ืจื‘ื™ื ืžื ื ืœืŸ ืžืชืžืจ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื™ื ืžื•ืฆืืช

The Gemara asks: And what is all this? Why did they go to such extreme lengths to avoid being discovered? The Gemara answers: It is as Mar Zutra bar Toviya said that Rav said, and some say that Rav Huna bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon แธคasida said, and some say that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: It is preferable for a person to deliver himself into a fiery furnace so that he not whiten the face of, i.e., embarrass, his friend in public. From where do we derive this? From the conduct of Tamar, as it is written: โ€œAnd Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man, whose these are, am I with childโ€ (Genesis 38:24โ€“25). Although Tamar was taken to be executed by burning, she privately and directly appealed to Judah, rather than publicly identifying him as the father of her unborn children and causing him embarrassment.

ืžืจ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืขื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืฉื“ื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื” ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืขืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ืฉื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ืจื™ื” ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืืžืจ ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ื—ื–ืื™ ื“ืงื ืžื–ืœืคื™ ืœื™ื” ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืŸ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ืง ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืขื™ื™ืคื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืฉื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื”

The Gemara relates another incident involving Mar Ukva. Mar Ukva had another pauper in his neighborhood, and Mar Ukva was accustomed to send to him four hundred dinars every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he sent the money to him by the hand of his son. The son returned and said to him: The poor individual does not need the charity. Mar Ukva said: What did you see that prompted you to say this? He said to him: I saw them spilling old wine on the ground for him, to give the room a pleasant smell. Mar Ukva said: If he is pampered this much and requires even this luxury, then he needs even more money. He doubled the funds and sent them to him.

ื›ื™ ืงื ื ื™ื—ื ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืืžืจ ืื™ื™ืชื• ืœื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ืื™ ื“ืฆื“ืงื” ืืฉื›ื— ื“ื”ื•ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื‘ืขืช ืืœืคื™ ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ืกื™ืื ืงื™ ืืžืจ ื–ื•ื•ื“ืื™ ืงืœื™ืœื™ ื•ืื•ืจื—ื ืจื—ื™ืงืชื ืงื ื‘ื–ื‘ื–ื™ื” ืœืคืœื’ื™ื” ืžืžื•ื ื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขืื™ ื‘ืื•ืฉื ื”ืชืงื™ื ื• ื”ืžื‘ื–ื‘ื– ืืœ ื™ื‘ื–ื‘ื– ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื—ื•ืžืฉ ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืžื ื™ืจื“ ืžื ื›ืกื™ื• ืื‘ืœ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”

When Mar Ukva was dying, he said: Bring me my charity records. He found that it was written there that he had given seven thousand fine, siankei, i.e., gold, dinars, to charity. He said: My provisions are light, and the way is far. This meager sum is insufficient for me to merit the World-to-Come. He got up and spent half of his remaining money on charity. The Gemara asks: How did he do this? But didnโ€™t Rabbi Ilai say: In Usha they instituted: One who spends money on charity, he should not spend more than one-fifth of his money for this purpose. The Gemara answers: This restriction on giving too much charity applies only while he is alive, because perhaps he will descend from his holdings and become destitute. Therefore, for his own financial security, he should never distribute more than one-fifth. But after death, we have no problem with it. One need not save money in his estate anymore.

ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื”ื•ื” ืฆื™ื™ืจ ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื‘ืกื•ื“ืจื™ื” ื•ืฉื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื” ื•ืžืžืฆื™ ื ืคืฉื™ื” ืœื‘ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ ื•ืžืฆืœื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื” ืžืจืžืื™

The Gemara recounts more stories related to charity. Rabbi Abba would wrap coins in his scarf and toss the money behind him over his shoulder. And he would place himself at the homes of the poor without being seen, so the poor could receive the aid without being embarrassed. And he would incline his eyes just enough so he could safeguard the handouts from swindlers who might take the money dishonestly.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืขื ื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื’ื™ืœ ืœืฉื“ื•ืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืืจื‘ืขื” ื–ื•ื–ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืขืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ืฉื“ืจื™ื ื”ื• ื ื™ื”ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ ื“ื‘ื™ืชื”ื• ืืชืื™ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ืฉืžืขื™ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืงืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื” ืืชื” ืกื•ืขื“

Rabbi แธคanina knew a certain pauper and was accustomed to send to him four dinars on every Shabbat eve. One day he sent it in the hand of his wife. She came back home and said to him: The man does not need charity. Rabbi แธคanina asked her: What did you see that prompted you to say this? She said to him: I heard them saying to him inside the house: With what do you normally dine:

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