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Today's Daf Yomi

November 29, 2017 | 讬状讗 讘讻住诇讜 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Makkot 24

While there are 613 mitzvot in the Torah, David and some of the prophets narrowed it down to a smaller list of the most basic mitzvot.聽 聽Why were these specific ones chosen, most of them people justice and righteousness and involving relations between people and not God?聽 The masechet ends with the聽famous story of Rabib Akiva laughing when seeing a fox running out of the kodesh kodashim after the destruction of the temple, while his friends were crying.聽 聽Why is this how the gemara chose to end masechet makkot?


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砖讬转 诪讗讛 讜讞讚 住专讬 讛讜讬 讗谞讻讬 讜诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诇讱 诪驻讬 讛讙讘讜专讛 砖诪注谞讜诐

is 611, the number of mitzvot that were received and taught by Moses our teacher. In addition, there are two mitzvot: 鈥淚 am the Lord your God鈥 and: 鈥淵ou shall have no other gods鈥 (Exodus 20:2, 3), the first two of the Ten Commandments, that we heard from the mouth of the Almighty, for a total of 613.

(住讬诪谉 讚诪砖诪拽 住拽)

The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the biblical figures cited in the course of the discussion that follows: Dalet, mem, shin, mem, kuf; samekh, kuf; representing David, Micah, Isaiah, Amos, Habakkuk, Amos, and Ezekiel.

讘讗 讚讜讚 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 讗讞转 注砖专讛 讚讻转讬讘 诪讝诪讜专 诇讚讜讚 [讛壮] 诪讬 讬讙讜专 讘讗讛诇讱 诪讬 讬砖讻谉 讘讛专 拽讚砖讱 讛讜诇讱 转诪讬诐 讜驻讜注诇 爪讚拽 讜讚讘专 讗诪转 讘诇讘讘讜 诇讗 专讙诇 注诇 诇砖谞讜 诇讗 注砖讛 诇专注讛讜 专注讛 讜讞专驻讛 诇讗 谞砖讗 注诇 拽专讘讜 谞讘讝讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 谞诪讗住 讜讗转 讬专讗讬 讛壮 讬讻讘讚 谞砖讘注 诇讛专注 讜诇讗 讬诪专 讻住驻讜 诇讗 谞转谉 讘谞砖讱 讜砖讞讚 注诇 谞拽讬 诇讗 诇拽讞 注砖讛 讗诇讛 诇讗 讬诪讜讟 诇注讜诇诐

Rabbi Simlai continued: King David came and established the 613 mitzvot upon eleven mitzvot, as it is written: 鈥淎 Psalm of David. Lord, who shall sojourn in Your Tabernacle? Who shall dwell upon Your sacred mountain? He who walks wholeheartedly, and works righteousness, and speaks truth in his heart. Who has no slander upon his tongue, nor does evil to his neighbor, nor takes up reproach against his relative. In whose eyes a vile person is despised, and he honors those who fear the Lord; he takes an oath to his own detriment, and changes not. He neither gives his money with interest, nor takes a bribe against the innocent. He who performs these shall never be moved鈥 (Psalms, chapter 15). Eleven attributes that facilitate one鈥檚 entry into the World-to-Come appear on this list.

讛讜诇讱 转诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讘专讛诐 讚讻转讬讘 讛转讛诇讱 诇驻谞讬 讜讛讬讛 转诪讬诐

The Gemara analyzes these verses: 鈥淗e who walks wholeheartedly鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Abraham, as it is written concerning him: 鈥淲alk before Me and be wholehearted鈥 (Genesis 17:1).

驻讜注诇 爪讚拽 讻讙讜谉 讗讘讗 讞诇拽讬讛讜

鈥淲orks righteousness鈥; this is referring to one such as Abba 岣lkiyyahu, a laborer who would not pause from his labor even to greet people; he righteously continued working.

讜讚讜讘专 讗诪转 讘诇讘讘讜 讻讙讜谉 专讘 住驻专讗

鈥淎nd speaks truth in his heart鈥; this is referring to one such as Rav Safra, who was reciting Shema when a person approached him to purchase an item. He intended to accept the man鈥檚 offer, but he was unable to respond because it is prohibited to interrupt the recitation of Shema. The buyer misinterpreted Rav Safra鈥檚 silence and concluded that Rav Safra demanded a higher price, so he raised his offer. Rav Safra insisted on selling him the item for the sum that he was offered initially.

诇讗 专讙诇 注诇 诇砖谞讜 讝讛 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜诇讬 讬诪砖谞讬 讗讘讬 讜讛讬讬转讬 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪转注转注

鈥淲ho has no slander upon his tongue鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Jacob, who did not want to mislead his father in order to receive his blessings, as it is written: 鈥淧erhaps my father will feel me, and I will be in his eyes like a fraud鈥 (Genesis 27:12).

诇讗 注砖讛 诇专注讛讜 专注讛 砖诇讗 讬专讚 诇讗讜诪谞讜转 讞讘讬专讜

鈥淣or does evil to his neighbor鈥; this is referring to one who did not infringe upon another鈥檚 trade, constituting illegal competition.

讜讞专驻讛 诇讗 谞砖讗 注诇 拽专讘讜 讝讛 讛诪拽专讘 讗转 拽专讜讘讬讜

鈥淣or takes up reproach against his relative鈥; this is referring to one who draws his relatives near, and does not distance them when they embarrass him.

谞讘讝讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 谞诪讗住 讝讛 讞讝拽讬讛讜 讛诪诇讱 砖讙讬专专 注爪诪讜转 讗讘讬讜 讘诪讟讛 砖诇 讞讘诇讬诐

鈥淚n whose eyes a vile person is despised鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like King Hezekiah, who dragged the bones of his evil father, King Ahaz, in a bed of ropes, because he despised those considered vile by God.

讜讗转 讬专讗讬 讛壮 讬讻讘讚 讝讛 讬讛讜砖驻讟 诪诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讘砖注讛 砖讛讬讛 专讜讗讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 诪讻住讗讜 讜诪讞讘拽讜 讜诪谞砖拽讜 讜拽讜专讗 诇讜 讗讘讬 讗讘讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 诪专讬 诪专讬

鈥淎nd he honors those who fear the Lord鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, who when he would see a Torah scholar would arise from his throne and hug him and kiss him, and call him: My father, my father, my teacher, my teacher, my master, my master.

谞砖讘注 诇讛专注 讜诇讗 讬诪专 讻专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讛讗 讘转注谞讬转 注讚 砖讗讘讗 诇讘讬转讬

鈥淗e takes an oath to his own detriment, and changes not鈥; this is in accordance with the conduct of Rabbi Yo岣nan, as Rabbi Yo岣nan would say in the form of a vow when seeking to refrain from eating in another鈥檚 home: I shall fast until I will come to my house. He would fulfill that vow and refrain from eating, even though he took the vow only to avoid eating in that place.

讻住驻讜 诇讗 谞转谉 讘谞砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讘专讘讬转 讙讜讬

鈥淗e neither gives his money with interest鈥; meaning he does not lend money with interest even to a gentile, which is permitted by Torah law.

讜砖讞讚 注诇 谞拽讬 诇讗 诇拽讞 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬

鈥淣or takes a bribe against the innocent鈥; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who refused to sit in judgment in a case involving his sharecropper. Since the latter would bring him a basket of fruit, he was concerned that he might unconsciously favor him.

讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讗诇讛 诇讗 讬诪讜讟 诇注讜诇诐 讻砖讛讬讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讙讬注 诇诪拽专讗 讛讝讛 讛讬讛 讘讜讻讛 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讬诪讜讟 讛讗 讞讚讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讬诪讜讟

At the conclusion of the verses, it is written: 鈥淗e who performs these shall never be moved.鈥 The Gemara relates: When Rabban Gamliel would reach this verse he would cry, and he said: It is one who performed all these actions who shall never be moved; but if he performed only one of them, he shall be moved.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讬 讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讻诇 讗诇讛 注砖讛 讗诇讛 讻转讬讘 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讻转讬讘 拽专讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗诇 转讟诪讗讜 讘讻诇 讗诇讛 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛谞讜讙注 讘讻诇 讗诇讛 讛讜讗 讚诪讟诪讗 讘讞讚讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 诇讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讘讗讞转 诪讻诇 讗诇讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讗讞转 诪讻诇 讗诇讜

The Sages said to him: Is it written: He who performs all these? Rather, the phrase 鈥渉e who performs these鈥 is written, indicating that one is blessed even in a case where he performed one of them. As if you do not say so, compare that to a different verse that is written with regard to severe transgressions punishable by karet: 鈥淒o not impurify yourselves with all these鈥 (Leviticus 18:24). Would you say that there too it means that it is one who comes into contact with all these who becomes impure, but one who comes into contact with one of these, no, he does not become impure? Rather, is it not that the phrase 鈥渨ith all these鈥 means: With one of all these? Here too it means that one who performs one of all these has a place in the World-to-Come.

讘讗 讬砖注讬讛讜 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 砖砖 讚讻转讬讘 讛诇讱 爪讚拽讜转 讜讚讘专 诪讬砖专讬诐 诪讗住 讘讘爪注 诪注砖拽讜转 谞注专 讻驻讬讜 诪转诪讱 讘砖讞讚 讗讟诐 讗讝谞讜 诪砖诪注 讚诪讬诐 讜注爪诐 注讬谞讬讜 诪专讗讜转 讘专注

Rabbi Simlai鈥檚 exposition continues: Isaiah came and established the 613 mitzvot upon six, as it is written: 鈥淗e who walks righteously, and speaks uprightly; he who despises the gain of oppressions, who shakes his hands from holding of bribes, who stops his ears from hearing blood, and shuts his eyes from looking upon evil鈥 (Isaiah 33:15).

讛诇讱 爪讚拽讜转 讝讛 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讬讚注转讬讜 诇诪注谉 讗砖专 讬爪讜讛 讜讙讜壮

The Gemara elaborates: 鈥淗e who walks righteously鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Abraham, as it is written concerning him: 鈥淔or I have known him, that he will command his children鈥o perform righteousness and justice鈥 (Genesis 18:19).

讜讚讘专 诪讬砖专讬诐 讝讛 砖讗讬谞讜 诪拽谞讬讟 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐

鈥淎nd speaks uprightly鈥; this is referring to one who does not shame another in public.

诪讗住 讘讘爪注 诪注砖拽讜转 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗诇讬砖注

鈥淗e who despises the gain of oppressions鈥; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha, who refused to sit in judgment in a case involving one who gave him priestly gifts, to avoid the appearance of impropriety.

谞注专 讻驻讬讜 诪转诪讱 讘砖讞讚 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬

鈥淲ho shakes his hands from holding of bribes鈥; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who, as explained above, refused to sit in judgment in a case involving his sharecropper.

讗讟诐 讗讝谞讜 诪砖诪注 讚诪讬诐 讚诇讗 砖诪注 讘讝讬诇讜转讗 讚爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讜砖转讬拽 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

鈥淲ho stops his ears from hearing blood鈥; this is referring to one who would not hear derision of a Torah scholar and remain silent, such as Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, who was well known for this.

讜注爪诐 注讬谞讬讜 诪专讗讜转 讘专注 讻专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讝讛 砖讗讬谞讜 诪住转讻诇 讘谞砖讬诐 讘砖注讛 砖注讜诪讚讜转 注诇 讛讻讘讬住讛

鈥淎nd shuts his eyes from looking upon evil鈥 is to be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says: This is referring to one who does not look at women when they stand over the laundry at the river. The women would lift the garments they were wearing to keep them out of the water, and thereby expose part of their bodies.

讜讻转讬讘 讛讜讗 诪专讜诪讬诐 讬砖讻讜谉

And it is written with regard to one who performs these matters: 鈥淗e shall dwell on high; his fortress shall be the munitions of rocks; his bread shall be given, his waters shall be sure鈥 (Isaiah 33:16).

讘讗 诪讬讻讛 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 砖诇砖 讚讻转讬讘 讛讙讬讚 诇讱 讗讚诐 诪讛 讟讜讘 讜诪讛 讛壮 讚讜专砖 诪诪讱 讻讬 讗诐 注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 讜讗讛讘转 讞住讚 讜讛爪谞注 诇讻转 注诐 (讛壮) 讗诇讛讬讱

Micah came and established the 613 mitzvot upon three, as it is written: 鈥淚t has been told to you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God鈥 (Micah 6:8).

注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 讝讛 讛讚讬谉 讗讛讘转 讞住讚 讝讛 讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜讛爪谞注 诇讻转 讝讛 讛讜爪讗转 讛诪转 讜讛讻谞住转 讻诇讛 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谉 诇注砖讜转谉 讘爪谞注讗 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讜讛爪谞注 诇讻转 讚讘专讬诐 砖讚专讻诐 诇注砖讜转诐 讘爪谞注讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The Gemara elaborates: 鈥淭o do justly,鈥 this is justice; 鈥渢o love mercy,鈥 this is an allusion to acts of loving-kindness; 鈥渁nd to walk humbly with your God,鈥 this is an allusion to taking the indigent dead out for burial and accompanying a poor bride to her wedding canopy, both of which are to be performed without fanfare glorifying the doer. The Gemara notes: And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? If, with regard to matters that tend to be conducted in public, e.g., funerals and weddings, the Torah states 鈥渨alk humbly鈥 when doing them, then in matters that tend to be conducted in private, e.g., charity and Torah study, all the more so should they be conducted in private.

讞讝专 讬砖注讬讛讜 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 砖转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 砖诪专讜 诪砖驻讟 讜注砖讜 爪讚拽讛 讘讗 注诪讜住 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 讗讞转 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 诇讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讚专砖讜谞讬 讜讞讬讜 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗讬诪讗 讚专砖讜谞讬 讘讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讗诇讗 讘讗 讞讘拽讜拽 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 讗讞转 砖谞讗诪专 讜爪讚讬拽 讘讗诪讜谞转讜 讬讞讬讛

Isaiah then established the 613 mitzvot upon two, as it is stated: 鈥淪o says the Lord: Observe justice and perform righteous-ness鈥 (Isaiah 56:1). Amos came and established the 613 mitzvot upon one, as it is stated: 鈥淪o says the Lord to the house of Israel: Seek Me and live鈥 (Amos 5:4). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k objects to this: There is no proof that the verse in Amos is establishing all the mitzvot upon one; say that Amos is saying: Seek Me throughout the entire Torah, as the verse does not specify the manner in which one should seek the Lord. Rather, say: Habakkuk came and established the 613 mitzvot upon one, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut the righteous person shall live by his faith鈥 (Habakkuk 2:4).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗专讘注 讙讝讬专讜转 讙讝专 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘讗讜 讗专讘注讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讘讬讟诇讜诐 诪砖讛 讗诪专 讜讬砖讻谉 讬砖专讗诇 讘讟讞 讘讚讚 注讬谉 讬注拽讘 讘讗 注诪讜住 讜讘讬讟诇讛 [砖谞讗诪专] 讞讚诇 谞讗 诪讬 讬拽讜诐 讬注拽讘 讜讻转讬讘 谞讞诐 讛壮 注诇 讝讗转

Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina says: Moses our teacher issued four decrees upon the Jewish people, and four prophets came and revoked them. Moses said: 鈥淎nd Israel dwells in safety, the fountain [ein] of Jacob alone鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:28), indicating that the Jewish people will dwell in safety only when they reach a lofty spiritual level similar to [me鈥檈in] that of Jacob our forefather. Amos came and revoked it, as it is stated: 鈥淟ord God, cease, I beseech You; how shall Jacob stand, as he is small鈥 (Amos 7:5), and immediately afterward it states: 鈥淭he Lord regretted this; it too shall not be, says the Lord God鈥 (Amos 7:6).

诪砖讛 讗诪专 讜讘讙讜讬诐 讛讛诐 诇讗 转专讙讬注 讘讗 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗诪专 讛诇讜讱 诇讛专讙讬注讜 讬砖专讗诇

Moses said: 鈥淎nd among these nations you shall have no repose鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:65). Jeremiah came and revoked it, and said: 鈥淓ven Israel, when I go to cause him to rest鈥 (Jeremiah 31:1), indicating that the Jewish people will find rest even in exile.

诪砖讛 讗诪专 驻拽讚 注讜谉 讗讘讜转 注诇 讘谞讬诐 讘讗 讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜讘讬讟诇讛 讛谞驻砖 讛讞讟讗转 讛讬讗 转诪讜转

Moses said: 鈥淗e visits the transgression of the fathers upon the sons鈥 (Exodus 34:7). Ezekiel came and revoked it: 鈥淭he soul that sins, it shall die鈥 (Ezekiel 18:4), and not the children of that soul.

诪砖讛 讗诪专 讜讗讘讚转诐 讘讙讜讬诐 讘讗 讬砖注讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讬转拽注 讘砖讜驻专 讙讚讜诇

Moses said: 鈥淎nd you shall be lost among the nations鈥 (Leviticus 26:38). Isaiah came and revoked it, and said: 鈥淎nd it shall be on that day the great shofar shall be sounded, and those lost in the land of Assyria shall come鈥 (Isaiah 27:13).

讗诪专 专讘 诪住转驻讬谞讗 诪讛讗讬 拽专讗 讜讗讘讚转诐 讘讙讜讬诐 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 驻驻讗 讚诇诪讗 讻讗讘讬讚讛 讛诪转讘拽砖转 讚讻转讬讘 转注讬转讬 讻砖讛 讗讘讚 讘拽砖 注讘讚讱 讗诇讗 诪住讬驻讗 [讚拽专讗] 讜讗讻诇讛 讗转讻诐 讗专抓 讗讬讘讬讻诐 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讚诇诪讗 讻讗讻讬诇转 拽讬砖讜讗讬谉 讜讚讬诇讜注讬谉

Rav says: I am afraid of that verse: 鈥淎nd you shall be lost among the nations.鈥 Rav Pappa objects to this: Perhaps it means that the Jewish people will be like a lost item that is sought by its owner, and God will restore those lost in exile, as it is written: 鈥淚 have gone astray like a lost lamb; seek Your servant鈥 (Psalms 119:176). Rather, Rav was afraid from that which is written in the latter portion of that verse, where it is written: 鈥淎nd the land of your enemies shall consume you.鈥 Mar Zutra objects to this: Perhaps it means like the consumption of cucumbers and gourds, which are not consumed in their entirety. Some is left over, from which additional plants can grow.

讜讻讘专 讛讬讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讛诇讻讬谉 讘讚专讱 讜砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛诪讜谞讛 砖诇 专讜诪讬 诪驻诇讟讛 [讘专讞讜拽] 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诪讬诇 讜讛转讞讬诇讜 讘讜讻讬谉 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪砖讞拽 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪砖讞拽 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讜讗转诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转诐 讘讜讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讛诇诇讜 讙讜讬诐 砖诪砖转讞讜讬诐 诇注爪讘讬诐 讜诪拽讟专讬诐 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讟讞 讜讛砖拽讟 讜讗谞讜 讘讬转 讛讚讜诐 专讙诇讬 讗诇讛讬谞讜 砖专讜祝

搂 Apropos tribulations of exile and hope for redemption, the Gemara relates: And it once was that Rabban Gamliel, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Akiva were walking along the road in the Roman Empire, and they heard the sound of the multitudes of Rome from Puteoli at a distance of one hundred and twenty mil. The city was so large that they were able to hear its tumult from a great distance. And the other Sages began weeping and Rabbi Akiva was laughing. They said to him: For what reason are you laughing? Rabbi Akiva said to them: And you, for what reason are you weeping? They said to him: These gentiles, who bow to false gods and burn incense to idols, dwell securely and tranquilly in this colossal city, and for us, the House of the footstool of our God, the Temple, is burnt

讘讗砖 讜诇讗 谞讘讻讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇讻讱 讗谞讬 诪爪讞拽 讜诪讛 诇注讜讘专讬 专爪讜谞讜 讻讱 诇注讜砖讬 专爪讜谞讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

by fire, and shall we not weep? Rabbi Akiva said to them: That is why I am laughing. If for those who violate His will, the wicked, it is so and they are rewarded for the few good deeds they performed, for those who perform His will, all the more so will they be rewarded.

砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讜 注讜诇讬谉 诇讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讜 诇讛专 讛爪讜驻讬诐 拽专注讜 讘讙讚讬讛诐 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讜 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 专讗讜 砖讜注诇 砖讬爪讗 诪讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讛转讞讬诇讜 讛谉 讘讜讻讬谉 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪爪讞拽 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转诐 讘讜讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪拽讜诐 砖讻转讜讘 讘讜 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖讜注诇讬诐 讛诇讻讜 讘讜 讜诇讗 谞讘讻讛

The Gemara relates another incident involving those Sages. On another occasion they were ascending to Jerusalem after the destruction of the Temple. When they arrived at Mount Scopus and saw the site of the Temple, they rent their garments in mourning, in keeping with halakhic practice. When they arrived at the Temple Mount, they saw a fox that emerged from the site of the Holy of Holies. They began weeping, and Rabbi Akiva was laughing. They said to him: For what reason are you laughing? Rabbi Akiva said to them: For what reason are you weeping? They said to him: This is the place concerning which it is written: 鈥淎nd the non-priest who approaches shall die鈥 (Numbers 1:51), and now foxes walk in it; and shall we not weep?

讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇讻讱 讗谞讬 诪爪讞拽 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗注讬讚讛 诇讬 注讚讬诐 谞讗诪谞讬诐 讗转 讗讜专讬讛 讛讻讛谉 讜讗转 讝讻专讬讛 讘谉 讬讘专讻讬讛讜 讜讻讬 诪讛 注谞讬谉 讗讜专讬讛 讗爪诇 讝讻专讬讛 讗讜专讬讛 讘诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜讝讻专讬讛 讘诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 讗诇讗 转诇讛 讛讻转讜讘 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 讘谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讗讜专讬讛

Rabbi Akiva said to them: That is why I am laughing, as it is written, when God revealed the future to the prophet Isaiah: 鈥淎nd I will take to Me faithful witnesses to attest: Uriah the priest, and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah鈥 (Isaiah 8:2). Now what is the connection between Uriah and Zechariah? He clarifies the difficulty: Uriah prophesied during the First Temple period, and Zechariah prophesied during the Second Temple period, as he was among those who returned to Zion from Babylonia. Rather, the verse established that fulfillment of the prophecy of Zechariah is dependent on fulfillment of the prophecy of Uriah.

讘讗讜专讬讛 讻转讬讘 诇讻谉 讘讙诇诇讻诐 爪讬讜谉 砖讚讛 转讞专砖 讘讝讻专讬讛 讻转讬讘 注讜讚 讬砖讘讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讜讝拽谞讜转 讘专讞讘讜转 讬专讜砖诇诐 注讚 砖诇讗 谞转拽讬讬诪讛 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讗讜专讬讛 讛讬讬转讬 诪转讬讬专讗 砖诇讗 转转拽讬讬诐 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 注讻砖讬讜 砖谞转拽讬讬诪讛 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讗讜专讬讛 讘讬讚讜注 砖谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 诪转拽讬讬诪转 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 注拽讬讘讗 谞讬讞诪转谞讜 注拽讬讘讗 谞讬讞诪转谞讜

In the prophecy of Uriah it is written: 鈥淭herefore, for your sake Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become rubble, and the Temple Mount as the high places of a forest鈥 (Micah 3:12), where foxes are found. There is a rabbinic tradition that this was prophesied by Uriah. In the prophecy of Zechariah it is written: 鈥淭here shall yet be elderly men and elderly women sitting in the streets of Jerusalem鈥 (Zechariah 8:4). Until the prophecy of Uriah with regard to the destruction of the city was fulfilled I was afraid that the prophecy of Zechariah would not be fulfilled, as the two prophecies are linked. Now that the prophecy of Uriah was fulfilled, it is evident that the prophecy of Zechariah remains valid. The Gemara adds: The Sages said to him, employing this formulation: Akiva, you have comforted us; Akiva, you have comforted us.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗诇讜 讛谉 讛诇讜拽讬谉 讜住诇讬拽讗 诇讛 诪住讻转 诪讻讜转

 

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Makkot 24

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Makkot 24

砖讬转 诪讗讛 讜讞讚 住专讬 讛讜讬 讗谞讻讬 讜诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诇讱 诪驻讬 讛讙讘讜专讛 砖诪注谞讜诐

is 611, the number of mitzvot that were received and taught by Moses our teacher. In addition, there are two mitzvot: 鈥淚 am the Lord your God鈥 and: 鈥淵ou shall have no other gods鈥 (Exodus 20:2, 3), the first two of the Ten Commandments, that we heard from the mouth of the Almighty, for a total of 613.

(住讬诪谉 讚诪砖诪拽 住拽)

The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the biblical figures cited in the course of the discussion that follows: Dalet, mem, shin, mem, kuf; samekh, kuf; representing David, Micah, Isaiah, Amos, Habakkuk, Amos, and Ezekiel.

讘讗 讚讜讚 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 讗讞转 注砖专讛 讚讻转讬讘 诪讝诪讜专 诇讚讜讚 [讛壮] 诪讬 讬讙讜专 讘讗讛诇讱 诪讬 讬砖讻谉 讘讛专 拽讚砖讱 讛讜诇讱 转诪讬诐 讜驻讜注诇 爪讚拽 讜讚讘专 讗诪转 讘诇讘讘讜 诇讗 专讙诇 注诇 诇砖谞讜 诇讗 注砖讛 诇专注讛讜 专注讛 讜讞专驻讛 诇讗 谞砖讗 注诇 拽专讘讜 谞讘讝讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 谞诪讗住 讜讗转 讬专讗讬 讛壮 讬讻讘讚 谞砖讘注 诇讛专注 讜诇讗 讬诪专 讻住驻讜 诇讗 谞转谉 讘谞砖讱 讜砖讞讚 注诇 谞拽讬 诇讗 诇拽讞 注砖讛 讗诇讛 诇讗 讬诪讜讟 诇注讜诇诐

Rabbi Simlai continued: King David came and established the 613 mitzvot upon eleven mitzvot, as it is written: 鈥淎 Psalm of David. Lord, who shall sojourn in Your Tabernacle? Who shall dwell upon Your sacred mountain? He who walks wholeheartedly, and works righteousness, and speaks truth in his heart. Who has no slander upon his tongue, nor does evil to his neighbor, nor takes up reproach against his relative. In whose eyes a vile person is despised, and he honors those who fear the Lord; he takes an oath to his own detriment, and changes not. He neither gives his money with interest, nor takes a bribe against the innocent. He who performs these shall never be moved鈥 (Psalms, chapter 15). Eleven attributes that facilitate one鈥檚 entry into the World-to-Come appear on this list.

讛讜诇讱 转诪讬诐 讝讛 讗讘专讛诐 讚讻转讬讘 讛转讛诇讱 诇驻谞讬 讜讛讬讛 转诪讬诐

The Gemara analyzes these verses: 鈥淗e who walks wholeheartedly鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Abraham, as it is written concerning him: 鈥淲alk before Me and be wholehearted鈥 (Genesis 17:1).

驻讜注诇 爪讚拽 讻讙讜谉 讗讘讗 讞诇拽讬讛讜

鈥淲orks righteousness鈥; this is referring to one such as Abba 岣lkiyyahu, a laborer who would not pause from his labor even to greet people; he righteously continued working.

讜讚讜讘专 讗诪转 讘诇讘讘讜 讻讙讜谉 专讘 住驻专讗

鈥淎nd speaks truth in his heart鈥; this is referring to one such as Rav Safra, who was reciting Shema when a person approached him to purchase an item. He intended to accept the man鈥檚 offer, but he was unable to respond because it is prohibited to interrupt the recitation of Shema. The buyer misinterpreted Rav Safra鈥檚 silence and concluded that Rav Safra demanded a higher price, so he raised his offer. Rav Safra insisted on selling him the item for the sum that he was offered initially.

诇讗 专讙诇 注诇 诇砖谞讜 讝讛 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜诇讬 讬诪砖谞讬 讗讘讬 讜讛讬讬转讬 讘注讬谞讬讜 讻诪转注转注

鈥淲ho has no slander upon his tongue鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Jacob, who did not want to mislead his father in order to receive his blessings, as it is written: 鈥淧erhaps my father will feel me, and I will be in his eyes like a fraud鈥 (Genesis 27:12).

诇讗 注砖讛 诇专注讛讜 专注讛 砖诇讗 讬专讚 诇讗讜诪谞讜转 讞讘讬专讜

鈥淣or does evil to his neighbor鈥; this is referring to one who did not infringe upon another鈥檚 trade, constituting illegal competition.

讜讞专驻讛 诇讗 谞砖讗 注诇 拽专讘讜 讝讛 讛诪拽专讘 讗转 拽专讜讘讬讜

鈥淣or takes up reproach against his relative鈥; this is referring to one who draws his relatives near, and does not distance them when they embarrass him.

谞讘讝讛 讘注讬谞讬讜 谞诪讗住 讝讛 讞讝拽讬讛讜 讛诪诇讱 砖讙讬专专 注爪诪讜转 讗讘讬讜 讘诪讟讛 砖诇 讞讘诇讬诐

鈥淚n whose eyes a vile person is despised鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like King Hezekiah, who dragged the bones of his evil father, King Ahaz, in a bed of ropes, because he despised those considered vile by God.

讜讗转 讬专讗讬 讛壮 讬讻讘讚 讝讛 讬讛讜砖驻讟 诪诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 砖讘砖注讛 砖讛讬讛 专讜讗讛 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 诪讻住讗讜 讜诪讞讘拽讜 讜诪谞砖拽讜 讜拽讜专讗 诇讜 讗讘讬 讗讘讬 专讘讬 专讘讬 诪专讬 诪专讬

鈥淎nd he honors those who fear the Lord鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, who when he would see a Torah scholar would arise from his throne and hug him and kiss him, and call him: My father, my father, my teacher, my teacher, my master, my master.

谞砖讘注 诇讛专注 讜诇讗 讬诪专 讻专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讛讗 讘转注谞讬转 注讚 砖讗讘讗 诇讘讬转讬

鈥淗e takes an oath to his own detriment, and changes not鈥; this is in accordance with the conduct of Rabbi Yo岣nan, as Rabbi Yo岣nan would say in the form of a vow when seeking to refrain from eating in another鈥檚 home: I shall fast until I will come to my house. He would fulfill that vow and refrain from eating, even though he took the vow only to avoid eating in that place.

讻住驻讜 诇讗 谞转谉 讘谞砖讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讘专讘讬转 讙讜讬

鈥淗e neither gives his money with interest鈥; meaning he does not lend money with interest even to a gentile, which is permitted by Torah law.

讜砖讞讚 注诇 谞拽讬 诇讗 诇拽讞 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬

鈥淣or takes a bribe against the innocent鈥; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who refused to sit in judgment in a case involving his sharecropper. Since the latter would bring him a basket of fruit, he was concerned that he might unconsciously favor him.

讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讗诇讛 诇讗 讬诪讜讟 诇注讜诇诐 讻砖讛讬讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诪讙讬注 诇诪拽专讗 讛讝讛 讛讬讛 讘讜讻讛 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讬诪讜讟 讛讗 讞讚讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讬诪讜讟

At the conclusion of the verses, it is written: 鈥淗e who performs these shall never be moved.鈥 The Gemara relates: When Rabban Gamliel would reach this verse he would cry, and he said: It is one who performed all these actions who shall never be moved; but if he performed only one of them, he shall be moved.

讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讬 讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讻诇 讗诇讛 注砖讛 讗诇讛 讻转讬讘 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讚讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讻转讬讘 拽专讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗诇 转讟诪讗讜 讘讻诇 讗诇讛 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛谞讜讙注 讘讻诇 讗诇讛 讛讜讗 讚诪讟诪讗 讘讞讚讗 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 诇讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讘讗讞转 诪讻诇 讗诇讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讗讞转 诪讻诇 讗诇讜

The Sages said to him: Is it written: He who performs all these? Rather, the phrase 鈥渉e who performs these鈥 is written, indicating that one is blessed even in a case where he performed one of them. As if you do not say so, compare that to a different verse that is written with regard to severe transgressions punishable by karet: 鈥淒o not impurify yourselves with all these鈥 (Leviticus 18:24). Would you say that there too it means that it is one who comes into contact with all these who becomes impure, but one who comes into contact with one of these, no, he does not become impure? Rather, is it not that the phrase 鈥渨ith all these鈥 means: With one of all these? Here too it means that one who performs one of all these has a place in the World-to-Come.

讘讗 讬砖注讬讛讜 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 砖砖 讚讻转讬讘 讛诇讱 爪讚拽讜转 讜讚讘专 诪讬砖专讬诐 诪讗住 讘讘爪注 诪注砖拽讜转 谞注专 讻驻讬讜 诪转诪讱 讘砖讞讚 讗讟诐 讗讝谞讜 诪砖诪注 讚诪讬诐 讜注爪诐 注讬谞讬讜 诪专讗讜转 讘专注

Rabbi Simlai鈥檚 exposition continues: Isaiah came and established the 613 mitzvot upon six, as it is written: 鈥淗e who walks righteously, and speaks uprightly; he who despises the gain of oppressions, who shakes his hands from holding of bribes, who stops his ears from hearing blood, and shuts his eyes from looking upon evil鈥 (Isaiah 33:15).

讛诇讱 爪讚拽讜转 讝讛 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讬讚注转讬讜 诇诪注谉 讗砖专 讬爪讜讛 讜讙讜壮

The Gemara elaborates: 鈥淗e who walks righteously鈥; this is referring to one who conducts himself like our forefather Abraham, as it is written concerning him: 鈥淔or I have known him, that he will command his children鈥o perform righteousness and justice鈥 (Genesis 18:19).

讜讚讘专 诪讬砖专讬诐 讝讛 砖讗讬谞讜 诪拽谞讬讟 驻谞讬 讞讘讬专讜 讘专讘讬诐

鈥淎nd speaks uprightly鈥; this is referring to one who does not shame another in public.

诪讗住 讘讘爪注 诪注砖拽讜转 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗诇讬砖注

鈥淗e who despises the gain of oppressions鈥; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha, who refused to sit in judgment in a case involving one who gave him priestly gifts, to avoid the appearance of impropriety.

谞注专 讻驻讬讜 诪转诪讱 讘砖讞讚 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬

鈥淲ho shakes his hands from holding of bribes鈥; this is referring to one such as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who, as explained above, refused to sit in judgment in a case involving his sharecropper.

讗讟诐 讗讝谞讜 诪砖诪注 讚诪讬诐 讚诇讗 砖诪注 讘讝讬诇讜转讗 讚爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讜砖转讬拽 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉

鈥淲ho stops his ears from hearing blood鈥; this is referring to one who would not hear derision of a Torah scholar and remain silent, such as Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, who was well known for this.

讜注爪诐 注讬谞讬讜 诪专讗讜转 讘专注 讻专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讝讛 砖讗讬谞讜 诪住转讻诇 讘谞砖讬诐 讘砖注讛 砖注讜诪讚讜转 注诇 讛讻讘讬住讛

鈥淎nd shuts his eyes from looking upon evil鈥 is to be understood in accordance with the statement of Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says: This is referring to one who does not look at women when they stand over the laundry at the river. The women would lift the garments they were wearing to keep them out of the water, and thereby expose part of their bodies.

讜讻转讬讘 讛讜讗 诪专讜诪讬诐 讬砖讻讜谉

And it is written with regard to one who performs these matters: 鈥淗e shall dwell on high; his fortress shall be the munitions of rocks; his bread shall be given, his waters shall be sure鈥 (Isaiah 33:16).

讘讗 诪讬讻讛 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 砖诇砖 讚讻转讬讘 讛讙讬讚 诇讱 讗讚诐 诪讛 讟讜讘 讜诪讛 讛壮 讚讜专砖 诪诪讱 讻讬 讗诐 注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 讜讗讛讘转 讞住讚 讜讛爪谞注 诇讻转 注诐 (讛壮) 讗诇讛讬讱

Micah came and established the 613 mitzvot upon three, as it is written: 鈥淚t has been told to you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God鈥 (Micah 6:8).

注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 讝讛 讛讚讬谉 讗讛讘转 讞住讚 讝讛 讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜讛爪谞注 诇讻转 讝讛 讛讜爪讗转 讛诪转 讜讛讻谞住转 讻诇讛 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谉 诇注砖讜转谉 讘爪谞注讗 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讜讛爪谞注 诇讻转 讚讘专讬诐 砖讚专讻诐 诇注砖讜转诐 讘爪谞注讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The Gemara elaborates: 鈥淭o do justly,鈥 this is justice; 鈥渢o love mercy,鈥 this is an allusion to acts of loving-kindness; 鈥渁nd to walk humbly with your God,鈥 this is an allusion to taking the indigent dead out for burial and accompanying a poor bride to her wedding canopy, both of which are to be performed without fanfare glorifying the doer. The Gemara notes: And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? If, with regard to matters that tend to be conducted in public, e.g., funerals and weddings, the Torah states 鈥渨alk humbly鈥 when doing them, then in matters that tend to be conducted in private, e.g., charity and Torah study, all the more so should they be conducted in private.

讞讝专 讬砖注讬讛讜 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 砖转讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 砖诪专讜 诪砖驻讟 讜注砖讜 爪讚拽讛 讘讗 注诪讜住 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 讗讞转 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 诇讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讚专砖讜谞讬 讜讞讬讜 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗讬诪讗 讚专砖讜谞讬 讘讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讗诇讗 讘讗 讞讘拽讜拽 讜讛注诪讬讚谉 注诇 讗讞转 砖谞讗诪专 讜爪讚讬拽 讘讗诪讜谞转讜 讬讞讬讛

Isaiah then established the 613 mitzvot upon two, as it is stated: 鈥淪o says the Lord: Observe justice and perform righteous-ness鈥 (Isaiah 56:1). Amos came and established the 613 mitzvot upon one, as it is stated: 鈥淪o says the Lord to the house of Israel: Seek Me and live鈥 (Amos 5:4). Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k objects to this: There is no proof that the verse in Amos is establishing all the mitzvot upon one; say that Amos is saying: Seek Me throughout the entire Torah, as the verse does not specify the manner in which one should seek the Lord. Rather, say: Habakkuk came and established the 613 mitzvot upon one, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut the righteous person shall live by his faith鈥 (Habakkuk 2:4).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 讗专讘注 讙讝讬专讜转 讙讝专 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘讗讜 讗专讘注讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讘讬讟诇讜诐 诪砖讛 讗诪专 讜讬砖讻谉 讬砖专讗诇 讘讟讞 讘讚讚 注讬谉 讬注拽讘 讘讗 注诪讜住 讜讘讬讟诇讛 [砖谞讗诪专] 讞讚诇 谞讗 诪讬 讬拽讜诐 讬注拽讘 讜讻转讬讘 谞讞诐 讛壮 注诇 讝讗转

Rabbi Yosei bar 岣nina says: Moses our teacher issued four decrees upon the Jewish people, and four prophets came and revoked them. Moses said: 鈥淎nd Israel dwells in safety, the fountain [ein] of Jacob alone鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:28), indicating that the Jewish people will dwell in safety only when they reach a lofty spiritual level similar to [me鈥檈in] that of Jacob our forefather. Amos came and revoked it, as it is stated: 鈥淟ord God, cease, I beseech You; how shall Jacob stand, as he is small鈥 (Amos 7:5), and immediately afterward it states: 鈥淭he Lord regretted this; it too shall not be, says the Lord God鈥 (Amos 7:6).

诪砖讛 讗诪专 讜讘讙讜讬诐 讛讛诐 诇讗 转专讙讬注 讘讗 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗诪专 讛诇讜讱 诇讛专讙讬注讜 讬砖专讗诇

Moses said: 鈥淎nd among these nations you shall have no repose鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:65). Jeremiah came and revoked it, and said: 鈥淓ven Israel, when I go to cause him to rest鈥 (Jeremiah 31:1), indicating that the Jewish people will find rest even in exile.

诪砖讛 讗诪专 驻拽讚 注讜谉 讗讘讜转 注诇 讘谞讬诐 讘讗 讬讞讝拽讗诇 讜讘讬讟诇讛 讛谞驻砖 讛讞讟讗转 讛讬讗 转诪讜转

Moses said: 鈥淗e visits the transgression of the fathers upon the sons鈥 (Exodus 34:7). Ezekiel came and revoked it: 鈥淭he soul that sins, it shall die鈥 (Ezekiel 18:4), and not the children of that soul.

诪砖讛 讗诪专 讜讗讘讚转诐 讘讙讜讬诐 讘讗 讬砖注讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讬转拽注 讘砖讜驻专 讙讚讜诇

Moses said: 鈥淎nd you shall be lost among the nations鈥 (Leviticus 26:38). Isaiah came and revoked it, and said: 鈥淎nd it shall be on that day the great shofar shall be sounded, and those lost in the land of Assyria shall come鈥 (Isaiah 27:13).

讗诪专 专讘 诪住转驻讬谞讗 诪讛讗讬 拽专讗 讜讗讘讚转诐 讘讙讜讬诐 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 驻驻讗 讚诇诪讗 讻讗讘讬讚讛 讛诪转讘拽砖转 讚讻转讬讘 转注讬转讬 讻砖讛 讗讘讚 讘拽砖 注讘讚讱 讗诇讗 诪住讬驻讗 [讚拽专讗] 讜讗讻诇讛 讗转讻诐 讗专抓 讗讬讘讬讻诐 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讚诇诪讗 讻讗讻讬诇转 拽讬砖讜讗讬谉 讜讚讬诇讜注讬谉

Rav says: I am afraid of that verse: 鈥淎nd you shall be lost among the nations.鈥 Rav Pappa objects to this: Perhaps it means that the Jewish people will be like a lost item that is sought by its owner, and God will restore those lost in exile, as it is written: 鈥淚 have gone astray like a lost lamb; seek Your servant鈥 (Psalms 119:176). Rather, Rav was afraid from that which is written in the latter portion of that verse, where it is written: 鈥淎nd the land of your enemies shall consume you.鈥 Mar Zutra objects to this: Perhaps it means like the consumption of cucumbers and gourds, which are not consumed in their entirety. Some is left over, from which additional plants can grow.

讜讻讘专 讛讬讛 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讛诇讻讬谉 讘讚专讱 讜砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛诪讜谞讛 砖诇 专讜诪讬 诪驻诇讟讛 [讘专讞讜拽] 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诪讬诇 讜讛转讞讬诇讜 讘讜讻讬谉 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪砖讞拽 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪砖讞拽 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讜讗转诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转诐 讘讜讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讛诇诇讜 讙讜讬诐 砖诪砖转讞讜讬诐 诇注爪讘讬诐 讜诪拽讟专讬诐 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讟讞 讜讛砖拽讟 讜讗谞讜 讘讬转 讛讚讜诐 专讙诇讬 讗诇讛讬谞讜 砖专讜祝

搂 Apropos tribulations of exile and hope for redemption, the Gemara relates: And it once was that Rabban Gamliel, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Akiva were walking along the road in the Roman Empire, and they heard the sound of the multitudes of Rome from Puteoli at a distance of one hundred and twenty mil. The city was so large that they were able to hear its tumult from a great distance. And the other Sages began weeping and Rabbi Akiva was laughing. They said to him: For what reason are you laughing? Rabbi Akiva said to them: And you, for what reason are you weeping? They said to him: These gentiles, who bow to false gods and burn incense to idols, dwell securely and tranquilly in this colossal city, and for us, the House of the footstool of our God, the Temple, is burnt

讘讗砖 讜诇讗 谞讘讻讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇讻讱 讗谞讬 诪爪讞拽 讜诪讛 诇注讜讘专讬 专爪讜谞讜 讻讱 诇注讜砖讬 专爪讜谞讜 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

by fire, and shall we not weep? Rabbi Akiva said to them: That is why I am laughing. If for those who violate His will, the wicked, it is so and they are rewarded for the few good deeds they performed, for those who perform His will, all the more so will they be rewarded.

砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讛讬讜 注讜诇讬谉 诇讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讜 诇讛专 讛爪讜驻讬诐 拽专注讜 讘讙讚讬讛诐 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讜 诇讛专 讛讘讬转 专讗讜 砖讜注诇 砖讬爪讗 诪讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讛转讞讬诇讜 讛谉 讘讜讻讬谉 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪爪讞拽 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转讛 诪爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗转诐 讘讜讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪拽讜诐 砖讻转讜讘 讘讜 讜讛讝专 讛拽专讘 讬讜诪转 讜注讻砖讬讜 砖讜注诇讬诐 讛诇讻讜 讘讜 讜诇讗 谞讘讻讛

The Gemara relates another incident involving those Sages. On another occasion they were ascending to Jerusalem after the destruction of the Temple. When they arrived at Mount Scopus and saw the site of the Temple, they rent their garments in mourning, in keeping with halakhic practice. When they arrived at the Temple Mount, they saw a fox that emerged from the site of the Holy of Holies. They began weeping, and Rabbi Akiva was laughing. They said to him: For what reason are you laughing? Rabbi Akiva said to them: For what reason are you weeping? They said to him: This is the place concerning which it is written: 鈥淎nd the non-priest who approaches shall die鈥 (Numbers 1:51), and now foxes walk in it; and shall we not weep?

讗诪专 诇讛谉 诇讻讱 讗谞讬 诪爪讞拽 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗注讬讚讛 诇讬 注讚讬诐 谞讗诪谞讬诐 讗转 讗讜专讬讛 讛讻讛谉 讜讗转 讝讻专讬讛 讘谉 讬讘专讻讬讛讜 讜讻讬 诪讛 注谞讬谉 讗讜专讬讛 讗爪诇 讝讻专讬讛 讗讜专讬讛 讘诪拽讚砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜讝讻专讬讛 讘诪拽讚砖 砖谞讬 讗诇讗 转诇讛 讛讻转讜讘 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 讘谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讗讜专讬讛

Rabbi Akiva said to them: That is why I am laughing, as it is written, when God revealed the future to the prophet Isaiah: 鈥淎nd I will take to Me faithful witnesses to attest: Uriah the priest, and Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah鈥 (Isaiah 8:2). Now what is the connection between Uriah and Zechariah? He clarifies the difficulty: Uriah prophesied during the First Temple period, and Zechariah prophesied during the Second Temple period, as he was among those who returned to Zion from Babylonia. Rather, the verse established that fulfillment of the prophecy of Zechariah is dependent on fulfillment of the prophecy of Uriah.

讘讗讜专讬讛 讻转讬讘 诇讻谉 讘讙诇诇讻诐 爪讬讜谉 砖讚讛 转讞专砖 讘讝讻专讬讛 讻转讬讘 注讜讚 讬砖讘讜 讝拽谞讬诐 讜讝拽谞讜转 讘专讞讘讜转 讬专讜砖诇诐 注讚 砖诇讗 谞转拽讬讬诪讛 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讗讜专讬讛 讛讬讬转讬 诪转讬讬专讗 砖诇讗 转转拽讬讬诐 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 注讻砖讬讜 砖谞转拽讬讬诪讛 谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讗讜专讬讛 讘讬讚讜注 砖谞讘讜讗转讜 砖诇 讝讻专讬讛 诪转拽讬讬诪转 讘诇砖讜谉 讛讝讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 注拽讬讘讗 谞讬讞诪转谞讜 注拽讬讘讗 谞讬讞诪转谞讜

In the prophecy of Uriah it is written: 鈥淭herefore, for your sake Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become rubble, and the Temple Mount as the high places of a forest鈥 (Micah 3:12), where foxes are found. There is a rabbinic tradition that this was prophesied by Uriah. In the prophecy of Zechariah it is written: 鈥淭here shall yet be elderly men and elderly women sitting in the streets of Jerusalem鈥 (Zechariah 8:4). Until the prophecy of Uriah with regard to the destruction of the city was fulfilled I was afraid that the prophecy of Zechariah would not be fulfilled, as the two prophecies are linked. Now that the prophecy of Uriah was fulfilled, it is evident that the prophecy of Zechariah remains valid. The Gemara adds: The Sages said to him, employing this formulation: Akiva, you have comforted us; Akiva, you have comforted us.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讗诇讜 讛谉 讛诇讜拽讬谉 讜住诇讬拽讗 诇讛 诪住讻转 诪讻讜转

 

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