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Today's Daf Yomi

April 30, 2021 | ื™ืดื— ื‘ืื™ื™ืจ ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by the Hadran Women of Long Island group in memory of Irwin Weber aโ€h, Yitzchak Dov ben Avraham Alter and Rachel, beloved father of our member Debbie Weber Schreiber.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Yoma 19

Today’s daf will be in memory of all those who were killed in the stampede in Meron last night and for a refuah shleima for all those injured. Todayโ€™s daf is also sponsored by Heather Seid. “I am so blessed to have a partner who is also my chevruta. I love you, Sammy. Thank you for encouraging me to do Daf Yomi. Iโ€™ve already gotten so much out of the experience.”ย ย 

The Kohen Gadol would sleep in the Parhedrin Chamber and would go to the Chamber of Beit Avtinas to learn how to perform the burning of the incense. Both were in the azara – one of in the North and one in the South. Which was where? The rabbis of the court would make the Kohen Gadol swear – what did he need to swear and why? What was the debate between the Sadducees and the Pharicees? By bringing a particular story, the gemara switches topics to discuss is one allowed to motion to someone during Kriat Shema. The Kohen Gadol wouldn’t sleep all night on Yom Kippur night. How would they keep him awake? What customs developed from here and what bad things did they lead to?

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื ืœืœืžื“ื• ื—ืคื™ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืฉืชื™ ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื˜ื™ื ืก ืื—ืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื“ืชื ืŸ ืฉืฉ ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื

GEMARA: A tanna taught: The Sages took the High Priest to the House of Avtinas, where the incense was prepared, to teach him the method of taking handfuls of incense, which is a difficult and complex skill. Rav Pappa said: The High Priest had two chambers. One was the Parhedrin chamber and one was the Chamber of the House of Avtinas. One of them was in the north of the courtyard, and one was in the south. The Gemara explains: One was in the north, as we learned in the mishna: There were six chambers in the Israelite courtyard, three in the north and three in the south.

ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžืœื— ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื” ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžืœื— ืฉืฉื ื”ื™ื• ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืžืœื— ืœืงืจื‘ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื” ืฉืฉื ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืœื—ื™ืŸ ืขื•ืจื•ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื’ื’ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื”ื™ื• ืžื“ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ื™ ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื ืžืกื™ื‘ื” ืขื•ืœื” ืœื’ื’ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื”

The chambers in the south were the Chamber of the Salt, the Chamber of the Parva, and the Chamber of the Rinsers. The Gemara explains the function performed in each chamber. The Chamber of the Salt was where the priests would place the salt for the offering in storage The Chamber of the Parva, the hides, was where they salted the consecrated hides that belonged to the priests, to prevent them from spoiling. And on the roof of that chamber was the Hall of Immersion for the High Priest for Yom Kippur. The Chamber of the Rinsers was where they would rinse the innards of consecrated animals, which were not taken up to the altar while dirty or with undigested food remaining in them. From there a circular staircase ascended to the roof of the Chamber of the Parva.

ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืขืฅ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื–ื™ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืขืฅ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืฉื›ื—ืชื™ ืžื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืฉืžืฉืช ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืฉื›ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืชื” ืื—ื•ืจื™ ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื’ื’ ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืฉื•ื”

The three chambers in the north of the courtyard were the Chamber of the Wood, the Chamber of the Exile, and the Chamber of Hewn Stone. With regard to the Chamber of the Wood, Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, who is the tanna of the mishnayot in tractate Middot in which this mishna appears, said: I forgot what purpose that chamber would serve. Abba Shaul says: The High Priestโ€™s chamber was behind the two chambers, the Chamber of the Exile and the Chamber of Hewn Stone, and the roofs of all three of them were level. As the three were attached, they shared a roof.

ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ืฉื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ ื ืชื•ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืžืฉื ืžืกืคื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื”ืขื–ืจื” ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื–ื™ืช ืฉื ื”ื™ื” ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื“ื ื” ืืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื™ ืฉื ืžืฆื ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœื•ื‘ืฉ ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ื•ืžืชืขื˜ืฃ ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฆื ื•ื”ืœืš ืœื• ื•ืฉืœื ื ืžืฆื ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœื•ื‘ืฉ ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืžืชืขื˜ืฃ ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื ื›ื ืก ื•ืžืฉืžืฉ ืขื ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื

In the Chamber of the Exile there was the well excavated by those returning from exile, for which the chamber was named, and the wheel with which water was drawn was positioned over it. And from there, they would supply water for use in the entire Temple courtyard for washing and rinsing. In the Chamber of Hewn Stone, there the great Sanhedrin of Israel convened and judged whether the priests were fit for service. A priest in whom a disqualification was detected due to a blemish or lineage would wear black and would wrap himself in black in a display of sorrow and mourning and would emerge from the Temple and go on his way, because he was not fit for service as a priest. And any priest in whom a disqualification was not found would wear white and wrap himself in white in a display of joy and would enter and serve with his fellow priests.

ืื—ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉืขืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืฉืขืจ ื”ื“ืœืงื” ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื”ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื”ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืฉืขืจ ื ืงื ื•ืจ ื•ืฉืชื™ ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ืื—ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ื•ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉืžืืœื• ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืคื ื—ืก ื”ืžืœื‘ืฉ ื•ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืขื•ืฉื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ืŸ

In any event, it was taught that there was a chamber of the High Priest in the north of the courtyard, and there is proof that he also had one chamber in the south of the courtyard, as we learned in a mishna: Seven gates were in the Temple courtyard, three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. The gates in the south were the Gate of Fire; second to it was the Gate of the Offering; third to it was the Gate of the Water. The gate that was in the east was called the Gate of Nicanor, and two chambers were there next to the Gate of Nicanor, one to its right and one to its left. One was the Chamber of Pineแธฅas the Dresser, where the priestly vestments were stored, and one was the Chamber of the Preparers of the Griddle-Cake Offering, where the daily griddle-cake offering was prepared on behalf of the High Priest.

ืฉื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฉืขืจ ื ื™ืฆื•ืฅ ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ืื›ืกื“ืจื” ื”ื™ื” ื•ืขืœื™ื™ื” ื‘ื ื•ื™ื” ืœื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ื• ื•ืฉื ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืœื•ื™ื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ืฉืœืคื ื™ื ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื”ื—ื™ืœ ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื”ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ืงื“

The gates that were in the north: The first was the Gate of the Spark, which was a portico building, meaning it had a roof but was not completely closed on every side. And there was a second story built atop it, and there the honor guard of the Temple stood, with the priests guarding from above and the Levites from below. Inside of this gate was the rampart, and an opening led from the gate to the rampart. Second to this gate was the Gate of the Offering; third to it was the Gate of the Hall of the Hearth.

ื•ืชื ื™ื ื—ืžืฉ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื•ืขืฉืจื” ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ืœ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื‘ืงื•ื“ืฉ [ืขืœ ื’ื’] ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื” ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื–ื• ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉืขืจ ื”ืžื™ื ื•ื‘ืฆื“ ืœืฉื›ืชื• ื”ื™ืชื”

And it was taught in a baraita: The High Priest would perform five immersions and ten sanctifications of his hands and feet on that day, Yom Kippur. And each of these was performed in the sacred area of the courtyard, on the roof of the Hall of the Parva, except for this first immersion, which was performed in the non-sacred area outside the courtyard. The first immersion was not unique to Yom Kippur but was performed every day by any priest entering the Temple. That immersion was performed on the roof of the Gate of the Water, and that gate was alongside his chamber. Apparently, the High Priest had a chamber next to the Gate of the Water, which was in the south of the courtyard.

ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื ืื™ ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืœืฉื›ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื˜ื™ื ืก ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืื• ืœืฉื›ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื˜ื™ื ืก ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื”ื•ืื™

The High Priest had use of two chambers, but we do not know whether the Parhedrin chamber was in the north and the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the south, or the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the north and the Parhedrin chamber was in the south. And, however, it is reasonable to say that the Parhedrin chamber was in the south and the High Priest slept there.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืงื“ื™ื ืงืื™ ื•ืžื™ืกืš ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื’ืžืจ ื—ืคื™ื ื” ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืœื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืคื ื™ื ืžื“ื• ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืื–ื™ืœ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื ื™ื™ื—

What is the reason for that assumption? Because if that is the case, the High Priest arises early every morning of the seven days of sequestering and he covers his legs, a euphemism for defecating, and immerses alongside his chamber, which was in the south. And then he walks to the north of the courtyard to the second chamber, which is the Chamber of the House of Avtinas, and learns there the method of taking handfuls. And then he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle purification water upon him, and he then walks back to the south and immerses again alongside his chamber and rests in his chamber.

ื“ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžืงื“ื™ื ืงืื™ ื•ืžื™ืกืš ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื’ืžืจ ื—ืคื™ื ื” ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ื™ื•ืžื ืœื”ื“ื™ ืคื ื™ื ืžื“ื• ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืื–ื™ืœ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืžื”ื“ืจ ื•ืžื™ื–ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืžื™ื ื— ื•ืžื™ ื˜ืจื— ืžื˜ืจื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™

As, if you say that the Chamber of Parhedrin was in the north, this would mean that the High Priest would be forced to exert himself and walk significant distances. According to this understanding, he arises early, and he covers his legs. However, since it was taught in the baraita that the place of his immersion was in the south, he then walks to the south and immerses. And then he learns the method of taking handfuls. And then he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle purification water upon him, and he then walks back to the south and immerses, and then he needs to walk back to the north and rest. Do we impose upon him to that extent? Rather, it is reasonable to say that the Parhedrin chamber, the High Priestโ€™s private chamber, was in the south, which would limit the distance that he needed to walk.

ืืœืžื” ืœื ืžื˜ืจื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื˜ืคื™ ื“ืื™ ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืคืจื•ืฉ

The Gemara rejects this reasoning: Why not impose upon him? On the contrary, we impose upon him even more, so that if he is a Sadducee, he will retire. As he is not a God-fearing person, he would prefer to walk away rather than subject himself to that added exertion. That is a desirable result, ridding the High Priesthood of a Sadducee.

ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืชื–ื•ื— ื“ืขืชื• ืขืœื™ื• ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื”ื• ืœืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืชืกื’ื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื

Or, alternatively, there is even value in imposing on a God-fearing Pharisee High Priest, as it so that he will not become haughty in his lofty position. Since he is occupied in performing his task, he does not have leisure to be impressed with his elevated status. As, if you do not say that it is an intentional attempt to impose upon him, let us establish both of the chambers of the High Priest next to one another; or, alternatively, one chamber would be sufficient for him. From the fact that neither of these alternatives is adopted, it is apparently an intentional attempt to impose upon him, and there is no proof as to the location of either of the chambers of the High Priest.

ื•ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื™ืฉื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืœื™ืžื ืชื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ื ื™ ื›ื”ื ื™ ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื“ืจื—ืžื ื ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื“ื™ื“ืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื•

ยง It was taught in the mishna that the Elders said to him: My Master, High Priest. We are agents of the court, and you are our agent and the agent of the court. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: These priests who sacrifice the offerings are the agents of the Merciful One. They are not agents representing the Jewish people but are agents representing God, as He commanded them to perform the service. Proof is cited for this opinion: As, if you say they are our agents,

ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืื ืŸ ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ืŸ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื“ื™ื“ืŸ ืžืฆื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืขืœื™ืš ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื™ื ื• ื•ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ

is there any matter that we are unable to perform and our agents are able to perform? The role of the agent is to perform a task on behalf of the one who commissioned him. The agent cannot perform a task that the one who commissioned him is unable to perform. Since it is prohibited for Israelites to enter the priestsโ€™ courtyard and to perform the sacrificial rites, clearly the priests are not agents representing the Israelites. The language of the mishna in which the court Elders address the High Priest as their agent apparently contradicts that understanding. The Gemara answers: This is what they say to him: We administer an oath to you according to our understanding and the understanding of the court, cautioning him that he cannot rationalize violating the oath by claiming that he took the oath based on his own interpretation. He is bound by the understanding of the court. The mishna does not address the nature of the High Priestโ€™s agency.

ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจืฉ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ื”ืŸ ืคื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจืฉ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื” ืฉื—ืฉื“ื•ื”ื• ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ ื•ื”ื ืคื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฉื“ ื‘ื›ืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ืงื” ื‘ื’ื•ืคื•

ยง The mishna continues: After this oath, he would leave them and cry and they would leave him and cry. The Gemara explains: He turned aside and cried due to the indignity that they suspected him of being a Sadducee; and they turned aside and cried, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who suspects the innocent of indiscretion is afflicted in his body. The High Priest might in fact be beyond reproach and they may have suspected him falsely.

ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืœืžื” ืฉืœื ื™ืชืงืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื™ื›ื ื™ืก ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: And why were the Elders so insistent that the High Priest take an oath? The Gemara explains: So that he would not prepare the incense and light it outside in the Sanctuary, before entering the Holy of Holies, and bring the coal pan with the incense already burning on it into the Holy of Holies in the manner that the Sadducees did. Since the High Priest is alone inside the Sanctuary and there is no way to ascertain whether he is in fact performing the service in the proper manner, the Elders insisted that he take an oath to perform it according to their instructions.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืชืงื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื”ื›ื ื™ืก ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื— ืฉืžื—ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืคื’ืข ื‘ื• ืื‘ื™ื• ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืฆื“ื•ืงื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืชื™ืจืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืคืจื•ืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžืงืจื ื”ื–ื” ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื ืŸ ืืจืื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ืคื•ืจืช ืืžืจืชื™ ืžืชื™ ื™ื‘ื•ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ื•ืืงื™ื™ืžื ื• ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉื‘ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืœื ืืงื™ื™ืžื ื•

The Sages taught in the Tosefta: There was an incident involving a certain Sadducee who was appointed as High Priest, who prepared the incense outside and then brought it into the Holy of Holies. Upon his emergence he was overjoyed that he had succeeded. The father of that Sadducee met him and said to him: My son, although we are Sadducees and you performed the service in accordance with our opinion, we fear the Pharisees and do not actually implement that procedure in practice. The son said to his father: All my days I have been troubled over this verse: โ€œFor I will appear in the cloud above the Ark coverโ€ (Leviticus 16:2). The Sadducees interpreted this verse to mean that God will appear above the Ark cover, i.e., will enter the Holy of Holies, only after the incense cloud is already there. I said: When will the opportunity become available to me, and I will fulfill it according to the Sadducee interpretation? Now that the opportunity has become available to me, will I not fulfill it?

ืืžืจื• ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื™ืžื™ื ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉืžืช ื•ื”ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืืฉืคื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืœืขื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ืžื—ื•ื˜ืžื• ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ื ื™ื’ืฃ ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ืงื•ืœ ื ืฉืžืข ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ืฉื‘ื ืžืœืืš ื•ื—ื‘ื˜ื• ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื• ื•ื ื›ื ืกื• ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžืฆืื• ื›ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœ ืขื’ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื ืจื’ืœ ื™ืฉืจื” ื•ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื ื›ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœ ืขื’ืœ

The Sages said: Not even a few days passed until he died and was laid out in the garbage dump, and worms were coming out of his nose in punishment for his actions. And some say that he was struck as soon as he emerged from the Holy of Holies, as Rabbi แธคiyya taught: A type of sound was heard in the Temple courtyard, as an angel came and struck him in the face. And his fellow priests came in to remove him from there and they found the likeness of a footprint of a calf between his shoulders. That is the mark left by an angel striking, as it is stated with regard to angels: โ€œAnd their feet were straight feet, and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calfโ€™s footโ€ (Ezekiel 1:7).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ืงื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืžืชื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื ืœื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ืงืคื•ื˜ืœ ื•ืžื—ื•ื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ืงื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ื•ื ื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžืจ ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ื”ื•ื” ืงืจื™

ยง It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Zekharya ben Kevutal says: Many times I read before the High Priest from the book of Daniel. Rav แธคanan bar Rava taught this to แธคiyya bar Rav before Rav in the following manner: Rabbi Zekharya bar Kefutal said, and Rav demonstrated with his hand that the name should be pronounced Kevutal. The Gemara asks: Why did Rav demonstrate his point with a gesture? Let him simply say it. The Gemara answers: Rav was reciting Shema at that moment and could not interrupt Shema by speaking.

ื•ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืžืจืชื ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ืœื ื™ืจืžื•ื– ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืœื ื™ืงืจื•ืฅ ื‘ืฉืคืชื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืจื” ื‘ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ืกืžื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืžืจืžื– ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืžืงืจืฅ ื‘ืฉืคืชื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืžืจืื” ื‘ืืฆื‘ืขื• ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื ืื•ืชื™ ืงืจืืช ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara asks: And is interrupting in a manner of that sort, by gesturing, permitted during Shema? Didnโ€™t Rabbi Yitzแธฅak bar Shmuel bar Marta say: One who is reciting Shema should neither make allusions with his eyes, nor open and close his mouth with his lips to convey a message, nor gesture with his fingers? And it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar แธคisma says: Concerning one who recites Shema and makes allusions with his eyes, or opens and closes his mouth with his lips, or gestures with his fingers, the verse says: โ€œAnd you did not call out to Me, O Jacobโ€ (Isaiah 43:22). By signaling while reciting Shema he behaves contemptuously toward God, and it is tantamount to not having recited Shema before Him. How, then, could Rav gesture while reading Shema?

ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืคืจืง ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื ื‘ืคืจืง ืฉื ื™

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This prohibition to interrupt oneโ€™s recitation of Shema with a gesture applies in the course of reciting the first paragraph of Shema, which is more fundamental; that case where Rav gestured was in the course of reciting the second paragraph of Shema, where gesturing to convey a significant message is permitted.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ื‘ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืชืคืœื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ื‘ื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื

Apropos interruptions in the course of reciting Shema, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: โ€œAnd these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently unto your children, and you shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you ariseโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:6โ€“7). This means that in the course of reciting them, the study of Torah and the recitation of Shema, it is permitted to interrupt to state a significant matter, but not in the course of reciting the Amida prayer, which may not be interrupted for any kind of speech. Another interpretation of the verse is: And you shall talk of them is to emphasize that it is permitted to interrupt Shema to speak these matters of Torah, but not to speak other matters that may lead to levity.

ืจื‘ื™ ืื—ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ืขืฉื” ืื•ืชืŸ ืงื‘ืข ื•ืืœ ืชืขืฉื ืขืจืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ืฉื— ืฉื™ื—ืช ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ื‘ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืœืื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื’ืขื™ื ืœื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืื™ืฉ ืœื“ื‘ืจ

Rabbi Aแธฅa says: Talk of them means one must render them, the words of Torah, a permanent fixture, and not render them a temporary exercise. Rava said: One who engages in idle chatter without Torah or any particular purpose violates a positive commandment, as it is stated: And you shall talk of them; talk of them and not of other matters. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov said: Furthermore, one even violates a negative commandment, as it is stated: โ€œAll these matters are wearisome; no man can ever state themโ€ (Ecclesiastes 1:7). The phrase: No man can ever state them, is understood as a prohibition against engaging in idle chatter.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืชื ืžื ื ืคืจื—ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืืฆื‘ืข ืฆืจื“ื ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืื™ืฉื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขืžื•ื“ ื•ื”ืคื’ ืื—ืช ืขืœ ื”ืจืฆืคื” ื•ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื”

MISHNA: If the High Priest sought to sleep at night, the young priests would snap the middle [tzerada] finger against the thumb before him, and they would say to him every so often: My Master, High Priest. Stand from your bed and chill yourself once on the floor and overcome your drowsiness. And they would engage him in various ways until the time would arrive to slaughter the daily offering.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ืฆืจื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฆืจืชื” ื“ื“ื ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืื–ืœ ืงืœื ื‘ื›ื•ืœื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the tzerada finger mentioned in the mishna? Rav Yehuda said: It is the rival [tzara] of that [da] one. Which finger is it? Tzerada is the rival of the thumb; it is the middle finger. The middle finger would be strongly positioned against the thumb, and when one separates them, the finger hits the palm, creating a sound. Rav Huna demonstrated the loud noise that could be achieved by snapping with the middle finger, and the sound traveled throughout Ravโ€™s study hall. The sound created was loud enough to keep the High Priest awake.

ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืื™ืฉื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืคื’ ืื—ืช ืขืœ ื”ืจืฆืคื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืขืœ ื—ื“ืช ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืื—ื•ื™ ืงื™ื“ื”

It was taught in the mishna that they said to him: My Master, High Priest. Stand from your bed and chill yourself once on the floor and overcome your drowsiness. Rav Yitzแธฅak said that they said to the High Priest: Introduce something new. The Gemara asks: What is it that they asked him to introduce? They say to him: Demonstrate how to perform the ceremonial bowing [kidda]. This was a form of bowing that was difficult to perform, in which the High Priest was expert. The thought was that the exercise would keep him awake.

ื•ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” (ื•ื›ื•ืณ) ืชื ื ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื ื‘ื ื‘ืœ ื•ืœื ื‘ื›ื ื•ืจ ืืœื ื‘ืคื” ื•ืžื” ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ืŸ ืื ื”ืณ ืœื ื™ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื™ืช ืฉื•ื ืขืžืœื• ื‘ื•ื ื™ื• ื‘ื•

The mishna continues: And they would engage him in different ways until the time to slaughter the daily offering would arrive. It was taught: They would not occupy him with a harp or a lyre, which may not be played on a Festival, but would sing with their mouths. And what would they say? They would say this verse: โ€œUnless the Lord builds the house, its builders labor in vain on it; unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchman keeps vigil in vainโ€ (Psalms 127:1). The message to the High Priest was that his service must be performed for the sake of Heaven for it to be accepted by God; otherwise his efforts would be in vain.

ืžื™ืงื™ืจื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉื ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืฉืžืข ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืงื•ืœ ื”ื‘ืจื” ื•ืœื ืชื”ื ืฉื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื˜ืคืชื• ืชื ื™ื ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ื–ื›ืจ ืœืžืงื“ืฉ ืืœื ืฉื”ื™ื• ื—ื•ื˜ืื™ืŸ

The Gemara relates that the prominent men of Jerusalem would not sleep the entire night but instead engaged in Torah study, so that the High Priest would hear the sound of noise in the city and sleep would not overcome him in the silence of the sleeping city. It was taught in a baraita that Abba Shaul said: They would do so even in the outlying areas and stay awake all night in acknowledgment of the Temple; however, the result was that they would sin, as the men and women would participate in games together to pass the time, leading to transgression.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืชืจื’ื•ืžื ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืœื™ื”ื• ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื—ื•ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืกืœื ื—ืกื™ื“ื ืืžืจื™ืชื• ืืžืื™ ืœื ืืชื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื”ื ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ืื‘ืขื•ืœ ื›ืžื” ื‘ืชื•ืœืชื ื‘ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื”

Abaye said, and some say it was Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak who said: Interpret that statement as referring to Nehardeโ€™a, as Elijah the Prophet said to Rav Yehuda, brother of Rav Salla แธคasida: You have said and wondered: Why has the Messiah not come? Why is that surprising? Isnโ€™t today Yom Kippur, and relations were had with several virgins in Nehardeโ€™a, as the men and women stayed awake all night and that led to promiscuity? Rav Yehuda said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, say about those sins committed by the Jewish people? He said: This is what God said:

Masechet Yoma is sponsored by Vicky Harari in commemoration of her father's Yahrzeit, Avraham Baruch Hacohen ben Zeev Eliyahu Eckstein z'l, a Holocaust survivor and a feminist before it was fashionable. And in gratitude to Michelle Cohen Farber for revolutionizing women's learning worldwide.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by the Hadran Women of Long Island group in memory of Irwin Weber aโ€h, Yitzchak Dov ben Avraham Alter and Rachel, beloved father of our member Debbie Weber Schreiber.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Yoma 19

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Yoma 19

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื ืœืœืžื“ื• ื—ืคื™ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืฉืชื™ ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื˜ื™ื ืก ืื—ืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืื—ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื“ืชื ืŸ ืฉืฉ ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื

GEMARA: A tanna taught: The Sages took the High Priest to the House of Avtinas, where the incense was prepared, to teach him the method of taking handfuls of incense, which is a difficult and complex skill. Rav Pappa said: The High Priest had two chambers. One was the Parhedrin chamber and one was the Chamber of the House of Avtinas. One of them was in the north of the courtyard, and one was in the south. The Gemara explains: One was in the north, as we learned in the mishna: There were six chambers in the Israelite courtyard, three in the north and three in the south.

ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžืœื— ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื” ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžืœื— ืฉืฉื ื”ื™ื• ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืžืœื— ืœืงืจื‘ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื” ืฉืฉื ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืœื—ื™ืŸ ืขื•ืจื•ืช ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืขืœ ื’ื’ื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื™ืช ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื” ืœื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืฉื ื”ื™ื• ืžื“ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ื™ ืงื“ืฉื™ื ื•ืžืฉื ืžืกื™ื‘ื” ืขื•ืœื” ืœื’ื’ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื”

The chambers in the south were the Chamber of the Salt, the Chamber of the Parva, and the Chamber of the Rinsers. The Gemara explains the function performed in each chamber. The Chamber of the Salt was where the priests would place the salt for the offering in storage The Chamber of the Parva, the hides, was where they salted the consecrated hides that belonged to the priests, to prevent them from spoiling. And on the roof of that chamber was the Hall of Immersion for the High Priest for Yom Kippur. The Chamber of the Rinsers was where they would rinse the innards of consecrated animals, which were not taken up to the altar while dirty or with undigested food remaining in them. From there a circular staircase ascended to the roof of the Chamber of the Parva.

ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืขืฅ ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื–ื™ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ืขืฅ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืฉื›ื—ืชื™ ืžื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืฉืžืฉืช ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืฉื›ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืชื” ืื—ื•ืจื™ ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื’ื’ ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืฉื•ื”

The three chambers in the north of the courtyard were the Chamber of the Wood, the Chamber of the Exile, and the Chamber of Hewn Stone. With regard to the Chamber of the Wood, Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, who is the tanna of the mishnayot in tractate Middot in which this mishna appears, said: I forgot what purpose that chamber would serve. Abba Shaul says: The High Priestโ€™s chamber was behind the two chambers, the Chamber of the Exile and the Chamber of Hewn Stone, and the roofs of all three of them were level. As the three were attached, they shared a roof.

ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ืฉื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื’ื•ืœื” ื•ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ ื ืชื•ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ืžืฉื ืžืกืคื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื”ืขื–ืจื” ืœืฉื›ืช ื”ื’ื–ื™ืช ืฉื ื”ื™ื” ืกื ื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื“ื ื” ืืช ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื™ ืฉื ืžืฆื ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœื•ื‘ืฉ ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ื•ืžืชืขื˜ืฃ ืฉื—ื•ืจื™ื ื•ื™ืฆื ื•ื”ืœืš ืœื• ื•ืฉืœื ื ืžืฆื ื‘ื• ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืœื•ื‘ืฉ ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื•ืžืชืขื˜ืฃ ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื•ื ื›ื ืก ื•ืžืฉืžืฉ ืขื ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื

In the Chamber of the Exile there was the well excavated by those returning from exile, for which the chamber was named, and the wheel with which water was drawn was positioned over it. And from there, they would supply water for use in the entire Temple courtyard for washing and rinsing. In the Chamber of Hewn Stone, there the great Sanhedrin of Israel convened and judged whether the priests were fit for service. A priest in whom a disqualification was detected due to a blemish or lineage would wear black and would wrap himself in black in a display of sorrow and mourning and would emerge from the Temple and go on his way, because he was not fit for service as a priest. And any priest in whom a disqualification was not found would wear white and wrap himself in white in a display of joy and would enter and serve with his fellow priests.

ืื—ืช ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉืขืจื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืฉืœืฉ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืฉื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืฉืขืจ ื”ื“ืœืงื” ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื”ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื”ืžื™ื ืฉื‘ืžื–ืจื— ืฉืขืจ ื ืงื ื•ืจ ื•ืฉืชื™ ืœืฉื›ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ืื—ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื• ื•ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉืžืืœื• ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืคื ื—ืก ื”ืžืœื‘ืฉ ื•ืื—ืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืขื•ืฉื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื™ืŸ

In any event, it was taught that there was a chamber of the High Priest in the north of the courtyard, and there is proof that he also had one chamber in the south of the courtyard, as we learned in a mishna: Seven gates were in the Temple courtyard, three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. The gates in the south were the Gate of Fire; second to it was the Gate of the Offering; third to it was the Gate of the Water. The gate that was in the east was called the Gate of Nicanor, and two chambers were there next to the Gate of Nicanor, one to its right and one to its left. One was the Chamber of Pineแธฅas the Dresser, where the priestly vestments were stored, and one was the Chamber of the Preparers of the Griddle-Cake Offering, where the daily griddle-cake offering was prepared on behalf of the High Priest.

ืฉื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืฉืขืจ ื ื™ืฆื•ืฅ ื‘ื ื™ืŸ ืื›ืกื“ืจื” ื”ื™ื” ื•ืขืœื™ื™ื” ื‘ื ื•ื™ื” ืœื• ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ื• ื•ืฉื ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืžืœืžืขืœื” ื•ืœื•ื™ื ืžืœืžื˜ื” ื•ืฉืœืคื ื™ื ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื”ื—ื™ืœ ืฉื ื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื”ืงืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืœื• ืฉืขืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื•ืงื“

The gates that were in the north: The first was the Gate of the Spark, which was a portico building, meaning it had a roof but was not completely closed on every side. And there was a second story built atop it, and there the honor guard of the Temple stood, with the priests guarding from above and the Levites from below. Inside of this gate was the rampart, and an opening led from the gate to the rampart. Second to this gate was the Gate of the Offering; third to it was the Gate of the Hall of the Hearth.

ื•ืชื ื™ื ื—ืžืฉ ื˜ื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื•ืขืฉืจื” ืงื“ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื˜ื•ื‘ืœ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืžืงื“ืฉ ื‘ื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ื‘ืงื•ื“ืฉ [ืขืœ ื’ื’] ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืคืจื•ื” ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื–ื• ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉืขืจ ื”ืžื™ื ื•ื‘ืฆื“ ืœืฉื›ืชื• ื”ื™ืชื”

And it was taught in a baraita: The High Priest would perform five immersions and ten sanctifications of his hands and feet on that day, Yom Kippur. And each of these was performed in the sacred area of the courtyard, on the roof of the Hall of the Parva, except for this first immersion, which was performed in the non-sacred area outside the courtyard. The first immersion was not unique to Yom Kippur but was performed every day by any priest entering the Temple. That immersion was performed on the roof of the Gate of the Water, and that gate was alongside his chamber. Apparently, the High Priest had a chamber next to the Gate of the Water, which was in the south of the courtyard.

ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื ืื™ ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืœืฉื›ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื˜ื™ื ืก ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ืื• ืœืฉื›ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื˜ื™ื ืก ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื“ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื”ื•ืื™

The High Priest had use of two chambers, but we do not know whether the Parhedrin chamber was in the north and the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the south, or the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the north and the Parhedrin chamber was in the south. And, however, it is reasonable to say that the Parhedrin chamber was in the south and the High Priest slept there.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืงื“ื™ื ืงืื™ ื•ืžื™ืกืš ืืช ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ื’ืžืจ ื—ืคื™ื ื” ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ืœื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืคื ื™ื ืžื“ื• ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืื–ื™ืœ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื ื™ื™ื—

What is the reason for that assumption? Because if that is the case, the High Priest arises early every morning of the seven days of sequestering and he covers his legs, a euphemism for defecating, and immerses alongside his chamber, which was in the south. And then he walks to the north of the courtyard to the second chamber, which is the Chamber of the House of Avtinas, and learns there the method of taking handfuls. And then he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle purification water upon him, and he then walks back to the south and immerses again alongside his chamber and rests in his chamber.

ื“ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืœืฉื›ืช ืคืจื”ื“ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ืžืงื“ื™ื ืงืื™ ื•ืžื™ืกืš ืจื’ืœื™ื• ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื’ืžืจ ื—ืคื™ื ื” ื•ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ื” ื™ื•ืžื ืœื”ื“ื™ ืคื ื™ื ืžื“ื• ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืื–ื™ืœ ืœื“ืจื•ื ื•ื˜ื‘ื™ืœ ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืžื”ื“ืจ ื•ืžื™ื–ืœ ืœืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืžื™ื ื— ื•ืžื™ ื˜ืจื— ืžื˜ืจื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™

As, if you say that the Chamber of Parhedrin was in the north, this would mean that the High Priest would be forced to exert himself and walk significant distances. According to this understanding, he arises early, and he covers his legs. However, since it was taught in the baraita that the place of his immersion was in the south, he then walks to the south and immerses. And then he learns the method of taking handfuls. And then he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle purification water upon him, and he then walks back to the south and immerses, and then he needs to walk back to the north and rest. Do we impose upon him to that extent? Rather, it is reasonable to say that the Parhedrin chamber, the High Priestโ€™s private chamber, was in the south, which would limit the distance that he needed to walk.

ืืœืžื” ืœื ืžื˜ืจื—ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื˜ืคื™ ื“ืื™ ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืคืจื•ืฉ

The Gemara rejects this reasoning: Why not impose upon him? On the contrary, we impose upon him even more, so that if he is a Sadducee, he will retire. As he is not a God-fearing person, he would prefer to walk away rather than subject himself to that added exertion. That is a desirable result, ridding the High Priesthood of a Sadducee.

ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืฉืœื ืชื–ื•ื— ื“ืขืชื• ืขืœื™ื• ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื”ื• ืœืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืชืกื’ื™ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื—ื“ื

Or, alternatively, there is even value in imposing on a God-fearing Pharisee High Priest, as it so that he will not become haughty in his lofty position. Since he is occupied in performing his task, he does not have leisure to be impressed with his elevated status. As, if you do not say that it is an intentional attempt to impose upon him, let us establish both of the chambers of the High Priest next to one another; or, alternatively, one chamber would be sufficient for him. From the fact that neither of these alternatives is adopted, it is apparently an intentional attempt to impose upon him, and there is no proof as to the location of either of the chambers of the High Priest.

ื•ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืื™ืฉื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืœื™ืžื ืชื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื”ื ื™ ื›ื”ื ื™ ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื“ืจื—ืžื ื ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื“ื™ื“ืŸ ื ื™ื ื”ื•

ยง It was taught in the mishna that the Elders said to him: My Master, High Priest. We are agents of the court, and you are our agent and the agent of the court. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: These priests who sacrifice the offerings are the agents of the Merciful One. They are not agents representing the Jewish people but are agents representing God, as He commanded them to perform the service. Proof is cited for this opinion: As, if you say they are our agents,

ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžื™ื“ื™ ื“ืื ืŸ ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ืŸ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ื•ืฉืœื•ื—ื™ ื“ื™ื“ืŸ ืžืฆื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืžืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืขืœื™ืš ืขืœ ื“ืขืชื™ื ื• ื•ืขืœ ื“ืขืช ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ

is there any matter that we are unable to perform and our agents are able to perform? The role of the agent is to perform a task on behalf of the one who commissioned him. The agent cannot perform a task that the one who commissioned him is unable to perform. Since it is prohibited for Israelites to enter the priestsโ€™ courtyard and to perform the sacrificial rites, clearly the priests are not agents representing the Israelites. The language of the mishna in which the court Elders address the High Priest as their agent apparently contradicts that understanding. The Gemara answers: This is what they say to him: We administer an oath to you according to our understanding and the understanding of the court, cautioning him that he cannot rationalize violating the oath by claiming that he took the oath based on his own interpretation. He is bound by the understanding of the court. The mishna does not address the nature of the High Priestโ€™s agency.

ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจืฉ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ื”ืŸ ืคื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจืฉ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื” ืฉื—ืฉื“ื•ื”ื• ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ ื•ื”ื ืคื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ื›ื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื•ืฉื“ ื‘ื›ืฉืจื™ื ืœื•ืงื” ื‘ื’ื•ืคื•

ยง The mishna continues: After this oath, he would leave them and cry and they would leave him and cry. The Gemara explains: He turned aside and cried due to the indignity that they suspected him of being a Sadducee; and they turned aside and cried, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who suspects the innocent of indiscretion is afflicted in his body. The High Priest might in fact be beyond reproach and they may have suspected him falsely.

ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืœืžื” ืฉืœื ื™ืชืงืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื™ื›ื ื™ืก ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: And why were the Elders so insistent that the High Priest take an oath? The Gemara explains: So that he would not prepare the incense and light it outside in the Sanctuary, before entering the Holy of Holies, and bring the coal pan with the incense already burning on it into the Holy of Holies in the manner that the Sadducees did. Since the High Priest is alone inside the Sanctuary and there is no way to ascertain whether he is in fact performing the service in the proper manner, the Elders insisted that he take an oath to perform it according to their instructions.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืฆื“ื•ืงื™ ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ืชืงื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื”ื›ื ื™ืก ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื— ืฉืžื—ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืคื’ืข ื‘ื• ืื‘ื™ื• ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืฆื“ื•ืงื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืชื™ืจืื™ืŸ ืื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืคืจื•ืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžืงืจื ื”ื–ื” ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื ืŸ ืืจืื” ืขืœ ื”ื›ืคื•ืจืช ืืžืจืชื™ ืžืชื™ ื™ื‘ื•ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ื•ืืงื™ื™ืžื ื• ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉื‘ื ืœื™ื“ื™ ืœื ืืงื™ื™ืžื ื•

The Sages taught in the Tosefta: There was an incident involving a certain Sadducee who was appointed as High Priest, who prepared the incense outside and then brought it into the Holy of Holies. Upon his emergence he was overjoyed that he had succeeded. The father of that Sadducee met him and said to him: My son, although we are Sadducees and you performed the service in accordance with our opinion, we fear the Pharisees and do not actually implement that procedure in practice. The son said to his father: All my days I have been troubled over this verse: โ€œFor I will appear in the cloud above the Ark coverโ€ (Leviticus 16:2). The Sadducees interpreted this verse to mean that God will appear above the Ark cover, i.e., will enter the Holy of Holies, only after the incense cloud is already there. I said: When will the opportunity become available to me, and I will fulfill it according to the Sadducee interpretation? Now that the opportunity has become available to me, will I not fulfill it?

ืืžืจื• ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื™ืžื™ื ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉืžืช ื•ื”ื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืืฉืคื” ื•ื”ื™ื• ืชื•ืœืขื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ืžื—ื•ื˜ืžื• ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื™ืฆื™ืืชื• ื ื™ื’ืฃ ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ืงื•ืœ ื ืฉืžืข ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ืฉื‘ื ืžืœืืš ื•ื—ื‘ื˜ื• ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื• ื•ื ื›ื ืกื• ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžืฆืื• ื›ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœ ืขื’ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืคื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื ืจื’ืœ ื™ืฉืจื” ื•ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื ื›ื›ืฃ ืจื’ืœ ืขื’ืœ

The Sages said: Not even a few days passed until he died and was laid out in the garbage dump, and worms were coming out of his nose in punishment for his actions. And some say that he was struck as soon as he emerged from the Holy of Holies, as Rabbi แธคiyya taught: A type of sound was heard in the Temple courtyard, as an angel came and struck him in the face. And his fellow priests came in to remove him from there and they found the likeness of a footprint of a calf between his shoulders. That is the mark left by an angel striking, as it is stated with regard to angels: โ€œAnd their feet were straight feet, and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calfโ€™s footโ€ (Ezekiel 1:7).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ืงื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืžืชื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื ืœื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ื‘ืŸ ืงืคื•ื˜ืœ ื•ืžื—ื•ื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ืงื‘ื•ื˜ืœ ื•ื ื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืžื™ืžืจ ืงืจื™ืืช ืฉืžืข ื”ื•ื” ืงืจื™

ยง It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Zekharya ben Kevutal says: Many times I read before the High Priest from the book of Daniel. Rav แธคanan bar Rava taught this to แธคiyya bar Rav before Rav in the following manner: Rabbi Zekharya bar Kefutal said, and Rav demonstrated with his hand that the name should be pronounced Kevutal. The Gemara asks: Why did Rav demonstrate his point with a gesture? Let him simply say it. The Gemara answers: Rav was reciting Shema at that moment and could not interrupt Shema by speaking.

ื•ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื’ื•ื•ื ื ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืžืจืชื ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ืœื ื™ืจืžื•ื– ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืœื ื™ืงืจื•ืฅ ื‘ืฉืคืชื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืœื ื™ื•ืจื” ื‘ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ืกืžื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืžืจืžื– ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ืžืงืจืฅ ื‘ืฉืคืชื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืžืจืื” ื‘ืืฆื‘ืขื• ืขืœื™ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืœื ืื•ืชื™ ืงืจืืช ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara asks: And is interrupting in a manner of that sort, by gesturing, permitted during Shema? Didnโ€™t Rabbi Yitzแธฅak bar Shmuel bar Marta say: One who is reciting Shema should neither make allusions with his eyes, nor open and close his mouth with his lips to convey a message, nor gesture with his fingers? And it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar แธคisma says: Concerning one who recites Shema and makes allusions with his eyes, or opens and closes his mouth with his lips, or gestures with his fingers, the verse says: โ€œAnd you did not call out to Me, O Jacobโ€ (Isaiah 43:22). By signaling while reciting Shema he behaves contemptuously toward God, and it is tantamount to not having recited Shema before Him. How, then, could Rav gesture while reading Shema?

ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืคืจืง ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื”ื ื‘ืคืจืง ืฉื ื™

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This prohibition to interrupt oneโ€™s recitation of Shema with a gesture applies in the course of reciting the first paragraph of Shema, which is more fundamental; that case where Rav gestured was in the course of reciting the second paragraph of Shema, where gesturing to convey a significant message is permitted.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ื‘ื ื•ืœื ื‘ืชืคืœื” ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ื‘ื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื

Apropos interruptions in the course of reciting Shema, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: โ€œAnd these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently unto your children, and you shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you ariseโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:6โ€“7). This means that in the course of reciting them, the study of Torah and the recitation of Shema, it is permitted to interrupt to state a significant matter, but not in the course of reciting the Amida prayer, which may not be interrupted for any kind of speech. Another interpretation of the verse is: And you shall talk of them is to emphasize that it is permitted to interrupt Shema to speak these matters of Torah, but not to speak other matters that may lead to levity.

ืจื‘ื™ ืื—ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ืขืฉื” ืื•ืชืŸ ืงื‘ืข ื•ืืœ ืชืขืฉื ืขืจืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ืฉื— ืฉื™ื—ืช ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืขืฉื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื“ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื ื‘ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืœืื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื™ื’ืขื™ื ืœื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืื™ืฉ ืœื“ื‘ืจ

Rabbi Aแธฅa says: Talk of them means one must render them, the words of Torah, a permanent fixture, and not render them a temporary exercise. Rava said: One who engages in idle chatter without Torah or any particular purpose violates a positive commandment, as it is stated: And you shall talk of them; talk of them and not of other matters. Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov said: Furthermore, one even violates a negative commandment, as it is stated: โ€œAll these matters are wearisome; no man can ever state themโ€ (Ecclesiastes 1:7). The phrase: No man can ever state them, is understood as a prohibition against engaging in idle chatter.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืชื ืžื ื ืคืจื—ื™ ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืžื›ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืืฆื‘ืข ืฆืจื“ื ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืื™ืฉื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืขืžื•ื“ ื•ื”ืคื’ ืื—ืช ืขืœ ื”ืจืฆืคื” ื•ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื”

MISHNA: If the High Priest sought to sleep at night, the young priests would snap the middle [tzerada] finger against the thumb before him, and they would say to him every so often: My Master, High Priest. Stand from your bed and chill yourself once on the floor and overcome your drowsiness. And they would engage him in various ways until the time would arrive to slaughter the daily offering.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ืฆืจื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฆืจืชื” ื“ื“ื ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืื–ืœ ืงืœื ื‘ื›ื•ืœื™ ื‘ื™ ืจื‘

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the tzerada finger mentioned in the mishna? Rav Yehuda said: It is the rival [tzara] of that [da] one. Which finger is it? Tzerada is the rival of the thumb; it is the middle finger. The middle finger would be strongly positioned against the thumb, and when one separates them, the finger hits the palm, creating a sound. Rav Huna demonstrated the loud noise that could be achieved by snapping with the middle finger, and the sound traveled throughout Ravโ€™s study hall. The sound created was loud enough to keep the High Priest awake.

ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื• ืื™ืฉื™ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืคื’ ืื—ืช ืขืœ ื”ืจืฆืคื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืขืœ ื—ื“ืช ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืื—ื•ื™ ืงื™ื“ื”

It was taught in the mishna that they said to him: My Master, High Priest. Stand from your bed and chill yourself once on the floor and overcome your drowsiness. Rav Yitzแธฅak said that they said to the High Priest: Introduce something new. The Gemara asks: What is it that they asked him to introduce? They say to him: Demonstrate how to perform the ceremonial bowing [kidda]. This was a form of bowing that was difficult to perform, in which the High Priest was expert. The thought was that the exercise would keep him awake.

ื•ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” (ื•ื›ื•ืณ) ืชื ื ืœื ื”ื™ื• ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื ื‘ื ื‘ืœ ื•ืœื ื‘ื›ื ื•ืจ ืืœื ื‘ืคื” ื•ืžื” ื”ื™ื• ืื•ืžืจื™ืŸ ืื ื”ืณ ืœื ื™ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื™ืช ืฉื•ื ืขืžืœื• ื‘ื•ื ื™ื• ื‘ื•

The mishna continues: And they would engage him in different ways until the time to slaughter the daily offering would arrive. It was taught: They would not occupy him with a harp or a lyre, which may not be played on a Festival, but would sing with their mouths. And what would they say? They would say this verse: โ€œUnless the Lord builds the house, its builders labor in vain on it; unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchman keeps vigil in vainโ€ (Psalms 127:1). The message to the High Priest was that his service must be performed for the sake of Heaven for it to be accepted by God; otherwise his efforts would be in vain.

ืžื™ืงื™ืจื™ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉื ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืœื™ืœื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืฉืžืข ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืงื•ืœ ื”ื‘ืจื” ื•ืœื ืชื”ื ืฉื™ื ื” ื—ื•ื˜ืคืชื• ืชื ื™ื ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื• ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื›ืŸ ื–ื›ืจ ืœืžืงื“ืฉ ืืœื ืฉื”ื™ื• ื—ื•ื˜ืื™ืŸ

The Gemara relates that the prominent men of Jerusalem would not sleep the entire night but instead engaged in Torah study, so that the High Priest would hear the sound of noise in the city and sleep would not overcome him in the silence of the sleeping city. It was taught in a baraita that Abba Shaul said: They would do so even in the outlying areas and stay awake all night in acknowledgment of the Temple; however, the result was that they would sin, as the men and women would participate in games together to pass the time, leading to transgression.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืชืจื’ื•ืžื ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื“ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืืœื™ื”ื• ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื—ื•ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืกืœื ื—ืกื™ื“ื ืืžืจื™ืชื• ืืžืื™ ืœื ืืชื™ ืžืฉื™ื— ื•ื”ื ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื•ืื‘ืขื•ืœ ื›ืžื” ื‘ืชื•ืœืชื ื‘ื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื”

Abaye said, and some say it was Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak who said: Interpret that statement as referring to Nehardeโ€™a, as Elijah the Prophet said to Rav Yehuda, brother of Rav Salla แธคasida: You have said and wondered: Why has the Messiah not come? Why is that surprising? Isnโ€™t today Yom Kippur, and relations were had with several virgins in Nehardeโ€™a, as the men and women stayed awake all night and that led to promiscuity? Rav Yehuda said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, say about those sins committed by the Jewish people? He said: This is what God said:

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