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Today's Daf Yomi

July 27, 2018 | ื˜ืดื• ื‘ืื‘ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Zevachim 105

Several questions are asked and halachot are discussed regarding the unique status of impurity that the sin offerings that are burned and the red heifer and according to some the scapegoat on Yom Kippur also.


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ื‘ืชืจ ืจื•ื‘ ืื‘ืจ ืฉื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื ืคืง ืœื™ื” ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื‘ืชืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืชื™ืงื•

by casting it after the majority of that limb, and the majority of that limb did leave? Or perhaps we determine its status by casting it after the half of the animal, which did not leave the courtyard. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma of Rabbi Elazar shall stand unresolved.

ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ืžืชืขืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืžืฉื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื•ื ืคืงื• ืชืœืชื ื•ืคืฉื• ืœื”ื• ืชืจื™ ืžืื™ ื‘ืชืจ ืจื•ื‘ ืžืชืขืกืงื™ืŸ ืื–ืœื™ื ืŸ ืื• ื‘ืชืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืื–ืœื™ื ืŸ ืชื™ืงื•

Rabba bar Rav Huna teaches this dilemma with regard to people: In a case where five people are handling an offering and carrying it out to be burned, and three of them emerged and two of them remained in the Temple courtyard, such that the animal is partly inside and partly outside, what is the halakha? Do we follow the majority of the people handling the offering, who have left the courtyard, or do we follow the animal, the majority of which did not yet leave? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ืฉืจืคื™ื ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ืžื”ื• ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื˜ืžื• ืœื”ื• ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื”ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื“ื•ืจ

Rabbi Elazar raises another dilemma: If bulls and goats that are burned left the Temple courtyard and returned, what is the halakha with regard to the garments of those who carry them inside the courtyard? Do we say: Once they left, they became impure? Or perhaps once they return, they return and do not render garments impure?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืžืœ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื™ื• ืกื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ืžื•ื˜ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื™ืฆืื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ื•ืžืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ื•ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืœื ื™ืฆืื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ื•ืžืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื˜ืžื• ื”ื ืš ื“ืื™ื›ื ื’ื•ืื™ ืœื™ื˜ืžื

Rabbi Abba bar Memel says: Come and hear the mishna: They would carry the bulls and the goats that are burned suspended on poles. When the first priests, carrying the front of the pole, emerged beyond the wall of the Temple courtyard and the latter ones did not yet emerge, the first ones, who emerged beyond the wall of the Temple courtyard, render their garments impure, but the latter ones do not render their garments impure until they emerge. Rabbi Abba bar Memel explains: And if it enters your mind to say that once they leave, they become impure, these latter ones mentioned in the mishna who are still inside should be rendered impure, since the offering itself has emerged. It follows that if the offering returns, their garments are not rendered impure.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืชืกื‘ืจื ื”ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื™ื‘ื ืืœ ื”ืžื—ื ื” ื•ืœื™ื›ื

Ravina said: And can you understand this as a proof? The reason that the latter onesโ€™ garments are not rendered impure is that I require the fulfillment of the verse: โ€œAnd he who burns them shall wash his garments, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the campโ€ (Leviticus 16:28). And since they have not yet left the camp, they cannot come into it, and therefore they do not contract the impurity described in the verse.

ืืœื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืœื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืงื™ื˜ื™ ืœื” ื‘ื‘ืงื•ืœืกื™

The Gemara asks: But if they can become impure only after they leave, how did Rabbi Elazar raise this dilemma? The Gemara answers: He raised the dilemma with regard to a case where they take the offering with staffs [bevakulsei], i.e., after the offering is returned to the Temple courtyard, other people stand outside the courtyard and bring it out again using staffs. Does the offering render these people impure, even though they are standing outside the courtyard? The dilemma of Rabbi Elazar remains unresolved.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืคืจื™ื ื•ืคืจื” ื•ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืœื— ื”ืžืฉืœื— ื”ืฉื•ืจืคืŸ ื•ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ืืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืŸ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืคืจื” ื•ืคืจื™ื ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืœื— ืื™ื ื• ืžื˜ืžื ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ื”ื—ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืžื˜ืžื ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to bulls that are burned, and a red heifer, and the scapegoat of the Yom Kippur service, the one who sends them, the one who burns them, and the one who takes them out of the Temple courtyard render their garments impure. And the animals themselves, after they emerge from the Temple courtyard, do not render garments that they touch impure, but they render food and drink that they touch impure. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: A red heifer and bulls that are burned render food and drink impure, but the scapegoat does not transmit impurity at all, as it is still alive when it leaves the Temple, and a living being does not render food and drink impure.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื›ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื–ืจืข ื–ืจื•ืข

The Gemara comments. Granted, according to Rabbi Meir there is no difficulty, as his opinion is in accordance with that which the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught. As the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in a baraita: The verse states that seeds can contract impurity from the carcass of a creeping animal only if they first come in contact with water: โ€œAnd if any part of their carcass fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is pure. But if water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcass fall thereon, it is impure unto youโ€ (Leviticus 11:37โ€“38).

ืžื” ื–ืจืขื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืคืŸ ืœื™ื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืฉืจ ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืคืŸ ืœื™ื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื™ืฆืชื” ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืฉืกื•ืคื” ืœื™ื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ื›ืฉืจ

Just as is the case for seeds, which, like any food, can never contract impurity severe enough to transmit it to human beings, and they need exposure to liquid to be rendered susceptible to their less severe level of impurity, so too, all items that can never contract impurity severe enough to transmit it to human beings need exposure to liquid to be rendered susceptible to their less severe level of impurity and to transmit it. This serves to exclude the carcass of a kosher bird, which can contract impurity severe enough to be transmitted to a human being who swallows it, and therefore does not need to be rendered susceptible to ritual impurity in order to transmit ritual impurity. According to this baraita, bulls that are burned, a red heifer, and a scapegoat, which are all sources of impurity for human beings, are able to transmit impurity to food and drink on their own, even if they have not been exposed to liquid and have not come in contact with any source of impurity. Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion accords with this principle.

ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืœื— ืื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืคืจื” ื•ืคืจื™ื ืžื ืœืŸ

But for the opinion of the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Meir and say that a scapegoat does not transmit impurity to food and drink, this is difficult. If they accept that which the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught, then even the scapegoat should transmit impurity to food and drink. And if they do not accept that statement, then from where do we derive that even a red heifer and bulls that are burned transmit impurity to food and drink?

ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ

When Rav Dimi came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael he said: The Sages in the West, Eretz Yisrael, say: The opinion of the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Meir is that bulls that are burned and a red heifer need to contract impurity from somewhere else to be able to transmit impurity to foods. Since the scapegoat cannot contract impurity, as it is alive, it cannot transmit impurity.

ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ืฉืจืคื™ื ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ื˜ืžืื• ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืคื ื™ื ื›ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื

ยง Rabbi Elazar raises a dilemma: With regard to bulls and goats that are burned, what is the halakha as to whether they can transmit impurity to food and drink inside the Temple courtyard, before they leave, as they do outside afterward? Is an offering that has not yet left the Temple considered as if it were an item for which a necessary action has not yet been performed, i.e., because it has not yet become a source of impurity to those who carry it, it also does not transmit impurity to food without being rendered susceptible by coming into contact with a liquid and then coming into contact with a source of impurity? Or perhaps no, because the offering will become a source of impurity to those who carry it once it leaves the Temple courtyard, it already transmits impurity to food without being rendered susceptible.

ื‘ืชืจ ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื“ืจ ืคืฉื˜ื” ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™

After Rabbi Elazar raised the dilemma, he then resolved it: An offering that has not yet left is considered as if it were an item for which a necessary action has not yet been performed, and it does not transmit impurity to food without being rendered susceptible.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ื˜ืžื ื‘ื›ื–ื™ืช

ยง Rabbi Abba bar Shmuel posed another dilemma to Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba: Food transmits impurity to other food or drink only if it is the volume of at least one egg-bulk and it is first rendered susceptible to impurity. The carcass of a kosher bird transmits impurity to a person who swallows it even if it is of the volume of at least one olive-bulk, and even if it has not been rendered susceptible to impurity. According to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, that the carcass of a kosher bird transmits impurity to other food without first being rendered susceptible to impurity, what is the halakha as to the requisite measure? Does the carcass of a kosher bird transmit impurity to food even if it is of the volume of an olive-bulk, as it would to a person?

ื“ืžื—ืชื ืœืืจืขื ืœื ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ื“ื ืงื™ื˜ ื‘ืคื•ืžื™ื” ืœื ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ื›ื™ ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ื“ื ืงื™ื˜ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืงืจื™ื‘ื” ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื

The Gemara clarifies: Do not raise the dilemma in a case where the carcass lies on the ground, as in that case it certainly must be of the volume of an egg-bulk, like any other impure food. And do not raise the dilemma in a case where a person holds the birdโ€™s flesh in his mouth, as it may be swallowed and transmit impurity to him even if it is of the volume of only an olive-bulk; in this case it certainly transmits impurity to food in the same measure. When you raise the dilemma, raise it in a case where he holds the birdโ€™s flesh in his hand. When the flesh has not yet been brought close to being swallowed, is it considered to be like an item for which a necessary action has not yet been performed, in which case it is considered a normal food and must be of the volume of an egg-bulk, or perhaps not?

ื‘ืชืจ ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื“ืจ ืคืฉื˜ื”

After Abba bar Shmuel raised the dilemma, he then resolved it:

ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืงืจื™ื‘ื” ืœืื• ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™

Even if the carcass of a kosher bird has not yet been brought close to being swallowed, it is still not considered as if a necessary action has not yet been performed, and an olive-bulk is sufficient to transmit impurity to food and drink.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื ืืžืจื• ื‘ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ื–ื” ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื•ืžื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื

Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba raised an objection to Rabbi Abba bar Shmuel, based on a mishna (Teharot 1:1): Thirteen matters were stated with regard to the carcass of a kosher bird, and this is one of them: In order to be susceptible to impurity as a food, it requires a personโ€™s intention that it be eaten; and it does not need to be rendered susceptible to such impurity by contact with liquid; and it transmits ritual impurity of food in the amount of an egg-bulk. In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? What, is it not the opinion of Rabbi Meir? If so, he holds that an egg-bulk of a carcass of a kosher bird is necessary to transmit impurity.

ืœื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื

The Gemara responds: No, the mishna is the opinion of the Rabbis.

ื•ื”ื ืงืชื ื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื•ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื”ืื™ ืกื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžื“ืจื™ืฉื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืกื™ืคื ื ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ

The Gemara challenges: But the first clause of that mishna teaches: In order to be susceptible to impurity as a food, it requires a personโ€™s intention that it be eaten and it does not need to be rendered susceptible by contact with liquid. And from whom do you learn this reasoning? From Rabbi Meir, as was taught in the baraita (105a). And since the first clause is the opinion of Rabbi Meir, it follows that the latter clause is also the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ื•ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื

The Gemara responds: Are the cases comparable? Must both clauses be the opinion of the same tanna? This case is as it is, and that case is as it is.

ื•ื”ื ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืชื” ื•ืžืœื™ืงืชื” ืžื˜ื”ืจืช ื˜ืจื™ืคืชื” ืžื˜ื•ืžืืชื” ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื”ืื™ ืกื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžืฆื™ืขืชื ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Gemara challenges: But one can still infer this from the fact that the latter clause of that mishna teaches: The slaughter or the pinching of the nape of a bird offering purifies it from its impurity, i.e., prevents it from assuming the impure status of a carcass, even if it is found to have a wound that would have caused it to die within twelve months [tereifa]. And from whom did you learn this reasoning? From Rabbi Meir (see 67a). Could it be that the first clause and the last clause represent the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and the middle clause represents the opinion of the Rabbis?

ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžืฆื™ืขืชื ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Gemara responds: Yes, the first clause and the last clause represent the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and the middle clause represents the opinion of the Rabbis.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœื ืชื™ืชื™ื‘ ืื›ืจืขืš ืขื“ ื“ืืžืจืช ืœื™ ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

ยง Rav Hamnuna said to Rabbi Zeira: Do not sit down until you tell me the resolution of this matter: In general, when a food touches a primary source of ritual impurity after having been rendered susceptible to impurity by contact with a liquid, it contracts first-degree impurity. If it then touches another food, it imparts to it second-degree impurity. The carcass of a kosher bird, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, transmits impurity to food without being rendered susceptible. Does one count its first and second degrees of impurity when it touches food or drink, treating it like a primary source of impurity? Or perhaps one does not count first and second degrees of impurity, but rather treats it as a food with first-degree impurity, which imparts second-degree impurity?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ื‘ืžื’ืข ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ื‘ืžื’ืข ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Wherever an item can render a person impure through contact, it is considered a primary source of impurity, and one counts its first and second degrees of impurity. And wherever it cannot render a person impure through contact, one does not count its first and second degrees of impu-rity. Since the carcass of a kosher bird does not render a person impure through contact, but only by being swallowed, it is treated as a food with first-degree impurity.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื›ื”ื ื ื”ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ืงืœื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื”

Rabbi Zeira posed a dilemma to Rabbi Ami bar แธคiyya, and some say to Rabbi Avin bar Kahana concerning that which we learned in a mishna (Teharot 8:8): Connections between foods by liquid, i.e., liquids in contact with two foods, a situation that causes the impurity of one food to be transmitted to the other and their sizes to be combined toward the minimum measure for transmitting impurity, are considered a connection for the lenient impurity of foods, but are not considered a connection for impurity severe enough to be transmitted to a human being. If two pieces of animal carcass are connected by a liquid, they do not combine to form the minimum measure for transmitting their impurity to a person, but they can transmit impurity to food.

ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

Rabbi Zeira asks: If these two pieces of animal carcass come in contact with food, does one count its first and second degrees of impurity and treat the pieces as a primary source of impurity, such that the food will impart second-degree impurity to other food? Or does one not count its first and second degrees of impurity, and treat the animal carcass as food with first-degree impurity?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Wherever an item can render a person impure, one counts its first and second degrees of impurity. And wherever it cannot render a person impure, one does not count its first and second degrees of impurity. Since the pieces of carcass cannot transmit their impurity to a person, they are treated as food with first-degree impurity.

ื™ืฆืื• ืืœื• ื•ืืœื• ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ื›ืืŸ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืื—ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฆื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืื—ืช ืžื˜ืžื ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื

ยง The mishna teaches: When both these priests and those priests emerged, all of their garments were rendered ritually impure. The Gemara explains: From where are these matters derived? As the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the bull and goat that are burned on Yom Kippur: โ€œThey shall be carried forth outside the campโ€ (Leviticus 16:27). There, elsewhere, the verse states that such bulls and goats are burned outside three camps, those of the Tabernacle, the Levites, and the Israelites, whereas here, the verse states only that they are taken outside one camp, i.e., the Tabernacle. This serves to tell you: Once the offering emerges beyond one camp, one who carries it renders his garments impure, as the next verse states: โ€œAnd he who burns them shall wash his garmentsโ€ (Leviticus 16:28).

ื•ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ืคื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืคืจ ืืœ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืžื—ื ื” ืื—ืช

The Gemara explains further: And from where do we derive that halakha itself, that the bulls and goats are burned outside the three camps? As the Sages taught in a baraita: It is stated about the bull brought as a sin offering of the High Priest: โ€œEven the whole bull shall he carry outside the camp unto a pure place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn itโ€ (Leviticus 4:12), meaning that he should take it outside the three camps. Do you say that he takes it outside the three camps, or is he required to take it outside only one camp?

ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืคืจ ื”ืขื“ื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ื”ืคืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืœื• ืžื—ื ื” ืฉื ื™ื”

When the verse states with regard to the bull brought as a communal sin offering: โ€œHe shall carry the bull outside the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullโ€ (Leviticus 4:21), it requires explanation, as there is no need for the verse to state โ€œoutside the camp,โ€ since it is already stated at the end of that same verse: โ€œAnd burn it as he burned the first bull,โ€ which indicates that all the halakhot of the bull brought as a sin offering of a High Priest apply to the bull brought as a communal sin offering. What then does the verse mean when it states โ€œoutside the campโ€? To give it a second camp, i.e., it indicates that it must be removed not only from the camp of the Divine Presence, corresponding to the Temple, but also from the Levite camp, corresponding to the Temple Mount.

ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ื‘ื“ืฉืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืš ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื™ืฉืจืฃ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืœื• ืžื—ื ื” ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช

And when another verse states with regard to the removal of the ash: โ€œAnd he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes outside the camp to a pure placeโ€ (Leviticus 6:4), that verse also requires an explanation, as there is no need for the verse to state this, since it is already stated with regard to the bull brought as a sin offering of a High Priest: โ€œEven the whole bull shall he carry outside the camp to a pure place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnedโ€ (Leviticus 4:12). The repetition of โ€œoutside the campโ€ indicates that he is required to give it a third camp, i.e., teaching that it is burned when outside the Israelite camp, corresponding to the land outside the walls of Jerusalem.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ืื™ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ื›ืืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืœืžื–ืจื—ื” ืฉืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื

The Gemara asks: And what does Rabbi Shimon do with this phrase, stated with regard to the bull and goat of Yom Kippur: โ€œOutside the campโ€ (Leviticus 16:27), given that he holds that the garments do not become impure until the offering is burning? The Gemara answers: He requires it for that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: It is stated here: โ€œOutside the camp,โ€ and it is stated there, with regard to the red heifer: โ€œHe shall bring it outside the campโ€ (Numbers 19:3). Just as here, the bull and goat of Yom Kippur are burned outside three camps, so too there, the red heifer is burned outside three camps. And just as there, the red heifer is burned east of Jerusalem, since it must be burned โ€œtoward the front of the Tent of Meetingโ€ (Numbers 19:4), opposite the entrance of the Temple, which is to its east,

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Zevachim 105

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Zevachim 105

ื‘ืชืจ ืจื•ื‘ ืื‘ืจ ืฉื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ื ื ืคืง ืœื™ื” ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื‘ืชืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืชื™ืงื•

by casting it after the majority of that limb, and the majority of that limb did leave? Or perhaps we determine its status by casting it after the half of the animal, which did not leave the courtyard. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma of Rabbi Elazar shall stand unresolved.

ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ื‘ื’ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ืžืชืขืกืงื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ื—ืžืฉื” ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื•ื ืคืงื• ืชืœืชื ื•ืคืฉื• ืœื”ื• ืชืจื™ ืžืื™ ื‘ืชืจ ืจื•ื‘ ืžืชืขืกืงื™ืŸ ืื–ืœื™ื ืŸ ืื• ื‘ืชืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ืื–ืœื™ื ืŸ ืชื™ืงื•

Rabba bar Rav Huna teaches this dilemma with regard to people: In a case where five people are handling an offering and carrying it out to be burned, and three of them emerged and two of them remained in the Temple courtyard, such that the animal is partly inside and partly outside, what is the halakha? Do we follow the majority of the people handling the offering, who have left the courtyard, or do we follow the animal, the majority of which did not yet leave? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ืฉืจืคื™ื ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ืžื”ื• ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื˜ืžื• ืœื”ื• ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื”ื“ื•ืจ ื”ื“ื•ืจ

Rabbi Elazar raises another dilemma: If bulls and goats that are burned left the Temple courtyard and returned, what is the halakha with regard to the garments of those who carry them inside the courtyard? Do we say: Once they left, they became impure? Or perhaps once they return, they return and do not render garments impure?

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืžืœ ืชื ืฉืžืข ื”ื™ื• ืกื•ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื‘ืžื•ื˜ื•ืช ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ื™ืฆืื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ื•ืžืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ื•ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืœื ื™ืฆืื• ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื—ื•ืžืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉื™ืฆืื• ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืคืงื™ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื˜ืžื• ื”ื ืš ื“ืื™ื›ื ื’ื•ืื™ ืœื™ื˜ืžื

Rabbi Abba bar Memel says: Come and hear the mishna: They would carry the bulls and the goats that are burned suspended on poles. When the first priests, carrying the front of the pole, emerged beyond the wall of the Temple courtyard and the latter ones did not yet emerge, the first ones, who emerged beyond the wall of the Temple courtyard, render their garments impure, but the latter ones do not render their garments impure until they emerge. Rabbi Abba bar Memel explains: And if it enters your mind to say that once they leave, they become impure, these latter ones mentioned in the mishna who are still inside should be rendered impure, since the offering itself has emerged. It follows that if the offering returns, their garments are not rendered impure.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืชืกื‘ืจื ื”ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื ื•ืื—ืจ ื™ื‘ื ืืœ ื”ืžื—ื ื” ื•ืœื™ื›ื

Ravina said: And can you understand this as a proof? The reason that the latter onesโ€™ garments are not rendered impure is that I require the fulfillment of the verse: โ€œAnd he who burns them shall wash his garments, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the campโ€ (Leviticus 16:28). And since they have not yet left the camp, they cannot come into it, and therefore they do not contract the impurity described in the verse.

ืืœื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื‘ืขื™ ืœื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื“ื ืงื™ื˜ื™ ืœื” ื‘ื‘ืงื•ืœืกื™

The Gemara asks: But if they can become impure only after they leave, how did Rabbi Elazar raise this dilemma? The Gemara answers: He raised the dilemma with regard to a case where they take the offering with staffs [bevakulsei], i.e., after the offering is returned to the Temple courtyard, other people stand outside the courtyard and bring it out again using staffs. Does the offering render these people impure, even though they are standing outside the courtyard? The dilemma of Rabbi Elazar remains unresolved.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืคืจื™ื ื•ืคืจื” ื•ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืœื— ื”ืžืฉืœื— ื”ืฉื•ืจืคืŸ ื•ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ืืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ื•ื”ืŸ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืคืจื” ื•ืคืจื™ื ืžื˜ืžืื™ืŸ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืœื— ืื™ื ื• ืžื˜ืžื ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ื”ื—ื™ ืื™ื ื• ืžื˜ืžื ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to bulls that are burned, and a red heifer, and the scapegoat of the Yom Kippur service, the one who sends them, the one who burns them, and the one who takes them out of the Temple courtyard render their garments impure. And the animals themselves, after they emerge from the Temple courtyard, do not render garments that they touch impure, but they render food and drink that they touch impure. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: A red heifer and bulls that are burned render food and drink impure, but the scapegoat does not transmit impurity at all, as it is still alive when it leaves the Temple, and a living being does not render food and drink impure.

ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื›ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื–ืจืข ื–ืจื•ืข

The Gemara comments. Granted, according to Rabbi Meir there is no difficulty, as his opinion is in accordance with that which the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught. As the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in a baraita: The verse states that seeds can contract impurity from the carcass of a creeping animal only if they first come in contact with water: โ€œAnd if any part of their carcass fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is pure. But if water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcass fall thereon, it is impure unto youโ€ (Leviticus 11:37โ€“38).

ืžื” ื–ืจืขื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืคืŸ ืœื™ื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืฉืจ ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืกื•ืคืŸ ืœื™ื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื™ืฆืชื” ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืฉืกื•ืคื” ืœื™ื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ื›ืฉืจ

Just as is the case for seeds, which, like any food, can never contract impurity severe enough to transmit it to human beings, and they need exposure to liquid to be rendered susceptible to their less severe level of impurity, so too, all items that can never contract impurity severe enough to transmit it to human beings need exposure to liquid to be rendered susceptible to their less severe level of impurity and to transmit it. This serves to exclude the carcass of a kosher bird, which can contract impurity severe enough to be transmitted to a human being who swallows it, and therefore does not need to be rendered susceptible to ritual impurity in order to transmit ritual impurity. According to this baraita, bulls that are burned, a red heifer, and a scapegoat, which are all sources of impurity for human beings, are able to transmit impurity to food and drink on their own, even if they have not been exposed to liquid and have not come in contact with any source of impurity. Rabbi Meirโ€™s opinion accords with this principle.

ืืœื ืœืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ ืื™ืช ืœื”ื• ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืืคื™ืœื• ืฉืขื™ืจ ื”ืžืฉืชืœื— ืื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืคืจื” ื•ืคืจื™ื ืžื ืœืŸ

But for the opinion of the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Meir and say that a scapegoat does not transmit impurity to food and drink, this is difficult. If they accept that which the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught, then even the scapegoat should transmit impurity to food and drink. And if they do not accept that statement, then from where do we derive that even a red heifer and bulls that are burned transmit impurity to food and drink?

ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ืŸ ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื˜ื•ืžืื” ืžืžืงื•ื ืื—ืจ

When Rav Dimi came to Babylonia from Eretz Yisrael he said: The Sages in the West, Eretz Yisrael, say: The opinion of the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Meir is that bulls that are burned and a red heifer need to contract impurity from somewhere else to be able to transmit impurity to foods. Since the scapegoat cannot contract impurity, as it is alive, it cannot transmit impurity.

ื‘ืขื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืคืจื™ื ื•ืฉืขื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ืฉืจืคื™ื ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ื˜ืžืื• ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืคื ื™ื ื›ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื

ยง Rabbi Elazar raises a dilemma: With regard to bulls and goats that are burned, what is the halakha as to whether they can transmit impurity to food and drink inside the Temple courtyard, before they leave, as they do outside afterward? Is an offering that has not yet left the Temple considered as if it were an item for which a necessary action has not yet been performed, i.e., because it has not yet become a source of impurity to those who carry it, it also does not transmit impurity to food without being rendered susceptible by coming into contact with a liquid and then coming into contact with a source of impurity? Or perhaps no, because the offering will become a source of impurity to those who carry it once it leaves the Temple courtyard, it already transmits impurity to food without being rendered susceptible.

ื‘ืชืจ ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื“ืจ ืคืฉื˜ื” ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ืฆื™ืื” ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™

After Rabbi Elazar raised the dilemma, he then resolved it: An offering that has not yet left is considered as if it were an item for which a necessary action has not yet been performed, and it does not transmit impurity to food without being rendered susceptible.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ื˜ืžื ื‘ื›ื–ื™ืช

ยง Rabbi Abba bar Shmuel posed another dilemma to Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba: Food transmits impurity to other food or drink only if it is the volume of at least one egg-bulk and it is first rendered susceptible to impurity. The carcass of a kosher bird transmits impurity to a person who swallows it even if it is of the volume of at least one olive-bulk, and even if it has not been rendered susceptible to impurity. According to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, that the carcass of a kosher bird transmits impurity to other food without first being rendered susceptible to impurity, what is the halakha as to the requisite measure? Does the carcass of a kosher bird transmit impurity to food even if it is of the volume of an olive-bulk, as it would to a person?

ื“ืžื—ืชื ืœืืจืขื ืœื ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ื“ื ืงื™ื˜ ื‘ืคื•ืžื™ื” ืœื ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ื›ื™ ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ื“ื ืงื™ื˜ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืงืจื™ื‘ื” ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™ ืื• ืœื

The Gemara clarifies: Do not raise the dilemma in a case where the carcass lies on the ground, as in that case it certainly must be of the volume of an egg-bulk, like any other impure food. And do not raise the dilemma in a case where a person holds the birdโ€™s flesh in his mouth, as it may be swallowed and transmit impurity to him even if it is of the volume of only an olive-bulk; in this case it certainly transmits impurity to food in the same measure. When you raise the dilemma, raise it in a case where he holds the birdโ€™s flesh in his hand. When the flesh has not yet been brought close to being swallowed, is it considered to be like an item for which a necessary action has not yet been performed, in which case it is considered a normal food and must be of the volume of an egg-bulk, or perhaps not?

ื‘ืชืจ ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื“ืจ ืคืฉื˜ื”

After Abba bar Shmuel raised the dilemma, he then resolved it:

ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืงืจื™ื‘ื” ืœืื• ื›ืžื—ื•ืกืจ ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืžื™

Even if the carcass of a kosher bird has not yet been brought close to being swallowed, it is still not considered as if a necessary action has not yet been performed, and an olive-bulk is sufficient to transmit impurity to food and drink.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืขืฉืจ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื ืืžืจื• ื‘ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ื–ื” ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื•ืžื˜ืžื ื˜ื•ืžืืช ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืžืื™ ืœืื• ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื”ื™ื

Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba raised an objection to Rabbi Abba bar Shmuel, based on a mishna (Teharot 1:1): Thirteen matters were stated with regard to the carcass of a kosher bird, and this is one of them: In order to be susceptible to impurity as a food, it requires a personโ€™s intention that it be eaten; and it does not need to be rendered susceptible to such impurity by contact with liquid; and it transmits ritual impurity of food in the amount of an egg-bulk. In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? What, is it not the opinion of Rabbi Meir? If so, he holds that an egg-bulk of a carcass of a kosher bird is necessary to transmit impurity.

ืœื ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื

The Gemara responds: No, the mishna is the opinion of the Rabbis.

ื•ื”ื ืงืชื ื™ ืจื™ืฉื ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืžื—ืฉื‘ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ื›ืฉืจ ื•ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื”ืื™ ืกื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžื“ืจื™ืฉื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืกื™ืคื ื ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ

The Gemara challenges: But the first clause of that mishna teaches: In order to be susceptible to impurity as a food, it requires a personโ€™s intention that it be eaten and it does not need to be rendered susceptible by contact with liquid. And from whom do you learn this reasoning? From Rabbi Meir, as was taught in the baraita (105a). And since the first clause is the opinion of Rabbi Meir, it follows that the latter clause is also the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

ืžื™ื“ื™ ืื™ืจื™ื ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื ื•ื”ื ื›ื“ืื™ืชื

The Gemara responds: Are the cases comparable? Must both clauses be the opinion of the same tanna? This case is as it is, and that case is as it is.

ื•ื”ื ืžื“ืงืชื ื™ ืกื™ืคื ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืชื” ื•ืžืœื™ืงืชื” ืžื˜ื”ืจืช ื˜ืจื™ืคืชื” ืžื˜ื•ืžืืชื” ืžืืŸ ืฉืžืขืช ืœื™ื” ื”ืื™ ืกื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžืฆื™ืขืชื ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Gemara challenges: But one can still infer this from the fact that the latter clause of that mishna teaches: The slaughter or the pinching of the nape of a bird offering purifies it from its impurity, i.e., prevents it from assuming the impure status of a carcass, even if it is found to have a wound that would have caused it to die within twelve months [tereifa]. And from whom did you learn this reasoning? From Rabbi Meir (see 67a). Could it be that the first clause and the last clause represent the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and the middle clause represents the opinion of the Rabbis?

ืื™ืŸ ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืกื™ืคื ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื•ืžืฆื™ืขืชื ืจื‘ื ืŸ

The Gemara responds: Yes, the first clause and the last clause represent the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and the middle clause represents the opinion of the Rabbis.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื”ืžื ื•ื ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœื ืชื™ืชื™ื‘ ืื›ืจืขืš ืขื“ ื“ืืžืจืช ืœื™ ื”ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื ื‘ืœืช ืขื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

ยง Rav Hamnuna said to Rabbi Zeira: Do not sit down until you tell me the resolution of this matter: In general, when a food touches a primary source of ritual impurity after having been rendered susceptible to impurity by contact with a liquid, it contracts first-degree impurity. If it then touches another food, it imparts to it second-degree impurity. The carcass of a kosher bird, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, transmits impurity to food without being rendered susceptible. Does one count its first and second degrees of impurity when it touches food or drink, treating it like a primary source of impurity? Or perhaps one does not count first and second degrees of impurity, but rather treats it as a food with first-degree impurity, which imparts second-degree impurity?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ื‘ืžื’ืข ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ื‘ืžื’ืข ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Wherever an item can render a person impure through contact, it is considered a primary source of impurity, and one counts its first and second degrees of impurity. And wherever it cannot render a person impure through contact, one does not count its first and second degrees of impu-rity. Since the carcass of a kosher bird does not render a person impure through contact, but only by being swallowed, it is treated as a food with first-degree impurity.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืžืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื›ื”ื ื ื”ื ื“ืชื ืŸ ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจื™ ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ืงืœื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืœื˜ื•ืžืื” ื—ืžื•ืจื”

Rabbi Zeira posed a dilemma to Rabbi Ami bar แธคiyya, and some say to Rabbi Avin bar Kahana concerning that which we learned in a mishna (Teharot 8:8): Connections between foods by liquid, i.e., liquids in contact with two foods, a situation that causes the impurity of one food to be transmitted to the other and their sizes to be combined toward the minimum measure for transmitting impurity, are considered a connection for the lenient impurity of foods, but are not considered a connection for impurity severe enough to be transmitted to a human being. If two pieces of animal carcass are connected by a liquid, they do not combine to form the minimum measure for transmitting their impurity to a person, but they can transmit impurity to food.

ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

Rabbi Zeira asks: If these two pieces of animal carcass come in contact with food, does one count its first and second degrees of impurity and treat the pieces as a primary source of impurity, such that the food will impart second-degree impurity to other food? Or does one not count its first and second degrees of impurity, and treat the animal carcass as food with first-degree impurity?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืžื ืื“ื ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื ื™

Rabbi Zeira said to him: Wherever an item can render a person impure, one counts its first and second degrees of impurity. And wherever it cannot render a person impure, one does not count its first and second degrees of impurity. Since the pieces of carcass cannot transmit their impurity to a person, they are treated as food with first-degree impurity.

ื™ืฆืื• ืืœื• ื•ืืœื• ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ื›ืืŸ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืื—ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฆื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืื—ืช ืžื˜ืžื ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื

ยง The mishna teaches: When both these priests and those priests emerged, all of their garments were rendered ritually impure. The Gemara explains: From where are these matters derived? As the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the bull and goat that are burned on Yom Kippur: โ€œThey shall be carried forth outside the campโ€ (Leviticus 16:27). There, elsewhere, the verse states that such bulls and goats are burned outside three camps, those of the Tabernacle, the Levites, and the Israelites, whereas here, the verse states only that they are taken outside one camp, i.e., the Tabernacle. This serves to tell you: Once the offering emerges beyond one camp, one who carries it renders his garments impure, as the next verse states: โ€œAnd he who burns them shall wash his garmentsโ€ (Leviticus 16:28).

ื•ื”ื™ื ื’ื•ืคื” ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืคืจ ืืœ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ืžื—ื ื” ืื—ืช

The Gemara explains further: And from where do we derive that halakha itself, that the bulls and goats are burned outside the three camps? As the Sages taught in a baraita: It is stated about the bull brought as a sin offering of the High Priest: โ€œEven the whole bull shall he carry outside the camp unto a pure place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn itโ€ (Leviticus 4:12), meaning that he should take it outside the three camps. Do you say that he takes it outside the three camps, or is he required to take it outside only one camp?

ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืคืจ ื”ืขื“ื” ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ื›ืืฉืจ ืฉืจืฃ ืืช ื”ืคืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืœื• ืžื—ื ื” ืฉื ื™ื”

When the verse states with regard to the bull brought as a communal sin offering: โ€œHe shall carry the bull outside the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullโ€ (Leviticus 4:21), it requires explanation, as there is no need for the verse to state โ€œoutside the camp,โ€ since it is already stated at the end of that same verse: โ€œAnd burn it as he burned the first bull,โ€ which indicates that all the halakhot of the bull brought as a sin offering of a High Priest apply to the bull brought as a communal sin offering. What then does the verse mean when it states โ€œoutside the campโ€? To give it a second camp, i.e., it indicates that it must be removed not only from the camp of the Divine Presence, corresponding to the Temple, but also from the Levite camp, corresponding to the Temple Mount.

ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ื‘ื“ืฉืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ืฉืคืš ื”ื“ืฉืŸ ื™ืฉืจืฃ ืœื™ืชืŸ ืœื• ืžื—ื ื” ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช

And when another verse states with regard to the removal of the ash: โ€œAnd he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes outside the camp to a pure placeโ€ (Leviticus 6:4), that verse also requires an explanation, as there is no need for the verse to state this, since it is already stated with regard to the bull brought as a sin offering of a High Priest: โ€œEven the whole bull shall he carry outside the camp to a pure place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnedโ€ (Leviticus 4:12). The repetition of โ€œoutside the campโ€ indicates that he is required to give it a third camp, i.e., teaching that it is burned when outside the Israelite camp, corresponding to the land outside the walls of Jerusalem.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื”ืื™ ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ื›ืืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ื•ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื—ื ื” ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืžื—ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ืœืžื–ืจื—ื” ืฉืœ ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื

The Gemara asks: And what does Rabbi Shimon do with this phrase, stated with regard to the bull and goat of Yom Kippur: โ€œOutside the campโ€ (Leviticus 16:27), given that he holds that the garments do not become impure until the offering is burning? The Gemara answers: He requires it for that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: It is stated here: โ€œOutside the camp,โ€ and it is stated there, with regard to the red heifer: โ€œHe shall bring it outside the campโ€ (Numbers 19:3). Just as here, the bull and goat of Yom Kippur are burned outside three camps, so too there, the red heifer is burned outside three camps. And just as there, the red heifer is burned east of Jerusalem, since it must be burned โ€œtoward the front of the Tent of Meetingโ€ (Numbers 19:4), opposite the entrance of the Temple, which is to its east,

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