Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

June 26, 2019 | ื›ืดื’ ื‘ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Arakhin 10

How many shofar blasts were in the mikdash? How many musical instruments? What days do we say full Hallel – why specifically on those days? Stories are told of instruments that they tried to glorify or fix but itย distortedย the sound and they returned them to their orginal state.


If the lesson doesn't play, click "Download"

ื•ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื ื” ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืื™ืฉืชืงื“ ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืžืœืื™ืŸ ื“ืœ ืชืœืชื ืœื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืชืœืชื ื•ืงื ืœื™ื” ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื”

and the month that was intercalated, added for the leap year, was thirty days, and last year we turned two months that are generally deficient into full months, which meant that it had eight full months instead of the usual six. Consequently, remove from consideration the three months that were made deficient this year corresponding to the three extra months that were made full last year, and the moon is restored to its place, i.e., it is properly aligned with the months. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Lamp of Israel! Indeed, so it was.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ื—ืชื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ืช ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื”

MISHNA: No fewer than twenty-one trumpet blasts are sounded daily in the Temple, as each day three blasts were sounded for the opening of the gates in the morning, nine for the daily morning offering, and nine for the daily afternoon offering, totaling twenty-one. And no more than forty-eight are ever sounded on a single day. This would occur on the Friday of Sukkot, when they would sound an additional twelve blasts during the ritual of drawing the water for the water libation; nine for the additional offerings; three to signal the population to cease their work before Shabbat; and three more to mark the beginning of Shabbat.

ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ื—ืชื™ืŸ ืžืฉื ื™ ื ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืฉืฉื” ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ื—ืชื™ืŸ ืžืฉื ื™ ื—ืœื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ื—ืœื™ืœ ืžื›ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื‘ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืช ืคืกื— ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืช ืคืกื— ืฉื ื™ ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืคืกื— ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ื‘ืฉืžื•ื ืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื›ื” ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉืช ืืœื ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืงื ื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื—ืœืง ืืœื ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื—ืœื™ืง ื™ืคื”

When accompanying their song with instruments, the Levites do not use fewer than two lyres and do not use more than six. When flutes are played, they do not use fewer than two flutes and do not use more than twelve. And there are twelve days during the year when the flute plays before the altar: At the time of the slaughter of the first Paschal offering, on the fourteenth of Nisan; and at the time of the slaughter of the second Paschal offering, on the fourteenth of Iyyar; and on the first festival day of Passover; and on the festival of Shavuot; and on all eight days of the festival of Sukkot. And one would not play with a copper flute; rather, one would play with a flute of reed, because its sound is more pleasant. And one would conclude the music only with a single flute, because it concludes the music nicely.

ื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืคื’ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืฆื™ืคืจื ืžืขืžืื•ื ื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ืื ื˜ื™ื’ื ื•ืก ืื•ืžืจ ืœื•ื™ื ื”ื™ื•

The Temple musicians were slaves of priests; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The musicians were not slaves, but Israelites from the family of the house of Pegarim and the family of the house of Tzippara from the city of Emaum, and their lineage was sufficiently pure that they would marry their daughters to members of the priesthood. Rabbi แธคanina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื™ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืฉื‘ืข ืœื ื™ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœ ืฉืฉ ืขืฉืจื”

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that no fewer than twenty-one trumpet blasts are sounded daily in the Temple and no more than forty-eight. The Gemara notes: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not blow fewer than seven blasts, and one may not blow more than sixteen blasts.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืœื—ื•ื“ ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ืœื—ื•ื“ ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ืœื—ื•ื“

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do the tanna of the mishna and Rabbi Yehuda disagree? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda holds: A series of blasts consisting of tekia, terua, tekia is counted as one unit. And the Rabbis hold: A tekia is counted as a discrete unit and a terua is also counted as a discrete unit, and the final tekia is again counted as a discrete unit. They agree with regard to the sequence and the number of the blasts; their disgreement is only with regard to how the blasts are tallied.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ืชืงืขื• (ืœื›ื) ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ืœืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื

The Gemara asks: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written in the verse: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utkatem] a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:5), and it is written: โ€œA terua they will sound [yitkeโ€™u]โ€ (Numbers 10:6). Conclude from the fact that the Torah uses a verb from the root tekia when referring to a terua that a tekia, terua, and tekia together constitute one unit. And how do the Rabbis interpret these verses? They explain that these verses come to teach that each terua blast is accompanied by a plain blast, a tekia, preceding it and another plain blast following it.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื”ืงื”ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ืชืชืงืขื• ื•ืœื ืชืจื™ืขื• ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืคืœื’ื ื“ืžืฆื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื™ืžื ื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: And what is the reasoning of the Rabbis? As it is written: โ€œAnd when congregating the people you shall sound a tekia and shall not sound a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:7). And if it enters your mind that a series of tekia, terua, and tekia are considered one unit, would the Merciful One say to perform only half a mitzva? Rather, each sound constitutes a separate mitzva. The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda explain this verse? The Gemara answers: That single tekia mentioned in the context of congregating the people was blown merely as a signal to the people to assemble, not for the purpose of fulfilling a mitzva, which, in Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s opinion, always comes in units of three sounds.

ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืœืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืคืฉื™ื˜ื

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rav Kahana said? As Rav Kahana said: There is to be no pause between a tekia and a terua at all, but rather they are sounded in one continuous series of blasts. In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t that obvious? Why was it necessary to point this out?

ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืชื™ื ื•ืœืืคื•ืงื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืชืฉืข ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืชืฉืข ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืฆื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara answers: It is not obvious that Rav Kahanaโ€™s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Lest you say that Rav Kahana comes to teach his halakha even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and that he is coming to exclude only the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who says: If one heard nine blasts in nine different hours on the day of Rosh HaShana, despite the considerable gap between them, he has fulfilled his obligation. One might have thought that Rav Kahana meant only that there should not be such long gaps between the sounds. Therefore, the Gemara teaches us that Rav Kahanaโ€™s ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as he does not allow any pause at all between the shofar blasts.

ื•ืื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžืื™ ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื

The Gemara asks: And how do you know that this was Rav Kahanaโ€™s intent? One can say it is indeed so, that Rav Kahana holds in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and he merely excludes the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan. The Gemara answers that if so, what is the meaning of the phrase โ€œat allโ€ when Rav Kahana said that there is no pause between a tekia and a terua at all? This phrase indicates that Rav Kahana does not allow even a slight pause between blasts, which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ืฉื ื” ืžื›ื” ื‘ื—ืœื™ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื’ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ

ยง The mishna teaches that there are twelve days during the year when the flute plays before the altar, and it proceeds to list them. The Gemara asks: What is different about these days enumerated in the mishna that the flute is played before the altar specifically on those occasions? The Gemara answers: They are unique, since these are the days on which the individual completes the full hallel.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ืฆื“ืง ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจ ื™ืžื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื’ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืคืกื— ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ (ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ) ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ื‘ื’ื•ืœื” ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ืชืฉืขื” ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื•ืฉื ื™ ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืกื— ื•ืฉื ื™ ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช

As Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: There are eighteen days a year on which the individual completes the full hallel: The eight days of the festival of Sukkot, including the Eighth Day of Assembly; and the eight days of Hanukkah; and the first festival day of Passover; and the festival day of Assembly, i.e., Shavuot. And in the Diaspora, where a second day is added to each Festival due to uncertainty over the precise date, there are twenty-one days: The nine days of the festival of Sukkot; and the eight days of Hanukkah; and the first two festival days of Passover; and the two festival days of Assembly, i.e., Shavuot.

ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื‘ื—ื’ ื“ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื‘ืคืกื— ื“ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: What is different about the festival of Sukkot, that we say hallel every day, and what is different about Passover, that we do not say hallel

ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื—ื’ ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ื“ืคืกื— ืื™ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ

every day, but only on the first day? The Gemara answers: The days of the festival of Sukkot are distinct from one another with regard to their additional offerings, as the number of bulls offered changes each day of Sukkot (see Numbers 29:12โ€“38). Since each day is unique, the full hallel is recited on each day. By contrast, the days of Passover are not distinct from one another with regard to their additional offerings (see Numbers 28:24), and therefore the full hallel is recited only on the first day, which is the first day on which the additional offerings for a Festival are sacrificed.

ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื” ืœื™ืžื ืœื ืื™ืงืจื™ ืžื•ืขื“

The Gemara objects: On Shabbat, which is also distinct from the other days of the week with regard to its additional offerings, let us say hallel. The Gemara explains: Shabbat is not called an appointed day in the Torah, and hallel is recited only on days that are referred to in the Torah as appointed days (see Leviticus 23:4), which are days of rejoicing.

ืจืืฉ ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ืœื™ืžื ืœื ืื™ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืฉื™ืจ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื›ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชืงื“ืฉ ื—ื’ ืœื™ืœื” ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื—ื’ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื—ื’ ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืจื”

The Gemara objects: On the New Moon, which is called an appointed day, let us say hallel. The Gemara explains: The New Moon is not sanctified with regard to the prohibition against the performance of labor, and hallel is recited only on a day that is sanctified, as it is written: โ€œYou shall have a song as in the night when a festival is sanctifiedโ€ (Isaiah 30:29), which indicates that a night that is sanctified as a Festival, which includes a prohibition of labor, requires song, but one that is not sanctified as a Festival does not require song.

ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืื™ืงืจื• ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืื™ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ืœื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื•

The Gemara objects: On Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, which are called an appointed day and also are sanctified with regard to the prohibition against the performance of labor, let us say hallel. The Gemara explains: Hallel is not recited on those days due to the statement of Rabbi Abbahu.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจื• ืžืœืื›ื™ ื”ืฉืจืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ืš ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืืคืฉืจ ืžืœืš ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื›ืกื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืกืคืจื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืกืคืจื™ ืžืชื™ื ืคืชื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืœืคื ื™

As Rabbi Abbahu said that the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, for what reason do the Jewish people not recite songs of praise, i.e., hallel, before You on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur? He said to them: Is it possible that while the King is sitting on the throne of judgment and the books of life and the books of death are open before Him, the Jewish people would be reciting joyous songs of praise before Me? Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are somber days of judgment whose mood is incompatible with the recitation of hallel.

ื•ื”ื ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื“ืœื ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืœื ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืงืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื ื™ืกื ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื ื™ืกื ืœื™ืžื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื ืก ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืฆื” ืœืืจืฅ

The Gemara objects: But what about Hanukkah, which has neither this or that, i.e., there is no special offering on it, nor is labor prohibited, and yet one says hallel. The Gemara explains: Hallel is recited on Hanukkah not because of its status as a Festival, but because of the miracle that occurred on those days. The Gemara objects: If so, on Purim, when there is also this factor, i.e., a miracle occurred on that day, let us say hallel. Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: Hallel is not recited on Purim because one does not recite a song of praise for a miracle that occurred outside of Eretz Yisrael.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื”ืจื™ ื™ืฆื™ืืช ืžืฆืจื™ื ื“ื ืก ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืฆื” ืœืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื”ืœืœ ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืœื ื ื›ื ืกื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื›ืฉืจื• ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืจื” ืžืฉื ื›ื ืกื• ืœืืจืฅ ืœื ื”ื•ื›ืฉืจื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืจื”

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak objects to this explanation: But there is the exodus from Egypt, which was a miracle that took place outside of Eretz Yisrael, and yet we say hallel on Passover night in commemoration of it? The Gemara responds that this is as it is taught in a baraita: Until the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, all lands were deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within their borders, as all lands were treated equally. But once the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, and all the other lands were no longer deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within them.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืงืจื™ื™ืชื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื™ืœื ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื”ืชื ื”ืœืœื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืคืจืขื” ื”ื›ื ื”ืœืœื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืื—ืฉื•ืจื•ืฉ ืื›ืชื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืื—ืฉื•ืจื•ืฉ ืื ืŸ

Rav Naแธฅman says an alternative answer as to why hallel is not recited on Purim: The reading of the Megilla, i.e., the Scroll of Esther, is equivalent to reciting hallel. Rava says a third reason: Granted, hallel is said there, when recalling the exodus from Egypt, as after that salvation one can recite the phrase in hallel: โ€œGive praise, O servants of the Lordโ€ (Psalms 113:1), since after the Israelitesโ€™ servitude to Pharaoh ended with their salvation, they were truly servants of the Lord and not servants of Pharaoh. But can it be said here, after the salvation commemorated on Purim: โ€œGive praise, O servants of the Lord,โ€ which would indicate that after the salvation the Jewish people were only servants of the Lord and not servants of Ahasuerus? Not so, as even after the miracle of Purim, we are still the servants of Ahasuerus, since the Jews remained in exile under Persian rule.

ื•ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื™ื™ืชื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื™ืœื ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžืฉื ื›ื ืกื• ืœืืจืฅ ืœื ื”ื•ื›ืฉืจื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืจื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื’ืœื• ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื”ื™ืชื™ืจืŸ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

The Gemara objects: And according to the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman, who says that the reading of the Megilla itself is an act of reciting hallel, there is a difficulty: Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Once the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, and all the other lands were no longer deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within them. How, then, may one recite a form of hallel by reading the Megilla? The Gemara answers: He maintains that once the people were exiled from Eretz Yisrael, the other lands returned to their initial suitability, and were once again deemed fit for reciting hallel, in commemoration of miracles performed within them.

ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื›ื” ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืคืชื— ื‘ื—ืœื™ืœ ื•ืžืกื™ื™ื ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื—ืœื™ืœ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืื‘ื•ื‘ ื•ืืžืื™ ืงืจื™ ืœื™ื” ื—ืœื™ืœ ื“ื—ืœื™ ืงืœื™ื”

ยง The mishna teaches: And one would not play a copper flute [abuv]; rather, one would play a flute [abuv] of reed, because its sound is pleasant. The Gemara asks: The mishna opens by referring to flutes and calls them แธฅalil and then concludes by referring to playing an abuv. Rav Pappa said: A แธฅalil is the same as an abuv. Its original name was abuv; and why does the mishna call it a แธฅalil? The reason is that its sound is sweet [แธฅali].

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื‘ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ื—ืœืง ื”ื™ื” ื“ืง ื”ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืงื ื” ื”ื™ื” ื•ืžื™ืžื•ืช ืžืฉื” ื”ื™ื” ืฆื•ื” ื”ืžืœืš ื•ืฆื™ืคื•ื”ื• ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื ื˜ืœื• ืืช ืฆืคื•ื™ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื” ืฆืœืฆื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื•ื ืคื’ื ื•ืฉืœื—ื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืžืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืชืงื ื•ื”ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื ื˜ืœื• ืืช ืชื™ืงื•ื ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื”

The Sages taught in a baraita: There was a flute in the Temple; it was smooth and it was thin, i.e., its sides were thin; it was made from reed, and it was in existence from the days of Moses. The king issued a command and they plated the flute with gold, but then its sound was not as pleasant as it was previously. They therefore removed its plating and its sound was then as pleasant as it was before. Similarly, there was a cymbal in the Temple; it was made from copper and its sound was pleasant. It became damaged and the Sages sent for and brought artisans from Alexandria in Egypt and they repaired it, but its sound was not as pleasant as before. They removed the materials with which the cymbal had been repaired and its sound was then as pleasant as it had been before the repair.

ืžื›ืชืฉืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืžื™ืžื•ืช ืžืฉื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคื˜ืžืช ืืช ื”ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื ืชืคื’ืžื” ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืžืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืชื™ืงื ื•ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคื˜ืžืช ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื ื˜ืœื• ืืช ืชื™ืงื•ื ื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคื˜ืžืช ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื™ืชื”

There was a mortar in the Temple; it was made of copper and it was from the days of Moses, and it was used to compound the spices for the incense. It became damaged and they brought artisans from Alexandria in Egypt and they repaired it, but it did not compound the spices as well as it had before. They removed the materials with which the mortar had been repaired and it then compounded the spices as it had before it was repaired.

ืืœื• ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœื™ื ื ืฉืชื™ื™ืจื• ืžืžืงื“ืฉ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื ืชืคื’ืžื• ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื ืืจื•ื›ื” ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ืžืžื•ืจื˜ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ืžืžื•ืจืง ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ืœื™ ื ื—ืฉืช ืžืฆื”ื‘ ืฉื ื™ื ื—ืžื•ื“ื•ืช ืžื–ื”ื‘

The baraita concludes: These two copper vessels, the cymbal and the mortar, were remnants from the First Temple and they were damaged and they could not be repaired in an effective manner. And it was with regard to the copper vessels constructed for the First Temple that David said: โ€œAll these vessels, which Hiram made for King Solomon, in the House of the Lord, were of burnished brassโ€ (Iย Kings 7:45), and, in a parallel verse, โ€œbright brassโ€ (IIย Chronicles 4:16). And with regard to these two items it states in the verse describing the vessels that Ezra brought to Jerusalem: โ€œAnd vessels of fine golden brass, two, precious as goldโ€ (Ezra 8:27).

ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืฉื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืฉืงื•ืœื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืฉืงื•ืœื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘

Rav and Shmuel disagree as to the meaning of the phrase: Two, precious as gold. One said: Each and every one of these brass vessels was as valuable as two vessels made from gold. And the other one said: The two of them together were as valuable as one vessel made from gold. Similarly, Rav Yosef teaches the following explanation found in a baraita: The two of them together were as valuable as one vessel made from gold.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืืœ ืชื™ืงืจื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืืœื ืฉื ื™ื™ื

The Gemara cites another explanation of the verse in Ezra. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: The cymbals and mortars were pairs, i.e., there were two cymbals and two mortars, as it is stated in the aforementioned verse โ€œtwoโ€; do not read it as two [shenayim], but as pairs [sheniyyim].

ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืฉื™ืœื•ื— ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืœื— ืžื™ื ื‘ื›ืื™ืกืจ ืฆื•ื” ื”ืžืœืš ื•ื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ื•ื”ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืจื‘ื• ืžื™ืžื™ื• ื•ื ืชืžืขื˜ื• ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ื•ืžื™ืขื˜ื•ื”ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืœื— ืžื™ื ืœืงื™ื™ื ืžื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืœ ื™ืชื”ืœืœ ื—ื›ื ื‘ื—ื›ืžืชื• ื•ืืœ ื™ืชื”ืœืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจืชื•

ยง Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel teaches in a baraita: The Siloam pool used to spurt forth water through an opening with a diameter like that of an issar coin.The king issued a command and they widened the opening so that its waters would increase, but the waters actually decreased. And they subsequently decreased the size of the opening again and it once again spurted forth water as it had before. All this serves to uphold that which is stated in the verse: โ€œLet not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his mightโ€ (Jeremiah 9:22), i.e., man should not think that he can accomplish anything he wishes.

ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืจื“ื•ืœื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืžืื™ ื”ืจื“ื•ืœื™ื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื˜ื‘ืœื ื’ื•ืจื’ื“ื ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื•ืžืขืจื‘ื‘ ืืช ื”ื ืขื™ืžื”

And likewise Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel would say, with regard to the musical instruments in the Temple: There was no hirdolim in the Temple. The Gemara asks: What is a hirdolim? Abaye said: It is a hydraulic organ. It was not used in the Temple because its sound is pleasant but it disrupts the melody.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžื’ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ

Rava bar Sheila said that Rav Mattana said that Shmuel said: There was an instrument called magreifa in the Temple.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Arakhin 10

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Arakhin 10

ื•ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื ื” ืฉืœืฉื™ื ืื™ืฉืชืงื“ ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืžืœืื™ืŸ ื“ืœ ืชืœืชื ืœื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืชืœืชื ื•ืงื ืœื™ื” ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื”

and the month that was intercalated, added for the leap year, was thirty days, and last year we turned two months that are generally deficient into full months, which meant that it had eight full months instead of the usual six. Consequently, remove from consideration the three months that were made deficient this year corresponding to the three extra months that were made full last year, and the moon is restored to its place, i.e., it is properly aligned with the months. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Lamp of Israel! Indeed, so it was.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ื—ืชื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ืช ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื”

MISHNA: No fewer than twenty-one trumpet blasts are sounded daily in the Temple, as each day three blasts were sounded for the opening of the gates in the morning, nine for the daily morning offering, and nine for the daily afternoon offering, totaling twenty-one. And no more than forty-eight are ever sounded on a single day. This would occur on the Friday of Sukkot, when they would sound an additional twelve blasts during the ritual of drawing the water for the water libation; nine for the additional offerings; three to signal the population to cease their work before Shabbat; and three more to mark the beginning of Shabbat.

ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ื—ืชื™ืŸ ืžืฉื ื™ ื ื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืฉืฉื” ืื™ืŸ ืคื•ื—ืชื™ืŸ ืžืฉื ื™ ื—ืœื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืกื™ืคื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื•ื‘ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ื—ืœื™ืœ ืžื›ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืžื–ื‘ื— ื‘ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืช ืคืกื— ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืฉื—ื™ื˜ืช ืคืกื— ืฉื ื™ ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืคืกื— ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ื‘ืฉืžื•ื ืช ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื›ื” ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื ื—ืฉืช ืืœื ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ืงื ื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื—ืœืง ืืœื ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื—ืœื™ืง ื™ืคื”

When accompanying their song with instruments, the Levites do not use fewer than two lyres and do not use more than six. When flutes are played, they do not use fewer than two flutes and do not use more than twelve. And there are twelve days during the year when the flute plays before the altar: At the time of the slaughter of the first Paschal offering, on the fourteenth of Nisan; and at the time of the slaughter of the second Paschal offering, on the fourteenth of Iyyar; and on the first festival day of Passover; and on the festival of Shavuot; and on all eight days of the festival of Sukkot. And one would not play with a copper flute; rather, one would play with a flute of reed, because its sound is more pleasant. And one would conclude the music only with a single flute, because it concludes the music nicely.

ื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืคื’ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื™ืช ืฆื™ืคืจื ืžืขืžืื•ื ื”ื™ื• ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ืื ื˜ื™ื’ื ื•ืก ืื•ืžืจ ืœื•ื™ื ื”ื™ื•

The Temple musicians were slaves of priests; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The musicians were not slaves, but Israelites from the family of the house of Pegarim and the family of the house of Tzippara from the city of Emaum, and their lineage was sufficiently pure that they would marry their daughters to members of the priesthood. Rabbi แธคanina ben Antigonus says: They were Levites.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื™ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืฉื‘ืข ืœื ื™ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœ ืฉืฉ ืขืฉืจื”

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that no fewer than twenty-one trumpet blasts are sounded daily in the Temple and no more than forty-eight. The Gemara notes: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not blow fewer than seven blasts, and one may not blow more than sixteen blasts.

ื‘ืžืื™ ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืœื—ื•ื“ ื•ืชืจื•ืขื” ืœื—ื•ื“ ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ืœื—ื•ื“

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do the tanna of the mishna and Rabbi Yehuda disagree? The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda holds: A series of blasts consisting of tekia, terua, tekia is counted as one unit. And the Rabbis hold: A tekia is counted as a discrete unit and a terua is also counted as a discrete unit, and the final tekia is again counted as a discrete unit. They agree with regard to the sequence and the number of the blasts; their disgreement is only with regard to how the blasts are tallied.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืงืขืชื ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืชืจื•ืขื” ื™ืชืงืขื• (ืœื›ื) ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ืœืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืคืฉื•ื˜ื” ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืืชื

The Gemara asks: What is the reasoning of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written in the verse: โ€œAnd you shall sound [utkatem] a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:5), and it is written: โ€œA terua they will sound [yitkeโ€™u]โ€ (Numbers 10:6). Conclude from the fact that the Torah uses a verb from the root tekia when referring to a terua that a tekia, terua, and tekia together constitute one unit. And how do the Rabbis interpret these verses? They explain that these verses come to teach that each terua blast is accompanied by a plain blast, a tekia, preceding it and another plain blast following it.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ื”ืงื”ื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืงื”ืœ ืชืชืงืขื• ื•ืœื ืชืจื™ืขื• ื•ืื™ ืกืœืงื ื“ืขืชืš ืชืงื™ืขื” ืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืชืงื™ืขื” ื—ื“ื ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืคืœื’ื ื“ืžืฆื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืกื™ืžื ื ื‘ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื

The Gemara asks: And what is the reasoning of the Rabbis? As it is written: โ€œAnd when congregating the people you shall sound a tekia and shall not sound a teruaโ€ (Numbers 10:7). And if it enters your mind that a series of tekia, terua, and tekia are considered one unit, would the Merciful One say to perform only half a mitzva? Rather, each sound constitutes a separate mitzva. The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda explain this verse? The Gemara answers: That single tekia mentioned in the context of congregating the people was blown merely as a signal to the people to assemble, not for the purpose of fulfilling a mitzva, which, in Rabbi Yehudaโ€™s opinion, always comes in units of three sounds.

ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืชืงื™ืขื” ืœืชืจื•ืขื” ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืคืฉื™ื˜ื

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rav Kahana said? As Rav Kahana said: There is to be no pause between a tekia and a terua at all, but rather they are sounded in one continuous series of blasts. In accordance with whose opinion is this statement? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara asks: Isnโ€™t that obvious? Why was it necessary to point this out?

ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืชื™ื ื•ืœืืคื•ืงื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืชืฉืข ืชืงื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืชืฉืข ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ืฆื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Gemara answers: It is not obvious that Rav Kahanaโ€™s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Lest you say that Rav Kahana comes to teach his halakha even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, and that he is coming to exclude only the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who says: If one heard nine blasts in nine different hours on the day of Rosh HaShana, despite the considerable gap between them, he has fulfilled his obligation. One might have thought that Rav Kahana meant only that there should not be such long gaps between the sounds. Therefore, the Gemara teaches us that Rav Kahanaโ€™s ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as he does not allow any pause at all between the shofar blasts.

ื•ืื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžืื™ ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื

The Gemara asks: And how do you know that this was Rav Kahanaโ€™s intent? One can say it is indeed so, that Rav Kahana holds in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and he merely excludes the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan. The Gemara answers that if so, what is the meaning of the phrase โ€œat allโ€ when Rav Kahana said that there is no pause between a tekia and a terua at all? This phrase indicates that Rav Kahana does not allow even a slight pause between blasts, which is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ืฉื ื” ืžื›ื” ื‘ื—ืœื™ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื’ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ

ยง The mishna teaches that there are twelve days during the year when the flute plays before the altar, and it proceeds to list them. The Gemara asks: What is different about these days enumerated in the mishna that the flute is played before the altar specifically on those occasions? The Gemara answers: They are unique, since these are the days on which the individual completes the full hallel.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ืฆื“ืง ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจ ื™ืžื™ื ืฉื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื’ื•ืžืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืืช ื”ื”ืœืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืคืกื— ื•ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ (ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ) ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ื‘ื’ื•ืœื” ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ืชืฉืขื” ื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ื™ืžื™ ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื•ืฉื ื™ ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืคืกื— ื•ืฉื ื™ ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืขืฆืจืช

As Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: There are eighteen days a year on which the individual completes the full hallel: The eight days of the festival of Sukkot, including the Eighth Day of Assembly; and the eight days of Hanukkah; and the first festival day of Passover; and the festival day of Assembly, i.e., Shavuot. And in the Diaspora, where a second day is added to each Festival due to uncertainty over the precise date, there are twenty-one days: The nine days of the festival of Sukkot; and the eight days of Hanukkah; and the first two festival days of Passover; and the two festival days of Assembly, i.e., Shavuot.

ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื‘ื—ื’ ื“ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื‘ืคืกื— ื“ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ

The Gemara asks: What is different about the festival of Sukkot, that we say hallel every day, and what is different about Passover, that we do not say hallel

ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื“ื—ื’ ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ ื“ืคืกื— ืื™ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื”ืŸ

every day, but only on the first day? The Gemara answers: The days of the festival of Sukkot are distinct from one another with regard to their additional offerings, as the number of bulls offered changes each day of Sukkot (see Numbers 29:12โ€“38). Since each day is unique, the full hallel is recited on each day. By contrast, the days of Passover are not distinct from one another with regard to their additional offerings (see Numbers 28:24), and therefore the full hallel is recited only on the first day, which is the first day on which the additional offerings for a Festival are sacrificed.

ืฉื‘ืช ื“ื—ืœื•ืงื” ื‘ืงืจื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื” ืœื™ืžื ืœื ืื™ืงืจื™ ืžื•ืขื“

The Gemara objects: On Shabbat, which is also distinct from the other days of the week with regard to its additional offerings, let us say hallel. The Gemara explains: Shabbat is not called an appointed day in the Torah, and hallel is recited only on days that are referred to in the Torah as appointed days (see Leviticus 23:4), which are days of rejoicing.

ืจืืฉ ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ืœื™ืžื ืœื ืื™ืงื“ื™ืฉ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืฉื™ืจ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœื›ื ื›ืœื™ืœ ื”ืชืงื“ืฉ ื—ื’ ืœื™ืœื” ื”ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื—ื’ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงื•ื“ืฉ ืœื—ื’ ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืจื”

The Gemara objects: On the New Moon, which is called an appointed day, let us say hallel. The Gemara explains: The New Moon is not sanctified with regard to the prohibition against the performance of labor, and hallel is recited only on a day that is sanctified, as it is written: โ€œYou shall have a song as in the night when a festival is sanctifiedโ€ (Isaiah 30:29), which indicates that a night that is sanctified as a Festival, which includes a prohibition of labor, requires song, but one that is not sanctified as a Festival does not require song.

ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ื™ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืื™ืงืจื• ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืื™ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืžืœืื›ื” ืœื™ืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื•

The Gemara objects: On Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, which are called an appointed day and also are sanctified with regard to the prohibition against the performance of labor, let us say hallel. The Gemara explains: Hallel is not recited on those days due to the statement of Rabbi Abbahu.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจื• ืžืœืื›ื™ ื”ืฉืจืช ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ืš ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืืคืฉืจ ืžืœืš ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืขืœ ื›ืกื ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืกืคืจื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืกืคืจื™ ืžืชื™ื ืคืชื•ื—ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืœืคื ื™

As Rabbi Abbahu said that the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, for what reason do the Jewish people not recite songs of praise, i.e., hallel, before You on Rosh HaShana and on Yom Kippur? He said to them: Is it possible that while the King is sitting on the throne of judgment and the books of life and the books of death are open before Him, the Jewish people would be reciting joyous songs of praise before Me? Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are somber days of judgment whose mood is incompatible with the recitation of hallel.

ื•ื”ื ื—ื ื•ื›ื” ื“ืœื ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืœื ื”ื›ื™ ื•ืงืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื ื™ืกื ืคื•ืจื™ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ื ื™ืกื ืœื™ืžื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืœืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืฉื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื ืก ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืฆื” ืœืืจืฅ

The Gemara objects: But what about Hanukkah, which has neither this or that, i.e., there is no special offering on it, nor is labor prohibited, and yet one says hallel. The Gemara explains: Hallel is recited on Hanukkah not because of its status as a Festival, but because of the miracle that occurred on those days. The Gemara objects: If so, on Purim, when there is also this factor, i.e., a miracle occurred on that day, let us say hallel. Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: Hallel is not recited on Purim because one does not recite a song of praise for a miracle that occurred outside of Eretz Yisrael.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื•ื”ืจื™ ื™ืฆื™ืืช ืžืฆืจื™ื ื“ื ืก ืฉื‘ื—ื•ืฆื” ืœืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื ื•ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ื”ืœืœ ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ืขื“ ืฉืœื ื ื›ื ืกื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืืจืฅ ื”ื•ื›ืฉืจื• ื›ืœ ื”ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืจื” ืžืฉื ื›ื ืกื• ืœืืจืฅ ืœื ื”ื•ื›ืฉืจื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืจื”

Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak objects to this explanation: But there is the exodus from Egypt, which was a miracle that took place outside of Eretz Yisrael, and yet we say hallel on Passover night in commemoration of it? The Gemara responds that this is as it is taught in a baraita: Until the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, all lands were deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within their borders, as all lands were treated equally. But once the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, and all the other lands were no longer deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within them.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืžืจ ืงืจื™ื™ืชื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื™ืœื ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื”ืชื ื”ืœืœื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืคืจืขื” ื”ื›ื ื”ืœืœื• ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืื—ืฉื•ืจื•ืฉ ืื›ืชื™ ืขื‘ื“ื™ ืื—ืฉื•ืจื•ืฉ ืื ืŸ

Rav Naแธฅman says an alternative answer as to why hallel is not recited on Purim: The reading of the Megilla, i.e., the Scroll of Esther, is equivalent to reciting hallel. Rava says a third reason: Granted, hallel is said there, when recalling the exodus from Egypt, as after that salvation one can recite the phrase in hallel: โ€œGive praise, O servants of the Lordโ€ (Psalms 113:1), since after the Israelitesโ€™ servitude to Pharaoh ended with their salvation, they were truly servants of the Lord and not servants of Pharaoh. But can it be said here, after the salvation commemorated on Purim: โ€œGive praise, O servants of the Lord,โ€ which would indicate that after the salvation the Jewish people were only servants of the Lord and not servants of Ahasuerus? Not so, as even after the miracle of Purim, we are still the servants of Ahasuerus, since the Jews remained in exile under Persian rule.

ื•ืœืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื™ื™ืชื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื™ืœื ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžืฉื ื›ื ืกื• ืœืืจืฅ ืœื ื”ื•ื›ืฉืจื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื™ืจื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื’ืœื• ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื”ื™ืชื™ืจืŸ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

The Gemara objects: And according to the opinion of Rav Naแธฅman, who says that the reading of the Megilla itself is an act of reciting hallel, there is a difficulty: Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Once the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, and all the other lands were no longer deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within them. How, then, may one recite a form of hallel by reading the Megilla? The Gemara answers: He maintains that once the people were exiled from Eretz Yisrael, the other lands returned to their initial suitability, and were once again deemed fit for reciting hallel, in commemoration of miracles performed within them.

ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื›ื” ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืคืชื— ื‘ื—ืœื™ืœ ื•ืžืกื™ื™ื ื‘ืื‘ื•ื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื—ืœื™ืœ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืื‘ื•ื‘ ื•ืืžืื™ ืงืจื™ ืœื™ื” ื—ืœื™ืœ ื“ื—ืœื™ ืงืœื™ื”

ยง The mishna teaches: And one would not play a copper flute [abuv]; rather, one would play a flute [abuv] of reed, because its sound is pleasant. The Gemara asks: The mishna opens by referring to flutes and calls them แธฅalil and then concludes by referring to playing an abuv. Rav Pappa said: A แธฅalil is the same as an abuv. Its original name was abuv; and why does the mishna call it a แธฅalil? The reason is that its sound is sweet [แธฅali].

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื‘ื•ื‘ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ื—ืœืง ื”ื™ื” ื“ืง ื”ื™ื” ืฉืœ ืงื ื” ื”ื™ื” ื•ืžื™ืžื•ืช ืžืฉื” ื”ื™ื” ืฆื•ื” ื”ืžืœืš ื•ืฆื™ืคื•ื”ื• ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื ื˜ืœื• ืืช ืฆืคื•ื™ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื” ืฆืœืฆื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื•ื ืคื’ื ื•ืฉืœื—ื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืžืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืชืงื ื•ื”ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื ื˜ืœื• ืืช ืชื™ืงื•ื ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื™ื”

The Sages taught in a baraita: There was a flute in the Temple; it was smooth and it was thin, i.e., its sides were thin; it was made from reed, and it was in existence from the days of Moses. The king issued a command and they plated the flute with gold, but then its sound was not as pleasant as it was previously. They therefore removed its plating and its sound was then as pleasant as it was before. Similarly, there was a cymbal in the Temple; it was made from copper and its sound was pleasant. It became damaged and the Sages sent for and brought artisans from Alexandria in Egypt and they repaired it, but its sound was not as pleasant as before. They removed the materials with which the cymbal had been repaired and its sound was then as pleasant as it had been before the repair.

ืžื›ืชืฉืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉืœ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืžื™ืžื•ืช ืžืฉื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคื˜ืžืช ืืช ื”ื‘ืฉืžื™ื ื ืชืคื’ืžื” ื•ื”ื‘ื™ืื• ืื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืžืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ืžืฆืจื™ื ื•ืชื™ืงื ื•ื” ื•ืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคื˜ืžืช ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื™ืชื” ื ื˜ืœื• ืืช ืชื™ืงื•ื ื” ื•ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืคื˜ืžืช ื›ืžื• ืฉื”ื™ืชื”

There was a mortar in the Temple; it was made of copper and it was from the days of Moses, and it was used to compound the spices for the incense. It became damaged and they brought artisans from Alexandria in Egypt and they repaired it, but it did not compound the spices as well as it had before. They removed the materials with which the mortar had been repaired and it then compounded the spices as it had before it was repaired.

ืืœื• ืฉื ื™ ื›ืœื™ื ื ืฉืชื™ื™ืจื• ืžืžืงื“ืฉ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื ืชืคื’ืžื• ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื”ื ืืจื•ื›ื” ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ืžืžื•ืจื˜ ื ื—ื•ืฉืช ืžืžื•ืจืง ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื›ืœื™ ื ื—ืฉืช ืžืฆื”ื‘ ืฉื ื™ื ื—ืžื•ื“ื•ืช ืžื–ื”ื‘

The baraita concludes: These two copper vessels, the cymbal and the mortar, were remnants from the First Temple and they were damaged and they could not be repaired in an effective manner. And it was with regard to the copper vessels constructed for the First Temple that David said: โ€œAll these vessels, which Hiram made for King Solomon, in the House of the Lord, were of burnished brassโ€ (Iย Kings 7:45), and, in a parallel verse, โ€œbright brassโ€ (IIย Chronicles 4:16). And with regard to these two items it states in the verse describing the vessels that Ezra brought to Jerusalem: โ€œAnd vessels of fine golden brass, two, precious as goldโ€ (Ezra 8:27).

ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉืงื•ืœ ื›ืฉื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืฉืงื•ืœื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘ ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืฉื ื™ื”ื ืฉืงื•ืœื™ืŸ ื›ืื—ื“ ืฉืœ ื–ื”ื‘

Rav and Shmuel disagree as to the meaning of the phrase: Two, precious as gold. One said: Each and every one of these brass vessels was as valuable as two vessels made from gold. And the other one said: The two of them together were as valuable as one vessel made from gold. Similarly, Rav Yosef teaches the following explanation found in a baraita: The two of them together were as valuable as one vessel made from gold.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืืœ ืชื™ืงืจื™ ืฉื ื™ื ืืœื ืฉื ื™ื™ื

The Gemara cites another explanation of the verse in Ezra. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: The cymbals and mortars were pairs, i.e., there were two cymbals and two mortars, as it is stated in the aforementioned verse โ€œtwoโ€; do not read it as two [shenayim], but as pairs [sheniyyim].

ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืฉื™ืœื•ื— ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืœื— ืžื™ื ื‘ื›ืื™ืกืจ ืฆื•ื” ื”ืžืœืš ื•ื”ืจื—ื™ื‘ื•ื”ื• ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืจื‘ื• ืžื™ืžื™ื• ื•ื ืชืžืขื˜ื• ื•ื—ื–ืจื• ื•ืžื™ืขื˜ื•ื”ื• ื•ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืœื— ืžื™ื ืœืงื™ื™ื ืžื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืœ ื™ืชื”ืœืœ ื—ื›ื ื‘ื—ื›ืžืชื• ื•ืืœ ื™ืชื”ืœืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจืชื•

ยง Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel teaches in a baraita: The Siloam pool used to spurt forth water through an opening with a diameter like that of an issar coin.The king issued a command and they widened the opening so that its waters would increase, but the waters actually decreased. And they subsequently decreased the size of the opening again and it once again spurted forth water as it had before. All this serves to uphold that which is stated in the verse: โ€œLet not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his mightโ€ (Jeremiah 9:22), i.e., man should not think that he can accomplish anything he wishes.

ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืจื“ื•ืœื™ื ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ ืžืื™ ื”ืจื“ื•ืœื™ื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื˜ื‘ืœื ื’ื•ืจื’ื“ื ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืœื• ืขืจื‘ ื•ืžืขืจื‘ื‘ ืืช ื”ื ืขื™ืžื”

And likewise Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel would say, with regard to the musical instruments in the Temple: There was no hirdolim in the Temple. The Gemara asks: What is a hirdolim? Abaye said: It is a hydraulic organ. It was not used in the Temple because its sound is pleasant but it disrupts the melody.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืชื ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžื’ืจื™ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžืงื“ืฉ

Rava bar Sheila said that Rav Mattana said that Shmuel said: There was an instrument called magreifa in the Temple.

Scroll To Top