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Today's Daf Yomi

June 25, 2019 | 讻状讘 讘住讬讜谉 转砖注状讟

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Arakhin 9

How many 29 day months or 30 day months can there potentially be in a year? How many days from the time of baking the two loaves for Shavuot or the showbread can they be eaten? How many days after birth can one potentially do a brit mila (on time)? Ulla and Rav Huna disagree regarding if there is a possibility to have either 8 thirty day months or 8 twenty nine day months or if there is only a possibility to have 8 twenty nine day months. There is a different tannaitic opinion (against our mishna) that only allows for 6 of each.


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拽讚讬诐 讗转讬 住讬讛专讗 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 拽讗 拽讚讬诐 讗转讬 转专讬 讬讜诪讬

then the new moon of Tishrei would arrive three days before Rosh HaShana. A lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days, and therefore a twelve-month period should have six full months of thirty days and six deficient months of twenty-nine days. If there were nine full months, this would cause subsequent months to start three days after the new moon. This in turn would lead people to deride the rabbinical court and accuse it of declaring the new month whenever it wanted, without regard for the astronomical facts. The Gemara explains its question: Now, too, when there are eight full months in one year, the new moon of Tishrei will arrive two days before Rosh HaShana, which will also cause people to disparage the court.

讻讚讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 砖诇驻谞讬讛 诪注讜讘专转 讜注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 讞讜讚砖 讚诇 讬专讞讗 诪诇讬讗 讘讛讚讬 讬专讞讗 讞住讬专讗 讜讗讻转讬 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 讗讚注转讬讬讛讜 讚讗讬谞砖讬

The Gemara answers: It is as Rav Mesharshiyya says, with regard to a different question: This is referring to a case where the year before was a leap year. Here, too, one can answer that it is a case where the year before it was a leap year, and the extension of the year was accomplished with an added month of twenty-nine days. Accordingly, remove a full, thirty-day month from the calculation of the current year corresponding to the extra deficient, twenty-nine-day month of the previous year, and the result is that only seven thirty-day months have an impact on the appearance of the new moon relative to the following Rosh HaShana. The Gemara asks: But even in a year with only seven thirty-day months the new moon would still precede Rosh HaShana by one day. The Gemara answers: People do not pay attention to a difference of one day, and therefore they will not deride the court.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讗 谞专讗讛 诇讞讻诪讬诐 诇讞住专 讬转专 注诇 砖诪讜谞讛 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 拽讗诪专 诪讛 讟注诐 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬诐 诪讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛诪注讜讘专讬诐 讘砖谞讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 谞专讗讛 诇讞讻诪讬诐 诇讞住专 讬转专 注诇 砖诪讜谞讛

Until this point the Gemara has discussed Rav Huna鈥檚 interpretation of the mishna, that the statement: It did not seem appropriate to establish more than eight, means that the Sages did not wish to establish more than eight full months in one year. The Gemara presents an alternative opinion. Ulla says: The mishna means that it did not seem appropriate to the Sages to establish more than eight deficient, twenty-nine-day months. And the mishna is saying what the reason is for the previous statement in the mishna, as follows: What is the reason that no fewer than four full, thirty-day months may be established during a year? It is because it did not seem appropriate to the Sages to establish more than eight deficient, twenty-nine-day months, so that the shortest possible year would comprise four full months and eight deficient months.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 转砖注讛 讚诇讗 讚讗诐 讻谉 诪讬讬转专讗 住讬讛专讗 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 拽讗 诪讬讬转专讗 转专讬 讬讜诪讬

The Gemara asks: What is different about nine deficient months, in that the Sages did not deem it appropriate to have so many deficient months in one year? Apparently, the Sages were concerned that if so, i.e., if there were nine deficient months, the new moon of Tishrei would appear three days after Rosh HaShana. But now, too, if there are eight deficient months in one year, the new moon will appear two days after Rosh HaShana.

讻讚讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 砖诇驻谞讬讛 诪注讜讘专转 讚诇 讬专讞讗 讞住讬专讗 讘讛讚讬 讬专讞讗 诪诇讬讗

The Gemara answers: It is as Rav Mesharshiyya says with regard to a different question: This is referring to a case where the year before was a leap year. Here, too, one can answer that it is a case where the year before it was a leap year, and the added month was a thirty-day month. Accordingly, remove a deficient, twenty-nine-day month from the calculation of the current year corresponding to the extra full, thirty-day month of the previous year, and the result is that only seven deficient months have an impact on the appearance of the new moon relative to the following Rosh HaShana.

讜讗讻转讬 讗讬讻讗 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 住讘专讬 讗讬转讞讝讜讬讬 讗讬转讞讝讬 讜讗谞谉 诇讗讜 讗讚注转讬谉

The Gemara asks: But even in a year with seven deficient months there is still one day between Rosh HaShana and the appearance of the new moon, and therefore people will deride the court. The Gemara answers: People will assume that the new moon was sighted by witnesses and reported to the court, and they will say: The new moon was visible yesterday but we did not pay attention and did not notice it.

讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 讘注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 讚转谞讬讗 讻诪讛 注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 砖诇砖讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讞讜讚砖

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do Rav Huna and Ulla disagree? The Gemara answers: They disagree about the length of the month added in the intercalation of the year, as it is taught in a baraita: How many days are added in the intercalation of the year? Thirty days. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A deficient month, i.e., one of twenty-nine days. Rav Huna accepts the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, whereas Ulla accepts the opinion of the first tanna.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 注爪专转 讞诇讛 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝 讜讗讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讞诇讛 讗诇讗 讗讜 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝 讗讜 诇讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜 讘砖诇诪讗 诇注讜诇讗 讚砖诪讜谞讛 讞住讬专讬谉 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪注讜讘专讬谉 诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Huna from a baraita: The festival of Shavuot occurs only on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering, i.e., the sixteenth of Nisan, which is the second day of Passover. And Rosh HaShana also occurs only on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering of the preceding year, or on the day of the week that occurs on the night after the waving, i.e., the seventeenth of Nisan, which is the third day of Passover. Granted, according to the opinion of Ulla, who says that we may establish eight deficient months in a year but we may not establish eight full months in a year, you find that Rosh HaShana can occur on either of the two days mentioned in the baraita.

砖谞讬讛谉 讞住专 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝

The Gemara elaborates: There are six ends of months between the omer offering and Rosh HaShana. In an ordinary year the months alternate in length, so these six months will comprise three full and three deficient months. If so, Rosh HaShana will occur on the same day of the week as the third day of Passover. If a year has eight deficient months, one of the two extra deficient months will presumably occur in the summer, between the day of waving and Rosh HaShana, which would mean that Rosh HaShana would occur one day earlier, on the same day of the week as the second day of Passover, the day of the waving of the omer offering.

讗讞讚 诪诇讗 讜讗讞讚 讞住专 诇讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

And if no extra deficient months are added that year, but the standard format of alternating lengths of months, one full and one deficient, is applied, Rosh HaShana will occur on the day of the week that occurs on the night after the waving of the omer offering.

讗诇讗 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪注讜讘专讬谉 讛讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诪砖讻讞转 诇讗讜专 讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

But according to Rav Huna, who says: We may establish eight full, thirty-day months in a year, there are also times when you find that Rosh HaShana occurs on the night after the night after the extra day, i.e., the thirtieth of Nisan, two days after the day of the week of the omer offering. This would occur on a Rosh HaShana following a year with eight full months, i.e., two more full months than usual, when one of the extra full months would occur between Passover and Rosh HaShana. In such a case, Rosh HaShana would be delayed from occurring on the same day of the week as the third day of Passover, which is the usual situation, to the same day as the fourth day of Passover.

讗诪专 诇讱 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜诇注讜诇讗 诪讬 谞讬讞讗 砖诪讜谞讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 讛讗 砖讘注讛 注讘讚讬谞谉 砖讘注讛 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 讘住讬转讜讗 讜注讘讚讬谞谉 讘拽讬讬讟讗 讜讛讗 讛讜讛 诇讗讜专 讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

The Gemara responds with a counter objection. Rav Huna could say to you: And does the baraita really work out well according to Ulla? Even according to Ulla, it is eight full months that we may not establish in one year, but we may establish seven full months in a single year, one more than the usual. Consequently, there may be times when we do not establish the extra full month in the winter, but we establish it in the summer, between Passover and Rosh HaShana. In such a case, Rosh HaShana would be two days after the day of the week of the omer offering. Consequently, even according to Ulla, the baraita should have mentioned this possibility.

讗诇讗 讛讗 诪谞讬 讗讞专讬诐 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 注爪专转 诇注爪专转 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗诇讗 讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讘讚 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讞诪砖讛

Rather, in accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with A岣rim, as it is taught in a baraita: A岣rim say that the difference between Shavuot of one year and Shavuot of the following year, and similarly, the difference between Rosh HaShana of one year and Rosh HaShana of the following year, is only four days of the week. In an ordinary year, when full and deficient months alternate, there are 354 days. Therefore, every year is exactly fifty weeks and four days long, which means that any calendar date one year would occur four days later in the week in the following year. And if it was a leap year, in which case the year contains 383 days, or fifty-four weeks and five days, there is a difference of five days between them.

住讜祝 住讜祝 诇讗讞专讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝 诇讗 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara asks: Ultimately, the baraita remains difficult, because according to A岣rim you do not find that Rosh HaShana ever occurs on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering. This is because A岣rim maintain that the months always alternate between full and deficient months and therefore there is never an additional full month between Passover and Rosh HaShana.

讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讜注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讚诇 讬专讞讗 诇讘讛讚讬 讬专讞讗 讚诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝

Rav Mesharshiyya said in response: Rosh HaShana can occur on the same day of the week as the day of the omer offering, in a case where it was a leap year and the intercalated month added to create the leap year was thirty days. This would cause Rosh HaShana to occur six days of the week later than the year before, but A岣rim maintain that it must occur exactly five days of the week later. Consequently, one of the months after Passover must be changed from a full month to a deficient one: Remove from the calculation one full month after Passover corresponding to the extra full month added before Passover in order to ensure that Rosh HaShana occurs five days of the week later than the previous year. This ensures that you will find a case where Rosh HaShana occurs on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 诇专讘讗 讗讞专讬诐 诪谞讬谞讗 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪讜注讬谞谉 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚诇讗 讘注讬谞谉 诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 驻讬 讛专讗讬讛

Rav Adda bar Ahava said to Rava: Did A岣rim come to teach us the number of days between one Rosh HaShana and the next? Why didn鈥檛 A岣rim simply say that the months of the year always alternate between full and deficient months, and the calculation of the number of days between the Festivals in one year and the next would be obvious? Rava answered: This statement of A岣rim teaches us that we do not need to take into consideration the possibility that it is a mitzva to sanctify the new month according to the sighting of the new moon. Rather, if the order of the months dictates that a new month should be deficient, the start of the following month may be declared despite the fact that the new moon has not been sighted.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 讜讛讗讬讻讗 讬讜诪讗 讚砖注讬 讜讬讜诪讗 讚转诇转讬谉 砖谞讬 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讬转讬讛 讘讻诇 砖转讗 诇讗 拽讗 讞砖讬讘

Ravina objects to the opinion of A岣rim for a different reason: But how is it possible that there is always a difference of four weekdays between one Rosh HaShana and the next? The length of a lunar month is not precisely twenty-nine and a half days, but twenty-nine days, twelve hours and 793/1080 of an hour. This extra fraction beyond twenty-nine and a half days is compounded month after month and year after year, and as a result, eventually there is an additional day that must be added to the calendar every three years due to the accumulation of hours, and an additional day that must be added every thirty years due to a further accumulation of the extra parts of an hour. The Gemara answers: Since these days do not appear on the calendar every year, the baraita did not account for them.

讜讗祝 砖诪讜讗诇 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬谉 砖谞转 诇讘谞讛 驻讞讜转讛 诪砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讜砖转讬诐 讬讜诐 讜诇讗 讬转讬专讛 注诇 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讬讜诐

搂 The Gemara returns to the dispute between Rav Huna and Ulla over the interpretation of the mishna. And Shmuel also holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, that it is permitted to establish eight full months in a year, as Shmuel says: The year in a lunar calendar has no less than 352 days, and no more than 356 days.

讛讗 讻讬爪讚 砖谞讬讛诐 诪诇讗讬谉 砖砖讛 砖谞讬讛诐 讞住讬专讬谉 砖谞讬诐 讗讞讚 诪诇讗 讜讗讞讚 讞住专 讗专讘注讛

How so? An ordinary year, consisting of alternating full and deficient months, consists of 354 days. If two months that are generally deficient are made full, there are three hundred and fifty-six days in the year. If two months that are generally full are made deficient, there are three hundred and fifty-two days in the year. If the months alternate as usual, one full and one deficient, there are three hundred and fifty-four days in the year. This shows that according to Shmuel it is permitted to change two months from deficient to full months, which leads to a total of eight full months in one year.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛专讬谞讬 谞讝讬专 讻讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 诪讜谞讛 谞讝讬专讜转 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜砖砖讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讻诪谞讬谉 讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讻讬诪讜转 讛诇讘谞讛 诪讜谞讛 谞讝讬专讜转 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讻诪谞讬谉 讬诪讜转 讛诇讘谞讛 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 砖砖讛

The Gemara raises an objection against Shmuel from a baraita. If one says: I am hereby a nazirite for a duration that is like the number of days in a solar year, he counts 365 days for his term of naziriteship, corresponding to the number of days in a solar year. If he says: Like the days in a lunar year, i.e., a year comprising twelve lunar months, he counts 354 days for his term of naziriteship, corresponding to the number of days in a lunar year. The Gemara explains the objection: And if it is so, that there can be eight full months in a year, there are times when you find that a lunar year has three hundred and fifty-six days. Why, then, shouldn鈥檛 the period of naziriteship last for 356 days?

讘谞讚专讬诐 讛诇讱 讗讞专 诇砖讜谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讜专讜讘 砖谞讬诐

The Gemara explains: The halakha is that with regard to vows, you follow the ordinary language of people. The meaning of a vow is understood in accordance with the way its words are used in common speech. And when people speak of a lunar year, they are generally referring to one that is the length of most years, i.e., 354 days.

讜讗祝 专讘讬 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讜注砖讛 专讘讬 (讻专讘 讛讜谞讗) 转砖注讛 讞住讬专讬诐 讜谞专讗讛 讞讜讚砖 讘讝诪谞讜 讜讛讬讛 专讘讬 转诪讬讛 讜讗讜诪专 注砖讬谞讜 转砖注讛 讞住讬专讬谉 讜谞专讗讛 讞讜讚砖 讘讝诪谞讜 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 专讘讬 砖诪讗 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讛讬转讛

The Gemara adds: And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi also holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, that it is permitted to establish eight full months in one year. As it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident in which Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi established nine deficient months in one year, and nevertheless the new moon was sighted in its proper time, on Rosh HaShana, and not later. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi expressed astonishment and said: We made nine months deficient in one year and yet the new moon was sighted in its proper time. How could this be? Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said before him: Perhaps last year was a leap year

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Arakhin 9

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Arakhin 9

拽讚讬诐 讗转讬 住讬讛专讗 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 拽讗 拽讚讬诐 讗转讬 转专讬 讬讜诪讬

then the new moon of Tishrei would arrive three days before Rosh HaShana. A lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days, and therefore a twelve-month period should have six full months of thirty days and six deficient months of twenty-nine days. If there were nine full months, this would cause subsequent months to start three days after the new moon. This in turn would lead people to deride the rabbinical court and accuse it of declaring the new month whenever it wanted, without regard for the astronomical facts. The Gemara explains its question: Now, too, when there are eight full months in one year, the new moon of Tishrei will arrive two days before Rosh HaShana, which will also cause people to disparage the court.

讻讚讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 砖诇驻谞讬讛 诪注讜讘专转 讜注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 讞讜讚砖 讚诇 讬专讞讗 诪诇讬讗 讘讛讚讬 讬专讞讗 讞住讬专讗 讜讗讻转讬 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 诇讗 讗讚注转讬讬讛讜 讚讗讬谞砖讬

The Gemara answers: It is as Rav Mesharshiyya says, with regard to a different question: This is referring to a case where the year before was a leap year. Here, too, one can answer that it is a case where the year before it was a leap year, and the extension of the year was accomplished with an added month of twenty-nine days. Accordingly, remove a full, thirty-day month from the calculation of the current year corresponding to the extra deficient, twenty-nine-day month of the previous year, and the result is that only seven thirty-day months have an impact on the appearance of the new moon relative to the following Rosh HaShana. The Gemara asks: But even in a year with only seven thirty-day months the new moon would still precede Rosh HaShana by one day. The Gemara answers: People do not pay attention to a difference of one day, and therefore they will not deride the court.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诇讗 谞专讗讛 诇讞讻诪讬诐 诇讞住专 讬转专 注诇 砖诪讜谞讛 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 拽讗诪专 诪讛 讟注诐 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬诐 诪讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛诪注讜讘专讬诐 讘砖谞讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 谞专讗讛 诇讞讻诪讬诐 诇讞住专 讬转专 注诇 砖诪讜谞讛

Until this point the Gemara has discussed Rav Huna鈥檚 interpretation of the mishna, that the statement: It did not seem appropriate to establish more than eight, means that the Sages did not wish to establish more than eight full months in one year. The Gemara presents an alternative opinion. Ulla says: The mishna means that it did not seem appropriate to the Sages to establish more than eight deficient, twenty-nine-day months. And the mishna is saying what the reason is for the previous statement in the mishna, as follows: What is the reason that no fewer than four full, thirty-day months may be established during a year? It is because it did not seem appropriate to the Sages to establish more than eight deficient, twenty-nine-day months, so that the shortest possible year would comprise four full months and eight deficient months.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 转砖注讛 讚诇讗 讚讗诐 讻谉 诪讬讬转专讗 住讬讛专讗 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讛砖转讗 谞诪讬 拽讗 诪讬讬转专讗 转专讬 讬讜诪讬

The Gemara asks: What is different about nine deficient months, in that the Sages did not deem it appropriate to have so many deficient months in one year? Apparently, the Sages were concerned that if so, i.e., if there were nine deficient months, the new moon of Tishrei would appear three days after Rosh HaShana. But now, too, if there are eight deficient months in one year, the new moon will appear two days after Rosh HaShana.

讻讚讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 砖诇驻谞讬讛 诪注讜讘专转 讚诇 讬专讞讗 讞住讬专讗 讘讛讚讬 讬专讞讗 诪诇讬讗

The Gemara answers: It is as Rav Mesharshiyya says with regard to a different question: This is referring to a case where the year before was a leap year. Here, too, one can answer that it is a case where the year before it was a leap year, and the added month was a thirty-day month. Accordingly, remove a deficient, twenty-nine-day month from the calculation of the current year corresponding to the extra full, thirty-day month of the previous year, and the result is that only seven deficient months have an impact on the appearance of the new moon relative to the following Rosh HaShana.

讜讗讻转讬 讗讬讻讗 讞讚 讬讜诪讗 住讘专讬 讗讬转讞讝讜讬讬 讗讬转讞讝讬 讜讗谞谉 诇讗讜 讗讚注转讬谉

The Gemara asks: But even in a year with seven deficient months there is still one day between Rosh HaShana and the appearance of the new moon, and therefore people will deride the court. The Gemara answers: People will assume that the new moon was sighted by witnesses and reported to the court, and they will say: The new moon was visible yesterday but we did not pay attention and did not notice it.

讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 讘注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 讚转谞讬讗 讻诪讛 注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 砖诇砖讬诐 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讞讜讚砖

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do Rav Huna and Ulla disagree? The Gemara answers: They disagree about the length of the month added in the intercalation of the year, as it is taught in a baraita: How many days are added in the intercalation of the year? Thirty days. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A deficient month, i.e., one of twenty-nine days. Rav Huna accepts the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, whereas Ulla accepts the opinion of the first tanna.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 注爪专转 讞诇讛 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝 讜讗讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讞诇讛 讗诇讗 讗讜 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝 讗讜 诇讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜 讘砖诇诪讗 诇注讜诇讗 讚砖诪讜谞讛 讞住讬专讬谉 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪注讜讘专讬谉 诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion of Rav Huna from a baraita: The festival of Shavuot occurs only on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering, i.e., the sixteenth of Nisan, which is the second day of Passover. And Rosh HaShana also occurs only on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering of the preceding year, or on the day of the week that occurs on the night after the waving, i.e., the seventeenth of Nisan, which is the third day of Passover. Granted, according to the opinion of Ulla, who says that we may establish eight deficient months in a year but we may not establish eight full months in a year, you find that Rosh HaShana can occur on either of the two days mentioned in the baraita.

砖谞讬讛谉 讞住专 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝

The Gemara elaborates: There are six ends of months between the omer offering and Rosh HaShana. In an ordinary year the months alternate in length, so these six months will comprise three full and three deficient months. If so, Rosh HaShana will occur on the same day of the week as the third day of Passover. If a year has eight deficient months, one of the two extra deficient months will presumably occur in the summer, between the day of waving and Rosh HaShana, which would mean that Rosh HaShana would occur one day earlier, on the same day of the week as the second day of Passover, the day of the waving of the omer offering.

讗讞讚 诪诇讗 讜讗讞讚 讞住专 诇讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

And if no extra deficient months are added that year, but the standard format of alternating lengths of months, one full and one deficient, is applied, Rosh HaShana will occur on the day of the week that occurs on the night after the waving of the omer offering.

讗诇讗 诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 注讘讚讬谞谉 诪注讜讘专讬谉 讛讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诪砖讻讞转 诇讗讜专 讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

But according to Rav Huna, who says: We may establish eight full, thirty-day months in a year, there are also times when you find that Rosh HaShana occurs on the night after the night after the extra day, i.e., the thirtieth of Nisan, two days after the day of the week of the omer offering. This would occur on a Rosh HaShana following a year with eight full months, i.e., two more full months than usual, when one of the extra full months would occur between Passover and Rosh HaShana. In such a case, Rosh HaShana would be delayed from occurring on the same day of the week as the third day of Passover, which is the usual situation, to the same day as the fourth day of Passover.

讗诪专 诇讱 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜诇注讜诇讗 诪讬 谞讬讞讗 砖诪讜谞讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 讛讗 砖讘注讛 注讘讚讬谞谉 砖讘注讛 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诇讗 注讘讚讬谞谉 讘住讬转讜讗 讜注讘讚讬谞谉 讘拽讬讬讟讗 讜讛讗 讛讜讛 诇讗讜专 讗讜专 注讬讘讜专讜

The Gemara responds with a counter objection. Rav Huna could say to you: And does the baraita really work out well according to Ulla? Even according to Ulla, it is eight full months that we may not establish in one year, but we may establish seven full months in a single year, one more than the usual. Consequently, there may be times when we do not establish the extra full month in the winter, but we establish it in the summer, between Passover and Rosh HaShana. In such a case, Rosh HaShana would be two days after the day of the week of the omer offering. Consequently, even according to Ulla, the baraita should have mentioned this possibility.

讗诇讗 讛讗 诪谞讬 讗讞专讬诐 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 注爪专转 诇注爪专转 讜讗讬谉 讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗诇讗 讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讘讚 讜讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讞诪砖讛

Rather, in accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with A岣rim, as it is taught in a baraita: A岣rim say that the difference between Shavuot of one year and Shavuot of the following year, and similarly, the difference between Rosh HaShana of one year and Rosh HaShana of the following year, is only four days of the week. In an ordinary year, when full and deficient months alternate, there are 354 days. Therefore, every year is exactly fifty weeks and four days long, which means that any calendar date one year would occur four days later in the week in the following year. And if it was a leap year, in which case the year contains 383 days, or fifty-four weeks and five days, there is a difference of five days between them.

住讜祝 住讜祝 诇讗讞专讬诐 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝 诇讗 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara asks: Ultimately, the baraita remains difficult, because according to A岣rim you do not find that Rosh HaShana ever occurs on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering. This is because A岣rim maintain that the months always alternate between full and deficient months and therefore there is never an additional full month between Passover and Rosh HaShana.

讗诪专 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讛讬转讛 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讜注讬讘讜专 砖谞讛 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讚诇 讬专讞讗 诇讘讛讚讬 讬专讞讗 讚诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讘讬讜诐 讛谞祝

Rav Mesharshiyya said in response: Rosh HaShana can occur on the same day of the week as the day of the omer offering, in a case where it was a leap year and the intercalated month added to create the leap year was thirty days. This would cause Rosh HaShana to occur six days of the week later than the year before, but A岣rim maintain that it must occur exactly five days of the week later. Consequently, one of the months after Passover must be changed from a full month to a deficient one: Remove from the calculation one full month after Passover corresponding to the extra full month added before Passover in order to ensure that Rosh HaShana occurs five days of the week later than the previous year. This ensures that you will find a case where Rosh HaShana occurs on the same day of the week as the day of waving the omer offering.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 诇专讘讗 讗讞专讬诐 诪谞讬谞讗 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪讜注讬谞谉 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚诇讗 讘注讬谞谉 诪爪讜讛 诇拽讚砖 注诇 驻讬 讛专讗讬讛

Rav Adda bar Ahava said to Rava: Did A岣rim come to teach us the number of days between one Rosh HaShana and the next? Why didn鈥檛 A岣rim simply say that the months of the year always alternate between full and deficient months, and the calculation of the number of days between the Festivals in one year and the next would be obvious? Rava answered: This statement of A岣rim teaches us that we do not need to take into consideration the possibility that it is a mitzva to sanctify the new month according to the sighting of the new moon. Rather, if the order of the months dictates that a new month should be deficient, the start of the following month may be declared despite the fact that the new moon has not been sighted.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 讜讛讗讬讻讗 讬讜诪讗 讚砖注讬 讜讬讜诪讗 讚转诇转讬谉 砖谞讬 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讬转讬讛 讘讻诇 砖转讗 诇讗 拽讗 讞砖讬讘

Ravina objects to the opinion of A岣rim for a different reason: But how is it possible that there is always a difference of four weekdays between one Rosh HaShana and the next? The length of a lunar month is not precisely twenty-nine and a half days, but twenty-nine days, twelve hours and 793/1080 of an hour. This extra fraction beyond twenty-nine and a half days is compounded month after month and year after year, and as a result, eventually there is an additional day that must be added to the calendar every three years due to the accumulation of hours, and an additional day that must be added every thirty years due to a further accumulation of the extra parts of an hour. The Gemara answers: Since these days do not appear on the calendar every year, the baraita did not account for them.

讜讗祝 砖诪讜讗诇 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讗讬谉 砖谞转 诇讘谞讛 驻讞讜转讛 诪砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讜砖转讬诐 讬讜诐 讜诇讗 讬转讬专讛 注诇 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讜砖砖讛 讬讜诐

搂 The Gemara returns to the dispute between Rav Huna and Ulla over the interpretation of the mishna. And Shmuel also holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, that it is permitted to establish eight full months in a year, as Shmuel says: The year in a lunar calendar has no less than 352 days, and no more than 356 days.

讛讗 讻讬爪讚 砖谞讬讛诐 诪诇讗讬谉 砖砖讛 砖谞讬讛诐 讞住讬专讬谉 砖谞讬诐 讗讞讚 诪诇讗 讜讗讞讚 讞住专 讗专讘注讛

How so? An ordinary year, consisting of alternating full and deficient months, consists of 354 days. If two months that are generally deficient are made full, there are three hundred and fifty-six days in the year. If two months that are generally full are made deficient, there are three hundred and fifty-two days in the year. If the months alternate as usual, one full and one deficient, there are three hundred and fifty-four days in the year. This shows that according to Shmuel it is permitted to change two months from deficient to full months, which leads to a total of eight full months in one year.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛专讬谞讬 谞讝讬专 讻讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 诪讜谞讛 谞讝讬专讜转 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜砖砖讬诐 讜讞诪砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讻诪谞讬谉 讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讻讬诪讜转 讛诇讘谞讛 诪讜谞讛 谞讝讬专讜转 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 讜讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讻诪谞讬谉 讬诪讜转 讛诇讘谞讛 讜讗诐 讗讬转讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 砖砖讛

The Gemara raises an objection against Shmuel from a baraita. If one says: I am hereby a nazirite for a duration that is like the number of days in a solar year, he counts 365 days for his term of naziriteship, corresponding to the number of days in a solar year. If he says: Like the days in a lunar year, i.e., a year comprising twelve lunar months, he counts 354 days for his term of naziriteship, corresponding to the number of days in a lunar year. The Gemara explains the objection: And if it is so, that there can be eight full months in a year, there are times when you find that a lunar year has three hundred and fifty-six days. Why, then, shouldn鈥檛 the period of naziriteship last for 356 days?

讘谞讚专讬诐 讛诇讱 讗讞专 诇砖讜谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讜专讜讘 砖谞讬诐

The Gemara explains: The halakha is that with regard to vows, you follow the ordinary language of people. The meaning of a vow is understood in accordance with the way its words are used in common speech. And when people speak of a lunar year, they are generally referring to one that is the length of most years, i.e., 354 days.

讜讗祝 专讘讬 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讜注砖讛 专讘讬 (讻专讘 讛讜谞讗) 转砖注讛 讞住讬专讬诐 讜谞专讗讛 讞讜讚砖 讘讝诪谞讜 讜讛讬讛 专讘讬 转诪讬讛 讜讗讜诪专 注砖讬谞讜 转砖注讛 讞住讬专讬谉 讜谞专讗讛 讞讜讚砖 讘讝诪谞讜 讗诪专 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 专讘讬 砖诪讗 砖谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讛讬转讛

The Gemara adds: And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi also holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav Huna, that it is permitted to establish eight full months in one year. As it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident in which Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi established nine deficient months in one year, and nevertheless the new moon was sighted in its proper time, on Rosh HaShana, and not later. And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi expressed astonishment and said: We made nine months deficient in one year and yet the new moon was sighted in its proper time. How could this be? Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said before him: Perhaps last year was a leap year

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