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Today's Daf Yomi

January 18, 2018 | 讘壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Avodah Zarah 3

The story regarding idol worshippers trying to get regarding in the World to Come continues and at the end聽God gives them one last chance but they blow it. The gemara聽tangents to discuss what God’s daily schedule is and then discusses the importance of learning Torah.

诇讜诪专 砖讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转谉 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 砖讻专

This serves to say that even if they fulfill the seven Noahide mitzvot they do not receive a reward for their fulfilment.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讙讜讬 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 砖讛讜讗 讻讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 讬注砖讛 讗转诐 讛讗讚诐 讜讞讬 讘讛诐 讻讛谞讬诐 诇讜讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇讬诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讛讗讚诐 讛讗 诇诪讚转 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讙讜讬 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇

The Gemara asks: And are they not rewarded for fulfilling those mitzvot? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: From where is it derived that even a gentile who engages in Torah study is considered like a High Priest? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall therefore keep My statutes and My ordinances, which if a person do, and shall live by them鈥 (Leviticus 18:5). It is not stated: Priests, Levites, and Israelites, but rather the general term 鈥減erson.鈥 From here you learn that even a gentile who engages in the study of Torah is like a High Priest. This demonstrates that gentiles are rewarded for fulfilling mitzvot, despite the fact that they are not commanded to do so.

讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 砖讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 砖讻专 讻诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛 讗诇讗 讻诪讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讙讚讜诇 讛诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛 讬讜转专 诪砖讗讬谞讜 诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛

Rather, the verse serves to tell you that they do not receive as great a reward for their fulfillment as one who is commanded and performs a mitzva. Rather, they receive a lesser reward, like that of one who is not commanded and still performs a mitzva. As Rabbi 岣nina says: Greater is one who is commanded to do a mitzva and performs it than one who is not commanded and performs it.

讗诇讗 讻讱 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讙讜讬诐 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讬砖专讗诇 砖拽讬讘诇讜讛 讛讬讻谉 拽讬讬诪讜讛

The Gemara returns to the discussion between God and the nations of the world, whose claims are rejected with the rebuttal that they did not receive the Torah because they did not fulfill the seven Noahide mitzvot that were incumbent upon them. Rather, this is what the gentiles say before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, as for the Jewish people who accepted the Torah, where is the evidence that they fulfilled its mitzvot?

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗谞讬 诪注讬讚 讘讛诐 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 讗讘 砖诪注讬讚 注诇 讘谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 讬注讬讚讜 讘讛诐 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them in response: I will testify about the Jewish people that they fulfilled the Torah in its entirety. The nations say before Him: Master of the Universe, is there a father who can testify about his son? As it is written: 鈥淚srael is My son, My firstborn鈥 (Exodus 4:22). Since God is considered the Father of the Jewish people, He is disqualified from testifying on their behalf. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Heaven and earth will testify about them that they fulfilled the Torah in its entirety.

讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 谞讜讙注讬谉 讘注讚讜转谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 诇讗 讘专讬转讬 讬讜诪诐 讜诇讬诇讛 讞拽讜转 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 诇讗 砖诪转讬 (讚讗诪专) [讜讗诪专] 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讛砖砖讬 诪诇诪讚 砖讛转谞讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诐 诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讗诪专 讗诐 讬砖专讗诇 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗转 转讜专转讬 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗谞讬 讗讞讝讬专 讗转讻诐 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜

The nations say before Him: Master of the Universe, in this matter the testimony of heaven and earth is tainted by a conflict of interest, as it is stated: 鈥淚f My covenant be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth鈥 (Jeremiah 33:25). And concerning this verse, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day鈥 (Genesis 1:31)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the acts of Creation, and said: If the Jewish people accept My Torah at the revelation at Sinai, all is well, but if they do not accept it, I will return you to the primordial state of chaos and disorder.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪砖诪讬诐 讛砖诪注转 讚讬谉 讗专抓 讬专讗讛 讜砖拽讟讛 讗诐 讬专讗讛 诇诪讛 砖拽讟讛 讜讗诐 砖拽讟讛 诇诪讛 讬专讗讛 讗诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讬专讗讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 砖拽讟讛

And this is similar to that which 岣zkiyya says with regard to a different matter: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard from heaven; the earth feared, and was silent鈥 (Psalms 76:9)? If the earth feared, why was it silent, and if it was silent, why did it fear? One who is afraid does not stay silent, and one who remains silent thereby demonstrates that he is not afraid. Rather, this is the meaning of the verse: At first, when God came to give the Torah to the Jewish people, the earth feared that they might not accept it, and it would be destroyed. This is alluded to by the phrase 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard.鈥 But ultimately, when the Jews accepted the Torah, the earth was silent. Consequently, heaven and earth are interested parties and cannot testify about the Jewish people鈥檚 commitment to the Torah.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讻诐 讬讘讗讜 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘讛谉 讘讬砖专讗诇 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讬讘讗 谞诪专讜讚 讜讬注讬讚 讘讗讘专讛诐 砖诇讗 注讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讬讘讗 诇讘谉 讜讬注讬讚 讘讬注拽讘 砖诇讗 谞讞砖讚 注诇 讛讙讝诇 转讘讗 讗砖转 驻讜讟讬驻专注 讜转注讬讚 讘讬讜住祝 砖诇讗 谞讞砖讚 注诇 讛注讘讬专讛

Instead, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says to the nations: Let the witnesses come from among you and testify that the Jewish people fulfilled the Torah in its entirety. Let Nimrod come and testify about Abraham that he did not engage in idol worship. Let Laban come and testify about Jacob that he is not suspect with regard to robbery (see Genesis 31:36鈥42). Let the wife of Potiphar come and testify about Joseph that he is not suspect with regard to the sin of adultery (see Genesis 39:7鈥12).

讬讘讗 谞讘讜讻讚谞爪专 讜讬注讬讚 讘讞谞谞讬讛 诪讬砖讗诇 讜注讝专讬讛 砖诇讗 讛砖转讞讜讜 诇爪诇诐 讬讘讗 讚专讬讜砖 讜讬注讬讚 讘讚谞讬讗诇 砖诇讗 讘讬讟诇 讗转 讛转驻诇讛 讬讘讗 讘诇讚讚 讛砖讜讞讬 讜爪讜驻专 讛谞注诪转讬 讜讗诇讬驻讝 讛转讬诪谞讬 讜讗诇讬讛讜 讘谉 讘专讻讗诇 讛讘讜讝讬 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘讛诐 讘讬砖专讗诇 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讬转谞讜 注讚讬讛诐 讜讬爪讚拽讜

Let Nebuchadnezzar come and testify about Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah that they did not prostrate themselves before a graven image. Let Darius come and testify about Daniel that he did not neglect his prayer (see Daniel 6). Let Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, and Eliphaz the Temanite, and Elihu, son of Barachel, the Buzite, friends of Job (see Job 2:11 and 32:2) come and testify about the Jewish people that they fulfilled the Torah in its entirety. As it is stated: 鈥淎ll the nations are gathered together鈥let them bring their witnesses, that they may be justified鈥 (Isaiah 43:9), i.e., the gathered gentiles will submit testimony on behalf of the Jewish people and demonstrate the Jews鈥 righteousness.

讗诪专讜 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 转谞讛 诇谞讜 诪专讗砖 讜谞注砖谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讜讟讬诐 砖讘注讜诇诐 诪讬 砖讟专讞 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讬讗讻诇 讘砖讘转 诪讬 砖诇讗 讟专讞 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪讛讬讻谉 讬讗讻诇 讘砖讘转 讗诇讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 诪爪讜讛 拽诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 讜住讜讻讛 砖诪讛 诇讻讜 讜注砖讜 讗讜转讛

The gentiles say before Him: Master of the Universe, give us the Torah afresh and we will perform its mitzvot. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them in response: Fools of the world! Do you think you can request this? One who takes pains on Shabbat eve will eat on Shabbat, but one who did not take pains on Shabbat eve, from where will he eat on Shabbat? The opportunity for performing mitzvot has already passed, and it is now too late to ask to perform them. But even so, I have an easy mitzva to fulfill, and its name is sukka; go and perform it.

讜诪讬 诪爪讬转 讗诪专转 讛讻讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖专 讗谞讻讬 诪爪讜讱 讛讬讜诐 讛讬讜诐 诇注砖讜转诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讞专 诇注砖讜转诐 讛讬讜诐 诇注砖讜转诐 讜诇讗 讛讬讜诐 诇讬讟讜诇 砖讻专

The Gemara asks: And how can you say so, that it is possible to perform a mitzva after the end of this world? But doesn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou shall therefore keep the commandment, and the statutes, and the ordinances, which I command you this day, to do them鈥 (Deuteronomy 7:11)? This verse teaches that today, in this world, is the time to do them, but tomorrow, in the World-to-Come, is not the time to do them. Furthermore, today is the time to do them, but today is not the time to receive one鈥檚 reward, which is granted in the World-to-Come.

讗诇讗 砖讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘讗 讘讟专讜谞讬讗 注诐 讘专讬讜转讬讜 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 诪爪讜讛 拽诇讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讬转 讘讬讛 讞住专讜谉 讻讬住

The Gemara explains: But even so, God gave the nations an opportunity to perform a mitzva, as The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not deal tyrannically [beteruneya] with His creations, but wants them to feel that they have been judged fairly. The Gemara asks: And why does God call the mitzva of sukka an easy mitzva to fulfill? Because performing the mitzva involves no monetary loss.

诪讬讚 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜讟诇 讜讛讜诇讱 讜注讜砖讛 住讜讻讛 讘专讗砖 讙讙讜 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪拽讚讬专 注诇讬讛诐 讞诪讛 讘转拽讜驻转 转诪讜讝 讜讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诪讘注讟 讘住讜讻转讜 讜讬讜爪讗 砖谞讗诪专 谞谞转拽讛 讗转 诪讜住专讜转讬诪讜 讜谞砖诇讬讻讛 诪诪谞讜 注讘转讬诪讜 诪拽讚讬专 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘讗 讘讟专讜谞讬讗 注诐 讘专讬讜转讬讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讬砖专讗诇 谞诪讬 讝讬诪谞讬

Immediately, each and every gentile will take materials and go and construct a sukka on top of his roof. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, will set upon them the heat [makdir] of the sun in the season of Tammuz, i.e., the summer, and each and every one who is sitting in his sukka will be unable to stand the heat, and he will kick his sukka and leave, as it is stated: 鈥淟et us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us鈥 (Psalms 2:3). The Gemara asks: Why does God heat the sun over them? But didn鈥檛 you say that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not deal tyrannically with His creations? The Gemara answers: This is not considered dealing tyrannically with the gentiles, because for the Jewish people as well, there are times

讚诪砖讻讗 诇讛讜 转拽讜驻转 转诪讜讝 注讚 讞讙讗 讜讛讜讬 诇讛讜 爪注专讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讗 诪爪讟注专 驻讟讜专 诪谉 讛住讜讻讛 谞讛讬 讚驻讟讜专 讘注讜讟讬 诪讬 诪讘注讟讬

when the season of Tammuz extends until the festival of Sukkot, and in such years sitting in the sukka causes them suffering. The Gemara asks: But doesn鈥檛 Rava say that one who suffers in the sukka is exempt from performing the mitzva of sukka, and under these circumstances even a Jew is permitted to leave the sukka? If so, why are the gentiles criticized for leaving? The Gemara answers: Granted that one is exempt from performing the mitzva and is permitted to leave his sukka, but should one kick it?

诪讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜诪砖讞拽 注诇讬讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜砖讘 讘砖诪讬诐 讬砖讞拽 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讬谉 砖讞讜拽 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚

The Gemara resumes its narration: Immediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport of those gentiles, i.e., He laughs at them, as it is stated: 鈥淗e that sits in heaven makes sport, the Lord has them in derision鈥 (Psalms 2:4). With regard to this verse, Rabbi Yitz岣k says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讘讗讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讜诪转讙讬讬专讬谉 讜诪讬 诪拽讘诇讬谞谉 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讙专讬诐 诇讬诪讜转 讛诪砖讬讞 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 诇讗 拽讘诇讜 讙专讬诐 诇讗 讘讬诪讬 讚讜讚 讜诇讗 讘讬诪讬 砖诇诪讛

There are those who teach that which Rabbi Yitz岣k subsequently said with regard to this matter, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: In the future, the nations of the world will come and convert. The Gemara asks: And do we accept them as converts at that time? But isn鈥檛 it taught in another baraita: The court does not accept converts in the days of the Messiah; similarly, they did not accept converts either in the days of David or in the days of Solomon, due to a concern that these people wanted to convert for ulterior motives, because the Jewish people were mighty and respected?

讗诇讗 砖谞注砖讜 讙专讬诐 讙专讜专讬诐 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘专讗砖讬讛谉 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘讝专讜注讜转讬讛诐 爪讬爪讬转 讘讘讙讚讬讛诐 诪讝讜讝讛 讘驻转讞讬讛诐

Rather, Rabbi Yosei means that they become converts who have attached themselves to the Jewish people, and they don phylacteries on their heads, phylacteries on their arms, place ritual fringes on their garments, and a mezuza in their doorways.

讻讬讜谉 砖专讜讗讬谉 诪诇讞诪转 讙讜讙 讜诪讙讜讙 讗讜诪专 诇讛谉 注诇 诪讛 讘讗转诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 注诇 讛壮 讜注诇 诪砖讬讞讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪讛 专讙砖讜 讙讜讬诐 讜诇讗诪讬诐 讬讛讙讜 专讬拽 讜讙讜壮

When these converts see the war of Gog and Magog, every convert of this sort will say to Gog and Magog: For what purpose did you come? They will say to him: We came to fight against the Lord and against His Messiah, as it is stated: 鈥淲hy are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain. The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Messiah鈥 (Psalms 2:1鈥2).

讜讻诇 讗讞讚 诪谞转拽 诪爪讜转讜 讜讛讜诇讱 砖谞讗诪专 谞谞转拽讛 讗转 诪讜住专讜转讬诪讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜诪砖讞拽 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜砖讘 讘砖诪讬诐 讬砖讞拽 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讞讜拽 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚

And then every one of these converts will tear loose his sign of performance of a mitzva and leave, as it is stated: 鈥淟et us tear their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us鈥 (Psalms 2:3). And the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport, i.e., laughs or rejoices, as it is stated: 鈥淗e that sits in heaven makes sport, the Lord has them in derision鈥 (Psalms 2:4). Rabbi Yitz岣k says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 砖注讜转 讛讜讬 讛讬讜诐 砖诇砖 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 砖谞讬讜转 讬讜砖讘 讜讚谉 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讻讬讜谉 砖专讜讗讛 砖谞转讞讬讬讘 注讜诇诐 讻诇讬讬讛 注讜诪讚 诪讻住讗 讛讚讬谉 讜讬讜砖讘 注诇 讻住讗 专讞诪讬诐

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Is there is no other making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He? But doesn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: There are twelve hours in the day. During the first three, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and engages in Torah study. During the second three hours, He sits and judges the entire world. Once He sees that the world has rendered itself liable to destruction, He arises from the throne of judgment and sits on the throne of mercy, and the world is not destroyed.

砖诇讬砖讬讜转 讬讜砖讘 讜讝谉 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪拽专谞讬 专讗诪讬诐 注讚 讘讬爪讬 讻谞讬诐 专讘讬注讬讜转 讬讜砖讘 讜诪砖讞拽 注诐 诇讜讬转谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇讜讬转谉 讝讛 讬爪专转 诇砖讞拽 讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 注诐 讘专讬讜转讬讜 诪砖讞拽 讜注诇 讘专讬讜转讬讜 讗讬谞讜 诪砖讞拽 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚

During the third set of three hours, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and sustains the entire world, from the horns of wild oxen to the eggs of lice. During the fourth three hours, He sits and makes sport with the leviathan, as it is stated: 鈥淭here is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with鈥 (Psalms 104:26). Evidently, God makes sport every day, not only on that one day. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says in explanation: He makes sport with His creations, just as He sports with the leviathan; He does not make sport of His creations but on that day alone.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讞讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 砖讞讜拽 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜诪谞诇谉 讚诇讬讻讗 砖讞讜拽 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽专讗 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 爪讘讗讜转 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 诇讘讻讬 讜诇诪住驻讚 讜诇拽专讞讛 讜讙讜壮 讚诇诪讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讜转讜 诇讗

Rav A岣 said to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k: From the day the Temple was destroyed, there is no longer any making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He. And from where do we derive that there is no making sport? If we say that it is from that which is written: 鈥淎nd in that day did the Lord, the God of hosts, call to weeping, and to lamentation, and to baldness and to girding with sackcloth鈥 (Isaiah 22:12), that is inconclusive: Perhaps that day alone was called for weeping and lamentation, and no additional days.

讗诇讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 讗砖讻讞讱 讬专讜砖诇诐 转砖讻讞 讬诪讬谞讬 转讚讘拽 诇砖讜谞讬 诇讞讻讬 讗诐 诇讗 讗讝讻专讻讬 讚诇诪讗 砖讻讞讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讗讘诇 砖讞讜拽 诪讬讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讗诇讗 诪讛讗 讛讞砖讬转讬 诪注讜诇诐 讗讞专讬砖 讗转讗驻拽 讜讙讜壮

Rather, you might suggest that the source is that it is written: 鈥淚f I forget you, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I do not remember you鈥 (Psalms 137:5鈥6). This is also inconclusive, as perhaps there is no forgetting of Jerusalem for God, but in any event there is still making sport. Rather, it is derived from this verse: 鈥淚 have long time held My peace, I have been still, and refrained Myself; now will I cry like a travailing woman, gasping and panting at once鈥 (Isaiah 42:14).

讘专讘讬注讬讜转 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 讬讜砖讘 讜诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗转 诪讬 讬讜专讛 讚注讛 讜讗转 诪讬 讬讘讬谉 砖诪讜注讛 讙诪讜诇讬 诪讞诇讘 注转讬拽讬 诪砖讚讬诐 诇诪讬 讬讜专讛 讚注讛 讜诇诪讬 讬讘讬谉 砖诪讜注讛 诇讙诪讜诇讬 诪讞诇讘 讜诇注转讬拽讬 诪砖讚讬诐

The Gemara asks: If God no longer makes sport, what does He now do during the fourth three-hour period of the day? The Gemara answers: He sits and teaches Torah to schoolchildren, as it is stated: 鈥淲hom shall one teach knowledge? And whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk, them that are drawn from the breasts鈥 (Isaiah 28:9). The verse is interpreted in the following manner: To whom does God teach knowledge, and to whom does He make to understand the message? To those who are just weaned from the milk and to those who are drawn from the breasts, i.e., children only recently weaned from nursing.

讜诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗谉 讛讜讛 诪讬讙诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讬讟讟专讜谉 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 注讘讬讚

The Gemara asks: And initially, before the destruction of the Temple, who would teach the schoolchildren? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the angel Metatron would teach them, and if you wish, say instead that He would do both this, sport with the leviathan, and that, teach the schoolchildren; whereas after the destruction of the Temple in the fourth period of the day He only teaches the schoolchildren.

讜讘诇讬诇讬讗 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪注讬谉 讬诪诪讗 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讜讻讘 注诇 讻专讜讘 拽诇 砖诇讜 讜砖讟 讘砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讗诇祝 注讜诇诪讜转 砖谞讗诪专 专讻讘 讗诇讛讬诐 专讘转讬诐 讗诇驻讬 砖谞讗谉 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖谞讗谉 讗诇讗 砖讗讬谞谉 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讬讜砖讘 讜砖讜诪注 砖讬专讛 诪驻讬 讞讬讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讘诇讬诇讛 砖讬专讛 注诪讬

The Gemara asks: And during the twelve hours of the night, what does God do? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the night is similar to the day, i.e., God performs the same activities as in the day. And if you wish, say instead that He rides on his light cherub and flies in eighteen thousand worlds, as it is stated: 鈥淭he chariots of God are twenty thousand, even [shinan] thousands鈥 (Psalms 68:18). Do not read it as even [shinan], rather read it as: That which are not [she鈥檈inan]. Since the minimum of thousands is two thousand, the phrase: That which are not thousands, indicates that two thousand are not present, i.e., the chariots of God are twenty thousand minus two thousand, which means that God rides in eighteen thousand worlds. And if you wish, say instead that God sits and listens to the songs from the mouths of the angelic creatures, as it is stated: 鈥淏y day the Lord will command His loving-kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me鈥 (Psalms 42:9).

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛驻讜住拽 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜注讜住拽 讘讚讘专讬 砖讬讞讛 诪讗讻讬诇讬谉 诇讜 讙讞诇讬 专转诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛拽讟驻讬诐 诪诇讜讞 注诇讬 砖讬讞 讜砖专砖 专转诪讬诐 诇讞诪诐 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜砖讱 注诇讬讜 讞讜讟 砖诇 讞住讚 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讘诇讬诇讛 砖讬专讛 注诪讬 诪讛 讟注诐 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讘诇讬诇讛 砖讬专讜 注诪讬

Rabbi Levi says: Anyone who interrupts his study of words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane matters will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey pluck salt-wort from wormwood, and the roots of the broom are their food鈥 (Job 30:4). Reish Lakish says: With regard to any-one who occupies himself with Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: 鈥淏y day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me鈥 (Psalms 42:9). The verse is understood as follows: What is the reason that by day, the Lord will command His kindness to extend over him? It is due to the fact that in the night His song is with me, i.e., he occupies himself at night with Torah, which is referred to as a song.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讛讚讜诪讛 诇诇讬诇讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜砖讱 注诇讬讜 讞讜讟 砖诇 讞住讚 讘注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讛讚讜诪讛 诇讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讙讜壮

There are those who say that this is what Reish Lakish says: With regard to anyone who occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: 鈥淏y day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜转注砖讛 讗讚诐 讻讚讙讬 讛讬诐 讻专诪砖 诇讗 诪砖诇 讘讜 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讻讚讙讬 讛讬诐 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讘讬诐 讻讬讜谉 砖注讜诇讬谉 诇讬讘砖讛 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐 讗祝 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讻讬讜谉 砖驻讜专砖讬谉 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛诪爪讜转 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐 讚讘专 讗讞专 诪讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讘讬诐 讻讬讜谉 砖拽讚专讛 注诇讬讛诐 讞诪讛 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐 讻讱 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讻讬讜谉 砖拽讚专讛 注诇讬讛诐 讞诪讛 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐

The Gemara continues discussing the importance of Torah study. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd makes people as the fish of the sea, as the creeping things, that have no ruler over them鈥 (Habakkuk 1:14)? Why are people compared to the fish of the sea? This serves to say to you: Just as with regard to the fish of the sea, once they arise onto dry land they die immediately; so too, with regard to people, once they separate themselves from studying words of Torah and performing the mitzvot, they die immediately. Alternatively, just as with regard to the fish of the sea, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately, so too with regard to people, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately.

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讻诇 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讞讜抓 诪爪谞讬诐 驻讞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 爪谞讬诐 驻讞讬诐 讘讚专讱 注拽砖 砖讜诪专 谞驻砖讜 讬专讞拽 诪讛诐

The Gemara clarifies: If you wish, say that this applies in this world, and if you wish, say instead that it applies to the World-to-Come. If you wish, say that it applies in this world, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina. As Rabbi 岣nina says: All occurrences that befall man are in the hands of Heaven except for colds and obstacles [pa岣m], from which one is able to protect himself, as it is stated: 鈥淐olds and snares are on the path of the crooked; he who guards his soul shall keep far from them鈥 (Proverbs 22:5). This indicates that cold and, conversely, heat, are forms of harm from which one must protect himself, which teaches that being exposed to excessive heat can cause death.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗讬谉 讙讬讛谞诐 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜爪讬讗 讞诪讛 诪谞专转讬拽讛 讜诪拽讚讬专 专砖注讬诐 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘讛 讜爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪转专驻讗讬谉 讘讛 专砖注讬诐 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉

And if you wish, say instead that this is referring to the World-to-Come, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: There is no Gehenna in the World-to-Come. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will remove the sun from its sheath [minnarteikah], where it is situated during these times, and heats [umakdir] that world with it. The wicked will be punished by it and consumed by the heat, but the righteous will be healed by it. The wicked will be punished

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Avodah Zarah 3

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 3

诇讜诪专 砖讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转谉 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 砖讻专

This serves to say that even if they fulfill the seven Noahide mitzvot they do not receive a reward for their fulfilment.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讙讜讬 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 砖讛讜讗 讻讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗砖专 讬注砖讛 讗转诐 讛讗讚诐 讜讞讬 讘讛诐 讻讛谞讬诐 诇讜讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇讬诐 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讛讗讚诐 讛讗 诇诪讚转 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讙讜讬 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讻讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇

The Gemara asks: And are they not rewarded for fulfilling those mitzvot? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: From where is it derived that even a gentile who engages in Torah study is considered like a High Priest? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall therefore keep My statutes and My ordinances, which if a person do, and shall live by them鈥 (Leviticus 18:5). It is not stated: Priests, Levites, and Israelites, but rather the general term 鈥減erson.鈥 From here you learn that even a gentile who engages in the study of Torah is like a High Priest. This demonstrates that gentiles are rewarded for fulfilling mitzvot, despite the fact that they are not commanded to do so.

讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 砖讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 砖讻专 讻诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛 讗诇讗 讻诪讬 砖讗讬谞讜 诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讙讚讜诇 讛诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛 讬讜转专 诪砖讗讬谞讜 诪爪讜讜讛 讜注讜砖讛

Rather, the verse serves to tell you that they do not receive as great a reward for their fulfillment as one who is commanded and performs a mitzva. Rather, they receive a lesser reward, like that of one who is not commanded and still performs a mitzva. As Rabbi 岣nina says: Greater is one who is commanded to do a mitzva and performs it than one who is not commanded and performs it.

讗诇讗 讻讱 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讙讜讬诐 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讬砖专讗诇 砖拽讬讘诇讜讛 讛讬讻谉 拽讬讬诪讜讛

The Gemara returns to the discussion between God and the nations of the world, whose claims are rejected with the rebuttal that they did not receive the Torah because they did not fulfill the seven Noahide mitzvot that were incumbent upon them. Rather, this is what the gentiles say before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, as for the Jewish people who accepted the Torah, where is the evidence that they fulfilled its mitzvot?

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗谞讬 诪注讬讚 讘讛诐 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 讗讘 砖诪注讬讚 注诇 讘谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘谞讬 讘讻讜专讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 讬注讬讚讜 讘讛诐 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them in response: I will testify about the Jewish people that they fulfilled the Torah in its entirety. The nations say before Him: Master of the Universe, is there a father who can testify about his son? As it is written: 鈥淚srael is My son, My firstborn鈥 (Exodus 4:22). Since God is considered the Father of the Jewish people, He is disqualified from testifying on their behalf. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Heaven and earth will testify about them that they fulfilled the Torah in its entirety.

讗讜诪专讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 谞讜讙注讬谉 讘注讚讜转谉 砖谞讗诪专 讗诐 诇讗 讘专讬转讬 讬讜诪诐 讜诇讬诇讛 讞拽讜转 砖诪讬诐 讜讗专抓 诇讗 砖诪转讬 (讚讗诪专) [讜讗诪专] 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讛讬 注专讘 讜讬讛讬 讘拽专 讬讜诐 讛砖砖讬 诪诇诪讚 砖讛转谞讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诐 诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讗诪专 讗诐 讬砖专讗诇 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讗转 转讜专转讬 诪讜讟讘 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 讗谞讬 讗讞讝讬专 讗转讻诐 诇转讜讛讜 讜讘讜讛讜

The nations say before Him: Master of the Universe, in this matter the testimony of heaven and earth is tainted by a conflict of interest, as it is stated: 鈥淚f My covenant be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth鈥 (Jeremiah 33:25). And concerning this verse, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day鈥 (Genesis 1:31)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the acts of Creation, and said: If the Jewish people accept My Torah at the revelation at Sinai, all is well, but if they do not accept it, I will return you to the primordial state of chaos and disorder.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 讞讝拽讬讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪砖诪讬诐 讛砖诪注转 讚讬谉 讗专抓 讬专讗讛 讜砖拽讟讛 讗诐 讬专讗讛 诇诪讛 砖拽讟讛 讜讗诐 砖拽讟讛 诇诪讛 讬专讗讛 讗诇讗 讘转讞诇讛 讬专讗讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 砖拽讟讛

And this is similar to that which 岣zkiyya says with regard to a different matter: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard from heaven; the earth feared, and was silent鈥 (Psalms 76:9)? If the earth feared, why was it silent, and if it was silent, why did it fear? One who is afraid does not stay silent, and one who remains silent thereby demonstrates that he is not afraid. Rather, this is the meaning of the verse: At first, when God came to give the Torah to the Jewish people, the earth feared that they might not accept it, and it would be destroyed. This is alluded to by the phrase 鈥淵ou caused sentence to be heard.鈥 But ultimately, when the Jews accepted the Torah, the earth was silent. Consequently, heaven and earth are interested parties and cannot testify about the Jewish people鈥檚 commitment to the Torah.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讻诐 讬讘讗讜 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘讛谉 讘讬砖专讗诇 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讬讘讗 谞诪专讜讚 讜讬注讬讚 讘讗讘专讛诐 砖诇讗 注讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讬讘讗 诇讘谉 讜讬注讬讚 讘讬注拽讘 砖诇讗 谞讞砖讚 注诇 讛讙讝诇 转讘讗 讗砖转 驻讜讟讬驻专注 讜转注讬讚 讘讬讜住祝 砖诇讗 谞讞砖讚 注诇 讛注讘讬专讛

Instead, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says to the nations: Let the witnesses come from among you and testify that the Jewish people fulfilled the Torah in its entirety. Let Nimrod come and testify about Abraham that he did not engage in idol worship. Let Laban come and testify about Jacob that he is not suspect with regard to robbery (see Genesis 31:36鈥42). Let the wife of Potiphar come and testify about Joseph that he is not suspect with regard to the sin of adultery (see Genesis 39:7鈥12).

讬讘讗 谞讘讜讻讚谞爪专 讜讬注讬讚 讘讞谞谞讬讛 诪讬砖讗诇 讜注讝专讬讛 砖诇讗 讛砖转讞讜讜 诇爪诇诐 讬讘讗 讚专讬讜砖 讜讬注讬讚 讘讚谞讬讗诇 砖诇讗 讘讬讟诇 讗转 讛转驻诇讛 讬讘讗 讘诇讚讚 讛砖讜讞讬 讜爪讜驻专 讛谞注诪转讬 讜讗诇讬驻讝 讛转讬诪谞讬 讜讗诇讬讛讜 讘谉 讘专讻讗诇 讛讘讜讝讬 讜讬注讬讚讜 讘讛诐 讘讬砖专讗诇 砖拽讬讬诪讜 讗转 讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讬转谞讜 注讚讬讛诐 讜讬爪讚拽讜

Let Nebuchadnezzar come and testify about Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah that they did not prostrate themselves before a graven image. Let Darius come and testify about Daniel that he did not neglect his prayer (see Daniel 6). Let Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite, and Eliphaz the Temanite, and Elihu, son of Barachel, the Buzite, friends of Job (see Job 2:11 and 32:2) come and testify about the Jewish people that they fulfilled the Torah in its entirety. As it is stated: 鈥淎ll the nations are gathered together鈥let them bring their witnesses, that they may be justified鈥 (Isaiah 43:9), i.e., the gathered gentiles will submit testimony on behalf of the Jewish people and demonstrate the Jews鈥 righteousness.

讗诪专讜 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 转谞讛 诇谞讜 诪专讗砖 讜谞注砖谞讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讜讟讬诐 砖讘注讜诇诐 诪讬 砖讟专讞 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讬讗讻诇 讘砖讘转 诪讬 砖诇讗 讟专讞 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪讛讬讻谉 讬讗讻诇 讘砖讘转 讗诇讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 诪爪讜讛 拽诇讛 讬砖 诇讬 讜住讜讻讛 砖诪讛 诇讻讜 讜注砖讜 讗讜转讛

The gentiles say before Him: Master of the Universe, give us the Torah afresh and we will perform its mitzvot. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them in response: Fools of the world! Do you think you can request this? One who takes pains on Shabbat eve will eat on Shabbat, but one who did not take pains on Shabbat eve, from where will he eat on Shabbat? The opportunity for performing mitzvot has already passed, and it is now too late to ask to perform them. But even so, I have an easy mitzva to fulfill, and its name is sukka; go and perform it.

讜诪讬 诪爪讬转 讗诪专转 讛讻讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖专 讗谞讻讬 诪爪讜讱 讛讬讜诐 讛讬讜诐 诇注砖讜转诐 讜诇讗 诇诪讞专 诇注砖讜转诐 讛讬讜诐 诇注砖讜转诐 讜诇讗 讛讬讜诐 诇讬讟讜诇 砖讻专

The Gemara asks: And how can you say so, that it is possible to perform a mitzva after the end of this world? But doesn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou shall therefore keep the commandment, and the statutes, and the ordinances, which I command you this day, to do them鈥 (Deuteronomy 7:11)? This verse teaches that today, in this world, is the time to do them, but tomorrow, in the World-to-Come, is not the time to do them. Furthermore, today is the time to do them, but today is not the time to receive one鈥檚 reward, which is granted in the World-to-Come.

讗诇讗 砖讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘讗 讘讟专讜谞讬讗 注诐 讘专讬讜转讬讜 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 诪爪讜讛 拽诇讛 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讬转 讘讬讛 讞住专讜谉 讻讬住

The Gemara explains: But even so, God gave the nations an opportunity to perform a mitzva, as The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not deal tyrannically [beteruneya] with His creations, but wants them to feel that they have been judged fairly. The Gemara asks: And why does God call the mitzva of sukka an easy mitzva to fulfill? Because performing the mitzva involves no monetary loss.

诪讬讚 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 谞讜讟诇 讜讛讜诇讱 讜注讜砖讛 住讜讻讛 讘专讗砖 讙讙讜 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪拽讚讬专 注诇讬讛诐 讞诪讛 讘转拽讜驻转 转诪讜讝 讜讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 诪讘注讟 讘住讜讻转讜 讜讬讜爪讗 砖谞讗诪专 谞谞转拽讛 讗转 诪讜住专讜转讬诪讜 讜谞砖诇讬讻讛 诪诪谞讜 注讘转讬诪讜 诪拽讚讬专 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘讗 讘讟专讜谞讬讗 注诐 讘专讬讜转讬讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讬砖专讗诇 谞诪讬 讝讬诪谞讬

Immediately, each and every gentile will take materials and go and construct a sukka on top of his roof. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, will set upon them the heat [makdir] of the sun in the season of Tammuz, i.e., the summer, and each and every one who is sitting in his sukka will be unable to stand the heat, and he will kick his sukka and leave, as it is stated: 鈥淟et us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us鈥 (Psalms 2:3). The Gemara asks: Why does God heat the sun over them? But didn鈥檛 you say that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not deal tyrannically with His creations? The Gemara answers: This is not considered dealing tyrannically with the gentiles, because for the Jewish people as well, there are times

讚诪砖讻讗 诇讛讜 转拽讜驻转 转诪讜讝 注讚 讞讙讗 讜讛讜讬 诇讛讜 爪注专讗 讜讛讗诪专 专讘讗 诪爪讟注专 驻讟讜专 诪谉 讛住讜讻讛 谞讛讬 讚驻讟讜专 讘注讜讟讬 诪讬 诪讘注讟讬

when the season of Tammuz extends until the festival of Sukkot, and in such years sitting in the sukka causes them suffering. The Gemara asks: But doesn鈥檛 Rava say that one who suffers in the sukka is exempt from performing the mitzva of sukka, and under these circumstances even a Jew is permitted to leave the sukka? If so, why are the gentiles criticized for leaving? The Gemara answers: Granted that one is exempt from performing the mitzva and is permitted to leave his sukka, but should one kick it?

诪讬讚 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜诪砖讞拽 注诇讬讛谉 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜砖讘 讘砖诪讬诐 讬砖讞拽 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讬谉 砖讞讜拽 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚

The Gemara resumes its narration: Immediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport of those gentiles, i.e., He laughs at them, as it is stated: 鈥淗e that sits in heaven makes sport, the Lord has them in derision鈥 (Psalms 2:4). With regard to this verse, Rabbi Yitz岣k says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讘讗讬谉 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讜诪转讙讬讬专讬谉 讜诪讬 诪拽讘诇讬谞谉 诪讬谞讬讬讛讜 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 诪拽讘诇讬谉 讙专讬诐 诇讬诪讜转 讛诪砖讬讞 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讜 诇讗 拽讘诇讜 讙专讬诐 诇讗 讘讬诪讬 讚讜讚 讜诇讗 讘讬诪讬 砖诇诪讛

There are those who teach that which Rabbi Yitz岣k subsequently said with regard to this matter, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: In the future, the nations of the world will come and convert. The Gemara asks: And do we accept them as converts at that time? But isn鈥檛 it taught in another baraita: The court does not accept converts in the days of the Messiah; similarly, they did not accept converts either in the days of David or in the days of Solomon, due to a concern that these people wanted to convert for ulterior motives, because the Jewish people were mighty and respected?

讗诇讗 砖谞注砖讜 讙专讬诐 讙专讜专讬诐 讜诪谞讬讞讬谉 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘专讗砖讬讛谉 转驻讬诇讬谉 讘讝专讜注讜转讬讛诐 爪讬爪讬转 讘讘讙讚讬讛诐 诪讝讜讝讛 讘驻转讞讬讛诐

Rather, Rabbi Yosei means that they become converts who have attached themselves to the Jewish people, and they don phylacteries on their heads, phylacteries on their arms, place ritual fringes on their garments, and a mezuza in their doorways.

讻讬讜谉 砖专讜讗讬谉 诪诇讞诪转 讙讜讙 讜诪讙讜讙 讗讜诪专 诇讛谉 注诇 诪讛 讘讗转诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 注诇 讛壮 讜注诇 诪砖讬讞讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇诪讛 专讙砖讜 讙讜讬诐 讜诇讗诪讬诐 讬讛讙讜 专讬拽 讜讙讜壮

When these converts see the war of Gog and Magog, every convert of this sort will say to Gog and Magog: For what purpose did you come? They will say to him: We came to fight against the Lord and against His Messiah, as it is stated: 鈥淲hy are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain. The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Messiah鈥 (Psalms 2:1鈥2).

讜讻诇 讗讞讚 诪谞转拽 诪爪讜转讜 讜讛讜诇讱 砖谞讗诪专 谞谞转拽讛 讗转 诪讜住专讜转讬诪讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜诪砖讞拽 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜砖讘 讘砖诪讬诐 讬砖讞拽 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讞讜拽 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚

And then every one of these converts will tear loose his sign of performance of a mitzva and leave, as it is stated: 鈥淟et us tear their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us鈥 (Psalms 2:3). And the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and makes sport, i.e., laughs or rejoices, as it is stated: 鈥淗e that sits in heaven makes sport, the Lord has them in derision鈥 (Psalms 2:4). Rabbi Yitz岣k says: There is no making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He, but on that day alone.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖转讬诐 注砖专讛 砖注讜转 讛讜讬 讛讬讜诐 砖诇砖 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 砖谞讬讜转 讬讜砖讘 讜讚谉 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讻讬讜谉 砖专讜讗讛 砖谞转讞讬讬讘 注讜诇诐 讻诇讬讬讛 注讜诪讚 诪讻住讗 讛讚讬谉 讜讬讜砖讘 注诇 讻住讗 专讞诪讬诐

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Is there is no other making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He? But doesn鈥檛 Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: There are twelve hours in the day. During the first three, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and engages in Torah study. During the second three hours, He sits and judges the entire world. Once He sees that the world has rendered itself liable to destruction, He arises from the throne of judgment and sits on the throne of mercy, and the world is not destroyed.

砖诇讬砖讬讜转 讬讜砖讘 讜讝谉 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诪拽专谞讬 专讗诪讬诐 注讚 讘讬爪讬 讻谞讬诐 专讘讬注讬讜转 讬讜砖讘 讜诪砖讞拽 注诐 诇讜讬转谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇讜讬转谉 讝讛 讬爪专转 诇砖讞拽 讘讜 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 注诐 讘专讬讜转讬讜 诪砖讞拽 讜注诇 讘专讬讜转讬讜 讗讬谞讜 诪砖讞拽 讗诇讗 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚

During the third set of three hours, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and sustains the entire world, from the horns of wild oxen to the eggs of lice. During the fourth three hours, He sits and makes sport with the leviathan, as it is stated: 鈥淭here is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with鈥 (Psalms 104:26). Evidently, God makes sport every day, not only on that one day. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says in explanation: He makes sport with His creations, just as He sports with the leviathan; He does not make sport of His creations but on that day alone.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讞讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 砖讞讜拽 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜诪谞诇谉 讚诇讬讻讗 砖讞讜拽 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽专讗 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 爪讘讗讜转 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 诇讘讻讬 讜诇诪住驻讚 讜诇拽专讞讛 讜讙讜壮 讚诇诪讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讜转讜 诇讗

Rav A岣 said to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k: From the day the Temple was destroyed, there is no longer any making sport for the Holy One, Blessed be He. And from where do we derive that there is no making sport? If we say that it is from that which is written: 鈥淎nd in that day did the Lord, the God of hosts, call to weeping, and to lamentation, and to baldness and to girding with sackcloth鈥 (Isaiah 22:12), that is inconclusive: Perhaps that day alone was called for weeping and lamentation, and no additional days.

讗诇讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 讗砖讻讞讱 讬专讜砖诇诐 转砖讻讞 讬诪讬谞讬 转讚讘拽 诇砖讜谞讬 诇讞讻讬 讗诐 诇讗 讗讝讻专讻讬 讚诇诪讗 砖讻讞讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讗讘诇 砖讞讜拽 诪讬讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讗诇讗 诪讛讗 讛讞砖讬转讬 诪注讜诇诐 讗讞专讬砖 讗转讗驻拽 讜讙讜壮

Rather, you might suggest that the source is that it is written: 鈥淚f I forget you, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I do not remember you鈥 (Psalms 137:5鈥6). This is also inconclusive, as perhaps there is no forgetting of Jerusalem for God, but in any event there is still making sport. Rather, it is derived from this verse: 鈥淚 have long time held My peace, I have been still, and refrained Myself; now will I cry like a travailing woman, gasping and panting at once鈥 (Isaiah 42:14).

讘专讘讬注讬讜转 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 讬讜砖讘 讜诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗转 诪讬 讬讜专讛 讚注讛 讜讗转 诪讬 讬讘讬谉 砖诪讜注讛 讙诪讜诇讬 诪讞诇讘 注转讬拽讬 诪砖讚讬诐 诇诪讬 讬讜专讛 讚注讛 讜诇诪讬 讬讘讬谉 砖诪讜注讛 诇讙诪讜诇讬 诪讞诇讘 讜诇注转讬拽讬 诪砖讚讬诐

The Gemara asks: If God no longer makes sport, what does He now do during the fourth three-hour period of the day? The Gemara answers: He sits and teaches Torah to schoolchildren, as it is stated: 鈥淲hom shall one teach knowledge? And whom shall one make to understand the message? Them that are weaned from the milk, them that are drawn from the breasts鈥 (Isaiah 28:9). The verse is interpreted in the following manner: To whom does God teach knowledge, and to whom does He make to understand the message? To those who are just weaned from the milk and to those who are drawn from the breasts, i.e., children only recently weaned from nursing.

讜诪注讬拽专讗 诪讗谉 讛讜讛 诪讬讙诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讬讟讟专讜谉 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 注讘讬讚

The Gemara asks: And initially, before the destruction of the Temple, who would teach the schoolchildren? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the angel Metatron would teach them, and if you wish, say instead that He would do both this, sport with the leviathan, and that, teach the schoolchildren; whereas after the destruction of the Temple in the fourth period of the day He only teaches the schoolchildren.

讜讘诇讬诇讬讗 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪注讬谉 讬诪诪讗 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讜讻讘 注诇 讻专讜讘 拽诇 砖诇讜 讜砖讟 讘砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专 讗诇祝 注讜诇诪讜转 砖谞讗诪专 专讻讘 讗诇讛讬诐 专讘转讬诐 讗诇驻讬 砖谞讗谉 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖谞讗谉 讗诇讗 砖讗讬谞谉 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讬讜砖讘 讜砖讜诪注 砖讬专讛 诪驻讬 讞讬讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讘诇讬诇讛 砖讬专讛 注诪讬

The Gemara asks: And during the twelve hours of the night, what does God do? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that the night is similar to the day, i.e., God performs the same activities as in the day. And if you wish, say instead that He rides on his light cherub and flies in eighteen thousand worlds, as it is stated: 鈥淭he chariots of God are twenty thousand, even [shinan] thousands鈥 (Psalms 68:18). Do not read it as even [shinan], rather read it as: That which are not [she鈥檈inan]. Since the minimum of thousands is two thousand, the phrase: That which are not thousands, indicates that two thousand are not present, i.e., the chariots of God are twenty thousand minus two thousand, which means that God rides in eighteen thousand worlds. And if you wish, say instead that God sits and listens to the songs from the mouths of the angelic creatures, as it is stated: 鈥淏y day the Lord will command His loving-kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me鈥 (Psalms 42:9).

讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛驻讜住拽 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜注讜住拽 讘讚讘专讬 砖讬讞讛 诪讗讻讬诇讬谉 诇讜 讙讞诇讬 专转诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛拽讟驻讬诐 诪诇讜讞 注诇讬 砖讬讞 讜砖专砖 专转诪讬诐 诇讞诪诐 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜砖讱 注诇讬讜 讞讜讟 砖诇 讞住讚 讘讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讘诇讬诇讛 砖讬专讛 注诪讬 诪讛 讟注诐 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讘诇讬诇讛 砖讬专讜 注诪讬

Rabbi Levi says: Anyone who interrupts his study of words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane matters will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey pluck salt-wort from wormwood, and the roots of the broom are their food鈥 (Job 30:4). Reish Lakish says: With regard to any-one who occupies himself with Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: 鈥淏y day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me鈥 (Psalms 42:9). The verse is understood as follows: What is the reason that by day, the Lord will command His kindness to extend over him? It is due to the fact that in the night His song is with me, i.e., he occupies himself at night with Torah, which is referred to as a song.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讛讚讜诪讛 诇诇讬诇讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜砖讱 注诇讬讜 讞讜讟 砖诇 讞住讚 讘注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讛讚讜诪讛 诇讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讬讜诪诐 讬爪讜讛 讛壮 讞住讚讜 讜讙讜壮

There are those who say that this is what Reish Lakish says: With regard to anyone who occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: 鈥淏y day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song shall be with me.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜转注砖讛 讗讚诐 讻讚讙讬 讛讬诐 讻专诪砖 诇讗 诪砖诇 讘讜 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讻讚讙讬 讛讬诐 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讘讬诐 讻讬讜谉 砖注讜诇讬谉 诇讬讘砖讛 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐 讗祝 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讻讬讜谉 砖驻讜专砖讬谉 诪讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛诪爪讜转 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐 讚讘专 讗讞专 诪讛 讚讙讬诐 砖讘讬诐 讻讬讜谉 砖拽讚专讛 注诇讬讛诐 讞诪讛 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐 讻讱 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讻讬讜谉 砖拽讚专讛 注诇讬讛诐 讞诪讛 诪讬讚 诪转讬诐

The Gemara continues discussing the importance of Torah study. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd makes people as the fish of the sea, as the creeping things, that have no ruler over them鈥 (Habakkuk 1:14)? Why are people compared to the fish of the sea? This serves to say to you: Just as with regard to the fish of the sea, once they arise onto dry land they die immediately; so too, with regard to people, once they separate themselves from studying words of Torah and performing the mitzvot, they die immediately. Alternatively, just as with regard to the fish of the sea, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately, so too with regard to people, once the sun is heated over them they die immediately.

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讻诇 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讞讜抓 诪爪谞讬诐 驻讞讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 爪谞讬诐 驻讞讬诐 讘讚专讱 注拽砖 砖讜诪专 谞驻砖讜 讬专讞拽 诪讛诐

The Gemara clarifies: If you wish, say that this applies in this world, and if you wish, say instead that it applies to the World-to-Come. If you wish, say that it applies in this world, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi 岣nina. As Rabbi 岣nina says: All occurrences that befall man are in the hands of Heaven except for colds and obstacles [pa岣m], from which one is able to protect himself, as it is stated: 鈥淐olds and snares are on the path of the crooked; he who guards his soul shall keep far from them鈥 (Proverbs 22:5). This indicates that cold and, conversely, heat, are forms of harm from which one must protect himself, which teaches that being exposed to excessive heat can cause death.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讻讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讗讬谉 讙讬讛谞诐 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讗诇讗 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讜爪讬讗 讞诪讛 诪谞专转讬拽讛 讜诪拽讚讬专 专砖注讬诐 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘讛 讜爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪转专驻讗讬谉 讘讛 专砖注讬诐 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉

And if you wish, say instead that this is referring to the World-to-Come, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: There is no Gehenna in the World-to-Come. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will remove the sun from its sheath [minnarteikah], where it is situated during these times, and heats [umakdir] that world with it. The wicked will be punished by it and consumed by the heat, but the righteous will be healed by it. The wicked will be punished

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