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Today's Daf Yomi

January 17, 2018 | ืืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

Avodah Zarah 2

The mishna forbids all sorts of business dealings with idol worshippers three days before their holidays. Rav and Shmuel discuss the exact spelling of the word used for holidays – “eidaihem” – is it with an aleph or ayin and from which verse in the Torah is the termย learned from? One of the verses mentioned is the subject of a long agadaย aboutย the nations coming before God in the World to Come looking to get rewarded for Torah and God reprimanding them for never having kept the Torah. Various claims are mentioned trying to justify why they didn’t keep the Torah.


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ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ื•ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชืŸ ื•ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ื•ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื™ืฆืจ ื”ื•ื ืœื• ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืžื™ืฆืจ ื”ื•ื ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื— ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ

MISHNA: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles the following actions are prohibited, as they would bring joy to the gentile, who would subsequently give thanks to his object of idol worship on his festival: It is prohibited to engage in business with them; to lend items to them or to borrow items from them; to lend money to them or to borrow money from them; and to repay debts owed to them or to collect repayment of debts from them. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may collect repayment of debts from them because this causes the gentile distress. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda: Even though he is distressed now, when he repays the money, he is happy afterward that he is relieved of the debt, and therefore there is concern that he will give thanks to his object of idol worship on his festival.

ื’ืžืณ ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ

GEMARA: Rav and Shmuel disagree with regard to the correct version of the text of the mishna. One teaches the term meaning: Their festivals, as eideihen, spelled with an alef as the first letter, and one teaches eideihen with an ayin as the first letter. The Gemara comments: The one who teaches eideihen with an alef is not mistaken, and the one who teaches eideihen with an ayin is not mistaken, as there is support for each version of the term.

ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืงืจื•ื‘ ื™ื•ื ืื™ื“ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื•

The Gemara elaborates: The one who teaches eideihen with an alef is not mistaken, as it is written: โ€œFor the day of their calamity [eidam] is at handโ€ (Deuteronomy 32:35), and the future downfall mentioned in the verse is partly due to the festivals of idol worshippers. The term there is spelled with an alef. And likewise, the one who teaches eideihen with an ayin is not mistaken, as it is written: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses [eideihem], that they may be justifiedโ€ (Isaiah 43:9), i.e., the festivals will serve as witnesses against gentile sinners, proving that they engaged in idol worship. The term there is spelled with an ayin.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืชื‘ืจื ืขื“ื™ืฃ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืžืืŸ ืงื ื’ืจื™ื ืœื”ื• ืชื‘ืจื ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื”ืขื™ื“ื• ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ื”ืœื›ืš ืขื“ื•ืช ืขื“ื™ืคื

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who teaches eideihen with an alef, what is the reason that he did not teach eideihen with an ayin? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you that a term that refers to a calamity is preferable. The Gemara asks: And the one who teaches eideihen with an ayin, what is the reason that he did not teach eideihen with an alef? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you: What causes this calamity to happen to them? It is the testimony that they testified against themselves. Therefore, a term that references testimony is preferable.

ื•ื”ืื™ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ื‘ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืช ื•ืžืขื™ื“ื•ืช ืœื”ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ืืœื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ืืžืช ืืœื• ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื

The Gemara asks: But is this verse: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justified,โ€ written with regard to the nations of the world? Isnโ€™t it written with regard to the Jewish people? As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All the mitzvot that the Jews perform in this world will come and bear witness for them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justified.โ€ These are the Jews, as their good deeds bear witness for them and demonstrate their righteousness. When the verse states: โ€œAnd let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€ (Isaiah 43:9), these are the nations of the world, who will admit to the righteousness of the Jews.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžื”ื›ื ื™ืฆืจื™ ืคืกืœ ื›ืœื ืชื”ื• ื•ื—ืžื•ื“ื™ื”ื ื‘ืœ ื™ื•ืขื™ืœื• ื•ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื”ืžื”

Rather, Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: The one who says that the correct word is eideihen with an ayin derived this use of the term from here: โ€œThey that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, and their delectable things shall not profit; and their own witnesses [eideihem] see not, nor knowโ€ (Isaiah 44:9). This demonstrates that the objects of idol worship will serve as witnesses against their worshippers.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืœืื™ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžื ื™ื—ื• ื‘ื—ื™ืงื• ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžื™ ืฉืขืกืง ื‘ื” ื™ื‘ื ื•ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืฉื›ืจื•

ยง The Gemara cites homiletic interpretations of the verse that was discussed earlier: โ€œAll the nations are gathered together, and let the peoples be assembled; who among them can declare this, and announce to us former matters? Let them bring their witnesses, that they may be justified; and let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€ (Isaiah 43:9). Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappa taught, and some say that it was Rabbi Simlai who taught: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring a Torah scroll and place it in His lap and say: Anyone who engaged in its study should come and take his reward.

ืžื™ื“ ืžืชืงื‘ืฆื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื ืงื‘ืฆื• ื™ื—ื“ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืœ ืชื›ื ืกื• ืœืคื ื™ ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื ืืœื ืชื›ื ืก ื›ืœ ืื•ืžื” ื•ืื•ืžื”

Immediately, the nations of the world will gather together and come intermingled with each other, as it is stated: โ€œAll the nations are gathered together and let the peoples be assembled.โ€ The Holy One, Blessed be He, will say to them: Do not enter before Me intermingled; rather, let each and every nation enter

ื•ืกื•ืคืจื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืืกืคื• ืœืืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœืื•ื ืืœื ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืœืื ืžืœืื ื™ืืžืฅ ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื ืงืžื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืœื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืขืจื‘ื‘ื• ืื™ื ื”ื• [ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™] ื“ืœื™ืฉืžืขื• ืžืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื•

with their scholars, as it is stated: โ€œAnd let the peoples [leโ€™umim] be assembledโ€ (Isaiah 43:9); and the term leโ€™om means nothing other than kingdom, as it is stated: โ€œAnd the one kingdom [uleโ€™om] shall be stronger than the other kingdom [mileโ€™om]โ€ (Genesis 25:23). The Gemara asks: But is it possible for there to be intermingling before the Holy One, Blessed be He, that it should be necessary for each nation to stand and be addressed separately? Rather, the nations are instructed to stand separately so that they will not become intermingled with each other in order that they will each hear what He says to them.

[ืžื™ื“] ื ื›ื ืกื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื™ ืชื—ืœื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืื›ืœ ื›ืœ ืืจืขื ื•ืชื“ื•ืฉื ื” ื•ืชื“ืงื™ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื–ื• ืจื•ืžื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืฉื˜ื‘ืขื” ื™ืฆื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื

Immediately, the Roman Empire enters first before Him. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Roman Empire enters first? It is because the Roman Empire is the most important of all of the nations. And from where do we derive that it is the most important? As it is written in the book of Daniel with regard to the fourth empire that will rule over the world: โ€œAnd it shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in piecesโ€ (Daniel 7:23), and Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This empire that will devour the earth is the wicked Roman Empire, whose name spread throughout the world.

ื•ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืขื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืžืœืš ื•ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืžืœืš ื ื›ื ืก ืชื—ืœื” ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืฉืคื˜ ืขื‘ื“ื• ื•ืžืฉืคื˜ ืขืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื˜ืขืžื ืžืื™ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ืžืœื›ื ืžืื‘ืจืื™ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžืงืžื™ ื“ืœื™ืคื•ืฉ ื—ืจื•ืŸ ืืฃ

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that whoever is more important enters first? This is in accordance with a statement of Rav แธคisda, as Rav แธคisda says: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king enters for judgment first, as it is stated: โ€œThat He make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel, as every day shall requireโ€ (Iย Kings 8:59). And what is the reason that it is important for the king to enter first? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before Godโ€™s anger intensifies due to the sins of the community.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงืชื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืฉื•ื•ืงื™ื ืชืงื ื™ื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืจื—ืฆืื•ืช ืขืฉื™ื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืœื ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืขืกืงื• ื‘ืชื•ืจื”

The Gemara returns to its narration of the future judgment. First, the members of the Roman Empire enter. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: With what did you occupy yourselves? They say before Him in response: Master of the Universe, we have established many marketplaces, we have built many bathhouses, and we have increased much silver and gold. And we did all of this only for the sake of the Jewish people, so that they would be free to engage in Torah study.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืขืฆืžื›ื ืขืฉื™ืชื ืชืงื ืชื ืฉื•ื•ืงื™ื ืœื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืจื—ืฆืื•ืช ืœืขื“ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฆืžื›ื ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉืœื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื™ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืœื™ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื ืื ื”ืณ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: Fools of the world! Are you attempting to deceive Me? Everything that you did, you did for your own needs. You established marketplaces to place prostitutes in them; you built bathhouses for your own enjoyment; and as for the silver and gold that you claim to have increased, it is Mine, as it is stated: โ€œMine is the silver, and Mine the gold, said the Lord of hostsโ€ (Haggai 2:8).

ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื ืžื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื‘ื›ื ื™ื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ืืช ืืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื–ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ืฉื ืžืฉื” ืžื™ื“ ื™ืฆืื• ื‘ืคื—ื™ ื ืคืฉ

Is there no one among you who can declare that they have studied this Torah? This is the meaning of the continuation of the verse from Isaiah, as it is stated: โ€œWho among them can declare this?โ€ (Isaiah 43:9). And โ€œthisโ€ is referring to nothing other than the Torah, as it is stated: โ€œAnd this is the Torah that Moses set before the children of Israelโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:44), and whoever did not engage in its study does not receive reward. Immediately, the members of the Roman Empire leave disappointed.

ื™ืฆืืช ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื™ ื•ื ื›ื ืกื” ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืคืจืก ืื—ืจื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื”ื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื‘ืชืจื” ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืจื• ื—ื™ื•ื ืื—ืจื™ ืชื ื™ื ื ื“ืžื™ื ืœื“ื‘ ื•ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืœื• ืคืจืกื™ื™ื ืฉืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ืžืกื•ืจื‘ืœื™ืŸ [ื‘ืฉืจ] ื›ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืขืจ ื›ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื›ื“ื•ื‘

The Roman Empire leaves, and the Persian Empire enters after it. What is the reason that the Persian Empire enters second? The reason is that after the Roman Empire it is the next most important. And from where do we derive this? As it is written in Danielโ€™s vision: โ€œAnd behold another beast, a second, like a bearโ€ (Daniel 7:5). And Rav Yosef teaches: These are the Persians, who are compared to a bear, as they eat and drink copious amounts as does a bear, and they are fleshy like a bear, and they grow their hair long as does a bear, and they never rest, like a bear, which is constantly on the move from one place to another.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงืชื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื’ืฉืจื™ื ื’ืฉืจื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื›ื‘ืฉื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ืขืฉื™ื ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืœื ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืขืกืงื• ื‘ืชื•ืจื”

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: With what did you occupy yourselves? They say before Him in response: Master of the Universe, we have built many bridges, we have conquered many cities, and we have fought many wars. And we did all of this only for the sake of the Jewish people, so that they would engage in Torah study.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืขืฆืžื›ื ืขืฉื™ืชื ืชืงื ืชื ื’ืฉืจื™ื ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืžื”ื ืžื›ืก ื›ืจื›ื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื”ื ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ืื ื™ ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืื™ืฉ ืžืœื—ืžื” ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื ืžื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื‘ื›ื ื™ื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ืืช ืืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื–ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ืฉื ืžืฉื” ืžื™ื“ ื™ืฆืื• ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืคื—ื™ ื ืคืฉ

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: Everything that you did, you did for your own needs. You established bridges to collect taxes from all who pass over them. You conquered cities to use their residents for forced labor [angareya]; and with regard to fighting the wars, I wage wars, and your success is from Me, as it is stated: โ€œThe Lord is a man of warโ€ (Exodus 15:3). Is there no one among you who can declare that they have studied this Torah? As it is stated: โ€œWho among them can declare thisโ€ (Isaiah 43:9), and โ€œthisโ€ is referring to nothing other than the Torah, as it is stated: โ€œAnd this is the Torah that Moses setโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:44). Immediately, the members of the Persian Empire leave from before Him disappointed.

ื•ื›ื™ ืžืื—ืจ ื“ื—ื–ื™ืช ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืคืจืก ืœืžืœื›ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื™ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื™ื™ืœื ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ื”ื• ืกืชืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ื ืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืื•ืžื” ื•ืื•ืžื”

The Gemara asks: But once the Persian Empire sees that everything said by the Roman Empire is completely ineffective, what is the reason that they come forward? The Gemara answers: They believe that their claims will be more effective, as they say: The Romans destroyed the Second Temple, and we had built it, as the Second Temple was constructed under the auspices and with the encouragement of Cyrus, the king of Persia. The Gemara adds: And likewise, a similar exchange occurred with each and every nation.

ื•ื›ื™ ืžืื—ืจ ื“ื—ื–ื• ืœืงืžืื™ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ืกื‘ืจื™ ื”ื ืš ืื™ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื• ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืื ืŸ ืœื ืฉืขื‘ื“ื ื• ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื™ ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ื“ืœื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื™ ืœื”ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื ืš ืžืฉื›ื™ ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืขื“ ื“ืืชื™ ืžืฉื™ื—ื

The Gemara asks: But once the other nations see that every-thing said by the first ones, Rome and Persia, is completely ineffective, what is the reason that they come forward? The Gemara answers that they think: Those Empires subjugated the Jewish people, but we did not subjugate the Jewish people. The Gemara further asks: What is different about these, Rome and Persia, which were singled out explicitly, and what is different about those other empires that come afterward, which were not singled out and mentioned by name? It is because with regard to these, Rome and Persia, their kingship extends until the coming of the Messiah.

ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื ืชืช ืœื ื• ื•ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืœื ื•ื” ื•ืžื™ ืžืฆื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืžืกื™ื ื™ ื‘ื ื•ื–ืจื— ืžืฉืขื™ืจ ืœืžื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœื•ื” ืžืชื™ืžืŸ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ืžืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ื‘ืคืืจืŸ

The nations will say before God: Master of the Universe, did You give us the Torah and we did not accept it? Since we never received the Torah, why are we being judged for not fulfilling its mitzvot? The Gemara asks: And can one say that they were never offered the Torah? But isnโ€™t it written in the description of the giving of the Torah: โ€œAnd he said: The Lord came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto themโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:2), and it is written: โ€œGod comes from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paranโ€ (Habakkuk 3:3). And the Sages asked: What did God require in Seir and what did He require in Paran? The Torah was not given in those locations.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื—ื–ื™ืจื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืื•ืžื” ื•ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืœื•ื” ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืืฆืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืงื‘ืœื•ื”

And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, took the Torah around to every nation and those who speak every language, such as the Edomites in Seir and the Ishmaelites in Paran, but they did not accept it, until He came to the Jewish people and they accepted it. If the other nations all rejected the Torah, how can they excuse themselves by claiming that it was never offered to them?

ืืœื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจื™ ื›ืœื•ื ืงื™ื‘ืœื ื•ื” ื•ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื ื•ื” ื•ืขืœ ื“ื ืชื‘ืจืชื”ื•ืŸ ืืžืื™ ืœื ืงื‘ืœืชื•ื” ืืœื ื›ืš ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื›ืคื™ืช ืขืœื™ื ื• ื”ืจ ื›ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืœื ื•ื” ื›ืžื• ืฉืขืฉื™ืช ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ

Rather, this is what they say: Did we accept the Torah and then not fulfill its mitzvot? The Gemara asks: But this itself serves as the refutation of their own claim, as one can respond: Why didnโ€™t you accept it? Rather, this is what the nations of the world say before Him: Master of the Universe, did You overturn the mountain above us like a basin, and we still did not accept the Torah, as You did for the Jewish people?

ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืชื™ืฆื‘ื• ื‘ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื”ื”ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื›ืคื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ืจ ื›ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืขืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื ืืชื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืฉื ืชื”ื ืงื‘ื•ืจืชื›ื

The Gemara provides the background for this claim: As it is written: โ€œAnd they stood at the nether part of the mountโ€ (Exodus 19:17), and Rav Dimi bar แธคama says: The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, overturned the mountain, i.e., Mount Sinai, above the Jews like a basin, and He said to them: If you accept the Torah, excellent, and if not, there, under the mountain, will be your burial. The nations of the world will claim that they too could have been coerced to accept the Torah.

ืžื™ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืžื™ืขื•ื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืžื™ืขื ื• ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉืงื™ื‘ืœืชื ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืงื™ื™ืžืชื

Immediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: The first mitzvot will let us hear the truth, as it is stated in the continuation of the same verse under discussion: โ€œAnd announce to us the first thingsโ€ (Isaiah 43:9). With regard to the seven Noahide mitzvot that preceded the giving of the Torah that even you accepted, where is the proof that you fulfilled them?

ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื•ื ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืขืžื“ ื•ื™ืžื“ื“ ืืจืฅ ืจืื” ื•ื™ืชืจ ื’ื•ื™ื ืžืื™ ืจืื” ืจืื” ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉืงื‘ืœื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ื•ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื•ื ืขืžื“ ื•ื”ืชื™ืจืŸ ืœื”ืŸ ืื™ืชื’ื•ืจื™ ืื™ืชื’ื•ืจ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื˜ื ื ืฉื›ืจ

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that they did not fulfill them? As Rav Yosef teaches in explanation of the verse: โ€œHe stands, and shakes the earth, He sees, and makes the nations tremble [vayater]โ€ (Habakkuk 3:6): What did God see? He saw the seven mitzvot that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, and He saw that they did not fulfill them. Since they did not fulfill them, He arose and nullified for them [vehitiran] the command to heed these mitzvot. The Gemara asks: Do they gain from not obeying, as they are now released from the obligation to fulfill these mitzvot? If so, we find that a sinner profits from his transgression.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื

Mar, son of Ravina, said:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

  • Masechet Yevamot is sponsored by Ahava Leibtag and family in memory of her grandparents, Leo and Esther Aaron. "They always stressed the importance of a Torah life, mesorah and family. May their memory always be a blessing for their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren and great-great grandchildren".

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Avodah Zarah 2

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Avodah Zarah 2

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืœืคื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืืช ื•ืœืชืช ืขืžื”ื ืœื”ืฉืื™ืœืŸ ื•ืœืฉืื•ืœ ืžื”ืŸ ืœื”ืœื•ื•ืชืŸ ื•ืœืœื•ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืœืคื•ืจืขืŸ ื•ืœืคืจื•ืข ืžื”ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ืคืจืขื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื™ืฆืจ ื”ื•ื ืœื• ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืžื™ืฆืจ ื”ื•ื ืขื›ืฉื™ื• ืฉืžื— ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ื–ืžืŸ

MISHNA: On the three days before the festivals of gentiles the following actions are prohibited, as they would bring joy to the gentile, who would subsequently give thanks to his object of idol worship on his festival: It is prohibited to engage in business with them; to lend items to them or to borrow items from them; to lend money to them or to borrow money from them; and to repay debts owed to them or to collect repayment of debts from them. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may collect repayment of debts from them because this causes the gentile distress. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda: Even though he is distressed now, when he repays the money, he is happy afterward that he is relieved of the debt, and therefore there is concern that he will give thanks to his object of idol worship on his festival.

ื’ืžืณ ืจื‘ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ

GEMARA: Rav and Shmuel disagree with regard to the correct version of the text of the mishna. One teaches the term meaning: Their festivals, as eideihen, spelled with an alef as the first letter, and one teaches eideihen with an ayin as the first letter. The Gemara comments: The one who teaches eideihen with an alef is not mistaken, and the one who teaches eideihen with an ayin is not mistaken, as there is support for each version of the term.

ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืงืจื•ื‘ ื™ื•ื ืื™ื“ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืœื ืžืฉืชื‘ืฉ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื•

The Gemara elaborates: The one who teaches eideihen with an alef is not mistaken, as it is written: โ€œFor the day of their calamity [eidam] is at handโ€ (Deuteronomy 32:35), and the future downfall mentioned in the verse is partly due to the festivals of idol worshippers. The term there is spelled with an alef. And likewise, the one who teaches eideihen with an ayin is not mistaken, as it is written: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses [eideihem], that they may be justifiedโ€ (Isaiah 43:9), i.e., the festivals will serve as witnesses against gentile sinners, proving that they engaged in idol worship. The term there is spelled with an ayin.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืชื‘ืจื ืขื“ื™ืฃ ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืชื ื™ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืชื ื™ ืื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืžืืŸ ืงื ื’ืจื™ื ืœื”ื• ืชื‘ืจื ืขื“ื•ืช ืฉื”ืขื™ื“ื• ื‘ืขืฆืžืŸ ื”ืœื›ืš ืขื“ื•ืช ืขื“ื™ืคื

The Gemara asks: And according to the one who teaches eideihen with an alef, what is the reason that he did not teach eideihen with an ayin? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you that a term that refers to a calamity is preferable. The Gemara asks: And the one who teaches eideihen with an ayin, what is the reason that he did not teach eideihen with an alef? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you: What causes this calamity to happen to them? It is the testimony that they testified against themselves. Therefore, a term that references testimony is preferable.

ื•ื”ืื™ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ื‘ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืช ื•ืžืขื™ื“ื•ืช ืœื”ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ืืœื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ืืžืช ืืœื• ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื

The Gemara asks: But is this verse: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justified,โ€ written with regard to the nations of the world? Isnโ€™t it written with regard to the Jewish people? As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All the mitzvot that the Jews perform in this world will come and bear witness for them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justified.โ€ These are the Jews, as their good deeds bear witness for them and demonstrate their righteousness. When the verse states: โ€œAnd let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€ (Isaiah 43:9), these are the nations of the world, who will admit to the righteousness of the Jews.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืขื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืžื”ื›ื ื™ืฆืจื™ ืคืกืœ ื›ืœื ืชื”ื• ื•ื—ืžื•ื“ื™ื”ื ื‘ืœ ื™ื•ืขื™ืœื• ื•ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื”ืžื”

Rather, Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: The one who says that the correct word is eideihen with an ayin derived this use of the term from here: โ€œThey that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, and their delectable things shall not profit; and their own witnesses [eideihem] see not, nor knowโ€ (Isaiah 44:9). This demonstrates that the objects of idol worship will serve as witnesses against their worshippers.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืœืื™ ืœืขืชื™ื“ ืœื‘ื ืžื‘ื™ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžื ื™ื—ื• ื‘ื—ื™ืงื• ื•ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžื™ ืฉืขืกืง ื‘ื” ื™ื‘ื ื•ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืฉื›ืจื•

ยง The Gemara cites homiletic interpretations of the verse that was discussed earlier: โ€œAll the nations are gathered together, and let the peoples be assembled; who among them can declare this, and announce to us former matters? Let them bring their witnesses, that they may be justified; and let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€ (Isaiah 43:9). Rabbi แธคanina bar Pappa taught, and some say that it was Rabbi Simlai who taught: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring a Torah scroll and place it in His lap and say: Anyone who engaged in its study should come and take his reward.

ืžื™ื“ ืžืชืงื‘ืฆื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื ืงื‘ืฆื• ื™ื—ื“ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืœ ืชื›ื ืกื• ืœืคื ื™ ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื ืืœื ืชื›ื ืก ื›ืœ ืื•ืžื” ื•ืื•ืžื”

Immediately, the nations of the world will gather together and come intermingled with each other, as it is stated: โ€œAll the nations are gathered together and let the peoples be assembled.โ€ The Holy One, Blessed be He, will say to them: Do not enter before Me intermingled; rather, let each and every nation enter

ื•ืกื•ืคืจื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืืกืคื• ืœืืžื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœืื•ื ืืœื ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืœืื ืžืœืื ื™ืืžืฅ ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืขืจื‘ื•ื‘ื™ื ืงืžื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืืœื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืขืจื‘ื‘ื• ืื™ื ื”ื• [ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™] ื“ืœื™ืฉืžืขื• ืžืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื”ื•

with their scholars, as it is stated: โ€œAnd let the peoples [leโ€™umim] be assembledโ€ (Isaiah 43:9); and the term leโ€™om means nothing other than kingdom, as it is stated: โ€œAnd the one kingdom [uleโ€™om] shall be stronger than the other kingdom [mileโ€™om]โ€ (Genesis 25:23). The Gemara asks: But is it possible for there to be intermingling before the Holy One, Blessed be He, that it should be necessary for each nation to stand and be addressed separately? Rather, the nations are instructed to stand separately so that they will not become intermingled with each other in order that they will each hear what He says to them.

[ืžื™ื“] ื ื›ื ืกื” ืœืคื ื™ื• ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื™ ืชื—ืœื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืชืื›ืœ ื›ืœ ืืจืขื ื•ืชื“ื•ืฉื ื” ื•ืชื“ืงื™ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื–ื• ืจื•ืžื™ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืฉื˜ื‘ืขื” ื™ืฆื ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื

Immediately, the Roman Empire enters first before Him. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Roman Empire enters first? It is because the Roman Empire is the most important of all of the nations. And from where do we derive that it is the most important? As it is written in the book of Daniel with regard to the fourth empire that will rule over the world: โ€œAnd it shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in piecesโ€ (Daniel 7:23), and Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This empire that will devour the earth is the wicked Roman Empire, whose name spread throughout the world.

ื•ืžื ื ืœืŸ ื“ืžืืŸ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ ืขื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื›ื“ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืžืœืš ื•ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืžืœืš ื ื›ื ืก ืชื—ืœื” ืœื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืžืฉืคื˜ ืขื‘ื“ื• ื•ืžืฉืคื˜ ืขืžื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื˜ืขืžื ืžืื™ ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ืžืœื›ื ืžืื‘ืจืื™ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžืงืžื™ ื“ืœื™ืคื•ืฉ ื—ืจื•ืŸ ืืฃ

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that whoever is more important enters first? This is in accordance with a statement of Rav แธคisda, as Rav แธคisda says: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king enters for judgment first, as it is stated: โ€œThat He make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel, as every day shall requireโ€ (Iย Kings 8:59). And what is the reason that it is important for the king to enter first? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before Godโ€™s anger intensifies due to the sins of the community.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงืชื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื‘ื” ืฉื•ื•ืงื™ื ืชืงื ื™ื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืจื—ืฆืื•ืช ืขืฉื™ื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืœื ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืขืกืงื• ื‘ืชื•ืจื”

The Gemara returns to its narration of the future judgment. First, the members of the Roman Empire enter. The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: With what did you occupy yourselves? They say before Him in response: Master of the Universe, we have established many marketplaces, we have built many bathhouses, and we have increased much silver and gold. And we did all of this only for the sake of the Jewish people, so that they would be free to engage in Torah study.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืขืฆืžื›ื ืขืฉื™ืชื ืชืงื ืชื ืฉื•ื•ืงื™ื ืœื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืจื—ืฆืื•ืช ืœืขื“ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืขืฆืžื›ื ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื–ื”ื‘ ืฉืœื™ ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื™ ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ืœื™ ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื ืื ื”ืณ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: Fools of the world! Are you attempting to deceive Me? Everything that you did, you did for your own needs. You established marketplaces to place prostitutes in them; you built bathhouses for your own enjoyment; and as for the silver and gold that you claim to have increased, it is Mine, as it is stated: โ€œMine is the silver, and Mine the gold, said the Lord of hostsโ€ (Haggai 2:8).

ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื ืžื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื‘ื›ื ื™ื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ืืช ืืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื–ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ืฉื ืžืฉื” ืžื™ื“ ื™ืฆืื• ื‘ืคื—ื™ ื ืคืฉ

Is there no one among you who can declare that they have studied this Torah? This is the meaning of the continuation of the verse from Isaiah, as it is stated: โ€œWho among them can declare this?โ€ (Isaiah 43:9). And โ€œthisโ€ is referring to nothing other than the Torah, as it is stated: โ€œAnd this is the Torah that Moses set before the children of Israelโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:44), and whoever did not engage in its study does not receive reward. Immediately, the members of the Roman Empire leave disappointed.

ื™ืฆืืช ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื™ ื•ื ื›ื ืกื” ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืคืจืก ืื—ืจื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื”ื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื‘ืชืจื” ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืจื• ื—ื™ื•ื ืื—ืจื™ ืชื ื™ื ื ื“ืžื™ื ืœื“ื‘ ื•ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืœื• ืคืจืกื™ื™ื ืฉืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ื›ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ืžืกื•ืจื‘ืœื™ืŸ [ื‘ืฉืจ] ื›ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืขืจ ื›ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืžื ื•ื—ื” ื›ื“ื•ื‘

The Roman Empire leaves, and the Persian Empire enters after it. What is the reason that the Persian Empire enters second? The reason is that after the Roman Empire it is the next most important. And from where do we derive this? As it is written in Danielโ€™s vision: โ€œAnd behold another beast, a second, like a bearโ€ (Daniel 7:5). And Rav Yosef teaches: These are the Persians, who are compared to a bear, as they eat and drink copious amounts as does a bear, and they are fleshy like a bear, and they grow their hair long as does a bear, and they never rest, like a bear, which is constantly on the move from one place to another.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงืชื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื’ืฉืจื™ื ื’ืฉืจื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื›ื‘ืฉื ื• ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ืขืฉื™ื ื• ื•ื›ื•ืœื ืœื ืขืฉื™ื ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืชืขืกืงื• ื‘ืชื•ืจื”

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: With what did you occupy yourselves? They say before Him in response: Master of the Universe, we have built many bridges, we have conquered many cities, and we have fought many wars. And we did all of this only for the sake of the Jewish people, so that they would engage in Torah study.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืขืฉื™ืชื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืขืฆืžื›ื ืขืฉื™ืชื ืชืงื ืชื ื’ืฉืจื™ื ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืžื”ื ืžื›ืก ื›ืจื›ื™ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื”ื ืื ื’ืจื™ื ืžืœื—ืžื•ืช ืื ื™ ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืื™ืฉ ืžืœื—ืžื” ื›ืœื•ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื›ื ืžื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื‘ื›ื ื™ื’ื™ื“ ื–ืืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ืืช ืืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื–ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ืฉื ืžืฉื” ืžื™ื“ ื™ืฆืื• ืžืœืคื ื™ื• ื‘ืคื—ื™ ื ืคืฉ

The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: Everything that you did, you did for your own needs. You established bridges to collect taxes from all who pass over them. You conquered cities to use their residents for forced labor [angareya]; and with regard to fighting the wars, I wage wars, and your success is from Me, as it is stated: โ€œThe Lord is a man of warโ€ (Exodus 15:3). Is there no one among you who can declare that they have studied this Torah? As it is stated: โ€œWho among them can declare thisโ€ (Isaiah 43:9), and โ€œthisโ€ is referring to nothing other than the Torah, as it is stated: โ€œAnd this is the Torah that Moses setโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:44). Immediately, the members of the Persian Empire leave from before Him disappointed.

ื•ื›ื™ ืžืื—ืจ ื“ื—ื–ื™ืช ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืคืจืก ืœืžืœื›ื•ืช ืจื•ืžื™ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื ื™ื ื•ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื™ื™ืœื ืืžืจื™ ืื™ื ื”ื• ืกืชืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ื•ืื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ื ืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ืœื›ืœ ืื•ืžื” ื•ืื•ืžื”

The Gemara asks: But once the Persian Empire sees that everything said by the Roman Empire is completely ineffective, what is the reason that they come forward? The Gemara answers: They believe that their claims will be more effective, as they say: The Romans destroyed the Second Temple, and we had built it, as the Second Temple was constructed under the auspices and with the encouragement of Cyrus, the king of Persia. The Gemara adds: And likewise, a similar exchange occurred with each and every nation.

ื•ื›ื™ ืžืื—ืจ ื“ื—ื–ื• ืœืงืžืื™ ื“ืœื ืžื”ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื™ื™ืœื™ ืกื‘ืจื™ ื”ื ืš ืื™ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื• ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืื ืŸ ืœื ืฉืขื‘ื“ื ื• ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ื“ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื™ ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ื“ืœื ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื™ ืœื”ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื”ื ืš ืžืฉื›ื™ ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื™ื™ื”ื• ืขื“ ื“ืืชื™ ืžืฉื™ื—ื

The Gemara asks: But once the other nations see that every-thing said by the first ones, Rome and Persia, is completely ineffective, what is the reason that they come forward? The Gemara answers that they think: Those Empires subjugated the Jewish people, but we did not subjugate the Jewish people. The Gemara further asks: What is different about these, Rome and Persia, which were singled out explicitly, and what is different about those other empires that come afterward, which were not singled out and mentioned by name? It is because with regard to these, Rome and Persia, their kingship extends until the coming of the Messiah.

ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื ืชืช ืœื ื• ื•ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืœื ื•ื” ื•ืžื™ ืžืฆื™ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืžืกื™ื ื™ ื‘ื ื•ื–ืจื— ืžืฉืขื™ืจ ืœืžื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœื•ื” ืžืชื™ืžืŸ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจ ื•ืžืื™ ื‘ืขื™ ื‘ืคืืจืŸ

The nations will say before God: Master of the Universe, did You give us the Torah and we did not accept it? Since we never received the Torah, why are we being judged for not fulfilling its mitzvot? The Gemara asks: And can one say that they were never offered the Torah? But isnโ€™t it written in the description of the giving of the Torah: โ€œAnd he said: The Lord came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto themโ€ (Deuteronomy 33:2), and it is written: โ€œGod comes from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paranโ€ (Habakkuk 3:3). And the Sages asked: What did God require in Seir and what did He require in Paran? The Torah was not given in those locations.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื”ื—ื–ื™ืจื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืื•ืžื” ื•ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืœื•ื” ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืืฆืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืงื‘ืœื•ื”

And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, took the Torah around to every nation and those who speak every language, such as the Edomites in Seir and the Ishmaelites in Paran, but they did not accept it, until He came to the Jewish people and they accepted it. If the other nations all rejected the Torah, how can they excuse themselves by claiming that it was never offered to them?

ืืœื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจื™ ื›ืœื•ื ืงื™ื‘ืœื ื•ื” ื•ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื ื•ื” ื•ืขืœ ื“ื ืชื‘ืจืชื”ื•ืŸ ืืžืื™ ืœื ืงื‘ืœืชื•ื” ืืœื ื›ืš ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื›ืคื™ืช ืขืœื™ื ื• ื”ืจ ื›ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ื•ืœื ืงื‘ืœื ื•ื” ื›ืžื• ืฉืขืฉื™ืช ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ

Rather, this is what they say: Did we accept the Torah and then not fulfill its mitzvot? The Gemara asks: But this itself serves as the refutation of their own claim, as one can respond: Why didnโ€™t you accept it? Rather, this is what the nations of the world say before Him: Master of the Universe, did You overturn the mountain above us like a basin, and we still did not accept the Torah, as You did for the Jewish people?

ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ืชื™ืฆื‘ื• ื‘ืชื—ืชื™ืช ื”ื”ืจ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื›ืคื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ืจ ื›ื’ื™ื’ื™ืช ืขืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื ืืชื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืžื•ื˜ื‘ ื•ืื ืœืื• ืฉื ืชื”ื ืงื‘ื•ืจืชื›ื

The Gemara provides the background for this claim: As it is written: โ€œAnd they stood at the nether part of the mountโ€ (Exodus 19:17), and Rav Dimi bar แธคama says: The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, overturned the mountain, i.e., Mount Sinai, above the Jews like a basin, and He said to them: If you accept the Torah, excellent, and if not, there, under the mountain, will be your burial. The nations of the world will claim that they too could have been coerced to accept the Torah.

ืžื™ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืžื™ืขื•ื ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื™ืฉืžื™ืขื ื• ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉืงื™ื‘ืœืชื ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ืงื™ื™ืžืชื

Immediately, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says to them: The first mitzvot will let us hear the truth, as it is stated in the continuation of the same verse under discussion: โ€œAnd announce to us the first thingsโ€ (Isaiah 43:9). With regard to the seven Noahide mitzvot that preceded the giving of the Torah that even you accepted, where is the proof that you fulfilled them?

ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื•ื ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืขืžื“ ื•ื™ืžื“ื“ ืืจืฅ ืจืื” ื•ื™ืชืจ ื’ื•ื™ื ืžืื™ ืจืื” ืจืื” ืฉื‘ืข ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉืงื‘ืœื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื ื— ื•ืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื ืงื™ื™ืžื•ื ืขืžื“ ื•ื”ืชื™ืจืŸ ืœื”ืŸ ืื™ืชื’ื•ืจื™ ืื™ืชื’ื•ืจ ืื ื›ืŸ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ื—ื•ื˜ื ื ืฉื›ืจ

The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that they did not fulfill them? As Rav Yosef teaches in explanation of the verse: โ€œHe stands, and shakes the earth, He sees, and makes the nations tremble [vayater]โ€ (Habakkuk 3:6): What did God see? He saw the seven mitzvot that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, and He saw that they did not fulfill them. Since they did not fulfill them, He arose and nullified for them [vehitiran] the command to heed these mitzvot. The Gemara asks: Do they gain from not obeying, as they are now released from the obligation to fulfill these mitzvot? If so, we find that a sinner profits from his transgression.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื

Mar, son of Ravina, said:

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