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Today's Daf Yomi

February 14, 2018 | 讻状讟 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Avodah Zarah 30

Which types of wine are not forbidden because of concern that a non-Jew may have used it as a libation for their idol worship? Which types of wines are we not concerned that if left uncovered, a snake may have come by and inserted its venom? What other types of foods/fruits that have liquids (are juicy) do聽we need to be concerned/not concerned that a snake may have inserted its venom?


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讗讬讞诇讜驻讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 诇讗 讟专讞 讜诪讝讬讬祝

the concern that a gentile may secretly exchange his wine with the wine of a Jew, since there is one seal, the gentile will not exert himself and forge a different seal in order to facilitate the exchange.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讜讗诇讜谞转讬转 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 讗住讜专讬谉 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讻讘专讬讬转讗 诪讜转专转 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讻讚转谞谉 讙讘讬 砖讘转 注讜砖讬谉 讗谞讜诪诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 讗谞讜诪诇讬谉 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讗谞讜诪诇讬谉 讬讬谉 讜讚讘砖 讜驻诇驻诇讬谉 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讜诪讬诐 爪诇讜诇讬谉 讜讗驻专住诪讜谉 讚注讘讚讬 诇讘讬 诪住讜转讗

搂 The Gemara discusses the halakha with regard to various types of wine. The Sages taught: Cooked wine and aluntit of gentiles are prohibited; but already prepared aluntit that was made by a Jew before it entered the gentile鈥檚 possession is permitted. The Gemara asks: And what is aluntit? It is as we learned in a baraita with regard to Shabbat: One may prepare anomlin, but one may not prepare aluntit. The baraita clarifies: And what is anomlin and what is aluntit? Anomlin is a drink that is a mixture of wine, honey, and pepper. Aluntit is a mixture of aged wine and clear water and balsam, which they prepare for drinking after bathing in a bathhouse to cool down from the heat of the bathhouse. It is prohibited to prepare aluntit on Shabbat because it is a type of remedy.

专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讬讬谉 诪讝讜讙 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 谞讬住讜讱 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗讜 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 转讗 砖诪注 讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 注诇 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬

Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: Diluted wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure, according to which the consumption of a liquid is prohibited if it is left uncovered; and cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of libation, which prohibits deriving benefit from wine that has been in a gentile鈥檚 possession. A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to cooked wine, is it subject to the halakha of exposure, or is it not subject to the halakha of exposure? The Gemara resolves the dilemma: Come and hear: Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi testified about cooked wine and stated that it is not subject to the halakha of exposure.

专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘专 讬砖诪注讗诇 讞诇砖 注诇 诇讙讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讜专讘谞谉 诇砖讬讜诇讬 讘讬讛 讬转讘讬 讜拽讗 诪讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗讜 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪砖讜诐 讙讘专讗 专讘讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 谞住诪讜讱 诪讞讜讬 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘专 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇讬 讜注诇 爪讜讗专讬

The Gemara cites another proof that cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure. When Rabbi Yannai bar Yishmael became ill, Rabbi Yishmael ben Zeirud and other Sages went to him to inquire about his health. They were seated, and this very dilemma was raised before them: With regard to cooked wine, is it subject to the halakha of exposure, or is it not subject to the halakha of exposure? Rabbi Yishmael ben Zeirud said to them: This is what Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of a great man. Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: And who is this great man? He is Rabbi 岣yya. He said: Cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure. The Sages said to Rabbi Yishmael ben Zeirud: Shall we rely on this claim? Rabbi Yannai bar Yishmael motioned to them: Upon me and upon my neck, i.e., you can certainly rely on this claim.

砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗讘诇讟 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讗讬讬转讜 诇拽诪讬讬讛讜 讞诪专讗 诪讘砖诇讗 诪砖讻讬讛 诇讬讚讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱

The Gemara relates another incident: Shmuel and Ablet, a gentile scholar, were sitting together, and others brought cooked wine before them. Ablet withdrew his hand to avoid rendering the wine prohibited to Shmuel. Seeing this, Shmuel said to Ablet that the Sages said: Cooked wine is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation, and therefore you need not withdraw your hand on my account.

讗诪转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗讬讙诇讜讬讬 诇讛 讛讛讜讗 讞诪专讗 诪讘砖诇讗 讗转讬讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 砖诪注讬讛 讚专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讗讬讙诇讬 诇讬讛 讞诪专讗 诪讝讬讙讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讬讬谉 诪讝讜讙 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬

The Gemara cites yet another incident: Rabbi 岣yya鈥檚 maidservant noticed that a certain container of cooked wine had become exposed. She came before Rabbi 岣yya, who said to her that the Sages said: Cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure. Similarly, Rav Adda bar Ahava鈥檚 attendant noticed that a certain container of diluted wine had become exposed. Rav Adda bar Ahava said to him that the Sages said: Diluted wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诪讝讬讙 讟讜讘讗 讗讘诇 诪讝讬讙 讜诇讗 诪讝讬讙 砖转讬 讜诪讝讬讙 讜诇讗 诪讝讬讙 诪讬 砖转讬 讜讛讗 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讝讬诇 讘讗专讘讗 讜讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟 讞诪专讗 讘讛讚讬讛 讜讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讞讬讜讬讗 讚爪专讬 讜讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 住诪讬 注讬谞讬讛 讚讚讬谉 砖拽讬诇 拽诇讬 诪讬讗 砖讚讗 讘讬讛 讜住专 诇讗讞讜专讬讛

Rav Pappa said: We said that wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure only in a case where it was well diluted, but where it was only partially diluted a snake might still drink from it, and therefore it is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this claim: And is it correct that a snake drinks partially diluted wine? But wasn鈥檛 Rabba bar Rav Huna once traveling on a ship while carrying a jug of wine with him, and he saw a certain snake that slithered and approached the wine. He said to his attendant: Remove the eyes of this serpent, i.e., do something that will cause the snake to leave. His attendant took a bit of water and threw it in the wine, and the snake turned away. This indicates that snakes do not drink partially diluted wine.

讗讞讬讬讗 诪住专 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪讝讬讙讗 诇讗 诪住专 谞驻砖讬讛

The Gemara rejects this conclusion: For undiluted wine, a snake will risk its life by exposing itself to humans, but for diluted wine, a snake will not risk its life. But in either case, if the wine is left unguarded, a snake will drink from it.

讜讗诪讝讬讙讗 诇讗 诪住专 谞驻砖讬讛 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讛讜讛 讘讬 注讻讘讜专讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讘专 讛讚讬讗 讛讜讛 讘讬 注讻讘讜专讬 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讜讛讜讜 拽讗 砖转讜 讞诪专讗 诪讝讬讙讗 驻砖 诇讛讜 讞诪专讗 讘讻讜讘讗 讜爪专讜谞讛讬 讘驻专讜谞拽讗 讜讞讝讬讗 诇讛讛讜讗 讞讬讜讬讗 讚砖拽讬诇 诪讬讗 讜专诪讗 讘讻讜讘讗 注讚 讚诪诇讗 讘讻讜讘讗 讜住诇讬拽 讞诪专讗 注讬诇讜讬讛 驻专讜谞拽讗 讜砖转讬

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And is it true that for diluted wine a snake will not risk its life? But wasn鈥檛 Rabbi Yannai once in Bei Akhborei, and some say that it was bar Hadaya who was in Bei Akhborei, and others were sitting with him and drinking diluted wine. When they finished, they had some wine left in the container [bekhuva], and they covered it with a cloth. And then they saw a certain snake take water in its mouth and pour it through the cloth into the container until the liquid filled the container and the wine flowed over the cloth, and the snake drank the overflowing wine. This shows that a snake will risk its life to drink diluted wine.

讗诪专讬 讚诪讝讬讙 讗讬讛讜 砖转讬 讚诪讝讬讙讬 讗讞专讬谞讬 诇讗 砖转讬

The Sages say in response: Wine that the snake itself diluted, it does drink. Wine that another diluted, it does not drink. In other words, a snake does not drink diluted wine unless it was diluted by the snake itself. Accordingly, even partially diluted wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 驻讬专讜拽讗 诇住讻谞转讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛诇讻转讗 讬讬谉 诪讝讜讙 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱

Rav Ashi says, and some say that it was Rav Mesharshiyya who says: Are you providing a resolution for a situation involving danger? In other words, one may not endanger lives by subscribing to such reasoning. Rava said: The halakha is that diluted wine is subject to the halakha of exposure and is also subject to the prohibition of wine used as a libation for idolatry; cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure and is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation either.

砖诪注讬讛 讚专讘 讞诇拽讬讛 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗讬讙诇讬讗 讛讛讜讗 拽讬住转讗 讚诪讬讗 讜讛讜讛 谞讬讬诐 讙讘讛 讗转讗 诇讙讘讬讛 讚专讘 讞诇拽讬讛 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讗讬诪转 讬砖谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讬诪诪讗 讗讘诇 讘诇讬诇讬讗 诇讗 讜诇讗 讛讬讗 诇讗 砖谞讗 讘讬诪诪讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 讘诇讬诇讬讗 讗讬诪转 讬砖谉 注诇讬讛谉 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉

搂 After discussing exposed wine, the Gemara addresses the matter of exposed water. The attendant of Rav 岣lkiya bar Tovi noticed that a certain jug of water had become exposed, and he had been sleeping near it. He went to Rav 岣lkiya bar Tovi to determine the halakhic status of the exposed water. Rav 岣lkiya said to him that the Sages said: Fear of a sleeping person is upon them, i.e., snakes will not attempt to drink from a container that is near a person, even if he is asleep. And this matter applies only during the day, but not at night. The Gemara comments: But that is not so. Rather, there is no difference between one who sleeps during the day and one who sleeps during the night. In both cases, we do not say that the fear of a sleeping person is upon the snakes.

专讘 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 讗诪专 诇讗 讝讛讬专讬 讘讙讬诇讜讬 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗 砖转讬 讗诪专 住讬专讻讗 讚讙讘专讗 谞拽讬讟讗

The Gemara presents the opinions of Rav and Shmuel with regard to various sources of water. Rav would not drink water from the house of an Aramean, as he said: They are not careful with regard to exposure. But he would drink water from the house of a widow, as he said: She upholds her late husband鈥檚 conventions and ensures that liquids are not left uncovered.

砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讬讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗 讗诪专 诇讬转 诇讛 讗讬诪转讗 讚讙讘专讗 讜诇讗 诪讬讻住讬讗 诪讬讗 讗讘诇 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 砖转讬 谞讛讬 讚讗讙讬诇讜讬讗 诇讗 拽驻讚讬 讗诪谞拽专讜转讗 诪讬讛讗 拽驻讚讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 专讘 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讬讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 讗讘诇 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗 砖转讬 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讬讗 诇讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 讜诇讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗

By contrast, Shmuel would not drink water from the house of a widow, as he said: She no longer has the fear of a man upon her, and therefore she does not necessarily cover the water. But he would drink water from the house of an Aramean, as he said: Granted that they are not particular about the halakha of exposure, but in any event they are particular about cleanliness, and will cover it for hygienic reasons, if not halakhic ones. The Gemara cites a different version: Some say that Rav would not drink water from the house of an Aramean, but he would drink water from the house of a widow. Shmuel would not drink water either from the house of an Aramean or from the house of a widow.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 砖诇砖 讬讬谞讜转 讛谉 讜讗讬谉 讘讛谉 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讞讚 诪专 诪转讜拽 讞讚 讟讬诇讗 讞专讬驻讗 讚诪爪专讬 讝讬拽讬 诪专 讬专谞拽讗 诪转讜拽 讞讜诇讬讗 专讘 讞诪讗 诪转谞讬 诇注讬诇讜讬讗 讞讚 讞诪专 讜驻诇驻诇讬谉 诪专 讗驻住讬谞转讬谉 诪转讜拽 诪讬 讘讗专讙

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: There are three kinds of wines that are not subject to the halakha of exposure, and they are: Sharp, bitter, and sweet wines. Sharp is referring to acrid wine [tila] that cracks the jug, due to its acidity. Bitter is referring to yarneka. Sweet is referring to sweetened wine. These three wines that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says are not subject to the halakha of exposure are all of low quality. Rav 岣ma teaches that the three wines are of high quality: Sharp is referring to wine mixed with peppers. Bitter is referring to wine mixed with wormwood [apsintin]. Sweet is referring to mei barg, a choice beverage.

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 拽专讬谞讗 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讞诪专讗 讞诇讬讗 讚讗转讬 诪注住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讘诪拽讜诪讜 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讞诪专 诪讚讬谞讛 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛讗讬 讞诪专讗 讚讗拽专讬诐 注讚 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Karina is not subject to the halakha of exposure. The Gemara asks: What is karina? Rabbi Abbahu said: It is sweet wine that comes from Asia [Asya] Minor. Rava says: But in its place of origin it is subject to the halakha of exposure. What is the reason? The reason is that there, it is the wine of the province and snakes do not hesitate to drink from it. Rava said: With regard to this wine that has soured [de鈥檃krim], until three days have passed from when it began to sour, it is subject to the halakha of exposure and is subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation.

诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱 讜谞讛专讚注讬 讗诪专讬 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讘转专 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 诪讬拽专讬 砖转讬

From this point forward, it is not subject to the halakha of exposure and is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation. And the Sages of Neharde鈥檃 say: Even after three days, we are concerned with regard to exposure. What is the reason? It is because at times it occurs that a snake drinks even sour wine.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讬谉 转讜住住 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讻诪讛 转住讬住转讜 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛砖讞诇讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讛诐 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讘谞讬 讙讜诇讛 谞讛讙讜 讘讛谉 讗讬住讜专 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬转 讘讛讜 讞诇讗 讗讘诇 讗讬转 讘讛讜 讞诇讗 诪讬讙专讬 讘讛讜

搂 The Gemara discusses the halakha of exposure with regard to various foods and beverages. The Sages taught: Wine that is still fermenting is not subject to the halakha of exposure. And how long is its fermentation process? It is three days. Cress-based dishes are not subject to the halakha of exposure, but the residents of the Diaspora are accustomed to treating them as prohibited if they were left exposed. And we said this only in a case where the dishes do not contain vinegar; but if they do contain vinegar, the vinegar repels the snakes, and in such a situation even the inhabitants of the Diaspora do not treat them as prohibited.

讻讜转讞 讛讘讘诇讬 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讘谞讬 讙讜诇讛 谞讛讙讜 讘讜 讗讬住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 诪谞砖讬 讗讬 讗讬转 讘讬讛 谞拽讜专讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讬 讟讬祝 讟讬祝 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜讛讜讗 讚注讘讬讚 讟讬祝 诇讛讚讬 讟讬祝 讟讬祝

The Gemara continues: Babylonian kuta岣, a popular dip, is not subject to the halakha of exposure, but the residents of the Diaspora are accustomed to treating it as prohibited. Rav Menashei said: If the kuta岣 has indentations in it, we are concerned that they are from a snake鈥檚 fangs, and it is therefore prohibited. Rav 岣yya bar Ashi says that Shmuel says: Dripping water is not subject to the halakha of exposure while it is being collected. Rav Ashi said: And that is the halakha only in a case where the dripping occurs one drop immediately after another drop, i.e., continuously, as the snake will not drink from it in that circumstance.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 驻讬 转讗谞讛 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讻诪讗谉 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗讜讻诇 讗讚诐 注谞讘讬诐 讜转讗谞讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪专 驻转讗讬诐 讛壮

Rav 岣yya bar Ashi says that Shmuel says: The mouth of a fig is not subject to the halakha of exposure. In accordance with whose opinion is this stated? It is stated in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said: A person may eat grapes and figs at night, and he need not have cause for concern, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord preserves the simple鈥 (Psalms 116:6). This verse teaches that one need not fear that harm might befall him when he engages in commonplace activities.

讗诪专 专讘 住驻专讗 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚专讜诪讗 砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 讗专住 讛谉 砖诇 讘讞讜专 砖讜拽注 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬 诪驻注驻注 讜砖诇 讝拽谉 爪祝 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻诪讛 讚拽砖讬砖 讻讞讜砖 讞讬诇讬讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讛 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讝拽讬谞讬谉 讙讘讜专讛 诪转讜住驻转 讘讛谉 讗诇讜 讛谉 讚讙 谞讞砖 讜讞讝讬专 讻讞 讗讜住讜驻讬 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪讜住讬祝 讝讬讛专讬讛 拽诇讬砖

Rav Safra says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua Deroma: There are three kinds of snake venom: Venom of a young snake, which sinks to the bottom when it is deposited in liquid; venom of a snake of intermediate age, i.e., a snake that is no longer young, which is suspended in the liquid; and venom of an old snake, which floats at the top. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that as a snake ages, the strength of its venom becomes weaker? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that three creatures become stronger as they age, and they are: A fish, a snake, and a pig? The Gemara answers: It is physically that a snake strengthens, but the potency of its venom diminishes.

砖诇 讘讞讜专 砖讜拽注 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讚转谞讬讗 讞讘讬转 砖谞转讙诇讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖砖转讜 诪诪谞讛 转砖注讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜 诇讗 讬砖转讛 诪诪谞讛 注砖讬专讬 诪注砖讛 讛讬讛 砖砖转讜 诪诪谞讜 转砖注讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜 讜砖转讛 注砖讬专讬 讜诪转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讝讛讜 砖讜拽注

The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha was it stated that the venom of a young snake sinks? The Gemara explains: As it is taught in a baraita: With regard to a barrel that was uncovered, even though nine people drank from it and did not die, the tenth should not drink from it, as the venom may have sunk to the bottom of the barrel. The Gemara relates that there was an incident in which nine people drank from an exposed barrel and did not die, and a tenth subsequently drank from it and died. Rabbi Yirmeya says: This is an example of venom that sinks.

讜讻谉 讗讘讟讬讞 砖谞转讙诇转讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讻诇讜 诪诪谞讛 转砖注讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讜诇讗 诪转讜 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 诪诪谞讛 注砖讬专讬 诪注砖讛 讛讬讛 讜讗讻诇讜 诪诪谞讛 转砖注讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜 讜讗讻诇 注砖讬专讬 讜诪转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讛讜 砖讜拽注

And similarly, with regard to a melon that was exposed, even though nine people ate from it and did not die, the tenth should not eat from it. Again, there was an incident in which nine people ate from a melon and did not die, and the tenth ate from it and died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: This is an example of venom that sinks.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬诐 砖谞转讙诇讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬砖驻讻诐 讘专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 讜诇讗 讬专讘讬抓 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讘讬转 讜诇讗 讬讙讘诇 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讟讬讟 讜诇讗 讬砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讗 讘讛诪转讜 讜诇讗 讘讛诪转 讞讘讬专讜 讜诇讗 讬专讞抓 讘讛谉 驻谞讬讜 讬讚讬讜 讜专讙诇讬讜 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 住讬专讟讗 讗住讜专 讗讬谉 住讬专讟讗 诪讜转专

The Sages taught: With regard to water that was exposed, one may not pour it out in the public thoroughfare, nor settle dust with it by sprinkling it in the house, nor mix clay with it, nor give it to drink to his animal or the animal of another, nor wash his face, hands, or feet with it. Others say: If the part that one is washing is an area of the body that has a crevice in it, it is prohibited to wash it with exposed water, as the venom may seep through the crevice; if the body part does not have a crevice, it is permitted.

讗讞专讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讙讘 讛讬讚 讜讙讘 讛专讙诇 讜专讜诪谞讬 讚讗驻讬

The Gemara raises a difficulty: The opinion introduced with the phrase: Others say, is identical to the opinion of the first tanna of the baraita. Both hold that one may not wash his face, hands, and feet with exposed water, as these body parts have crevices in them. The Gemara explains: There is a difference between them with regard to the back of the hand and the back of the foot, and the upper part of the face, i.e., the area of the cheekbones. According to the opinion introduced with the phrase: Others say, it is permitted to wash those parts of the body, as they are free of crevices. According to the first tanna it is prohibited, as they are part of the face, hands, and feet.

讗诪专 诪专 诇讗 讬砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讗 讘讛诪转讜 讜诇讗 讘讛诪转 讞讘讬专讜 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讘诇 诪砖拽讛讜 诇讘讛诪转 注爪诪讜 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇砖讜谞专讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 讚讞讘专讬讛 谞诪讬 讚讞讘专讬讛 讻讞讬砖 讚讬讚讬讛 谞诪讬 讻讞讬砖 讛讚专 讘专讬讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 谞诪讬 讛讚专 讘专讬讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚讘注讬 诇讝讘讜谞讗 讜诪驻住讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讬谞讬讛

The Master said above concerning exposed water: Nor give it to drink to his animal or the animal of another. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: But one may give exposed water to his own animal to drink? The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is referring to a cat, as cats are less susceptible to snake venom. The Gemara challenges: If that is so, let him also give the water to the cat of another. The Gemara explains: The venom weakens the cat of another. The Gemara challenges: But doesn鈥檛 the venom also weaken his own cat? The Gemara explains: It will later recover. The Gemara challenges: The cat of another will also recover later. The Gemara explains: Although both will eventually recover, there are times that the owner wishes to sell the cat and loses potential profit from the cat鈥檚 current weakness.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 砖诇砖讛 讬讬谞讜转 讛谉 讬讬谉 谞住讱 讗住讜专 讘讛谞讗讛 讜诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗讛 讞诪讜专讛 讘讻讝讬转

Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: There are three kinds of prohibited wines: It is prohibited to derive benefit from wine used for a libation, and the wine imparts severe ritual impurity when it has the volume of an olive-bulk.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Avodah Zarah 30

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 30

讗讬讞诇讜驻讬 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 讞讜转诐 讗讞讚 诇讗 讟专讞 讜诪讝讬讬祝

the concern that a gentile may secretly exchange his wine with the wine of a Jew, since there is one seal, the gentile will not exert himself and forge a different seal in order to facilitate the exchange.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讜讗诇讜谞转讬转 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 讗住讜专讬谉 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讻讘专讬讬转讗 诪讜转专转 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讻讚转谞谉 讙讘讬 砖讘转 注讜砖讬谉 讗谞讜诪诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 讗谞讜诪诇讬谉 讜讗讬讝讜 讛讬讗 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讗谞讜诪诇讬谉 讬讬谉 讜讚讘砖 讜驻诇驻诇讬谉 讗诇讜谞转讬转 讬讬谉 讬砖谉 讜诪讬诐 爪诇讜诇讬谉 讜讗驻专住诪讜谉 讚注讘讚讬 诇讘讬 诪住讜转讗

搂 The Gemara discusses the halakha with regard to various types of wine. The Sages taught: Cooked wine and aluntit of gentiles are prohibited; but already prepared aluntit that was made by a Jew before it entered the gentile鈥檚 possession is permitted. The Gemara asks: And what is aluntit? It is as we learned in a baraita with regard to Shabbat: One may prepare anomlin, but one may not prepare aluntit. The baraita clarifies: And what is anomlin and what is aluntit? Anomlin is a drink that is a mixture of wine, honey, and pepper. Aluntit is a mixture of aged wine and clear water and balsam, which they prepare for drinking after bathing in a bathhouse to cool down from the heat of the bathhouse. It is prohibited to prepare aluntit on Shabbat because it is a type of remedy.

专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 讬讬谉 诪讝讜讙 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 谞讬住讜讱 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗讜 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 转讗 砖诪注 讛注讬讚 专讘讬 讬注拽讘 讘专 讗讬讚讬 注诇 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬

Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: Diluted wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure, according to which the consumption of a liquid is prohibited if it is left uncovered; and cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of libation, which prohibits deriving benefit from wine that has been in a gentile鈥檚 possession. A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to cooked wine, is it subject to the halakha of exposure, or is it not subject to the halakha of exposure? The Gemara resolves the dilemma: Come and hear: Rabbi Ya鈥檃kov bar Idi testified about cooked wine and stated that it is not subject to the halakha of exposure.

专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘专 讬砖诪注讗诇 讞诇砖 注诇 诇讙讘讬讛 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讜专讘谞谉 诇砖讬讜诇讬 讘讬讛 讬转讘讬 讜拽讗 诪讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗讜 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪砖讜诐 讙讘专讗 专讘讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 谞住诪讜讱 诪讞讜讬 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讘专 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇讬 讜注诇 爪讜讗专讬

The Gemara cites another proof that cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure. When Rabbi Yannai bar Yishmael became ill, Rabbi Yishmael ben Zeirud and other Sages went to him to inquire about his health. They were seated, and this very dilemma was raised before them: With regard to cooked wine, is it subject to the halakha of exposure, or is it not subject to the halakha of exposure? Rabbi Yishmael ben Zeirud said to them: This is what Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of a great man. Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: And who is this great man? He is Rabbi 岣yya. He said: Cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure. The Sages said to Rabbi Yishmael ben Zeirud: Shall we rely on this claim? Rabbi Yannai bar Yishmael motioned to them: Upon me and upon my neck, i.e., you can certainly rely on this claim.

砖诪讜讗诇 讜讗讘诇讟 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讗讬讬转讜 诇拽诪讬讬讛讜 讞诪专讗 诪讘砖诇讗 诪砖讻讬讛 诇讬讚讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱

The Gemara relates another incident: Shmuel and Ablet, a gentile scholar, were sitting together, and others brought cooked wine before them. Ablet withdrew his hand to avoid rendering the wine prohibited to Shmuel. Seeing this, Shmuel said to Ablet that the Sages said: Cooked wine is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation, and therefore you need not withdraw your hand on my account.

讗诪转讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗讬讙诇讜讬讬 诇讛 讛讛讜讗 讞诪专讗 诪讘砖诇讗 讗转讬讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 砖诪注讬讛 讚专讘 讗讚讗 讘专 讗讛讘讛 讗讬讙诇讬 诇讬讛 讞诪专讗 诪讝讬讙讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讬讬谉 诪讝讜讙 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬

The Gemara cites yet another incident: Rabbi 岣yya鈥檚 maidservant noticed that a certain container of cooked wine had become exposed. She came before Rabbi 岣yya, who said to her that the Sages said: Cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure. Similarly, Rav Adda bar Ahava鈥檚 attendant noticed that a certain container of diluted wine had become exposed. Rav Adda bar Ahava said to him that the Sages said: Diluted wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诪讝讬讙 讟讜讘讗 讗讘诇 诪讝讬讙 讜诇讗 诪讝讬讙 砖转讬 讜诪讝讬讙 讜诇讗 诪讝讬讙 诪讬 砖转讬 讜讛讗 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讜讛 拽讗讝讬诇 讘讗专讘讗 讜讛讜讛 谞拽讬讟 讞诪专讗 讘讛讚讬讛 讜讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讞讬讜讬讗 讚爪专讬 讜讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 住诪讬 注讬谞讬讛 讚讚讬谉 砖拽讬诇 拽诇讬 诪讬讗 砖讚讗 讘讬讛 讜住专 诇讗讞讜专讬讛

Rav Pappa said: We said that wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure only in a case where it was well diluted, but where it was only partially diluted a snake might still drink from it, and therefore it is prohibited. The Gemara rejects this claim: And is it correct that a snake drinks partially diluted wine? But wasn鈥檛 Rabba bar Rav Huna once traveling on a ship while carrying a jug of wine with him, and he saw a certain snake that slithered and approached the wine. He said to his attendant: Remove the eyes of this serpent, i.e., do something that will cause the snake to leave. His attendant took a bit of water and threw it in the wine, and the snake turned away. This indicates that snakes do not drink partially diluted wine.

讗讞讬讬讗 诪住专 谞驻砖讬讛 讗诪讝讬讙讗 诇讗 诪住专 谞驻砖讬讛

The Gemara rejects this conclusion: For undiluted wine, a snake will risk its life by exposing itself to humans, but for diluted wine, a snake will not risk its life. But in either case, if the wine is left unguarded, a snake will drink from it.

讜讗诪讝讬讙讗 诇讗 诪住专 谞驻砖讬讛 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讛讜讛 讘讬 注讻讘讜专讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讘专 讛讚讬讗 讛讜讛 讘讬 注讻讘讜专讬 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 讜讛讜讜 拽讗 砖转讜 讞诪专讗 诪讝讬讙讗 驻砖 诇讛讜 讞诪专讗 讘讻讜讘讗 讜爪专讜谞讛讬 讘驻专讜谞拽讗 讜讞讝讬讗 诇讛讛讜讗 讞讬讜讬讗 讚砖拽讬诇 诪讬讗 讜专诪讗 讘讻讜讘讗 注讚 讚诪诇讗 讘讻讜讘讗 讜住诇讬拽 讞诪专讗 注讬诇讜讬讛 驻专讜谞拽讗 讜砖转讬

The Gemara raises a difficulty: And is it true that for diluted wine a snake will not risk its life? But wasn鈥檛 Rabbi Yannai once in Bei Akhborei, and some say that it was bar Hadaya who was in Bei Akhborei, and others were sitting with him and drinking diluted wine. When they finished, they had some wine left in the container [bekhuva], and they covered it with a cloth. And then they saw a certain snake take water in its mouth and pour it through the cloth into the container until the liquid filled the container and the wine flowed over the cloth, and the snake drank the overflowing wine. This shows that a snake will risk its life to drink diluted wine.

讗诪专讬 讚诪讝讬讙 讗讬讛讜 砖转讬 讚诪讝讬讙讬 讗讞专讬谞讬 诇讗 砖转讬

The Sages say in response: Wine that the snake itself diluted, it does drink. Wine that another diluted, it does not drink. In other words, a snake does not drink diluted wine unless it was diluted by the snake itself. Accordingly, even partially diluted wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 诪砖专砖讬讗 驻讬专讜拽讗 诇住讻谞转讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛诇讻转讗 讬讬谉 诪讝讜讙 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱 讬讬谉 诪讘讜砖诇 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱

Rav Ashi says, and some say that it was Rav Mesharshiyya who says: Are you providing a resolution for a situation involving danger? In other words, one may not endanger lives by subscribing to such reasoning. Rava said: The halakha is that diluted wine is subject to the halakha of exposure and is also subject to the prohibition of wine used as a libation for idolatry; cooked wine is not subject to the halakha of exposure and is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation either.

砖诪注讬讛 讚专讘 讞诇拽讬讛 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗讬讙诇讬讗 讛讛讜讗 拽讬住转讗 讚诪讬讗 讜讛讜讛 谞讬讬诐 讙讘讛 讗转讗 诇讙讘讬讛 讚专讘 讞诇拽讬讛 讘专 讟讜讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛专讬 讗诪专讜 讗讬诪转 讬砖谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讘讬诪诪讗 讗讘诇 讘诇讬诇讬讗 诇讗 讜诇讗 讛讬讗 诇讗 砖谞讗 讘讬诪诪讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讗 讘诇讬诇讬讗 讗讬诪转 讬砖谉 注诇讬讛谉 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉

搂 After discussing exposed wine, the Gemara addresses the matter of exposed water. The attendant of Rav 岣lkiya bar Tovi noticed that a certain jug of water had become exposed, and he had been sleeping near it. He went to Rav 岣lkiya bar Tovi to determine the halakhic status of the exposed water. Rav 岣lkiya said to him that the Sages said: Fear of a sleeping person is upon them, i.e., snakes will not attempt to drink from a container that is near a person, even if he is asleep. And this matter applies only during the day, but not at night. The Gemara comments: But that is not so. Rather, there is no difference between one who sleeps during the day and one who sleeps during the night. In both cases, we do not say that the fear of a sleeping person is upon the snakes.

专讘 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 讗诪专 诇讗 讝讛讬专讬 讘讙讬诇讜讬 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗 砖转讬 讗诪专 住讬专讻讗 讚讙讘专讗 谞拽讬讟讗

The Gemara presents the opinions of Rav and Shmuel with regard to various sources of water. Rav would not drink water from the house of an Aramean, as he said: They are not careful with regard to exposure. But he would drink water from the house of a widow, as he said: She upholds her late husband鈥檚 conventions and ensures that liquids are not left uncovered.

砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讬讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗 讗诪专 诇讬转 诇讛 讗讬诪转讗 讚讙讘专讗 讜诇讗 诪讬讻住讬讗 诪讬讗 讗讘诇 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 砖转讬 谞讛讬 讚讗讙讬诇讜讬讗 诇讗 拽驻讚讬 讗诪谞拽专讜转讗 诪讬讛讗 拽驻讚讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 专讘 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讬讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 讗讘诇 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗 砖转讬 砖诪讜讗诇 诇讗 砖转讬 诪讬讗 诇讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪讗讛 讜诇讗 诪讘讬 讗专诪诇转讗

By contrast, Shmuel would not drink water from the house of a widow, as he said: She no longer has the fear of a man upon her, and therefore she does not necessarily cover the water. But he would drink water from the house of an Aramean, as he said: Granted that they are not particular about the halakha of exposure, but in any event they are particular about cleanliness, and will cover it for hygienic reasons, if not halakhic ones. The Gemara cites a different version: Some say that Rav would not drink water from the house of an Aramean, but he would drink water from the house of a widow. Shmuel would not drink water either from the house of an Aramean or from the house of a widow.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 砖诇砖 讬讬谞讜转 讛谉 讜讗讬谉 讘讛谉 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讞讚 诪专 诪转讜拽 讞讚 讟讬诇讗 讞专讬驻讗 讚诪爪专讬 讝讬拽讬 诪专 讬专谞拽讗 诪转讜拽 讞讜诇讬讗 专讘 讞诪讗 诪转谞讬 诇注讬诇讜讬讗 讞讚 讞诪专 讜驻诇驻诇讬谉 诪专 讗驻住讬谞转讬谉 诪转讜拽 诪讬 讘讗专讙

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: There are three kinds of wines that are not subject to the halakha of exposure, and they are: Sharp, bitter, and sweet wines. Sharp is referring to acrid wine [tila] that cracks the jug, due to its acidity. Bitter is referring to yarneka. Sweet is referring to sweetened wine. These three wines that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says are not subject to the halakha of exposure are all of low quality. Rav 岣ma teaches that the three wines are of high quality: Sharp is referring to wine mixed with peppers. Bitter is referring to wine mixed with wormwood [apsintin]. Sweet is referring to mei barg, a choice beverage.

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 拽专讬谞讗 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讬谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讞诪专讗 讞诇讬讗 讚讗转讬 诪注住讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讘诪拽讜诪讜 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讞诪专 诪讚讬谞讛 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛讗讬 讞诪专讗 讚讗拽专讬诐 注讚 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讬砖 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Karina is not subject to the halakha of exposure. The Gemara asks: What is karina? Rabbi Abbahu said: It is sweet wine that comes from Asia [Asya] Minor. Rava says: But in its place of origin it is subject to the halakha of exposure. What is the reason? The reason is that there, it is the wine of the province and snakes do not hesitate to drink from it. Rava said: With regard to this wine that has soured [de鈥檃krim], until three days have passed from when it began to sour, it is subject to the halakha of exposure and is subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation.

诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讬讬谉 谞住讱 讜谞讛专讚注讬 讗诪专讬 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讘转专 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 诪讬拽专讬 砖转讬

From this point forward, it is not subject to the halakha of exposure and is not subject to the prohibition of wine used for a libation. And the Sages of Neharde鈥檃 say: Even after three days, we are concerned with regard to exposure. What is the reason? It is because at times it occurs that a snake drinks even sour wine.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讬谉 转讜住住 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讻诪讛 转住讬住转讜 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讛砖讞诇讬诐 讗讬谉 讘讛诐 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讘谞讬 讙讜诇讛 谞讛讙讜 讘讛谉 讗讬住讜专 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬转 讘讛讜 讞诇讗 讗讘诇 讗讬转 讘讛讜 讞诇讗 诪讬讙专讬 讘讛讜

搂 The Gemara discusses the halakha of exposure with regard to various foods and beverages. The Sages taught: Wine that is still fermenting is not subject to the halakha of exposure. And how long is its fermentation process? It is three days. Cress-based dishes are not subject to the halakha of exposure, but the residents of the Diaspora are accustomed to treating them as prohibited if they were left exposed. And we said this only in a case where the dishes do not contain vinegar; but if they do contain vinegar, the vinegar repels the snakes, and in such a situation even the inhabitants of the Diaspora do not treat them as prohibited.

讻讜转讞 讛讘讘诇讬 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讜讘谞讬 讙讜诇讛 谞讛讙讜 讘讜 讗讬住讜专 讗诪专 专讘 诪谞砖讬 讗讬 讗讬转 讘讬讛 谞拽讜专讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 诪讬 讟讬祝 讟讬祝 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜讛讜讗 讚注讘讬讚 讟讬祝 诇讛讚讬 讟讬祝 讟讬祝

The Gemara continues: Babylonian kuta岣, a popular dip, is not subject to the halakha of exposure, but the residents of the Diaspora are accustomed to treating it as prohibited. Rav Menashei said: If the kuta岣 has indentations in it, we are concerned that they are from a snake鈥檚 fangs, and it is therefore prohibited. Rav 岣yya bar Ashi says that Shmuel says: Dripping water is not subject to the halakha of exposure while it is being collected. Rav Ashi said: And that is the halakha only in a case where the dripping occurs one drop immediately after another drop, i.e., continuously, as the snake will not drink from it in that circumstance.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 驻讬 转讗谞讛 讗讬谉 讘讜 诪砖讜诐 讙讬诇讜讬 讻诪讗谉 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗讜讻诇 讗讚诐 注谞讘讬诐 讜转讗谞讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讗讬谞讜 讞讜砖砖 诪砖讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖诪专 驻转讗讬诐 讛壮

Rav 岣yya bar Ashi says that Shmuel says: The mouth of a fig is not subject to the halakha of exposure. In accordance with whose opinion is this stated? It is stated in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said: A person may eat grapes and figs at night, and he need not have cause for concern, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord preserves the simple鈥 (Psalms 116:6). This verse teaches that one need not fear that harm might befall him when he engages in commonplace activities.

讗诪专 专讘 住驻专讗 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讚专讜诪讗 砖诇砖讛 诪讬谞讬 讗专住 讛谉 砖诇 讘讞讜专 砖讜拽注 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬 诪驻注驻注 讜砖诇 讝拽谉 爪祝 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讻诪讛 讚拽砖讬砖 讻讞讜砖 讞讬诇讬讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖诇砖讛 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讝拽讬谞讬谉 讙讘讜专讛 诪转讜住驻转 讘讛谉 讗诇讜 讛谉 讚讙 谞讞砖 讜讞讝讬专 讻讞 讗讜住讜驻讬 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪讜住讬祝 讝讬讛专讬讛 拽诇讬砖

Rav Safra says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua Deroma: There are three kinds of snake venom: Venom of a young snake, which sinks to the bottom when it is deposited in liquid; venom of a snake of intermediate age, i.e., a snake that is no longer young, which is suspended in the liquid; and venom of an old snake, which floats at the top. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that as a snake ages, the strength of its venom becomes weaker? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that three creatures become stronger as they age, and they are: A fish, a snake, and a pig? The Gemara answers: It is physically that a snake strengthens, but the potency of its venom diminishes.

砖诇 讘讞讜专 砖讜拽注 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讚转谞讬讗 讞讘讬转 砖谞转讙诇讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖砖转讜 诪诪谞讛 转砖注讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜 诇讗 讬砖转讛 诪诪谞讛 注砖讬专讬 诪注砖讛 讛讬讛 砖砖转讜 诪诪谞讜 转砖注讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜 讜砖转讛 注砖讬专讬 讜诪转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讝讛讜 砖讜拽注

The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha was it stated that the venom of a young snake sinks? The Gemara explains: As it is taught in a baraita: With regard to a barrel that was uncovered, even though nine people drank from it and did not die, the tenth should not drink from it, as the venom may have sunk to the bottom of the barrel. The Gemara relates that there was an incident in which nine people drank from an exposed barrel and did not die, and a tenth subsequently drank from it and died. Rabbi Yirmeya says: This is an example of venom that sinks.

讜讻谉 讗讘讟讬讞 砖谞转讙诇转讛 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讻诇讜 诪诪谞讛 转砖注讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讜诇讗 诪转讜 诇讗 讬讗讻诇 诪诪谞讛 注砖讬专讬 诪注砖讛 讛讬讛 讜讗讻诇讜 诪诪谞讛 转砖注讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜 讜讗讻诇 注砖讬专讬 讜诪转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讛讜 砖讜拽注

And similarly, with regard to a melon that was exposed, even though nine people ate from it and did not die, the tenth should not eat from it. Again, there was an incident in which nine people ate from a melon and did not die, and the tenth ate from it and died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: This is an example of venom that sinks.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬诐 砖谞转讙诇讜 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬砖驻讻诐 讘专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 讜诇讗 讬专讘讬抓 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讘讬转 讜诇讗 讬讙讘诇 讘讛谉 讗转 讛讟讬讟 讜诇讗 讬砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讗 讘讛诪转讜 讜诇讗 讘讛诪转 讞讘讬专讜 讜诇讗 讬专讞抓 讘讛谉 驻谞讬讜 讬讚讬讜 讜专讙诇讬讜 讗讞专讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 住讬专讟讗 讗住讜专 讗讬谉 住讬专讟讗 诪讜转专

The Sages taught: With regard to water that was exposed, one may not pour it out in the public thoroughfare, nor settle dust with it by sprinkling it in the house, nor mix clay with it, nor give it to drink to his animal or the animal of another, nor wash his face, hands, or feet with it. Others say: If the part that one is washing is an area of the body that has a crevice in it, it is prohibited to wash it with exposed water, as the venom may seep through the crevice; if the body part does not have a crevice, it is permitted.

讗讞专讬诐 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 讙讘 讛讬讚 讜讙讘 讛专讙诇 讜专讜诪谞讬 讚讗驻讬

The Gemara raises a difficulty: The opinion introduced with the phrase: Others say, is identical to the opinion of the first tanna of the baraita. Both hold that one may not wash his face, hands, and feet with exposed water, as these body parts have crevices in them. The Gemara explains: There is a difference between them with regard to the back of the hand and the back of the foot, and the upper part of the face, i.e., the area of the cheekbones. According to the opinion introduced with the phrase: Others say, it is permitted to wash those parts of the body, as they are free of crevices. According to the first tanna it is prohibited, as they are part of the face, hands, and feet.

讗诪专 诪专 诇讗 讬砖拽讛 诪讛谉 诇讗 讘讛诪转讜 讜诇讗 讘讛诪转 讞讘讬专讜 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讘诇 诪砖拽讛讜 诇讘讛诪转 注爪诪讜 讻讬 转谞讬讗 讛讛讬讗 诇砖讜谞专讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 讚讞讘专讬讛 谞诪讬 讚讞讘专讬讛 讻讞讬砖 讚讬讚讬讛 谞诪讬 讻讞讬砖 讛讚专 讘专讬讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 谞诪讬 讛讚专 讘专讬讗 讝讬诪谞讬谉 讚讘注讬 诇讝讘讜谞讗 讜诪驻住讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讬谞讬讛

The Master said above concerning exposed water: Nor give it to drink to his animal or the animal of another. The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: But one may give exposed water to his own animal to drink? The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is referring to a cat, as cats are less susceptible to snake venom. The Gemara challenges: If that is so, let him also give the water to the cat of another. The Gemara explains: The venom weakens the cat of another. The Gemara challenges: But doesn鈥檛 the venom also weaken his own cat? The Gemara explains: It will later recover. The Gemara challenges: The cat of another will also recover later. The Gemara explains: Although both will eventually recover, there are times that the owner wishes to sell the cat and loses potential profit from the cat鈥檚 current weakness.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 砖诇砖讛 讬讬谞讜转 讛谉 讬讬谉 谞住讱 讗住讜专 讘讛谞讗讛 讜诪讟诪讗 讟讜诪讗讛 讞诪讜专讛 讘讻讝讬转

Rabbi Asi says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: There are three kinds of prohibited wines: It is prohibited to derive benefit from wine used for a libation, and the wine imparts severe ritual impurity when it has the volume of an olive-bulk.

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