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Today's Daf Yomi

January 19, 2018 | ื’ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืขืดื—

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Avodah Zarah 4

Various aggadic statements are brought regarding differences between the way God relates to Jews and non-Jews as well as why good things happen to bad people and bad things happen to good people.


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ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ [ื›ื™] ื”ื ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ื‘ื ื‘ืขืจ ื›ืชื ื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื• ื›ืœ ื–ื“ื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืขืฉื” ืจืฉืขื” ืงืฉ ื•ืœื”ื˜ ืืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื‘ื ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืขื–ื‘ ืœื”ื ืฉืจืฉ ื•ืขื ืฃ ืœื ืฉื•ืจืฉ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืœื ืขื ืฃ ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

by it, as it is written: โ€œFor, behold, the day comes, it burns as a furnace; and all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that comes shall set them ablaze, said the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branchโ€ (Malachi 3:19). This verse is interpreted as follows: Neither a root shall remain for them in this world, nor will a branch grow for them in the World-to-Come. This teaches that the sun itself will burn and consume the wicked in the future.

ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื–ืจื—ื” ืœื›ื ื™ืจืื™ ืฉืžื™ ืฉืžืฉ ืฆื“ืงื” ื•ืžืจืคื ื‘ื›ื ืคื™ื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืžืชืขื“ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฆืืชื ื•ืคืฉืชื ื›ืขื’ืœื™ ืžืจื‘ืง

And the righteous will be healed by it, as it is written in the next verse: โ€œBut to you that fear My Name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wingsโ€ (Malachi 3:20). And moreover, not only will they be healed by it, but they will even be rejuvenated by it, as it is stated in the continuation of that verse: โ€œAnd you shall go forth and leap as calves of the stall.โ€

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืžื” ื“ื’ื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื•ืœืข ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืฃ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืืœืžืœื ืžื•ืจืื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื•ืœืข ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืกื’ืŸ ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืžืชืคืœืœ ื‘ืฉืœื•ืžื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืฉืืœืžืœื ืžื•ืจืื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืื™ืฉ ืืช ืจืขื”ื• ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืœืขื•

Alternatively, just as in the case of fish of the sea, any fish that is bigger than another swallows the other, so too in the case of people, were it not for the fear of the ruling government, anyone who is bigger than another would swallow the other. And this is as we learned in a mishna (Avot 3:2) that Rabbi แธคanina, the deputy High Priest, says: One should pray for the continued welfare of the government, as were it not for the fear of the government, every man would swallow his neighbor alive.

ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื“ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืื ื”ื• ืฉื’ื™ื ื›ื— ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื“ื•ื ื™ื ื• ื•ืจื‘ ื›ื— ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืžื™ื ืš ื”ืณ ื ืื“ืจื™ ื‘ื›ื— ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ืžืœื—ืžื”

ยง Rav แธคinnana bar Pappa raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: โ€œThe Almighty, Whom we have not found out His excellent powerโ€ (Job 37:23), which indicates that His power has not been seen. And it is written elsewhere: โ€œGreat is our Lord, and mighty in powerโ€ (Psalms 147:5), and it is also written: โ€œYour right hand, O Lord, glorious in powerโ€ (Exodus 15:6), from which it may be inferred that His power is discernable. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, in the first verse, Godโ€™s strength is not seen at a time of judgment, where He acts mercifully, whereas there, in the other verses, they are referring to a time of war, when He wages war against His enemies and His power is seen.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื—ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืงื ื”ืณ ื•ื‘ืขืœ ื—ืžื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ื—ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ืฉื‘ืขืชื™ ืžื™ ื™ืชื ื ื™ ืฉืœื ื ืฉื‘ืขืชื™ ืื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื™ืจ ื•ืฉื™ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rabbi แธคama, son of Rabbi แธคanina, raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: โ€œFury is not in Meโ€ (Isaiah 27:4), and it is written: โ€œThe Lord is a jealous and furious Godโ€ (Nahum 1:2). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where it states that God has no fury, it is speaking with regard to the Jewish people, whereas there, where it says that God has fury, it is speaking with regard to the nations of the world. Rav แธคinnana bar Pappa says in explanation of the verse: โ€œFury is not in Me; would that I were as the briers and thorns in flame! I would with one step burn it altogetherโ€ (Isaiah 27:4). โ€œFury is not in Me,โ€ as I have already taken an oath that I will not destroy the Jewish people; โ€œwould that Iโ€ had not taken this oath, since then I would be active โ€œas the briers and thorns in flame! I would with one step burn it altogether.โ€

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ืื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืฉืžื™ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื‘ืงืฉ ื‘ื ื™ื’ื ื™ ืฉืœื”ื ืื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื–ื›ื•ืช ืืคื“ื ื•ืื ืœืื• ืืฉืžื™ื“ื

And this is the same as that which Rabbi Alexandri says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nationsโ€ (Zechariah 12:9)? โ€œI will seekโ€ from whom? Does God need to seek permission? Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I will seek and search in their records [benigeni]; if they have merit, I will redeem them, and if not, I will destroy them.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืš ืœื ื‘ืขื™ ื™ืฉืœื— ื™ื“ ืื ื‘ืคื™ื“ื• ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื•ืข ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืฉืื ื™ ื“ืŸ ืืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืื ื™ ื“ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื›ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื•ื” ืขื•ื” ืขื•ื” ืืฉื™ืžื ื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืœื ืื ื™ ื ืคืจืข ืžื”ืŸ ื›ืคื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช

And this is the same as that which Rava says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œSurely none shall put forth his hand to a ruinous heap, neither because of these things shall help come in oneโ€™s calamity [befido]โ€ (Job 30:24)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to the Jewish people: When I judge the Jewish people, I do not judge them as I judge the nations of the world. When judging the nations of the world, I punish them for all of their transgressions together, as it is written: โ€œA ruin, a ruin, a ruin, will I make it, this also shall be no moreโ€ (Ezekiel 21:32). Rather, I punish the Jewish people like the pecking [kefid] of a hen, which picks up only a tiny amount each time it pecks.

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžืฆื•ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื›ื™ ืื ืžืขื˜ ื›ืคื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืžื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืืฉืคื” ืื ื™ ืžืฆืจืคืŸ ืœื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ [ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ื‘ืคื™ื“ื•] ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื•ืข [ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ] ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืฉืžืฉื•ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืื ื™ ืžื•ืฉื™ืข ืื•ืชื

Alternatively, even if the Jewish people perform but a few mitzvot before Me, like the pecking of hens that peck in a dunghill, I will combine them to a large reckoning, as it is stated: โ€œThough they peck [befido],โ€ i.e., perform mitzvot a little at a time, โ€œthey will be saved [lahen shua]โ€ (Job 30:24). Alternatively, in reward for the manner in which they cry out [shua] and pray before Me, I will save [moshia] them. In other words, God punishes the Jewish people for each individual infraction, but He does not destroy them entirely in a moment of fury.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื ื›ื™ ืืคื“ื ื•ื”ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื• ืขืœื™ ื›ื–ื‘ื™ื ืื ื™ ืืžืจืชื™ ืืคื“ื ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื–ื›ื• ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ื”ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื• ืขืœื™ ื›ื–ื‘ื™ื

And this is the same as that which Rabbi Abba says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd though I will redeem them, they have spoken lies against Meโ€ (Hosea 7:13)? I said that I would redeem them through taking away their money in this world so that they should merit the World-to-Come, but they have spoken lies against Me, by saying that I am angry and uninterested in them.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื ื™ ื™ืกืจืชื™ ื—ื–ืงืชื™ ื–ืจื•ืขืชื ื•ืืœื™ ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืจืข ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื ื™ ืืžืจืชื™ ืื™ืกืจื ื‘ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื—ื–ืงื• ื–ืจื•ืขื•ืชื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ืืœื™ ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืจืข

And this is the same as that which Rav Pappi says in the name of Rava: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œThough I have trained [yissarti] and strengthened their arms, yet they consider evil against Meโ€ (Hosea 7:15)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I said that I would visit them [ayasserem] with afflictions in this world for their benefit, so that their arms would be strengthened in the World-to-Come, but they consider that which I have done as evil.

ืžืฉืชื‘ื— ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืœืžื™ื ื™ ื‘ืจื‘ ืกืคืจื ื“ืื“ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืงื• ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื›ืกื ื“ืชืœื™ืกืจ ืฉื ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ืืฉื›ื—ื•ื”ื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืจืง ืืชื›ื ื™ื“ืขืชื™ ืžื›ืœ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืืคืงื“ ืขืœื™ื›ื ืืช ื›ืœ ืขื•ื ืชื™ื›ื ืžืืŸ ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืกื™ืกื™ื ื‘ืจื—ืžื™ื” ืžืกื™ืง ืœื™ื” ืื™ืฉืชื™ืง ื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื•ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืจืžื• ืœื™ื” ืกื•ื“ืจื ื‘ืฆื•ืืจื™ื” ื•ืงื ืžืฆืขืจื• ืœื™ื”

With regard to the afflictions of the Jewish people, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Abbahu would praise Rav Safra to the heretics by saying that he is a great man. Therefore, they remitted Rav Safraโ€™s obligation to pay taxes for thirteen years, as they relied upon Rabbi Abbahuโ€™s word and wanted to reward a great man. One day they found Rav Safra and said to him: It is written: โ€œYou only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore, I will visit upon you all your iniquitiesโ€ (Amos 3:2). The meaning of this verse is unclear, as why would God punish specifically the Jewish people because He loves them? One who has wrath [siseya], does he raise it against his beloved? Rav Safra was silent and did not say anything in response to them. They threw a scarf around his neck and tormented him, by pulling and denigrating him.

ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืžืื™ ืžืฆืขืจื™ืชื• ืœื™ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืœืŸ ื“ืื“ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื [ ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืข ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœืŸ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื ื“ื”ืื™ ืคืกื•ืงื] ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ืžืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืœื›ื• ื‘ืชื ืื™ ื‘ืงืจืื™ ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ ืœื›ื•

Rabbi Abbahu came and found them doing this to Rav Safra. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: Why are you tormenting him? They said to him: And didnโ€™t you say to us that he is a great man? But he did not even know how to tell us the explanation of this verse. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: You can say that I said this praise of Rav Safra to you only with regard to the Oral Law and the statements of tannaโ€™im, but did I say to you that he is knowledgeable with regard to the Bible?

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืืชื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื ืŸ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ื ืŸ ื’ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืจืžื™ื ืŸ ืื ืคืฉื™ืŸ ื•ืžืขื™ื™ื ืŸ ืื™ื ื”ื• ืœื ืžืขื™ื™ื ื™

They said to Rabbi Abbahu: What is different about you Sages of Eretz Yisrael, that you know the Bible as well? Rabbi Abbahu said to them: We, who are situated among you heretics and are forced to debate the meaning of verses, we impose upon ourselves this obligation and analyze verses in depth. By contrast, those Sages of Babylonia, who are not forced to debate you, do not analyze the Bible in such depth.

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœื™ืžื ืœืŸ ืืช ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœื›ื ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ืฉื ื•ืฉื” ืžืฉื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืื•ื”ื‘ื• ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื•ื ืื• ืื•ื”ื‘ื• ื ืคืจืข ืžืžื ื• ืžืขื˜ ืžืขื˜ ืฉื•ื ืื• ื ืคืจืข ืžืžื ื• ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช

The heretics said to Rabbi Abbahu: In that case, you should tell us the meaning of this verse. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a person who lends money to two people, one of whom is his beloved, and the other one is his enemy. In the case of his beloved, he collects the debt from him little by little, whereas in the case of his enemy he collects the debt from him all at once. So too, with regard to the Jewish people, God punishes them for each transgression as it occurs, so that they should not receive one severe punishment on a single occasion.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ื›ื”ื ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื—ืœื™ืœื” ืœืš ืžืขืฉืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืœื”ืžื™ืช ืฆื“ื™ืง ืขื ืจืฉืข ืืžืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืขืฉื•ืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืœื”ืžื™ืช ืฆื“ื™ืง ืขื ืจืฉืข

ยง The Gemara continues discussing the manner in which God metes out punishment. Rabbi Abba Bar Kahana says: What is the meaning of that which is written as part of Abrahamโ€™s prayer to God, when God informed him that He was going to destroy Sodom: โ€œThat be far [แธฅalila] from You to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wickedโ€ (Genesis 18:25)? This is what Abraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, it is a sacrilege [แธฅullin] for You to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ืจืชื™ ืžืžืš ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ืจืฉืข ื‘ืฆื“ื™ืง ืฉืื™ื ื• ื’ืžื•ืจ

The Gemara asks: And does God not act in this manner? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd I will cut off from You the righteous and the wickedโ€ (Ezekiel 21:8)? The Gemara answers: There the verse is referring to a righteous person who is not completely righteous, and he will therefore be destroyed along with the wicked.

ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฆื“ื™ืง ื’ืžื•ืจ ืœื ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืžืงื“ืฉื™ ืชื—ืœื• ื•ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืžืžืงื“ืฉื™ ืืœื ืžืžืงื•ื“ืฉื™ ืืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืงื™ื™ืžื• ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืžืืœืฃ ื•ืขื“ ืชื™ื• ื”ืชื ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื ืœืžื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžื™ื—ื• ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ื›ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื’ืžื•ืจื™ื

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But is it true that one who is completely righteous cannot be destroyed along with the wicked? But isnโ€™t it written in a prophecy about the destruction of the Temple that God says to the destroyers: โ€œAnd begin at My Sanctuary [mimmikdashi]โ€ (Ezekiel 9:6); and Rav Yosef teaches: Do not read the word as โ€œmimmikdashi,โ€ but rather read it as mimmekudashai, those sanctified to Me. He explains: These are people who observed the Torah in its entirety, from the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet alef through its final letter tav. These people observed every mitzva in the Torah, and yet they were destroyed along with the wicked. The Gemara answers the difficulty: There too, since they had the power to protest against the wicked and prevent them from sinning and they did not protest, they are considered as righteous people who are not completely righteous.

ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœ ื–ืขื ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืคื ื™ ื–ืขืžื• ืžื™ ื™ืขืžื•ื“ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืจ

Rav Pappa raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: โ€œA God that has indignation every dayโ€ (Psalms 7:12), and yet the world still exists, and it is written: โ€œWho can stand before His indignation?โ€ (Nahum 1:6). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where the verse states that no one can stand before His indignation, it is referring to an individual, whereas there, when it is written that God is indignant every day, it is referring to the community, which can withstand the indignation of God, due to its cumulative merits.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœ ื–ืขื ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืžื” ื–ืขืžื• ืจื’ืข ื•ื›ืžื” ืจื’ืข ืื—ืช ืžื—ืžืฉ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ืฉืœืฉืช ืืœืคื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืžืื•ืช ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืฉืขื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืจื’ืข ื•ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืจื’ืข ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืœืขื ื”ืจืฉืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื”

The Sages taught with regard to the verse: A God that has indignation every day. And how long does His indignation last? It lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? One in 53,848 parts of an hour, a very small amount of time, that is a moment. The Gemara adds: And no entity can precisely determine that moment when God is indignant, except for Balaam the wicked, that it is written concerning him:

ื•ื™ื“ืข ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืืคืฉืจ ื“ืขืช ื‘ื”ืžืชื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืžื™ ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข

โ€œAnd knows the knowledge of the Most Highโ€ (Numbers 24:16). Now, this should not be understood to mean that Balaam knew the thoughts of God, as is it possible that Balaam did not know the mind of his animal, and yet he did know the mind of the Most High?

ืžืื™ ื“ืขืช ื‘ื”ืžืชื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ื—ื–ื• ืœื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื›ื™ื‘ ืื—ืžืจื™ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืจื›ื‘ืชื ืืกื•ืกื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื ืฉื“ืื™ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื“ ื•ืชืืžืจ ื”ืืชื•ืŸ ื”ืœื ืื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœื˜ืขื™ื ื ื‘ืขืœืžื

The Gemara clarifies: What is meant by the claim that Balaam did not know the mind of his animal? When the princes of Moab saw that Balaam was riding on his donkey, they said to him: What is the reason that you do not ride upon a horse, which is more fitting for you? Balaam said to them: I am riding on a donkey because I left my horse in a meadow to graze. Immediately: โ€œAnd the donkey said to Balaam: Am not I your donkey?โ€ (Numbers 22:30), i.e., the donkey you always use. Balaam said to it: For carrying burdens only, not for riding.

ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืืฉืจ ืจื›ื‘ืช ืขืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืืงืจืื™ ื‘ืขืœืžื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืžืขื•ื“ืš ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืื ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืœืš ืจื›ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ืื™ืฉื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื”ื”ืกื›ืŸ ื”ืกื›ื ืชื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ืชื”ื™ ืœื• ืกื›ื ืช

The donkey further said to Balaam: โ€œUpon which you have ridden.โ€ Balaam said to it: Merely at irregular occurrences. The donkey said to him: โ€œAll your life long unto this dayโ€ (Numbers 22:30). The donkey added: And moreover, I perform for you riding during the day, and marriage, i.e., intercourse, during the night. The Gemara explains: This is derived from the following comparison: It is written here that Balaamโ€™s donkey said: โ€œWas I ever wont [hahasken hiskanti] to do so to youโ€ (Numbers 22:30), and it is written there, with regard to Abishag the Shunammite and King David: โ€œAnd be a companion [sokhenet] unto him; and let her lie in your bosomโ€ (Iย Kings 1:2). This teaches that the term hiskanti alludes to sexual intercourse.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ื•ื™ื•ื“ืข ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ืœื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืขืก ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื ื‘ื™ื ืขืžื™ ื–ื›ืจ ื ื ืžื” ื™ืขืฅ ื‘ืœืง ืžืœืš ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ืžื” ืขื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืœืขื ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื˜ื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ ืœืžืขืŸ ื“ืขืช ืฆื“ืงื•ืช ื”ืณ

The Gemara returns to its previous question: Rather, what is the meaning of: โ€œAnd knows the knowledge of the Most Highโ€ (Numbers 24:16)? It means that he was able to determine precisely the hour at which the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry. At that moment Balaam would utter his curse and, through Godโ€™s anger, it would be fulfilled. And this is what the prophet said to the Jewish people: โ€œO My people, remember now what Balak, king of Moab, devised, and what Balaam, son of Beor, answered him; from Shittim unto Gilgal, that you may know the righteous acts of the Lordโ€ (Micah 6:5).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืžื™ ืจืื• ื›ืžื” ืฆื“ืงื•ืช ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ืขืžื›ื ืฉืœื ื›ืขืกืชื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืื ื›ืขืกืชื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ืœื ื ืฉืชื™ื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืจื™ื“ ื•ืคืœื™ื˜ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœืขื ืœื‘ืœืง ืžื” ืืงื‘ ืœื ืงื‘ื” ืืœ ื•ืžื” ืื–ืขื ืœื ื–ืขื ื”ืณ

Rabbi Elazar says, in explanation of that verse: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: My nation, see how many acts of kindness I performed for you, that I did not become angry at you during all of those days when Balaam attempted to curse the Jewish people, and he was not able to find a moment of divine anger. As, had I become angry at you, there would not have remained a remnant or a refugee among the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaamโ€™s curse went unfulfilled. And this is what Balaam said to Balak: Since God is not becoming angry, I can do nothing, as: โ€œHow shall I curse whom God has not cursed? And how shall I execrate whom the Lord has not execratedโ€? (Numbers 23:8).

ื•ื›ืžื” ื–ืขืžื• ืจื’ืข ื•ื›ืžื” ืจื’ืข ืืžืจ ืืžื™ืžืจ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืจื’ืข ื›ืžื™ืžืจื™ื” ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืจื’ืข ื”ื•ื” ืจื™ืชื—ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืจื’ืข ื‘ืืคื• ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจืฆื•ื ื• ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžื”ื›ื ื—ื‘ื™ ื›ืžืขื˜ ืจื’ืข ืขื“ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ื–ืขื

The Gemara further discusses this matter: And how long does His indignation last? It lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? Ameimar, and some say Ravina, said: It lasts as long as it takes to say the word moment [rega]. The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that Godโ€™s anger lasts for only a moment? As it is written: โ€œHis anger is but for a moment; His favor, for a lifetimeโ€ (Psalms 30:6). And if you wish, say instead that it is derived from here: โ€œHide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passesโ€ (Isaiah 26:20), meaning that Godโ€™s anger passes in a mere moment.

ืื™ืžืช ืจืชื— ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื‘ืชืœืช ืฉืขื™ ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื›ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื ื›ืจื‘ืœืชื ื“ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉืขืชื ื•ืฉืขืชื ืžื—ื•ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื•ืจื ื›ืœ ืฉืขืชื ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืกื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™ ืกื•ืžืงื™ ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืกื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™ ืกื•ืžืงื™

The Gemara asks: When is God angry? Abaye said: During the first three hours of the day, when the crest of the rooster whitens in the sun, as though life has left the rooster and it suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry. The Gemara asks: Doesnโ€™t its crest whiten each and every hour? How can this serve as a sign? The Gemara answers: The difference is that every other hour there remain red streaks [surayekei] in the roosterโ€™s crest, whereas at that hour of His anger there are no red streaks in its crest.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžืฆืขืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ื [ื‘ืงืจืื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“] ื ืงื˜ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื [ื•ืื•ืงืžื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืจืขื™ื” ื“ืขืจืกื] ื•ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื” ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ืืœื˜ื™ื” ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ื ื™ืžื ื

The Gemara relates: A certain heretic would distress Rabi Yehoshua ben Levi by incessantly challenging him as to the meaning of verses. One day, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi took a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bed upon which he sat, and looked at it. He thought: When that moment of Godโ€™s anger arrives, I will curse the heretic and be rid of him. When that moment of Godโ€™s anger arrived, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi fell asleep and missed the opportunity to curse the heretic.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื›ื™ [ื•ืจื—ืžื™ื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื•] ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื’ื ืขื ื•ืฉ ืœืฆื“ื™ืง ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘

Upon awakening, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: I can conclude from the fact that I fell asleep that it is not proper conduct to do this, to curse people, even if they are wicked, as the verse: โ€œAnd His tender mercies are over all His worksโ€ (Psalms 145:9) is written even with regard to sinners. And moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as it is written: โ€œPunishment, even for the righteous, is not goodโ€ (Proverbs 17:26). Even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.

ืชื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืจื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ืŸ ืœื—ืžื” ืžื™ื“ ื›ื•ืขืก [ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื] ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ืœื™ืฆืœื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืฆืœื•ืชื ื“ืžื•ืกืคื™ ื‘ืชืœืช ืฉืขื™ ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ื™ื•ืžื ืงืžื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืฉืชื ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื“ืœืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืžืคืงื™ื“ ื“ื™ื ื ื“ืœืžื ืžืขื™ื™ื ื™ ื‘ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื” ื•ื“ื—ืคื• ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื“ื—ื™

In explanation of the cause of Godโ€™s anger, it is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the kings wake up and place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry. This is why Godโ€™s anger occurs during the first three hours of the day. Rav Yosef says: A person should not recite the additional prayers during the first three hours of the day on the first day of Rosh HaShana if he is praying individually, as, since the judgment of the entire world is reckoned then, perhaps the Heavenly court will scrutinize his actions and reject him.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื ืžื™ ื“ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื ืคื™ืฉื ื–ื›ื•ืชื™ื” ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื“ืฆืคืจื ื ืžื™ ืœื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืฆื‘ื•ืจื ื“ืงื ืžืฆืœื• ืœื ืงื ืžื“ื—ื™

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, the prayer of the community should not be recited at that time as well. The Gemara explains: The prayer of the community is not rejected even at this time, due to its many merits. The Gemara asks: If that is so, then shouldnโ€™t the morning prayer of one who is praying individually also not be recited at this time? The Gemara answers: Since there is in all places a community that prays the morning prayer at that same time, his prayer is not rejected. By contrast, the additional prayer is recited at different times by different communities, as unlike the morning prayer it does not have a fixed time but can be recited at any point during the day.

ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ืฉืœืฉ ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืขื•ืกืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืื™ืคื•ืš

The Gemara raises another difficulty: But didnโ€™t you say that during the first three hours of the day The Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and engages in Torah study, and He engages in judgment only during the second set of three hours? The Gemara answers: Reverse the order so that it is stated that He sits in judgment during the first three hours of the day.

ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ืชื™ืคื•ืš ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ืืžืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžืช ืงื ื” ื•ืืœ ืชืžื›ืจ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืจืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืืžืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืจืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ

And if you wish, say instead: Actually, do not reverse the order. Rather, this is the reason that an individual should not recite the additional prayer during the first three hours of the day when God is engaged in Torah study: In the case of the Torah, with regard to which it is written: Truth, as it is written: โ€œBuy the truth, and sell it notโ€ (Proverbs 23:23), the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act in a manner that is beyond the letter of the law. But with regard to judgment, with regard to which it is not written: Truth, but it is a process that involves mercy and compromise, the Holy One, Blessed be He, can act in a manner that is beyond the letter of the law.

(ื™ื•ื ืžืขื™ื“ ื˜ืจืฃ ื‘ืขื’ืœ ืกื™ืžืŸ) ื’ื•ืคื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฉืจ ืื ื›ื™ ืžืฆื•ืš ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื•ืœื ืœืžื—ืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื•ื ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืฉื›ืจืŸ

ยง The Gemara presents a mnemonic for the ensuing statements of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Today, bear witness, shake, the golden calf. The Gemara returns to an earlier discussion (3a), first by citing the matter itself. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œWhich I command you this day, to do themโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:11)? This verse teaches that today is the time to do them, i.e., to perform the mitzvot, in this world, but tomorrow, in the World-to-Come, is not the time to do them. Furthermore, today is the time to do them, but today is not the time to receive oneโ€™s reward, which is given in the World-to-Come.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืช ื•ืžืขื™ื“ื•ืช ืื•ืชื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ืืžืช ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ืืœื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ืืžืช ืืœื• ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All of the mitzvot that the Jews perform in this word will come and bear witness for them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justified, and let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€ (Isaiah 43:9). He explains: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justifiedโ€; these are referring to the Jews. โ€œAnd let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€; these are referring to the nations of the world.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืช ื•ื˜ื•ืจืคื•ืช ืื•ืชื ืœืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉืžืจืชื ื•ืขืฉื™ืชื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื—ื›ืžืชื›ื ื•ื‘ื™ื ืชื›ื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื ื’ื“ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืœื ื ืืžืจ ืืœื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื‘ืื•ืช ื•ื˜ื•ืจืคื•ืช ืœืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื”ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All of the mitzvot that the Jewish people perform in this world will come and strike the faces of the nations of the world in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œObserve therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the eyes of the nationsโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:6). It is not stated: Before the nations; rather, the verse states: โ€œIn the eyes of the nations,โ€ which taken literally teaches that they will come and strike the faces of the nations of the world in the World-to-Come.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืœื ืขืฉื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœ ืืœื ืœื™ืชืŸ ืคืชื—ื•ืŸ ืคื” ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื‘ื‘ื ื–ื” ืœื”ื ืœื™ืจืื” ืืชื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The Jewish people fashioned the Golden Calf (see Exodus, chapter 32) only to give a claim to penitents, as it is stated after the revelation at Sinai: โ€œWho would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children foreverโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:25). If the nation was truly at such a lofty spiritual state, how could they worship the Golden Calf? Rather, their sin occurred so that it would be made clear that one can repent for any sin, as even a sin as severe as the Golden Calf was forgiven.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ืื™ ืœื ื“ื•ื“ ืจืื•ื™ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืœื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืื•ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ืœื ื“ื•ื“ ืจืื•ื™ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื™ ื—ืœืœ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื™

And this is similar to that which Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: David was not fit to act as he did in that incident involving Bathsheba, and the Jewish people were not fit to act as they did in that incident of the Golden Calf. David was not fit to act as he did in that incident involving Bathsheba (see IIย Samuel, chapter 11), as it is written: โ€œAnd my heart is wounded within meโ€ (Psalms 109:22), i.e., he had vanquished his evil inclination, and therefore it should not have been able to rule over him to that extent.

ื•ืœื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืื•ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื™ ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื‘ื‘ื ื–ื” ืœื”ื ืœื™ืจืื” ืื•ืชื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื ืœืžื” ืขืฉื•

And likewise the Jewish people were not fit to act as they did in that incident of the Golden Calf, as it is written with regard to the Jewish people of that time: โ€œWho would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children foreverโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:25). Rather, why did they perform these sins?

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the Refuah Shlemah of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Avodah Zarah 4

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Avodah Zarah 4

ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ [ื›ื™] ื”ื ื” ื”ื™ื•ื ื‘ื ื‘ืขืจ ื›ืชื ื•ืจ ื•ื”ื™ื• ื›ืœ ื–ื“ื™ื ื•ื›ืœ ืขืฉื” ืจืฉืขื” ืงืฉ ื•ืœื”ื˜ ืืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื‘ื ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืฆื‘ืื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืขื–ื‘ ืœื”ื ืฉืจืฉ ื•ืขื ืฃ ืœื ืฉื•ืจืฉ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืœื ืขื ืฃ ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

by it, as it is written: โ€œFor, behold, the day comes, it burns as a furnace; and all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that comes shall set them ablaze, said the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branchโ€ (Malachi 3:19). This verse is interpreted as follows: Neither a root shall remain for them in this world, nor will a branch grow for them in the World-to-Come. This teaches that the sun itself will burn and consume the wicked in the future.

ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืžืชืจืคืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื–ืจื—ื” ืœื›ื ื™ืจืื™ ืฉืžื™ ืฉืžืฉ ืฆื“ืงื” ื•ืžืจืคื ื‘ื›ื ืคื™ื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืžืชืขื“ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฆืืชื ื•ืคืฉืชื ื›ืขื’ืœื™ ืžืจื‘ืง

And the righteous will be healed by it, as it is written in the next verse: โ€œBut to you that fear My Name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wingsโ€ (Malachi 3:20). And moreover, not only will they be healed by it, but they will even be rejuvenated by it, as it is stated in the continuation of that verse: โ€œAnd you shall go forth and leap as calves of the stall.โ€

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืžื” ื“ื’ื™ื ืฉื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื•ืœืข ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืฃ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืืœืžืœื ืžื•ืจืื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื‘ื•ืœืข ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืกื’ืŸ ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืžืชืคืœืœ ื‘ืฉืœื•ืžื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืฉืืœืžืœื ืžื•ืจืื” ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื•ืช ืื™ืฉ ืืช ืจืขื”ื• ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืœืขื•

Alternatively, just as in the case of fish of the sea, any fish that is bigger than another swallows the other, so too in the case of people, were it not for the fear of the ruling government, anyone who is bigger than another would swallow the other. And this is as we learned in a mishna (Avot 3:2) that Rabbi แธคanina, the deputy High Priest, says: One should pray for the continued welfare of the government, as were it not for the fear of the government, every man would swallow his neighbor alive.

ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฉื“ื™ ืœื ืžืฆืื ื”ื• ืฉื’ื™ื ื›ื— ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื“ื•ื ื™ื ื• ื•ืจื‘ ื›ื— ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืžื™ื ืš ื”ืณ ื ืื“ืจื™ ื‘ื›ื— ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ืžืœื—ืžื”

ยง Rav แธคinnana bar Pappa raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: โ€œThe Almighty, Whom we have not found out His excellent powerโ€ (Job 37:23), which indicates that His power has not been seen. And it is written elsewhere: โ€œGreat is our Lord, and mighty in powerโ€ (Psalms 147:5), and it is also written: โ€œYour right hand, O Lord, glorious in powerโ€ (Exodus 15:6), from which it may be inferred that His power is discernable. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, in the first verse, Godโ€™s strength is not seen at a time of judgment, where He acts mercifully, whereas there, in the other verses, they are referring to a time of war, when He wages war against His enemies and His power is seen.

ืจื‘ื™ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื—ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืงื ื”ืณ ื•ื‘ืขืœ ื—ืžื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ื—ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ืฉื‘ืขืชื™ ืžื™ ื™ืชื ื ื™ ืฉืœื ื ืฉื‘ืขืชื™ ืื”ื™ื” ืฉืžื™ืจ ื•ืฉื™ืช ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Rabbi แธคama, son of Rabbi แธคanina, raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: โ€œFury is not in Meโ€ (Isaiah 27:4), and it is written: โ€œThe Lord is a jealous and furious Godโ€ (Nahum 1:2). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where it states that God has no fury, it is speaking with regard to the Jewish people, whereas there, where it says that God has fury, it is speaking with regard to the nations of the world. Rav แธคinnana bar Pappa says in explanation of the verse: โ€œFury is not in Me; would that I were as the briers and thorns in flame! I would with one step burn it altogetherโ€ (Isaiah 27:4). โ€œFury is not in Me,โ€ as I have already taken an oath that I will not destroy the Jewish people; โ€œwould that Iโ€ had not taken this oath, since then I would be active โ€œas the briers and thorns in flame! I would with one step burn it altogether.โ€

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื›ืกื ื“ืจื™ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื”ื”ื•ื ืื‘ืงืฉ ืœื”ืฉืžื™ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืื‘ืงืฉ ืžืžื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื‘ืงืฉ ื‘ื ื™ื’ื ื™ ืฉืœื”ื ืื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื–ื›ื•ืช ืืคื“ื ื•ืื ืœืื• ืืฉืžื™ื“ื

And this is the same as that which Rabbi Alexandri says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nationsโ€ (Zechariah 12:9)? โ€œI will seekโ€ from whom? Does God need to seek permission? Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I will seek and search in their records [benigeni]; if they have merit, I will redeem them, and if not, I will destroy them.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืš ืœื ื‘ืขื™ ื™ืฉืœื— ื™ื“ ืื ื‘ืคื™ื“ื• ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื•ืข ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ื›ืฉืื ื™ ื“ืŸ ืืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืื ื™ ื“ืŸ ืื•ืชื ื›ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื•ื” ืขื•ื” ืขื•ื” ืืฉื™ืžื ื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืืœื ืื ื™ ื ืคืจืข ืžื”ืŸ ื›ืคื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช

And this is the same as that which Rava says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œSurely none shall put forth his hand to a ruinous heap, neither because of these things shall help come in oneโ€™s calamity [befido]โ€ (Job 30:24)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to the Jewish people: When I judge the Jewish people, I do not judge them as I judge the nations of the world. When judging the nations of the world, I punish them for all of their transgressions together, as it is written: โ€œA ruin, a ruin, a ruin, will I make it, this also shall be no moreโ€ (Ezekiel 21:32). Rather, I punish the Jewish people like the pecking [kefid] of a hen, which picks up only a tiny amount each time it pecks.

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืื™ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžืฆื•ื” ืœืคื ื™ ื›ื™ ืื ืžืขื˜ ื›ืคื™ื“ ืฉืœ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืžื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืืฉืคื” ืื ื™ ืžืฆืจืคืŸ ืœื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ [ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ื‘ืคื™ื“ื•] ืœื”ืŸ ืฉื•ืข [ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ] ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืฉืžืฉื•ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ืื ื™ ืžื•ืฉื™ืข ืื•ืชื

Alternatively, even if the Jewish people perform but a few mitzvot before Me, like the pecking of hens that peck in a dunghill, I will combine them to a large reckoning, as it is stated: โ€œThough they peck [befido],โ€ i.e., perform mitzvot a little at a time, โ€œthey will be saved [lahen shua]โ€ (Job 30:24). Alternatively, in reward for the manner in which they cry out [shua] and pray before Me, I will save [moshia] them. In other words, God punishes the Jewish people for each individual infraction, but He does not destroy them entirely in a moment of fury.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื ื›ื™ ืืคื“ื ื•ื”ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื• ืขืœื™ ื›ื–ื‘ื™ื ืื ื™ ืืžืจืชื™ ืืคื“ื ื‘ืžืžื•ื ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื–ื›ื• ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ื”ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื• ืขืœื™ ื›ื–ื‘ื™ื

And this is the same as that which Rabbi Abba says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œAnd though I will redeem them, they have spoken lies against Meโ€ (Hosea 7:13)? I said that I would redeem them through taking away their money in this world so that they should merit the World-to-Come, but they have spoken lies against Me, by saying that I am angry and uninterested in them.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืื ื™ ื™ืกืจืชื™ ื—ื–ืงืชื™ ื–ืจื•ืขืชื ื•ืืœื™ ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืจืข ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืื ื™ ืืžืจืชื™ ืื™ืกืจื ื‘ื™ืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื—ื–ืงื• ื–ืจื•ืขื•ืชื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื•ืืœื™ ื™ื—ืฉื‘ื• ืจืข

And this is the same as that which Rav Pappi says in the name of Rava: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œThough I have trained [yissarti] and strengthened their arms, yet they consider evil against Meโ€ (Hosea 7:15)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I said that I would visit them [ayasserem] with afflictions in this world for their benefit, so that their arms would be strengthened in the World-to-Come, but they consider that which I have done as evil.

ืžืฉืชื‘ื— ืœื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืœืžื™ื ื™ ื‘ืจื‘ ืกืคืจื ื“ืื“ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืฉื‘ืงื• ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื›ืกื ื“ืชืœื™ืกืจ ืฉื ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ืืฉื›ื—ื•ื”ื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืจืง ืืชื›ื ื™ื“ืขืชื™ ืžื›ืœ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืื“ืžื” ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืืคืงื“ ืขืœื™ื›ื ืืช ื›ืœ ืขื•ื ืชื™ื›ื ืžืืŸ ื“ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ืกื™ืกื™ื ื‘ืจื—ืžื™ื” ืžืกื™ืง ืœื™ื” ืื™ืฉืชื™ืง ื•ืœื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื•ืœื ืžื™ื“ื™ ืจืžื• ืœื™ื” ืกื•ื“ืจื ื‘ืฆื•ืืจื™ื” ื•ืงื ืžืฆืขืจื• ืœื™ื”

With regard to the afflictions of the Jewish people, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Abbahu would praise Rav Safra to the heretics by saying that he is a great man. Therefore, they remitted Rav Safraโ€™s obligation to pay taxes for thirteen years, as they relied upon Rabbi Abbahuโ€™s word and wanted to reward a great man. One day they found Rav Safra and said to him: It is written: โ€œYou only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore, I will visit upon you all your iniquitiesโ€ (Amos 3:2). The meaning of this verse is unclear, as why would God punish specifically the Jewish people because He loves them? One who has wrath [siseya], does he raise it against his beloved? Rav Safra was silent and did not say anything in response to them. They threw a scarf around his neck and tormented him, by pulling and denigrating him.

ืืชื ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืžืื™ ืžืฆืขืจื™ืชื• ืœื™ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืœืื• ืืžืจืช ืœืŸ ื“ืื“ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื [ ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืข ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœืŸ ืคื™ืจื•ืฉื ื“ื”ืื™ ืคืกื•ืงื] ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ืžืจ ื“ืืžืจื™ ืœื›ื• ื‘ืชื ืื™ ื‘ืงืจืื™ ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ ืœื›ื•

Rabbi Abbahu came and found them doing this to Rav Safra. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: Why are you tormenting him? They said to him: And didnโ€™t you say to us that he is a great man? But he did not even know how to tell us the explanation of this verse. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: You can say that I said this praise of Rav Safra to you only with regard to the Oral Law and the statements of tannaโ€™im, but did I say to you that he is knowledgeable with regard to the Bible?

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืืชื•ืŸ ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ืชื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื ืŸ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ื ืŸ ื’ื‘ื™ื›ื•ืŸ ืจืžื™ื ืŸ ืื ืคืฉื™ืŸ ื•ืžืขื™ื™ื ืŸ ืื™ื ื”ื• ืœื ืžืขื™ื™ื ื™

They said to Rabbi Abbahu: What is different about you Sages of Eretz Yisrael, that you know the Bible as well? Rabbi Abbahu said to them: We, who are situated among you heretics and are forced to debate the meaning of verses, we impose upon ourselves this obligation and analyze verses in depth. By contrast, those Sages of Babylonia, who are not forced to debate you, do not analyze the Bible in such depth.

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœื™ืžื ืœืŸ ืืช ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœื›ื ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ืฉื ื•ืฉื” ืžืฉื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืื•ื”ื‘ื• ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื•ื ืื• ืื•ื”ื‘ื• ื ืคืจืข ืžืžื ื• ืžืขื˜ ืžืขื˜ ืฉื•ื ืื• ื ืคืจืข ืžืžื ื• ื‘ื‘ืช ืื—ืช

The heretics said to Rabbi Abbahu: In that case, you should tell us the meaning of this verse. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a person who lends money to two people, one of whom is his beloved, and the other one is his enemy. In the case of his beloved, he collects the debt from him little by little, whereas in the case of his enemy he collects the debt from him all at once. So too, with regard to the Jewish people, God punishes them for each transgression as it occurs, so that they should not receive one severe punishment on a single occasion.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ื›ื”ื ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื—ืœื™ืœื” ืœืš ืžืขืฉืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืœื”ืžื™ืช ืฆื“ื™ืง ืขื ืจืฉืข ืืžืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืขืฉื•ืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื–ื” ืœื”ืžื™ืช ืฆื“ื™ืง ืขื ืจืฉืข

ยง The Gemara continues discussing the manner in which God metes out punishment. Rabbi Abba Bar Kahana says: What is the meaning of that which is written as part of Abrahamโ€™s prayer to God, when God informed him that He was going to destroy Sodom: โ€œThat be far [แธฅalila] from You to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wickedโ€ (Genesis 18:25)? This is what Abraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, it is a sacrilege [แธฅullin] for You to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื›ืจืชื™ ืžืžืš ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ืจืฉืข ื‘ืฆื“ื™ืง ืฉืื™ื ื• ื’ืžื•ืจ

The Gemara asks: And does God not act in this manner? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd I will cut off from You the righteous and the wickedโ€ (Ezekiel 21:8)? The Gemara answers: There the verse is referring to a righteous person who is not completely righteous, and he will therefore be destroyed along with the wicked.

ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืฆื“ื™ืง ื’ืžื•ืจ ืœื ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืžืžืงื“ืฉื™ ืชื—ืœื• ื•ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ืžืžืงื“ืฉื™ ืืœื ืžืžืงื•ื“ืฉื™ ืืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืงื™ื™ืžื• ืืช ื”ืชื•ืจื” ืžืืœืฃ ื•ืขื“ ืชื™ื• ื”ืชื ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื‘ื™ื“ื ืœืžื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžื™ื—ื• ื”ื•ื• ืœื”ื• ื›ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื’ืžื•ืจื™ื

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But is it true that one who is completely righteous cannot be destroyed along with the wicked? But isnโ€™t it written in a prophecy about the destruction of the Temple that God says to the destroyers: โ€œAnd begin at My Sanctuary [mimmikdashi]โ€ (Ezekiel 9:6); and Rav Yosef teaches: Do not read the word as โ€œmimmikdashi,โ€ but rather read it as mimmekudashai, those sanctified to Me. He explains: These are people who observed the Torah in its entirety, from the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet alef through its final letter tav. These people observed every mitzva in the Torah, and yet they were destroyed along with the wicked. The Gemara answers the difficulty: There too, since they had the power to protest against the wicked and prevent them from sinning and they did not protest, they are considered as righteous people who are not completely righteous.

ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœ ื–ืขื ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœืคื ื™ ื–ืขืžื• ืžื™ ื™ืขืžื•ื“ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืจ

Rav Pappa raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: โ€œA God that has indignation every dayโ€ (Psalms 7:12), and yet the world still exists, and it is written: โ€œWho can stand before His indignation?โ€ (Nahum 1:6). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where the verse states that no one can stand before His indignation, it is referring to an individual, whereas there, when it is written that God is indignant every day, it is referring to the community, which can withstand the indignation of God, due to its cumulative merits.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืืœ ื–ืขื ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ืžื” ื–ืขืžื• ืจื’ืข ื•ื›ืžื” ืจื’ืข ืื—ืช ืžื—ืžืฉ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ืฉืœืฉืช ืืœืคื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืžืื•ืช ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื ื” ื‘ืฉืขื” ื–ื• ื”ื™ื ืจื’ืข ื•ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืจื’ืข ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื‘ืœืขื ื”ืจืฉืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื”

The Sages taught with regard to the verse: A God that has indignation every day. And how long does His indignation last? It lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? One in 53,848 parts of an hour, a very small amount of time, that is a moment. The Gemara adds: And no entity can precisely determine that moment when God is indignant, except for Balaam the wicked, that it is written concerning him:

ื•ื™ื“ืข ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืืคืฉืจ ื“ืขืช ื‘ื”ืžืชื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืžื™ ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข

โ€œAnd knows the knowledge of the Most Highโ€ (Numbers 24:16). Now, this should not be understood to mean that Balaam knew the thoughts of God, as is it possible that Balaam did not know the mind of his animal, and yet he did know the mind of the Most High?

ืžืื™ ื“ืขืช ื‘ื”ืžืชื• ืœื ื”ื•ื” ื™ื“ืข ื‘ืขื™ื“ื ื ื“ื—ื–ื• ืœื™ื” ื“ื”ื•ื” ืจื›ื™ื‘ ืื—ืžืจื™ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืจื›ื‘ืชื ืืกื•ืกื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืจื˜ื™ื‘ื ืฉื“ืื™ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื“ ื•ืชืืžืจ ื”ืืชื•ืŸ ื”ืœื ืื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืœื˜ืขื™ื ื ื‘ืขืœืžื

The Gemara clarifies: What is meant by the claim that Balaam did not know the mind of his animal? When the princes of Moab saw that Balaam was riding on his donkey, they said to him: What is the reason that you do not ride upon a horse, which is more fitting for you? Balaam said to them: I am riding on a donkey because I left my horse in a meadow to graze. Immediately: โ€œAnd the donkey said to Balaam: Am not I your donkey?โ€ (Numbers 22:30), i.e., the donkey you always use. Balaam said to it: For carrying burdens only, not for riding.

ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืืฉืจ ืจื›ื‘ืช ืขืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืืงืจืื™ ื‘ืขืœืžื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืžืขื•ื“ืš ื•ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืฉืื ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืœืš ืจื›ื™ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ื•ืื™ืฉื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื”ื”ืกื›ืŸ ื”ืกื›ื ืชื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื•ืชื”ื™ ืœื• ืกื›ื ืช

The donkey further said to Balaam: โ€œUpon which you have ridden.โ€ Balaam said to it: Merely at irregular occurrences. The donkey said to him: โ€œAll your life long unto this dayโ€ (Numbers 22:30). The donkey added: And moreover, I perform for you riding during the day, and marriage, i.e., intercourse, during the night. The Gemara explains: This is derived from the following comparison: It is written here that Balaamโ€™s donkey said: โ€œWas I ever wont [hahasken hiskanti] to do so to youโ€ (Numbers 22:30), and it is written there, with regard to Abishag the Shunammite and King David: โ€œAnd be a companion [sokhenet] unto him; and let her lie in your bosomโ€ (Iย Kings 1:2). This teaches that the term hiskanti alludes to sexual intercourse.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ื•ื™ื•ื“ืข ื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ื•ื“ืข ืœื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ืขืก ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื ื‘ื™ื ืขืžื™ ื–ื›ืจ ื ื ืžื” ื™ืขืฅ ื‘ืœืง ืžืœืš ืžื•ืื‘ ื•ืžื” ืขื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืœืขื ื‘ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืจ ืžืŸ ื”ืฉื˜ื™ื ื•ืขื“ ื”ื’ืœื’ืœ ืœืžืขืŸ ื“ืขืช ืฆื“ืงื•ืช ื”ืณ

The Gemara returns to its previous question: Rather, what is the meaning of: โ€œAnd knows the knowledge of the Most Highโ€ (Numbers 24:16)? It means that he was able to determine precisely the hour at which the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry. At that moment Balaam would utter his curse and, through Godโ€™s anger, it would be fulfilled. And this is what the prophet said to the Jewish people: โ€œO My people, remember now what Balak, king of Moab, devised, and what Balaam, son of Beor, answered him; from Shittim unto Gilgal, that you may know the righteous acts of the Lordโ€ (Micah 6:5).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขืžื™ ืจืื• ื›ืžื” ืฆื“ืงื•ืช ืขืฉื™ืชื™ ืขืžื›ื ืฉืœื ื›ืขืกืชื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืื ื›ืขืกืชื™ ืขืœื™ื›ื ืœื ื ืฉืชื™ื™ืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืื™ื”ื ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืจื™ื“ ื•ืคืœื™ื˜ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืœืขื ืœื‘ืœืง ืžื” ืืงื‘ ืœื ืงื‘ื” ืืœ ื•ืžื” ืื–ืขื ืœื ื–ืขื ื”ืณ

Rabbi Elazar says, in explanation of that verse: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: My nation, see how many acts of kindness I performed for you, that I did not become angry at you during all of those days when Balaam attempted to curse the Jewish people, and he was not able to find a moment of divine anger. As, had I become angry at you, there would not have remained a remnant or a refugee among the enemies of the Jewish people, a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaamโ€™s curse went unfulfilled. And this is what Balaam said to Balak: Since God is not becoming angry, I can do nothing, as: โ€œHow shall I curse whom God has not cursed? And how shall I execrate whom the Lord has not execratedโ€? (Numbers 23:8).

ื•ื›ืžื” ื–ืขืžื• ืจื’ืข ื•ื›ืžื” ืจื’ืข ืืžืจ ืืžื™ืžืจ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืจื’ืข ื›ืžื™ืžืจื™ื” ื•ืžื ืœืŸ ื“ืจื’ืข ื”ื•ื” ืจื™ืชื—ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืจื’ืข ื‘ืืคื• ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจืฆื•ื ื• ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžื”ื›ื ื—ื‘ื™ ื›ืžืขื˜ ืจื’ืข ืขื“ ื™ืขื‘ืจ ื–ืขื

The Gemara further discusses this matter: And how long does His indignation last? It lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? Ameimar, and some say Ravina, said: It lasts as long as it takes to say the word moment [rega]. The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that Godโ€™s anger lasts for only a moment? As it is written: โ€œHis anger is but for a moment; His favor, for a lifetimeโ€ (Psalms 30:6). And if you wish, say instead that it is derived from here: โ€œHide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passesโ€ (Isaiah 26:20), meaning that Godโ€™s anger passes in a mere moment.

ืื™ืžืช ืจืชื— ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื‘ืชืœืช ืฉืขื™ ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื›ื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื ื›ืจื‘ืœืชื ื“ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉืขืชื ื•ืฉืขืชื ืžื—ื•ื•ืจ ื—ื™ื•ืจื ื›ืœ ืฉืขืชื ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืกื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™ ืกื•ืžืงื™ ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืกื•ืจื™ื™ืงื™ ืกื•ืžืงื™

The Gemara asks: When is God angry? Abaye said: During the first three hours of the day, when the crest of the rooster whitens in the sun, as though life has left the rooster and it suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry. The Gemara asks: Doesnโ€™t its crest whiten each and every hour? How can this serve as a sign? The Gemara answers: The difference is that every other hour there remain red streaks [surayekei] in the roosterโ€™s crest, whereas at that hour of His anger there are no red streaks in its crest.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื”ื•ื” ืžืฆืขืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื ื [ื‘ืงืจืื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“] ื ืงื˜ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื [ื•ืื•ืงืžื™ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืจืขื™ื” ื“ืขืจืกื] ื•ืขื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื” ืกื‘ืจ ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ืืœื˜ื™ื” ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ื”ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืชื ื ื™ืžื ื

The Gemara relates: A certain heretic would distress Rabi Yehoshua ben Levi by incessantly challenging him as to the meaning of verses. One day, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi took a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bed upon which he sat, and looked at it. He thought: When that moment of Godโ€™s anger arrives, I will curse the heretic and be rid of him. When that moment of Godโ€™s anger arrived, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi fell asleep and missed the opportunity to curse the heretic.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืœืื• ืื•ืจื— ืืจืขื ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื›ื™ [ื•ืจื—ืžื™ื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื•] ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื’ื ืขื ื•ืฉ ืœืฆื“ื™ืง ืœื ื˜ื•ื‘

Upon awakening, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: I can conclude from the fact that I fell asleep that it is not proper conduct to do this, to curse people, even if they are wicked, as the verse: โ€œAnd His tender mercies are over all His worksโ€ (Psalms 145:9) is written even with regard to sinners. And moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as it is written: โ€œPunishment, even for the righteous, is not goodโ€ (Proverbs 17:26). Even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.

ืชื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื”ืžืœื›ื™ื ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ื›ืชืจื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื™ื”ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืชื—ื•ื™ืŸ ืœื—ืžื” ืžื™ื“ ื›ื•ืขืก [ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื] ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืœื ืœื™ืฆืœื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืฆืœื•ืชื ื“ืžื•ืกืคื™ ื‘ืชืœืช ืฉืขื™ ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื“ื™ื•ืžื ื‘ื™ื•ืžื ืงืžื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ืฉืชื ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื“ืœืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืžืคืงื™ื“ ื“ื™ื ื ื“ืœืžื ืžืขื™ื™ื ื™ ื‘ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื” ื•ื“ื—ืคื• ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื“ื—ื™

In explanation of the cause of Godโ€™s anger, it is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the kings wake up and place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry. This is why Godโ€™s anger occurs during the first three hours of the day. Rav Yosef says: A person should not recite the additional prayers during the first three hours of the day on the first day of Rosh HaShana if he is praying individually, as, since the judgment of the entire world is reckoned then, perhaps the Heavenly court will scrutinize his actions and reject him.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื ืžื™ ื“ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื ืคื™ืฉื ื–ื›ื•ืชื™ื” ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื“ืฆืคืจื ื ืžื™ ืœื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ืฆื‘ื•ืจื ื“ืงื ืžืฆืœื• ืœื ืงื ืžื“ื—ื™

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, the prayer of the community should not be recited at that time as well. The Gemara explains: The prayer of the community is not rejected even at this time, due to its many merits. The Gemara asks: If that is so, then shouldnโ€™t the morning prayer of one who is praying individually also not be recited at this time? The Gemara answers: Since there is in all places a community that prays the morning prayer at that same time, his prayer is not rejected. By contrast, the additional prayer is recited at different times by different communities, as unlike the morning prayer it does not have a fixed time but can be recited at any point during the day.

ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ืฉืœืฉ ืจืืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืขื•ืกืง ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืื™ืคื•ืš

The Gemara raises another difficulty: But didnโ€™t you say that during the first three hours of the day The Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and engages in Torah study, and He engages in judgment only during the second set of three hours? The Gemara answers: Reverse the order so that it is stated that He sits in judgment during the first three hours of the day.

ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ืชื™ืคื•ืš ืชื•ืจื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื” ืืžืช ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžืช ืงื ื” ื•ืืœ ืชืžื›ืจ ืื™ืŸ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืจืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ืืžืช ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืฉื•ืจืช ื”ื“ื™ืŸ

And if you wish, say instead: Actually, do not reverse the order. Rather, this is the reason that an individual should not recite the additional prayer during the first three hours of the day when God is engaged in Torah study: In the case of the Torah, with regard to which it is written: Truth, as it is written: โ€œBuy the truth, and sell it notโ€ (Proverbs 23:23), the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act in a manner that is beyond the letter of the law. But with regard to judgment, with regard to which it is not written: Truth, but it is a process that involves mercy and compromise, the Holy One, Blessed be He, can act in a manner that is beyond the letter of the law.

(ื™ื•ื ืžืขื™ื“ ื˜ืจืฃ ื‘ืขื’ืœ ืกื™ืžืŸ) ื’ื•ืคื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืฉืจ ืื ื›ื™ ืžืฆื•ืš ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื•ืœื ืœืžื—ืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื”ื™ื•ื ืœืขืฉื•ืชื ื•ืœื ื”ื™ื•ื ืœื™ื˜ื•ืœ ืฉื›ืจืŸ

ยง The Gemara presents a mnemonic for the ensuing statements of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Today, bear witness, shake, the golden calf. The Gemara returns to an earlier discussion (3a), first by citing the matter itself. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œWhich I command you this day, to do themโ€ (Deuteronomy 7:11)? This verse teaches that today is the time to do them, i.e., to perform the mitzvot, in this world, but tomorrow, in the World-to-Come, is not the time to do them. Furthermore, today is the time to do them, but today is not the time to receive oneโ€™s reward, which is given in the World-to-Come.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืช ื•ืžืขื™ื“ื•ืช ืื•ืชื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ืืžืช ื™ืชื ื• ืขื“ื™ื”ื ื•ื™ืฆื“ืงื• ืืœื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ืฉืžืขื• ื•ื™ืืžืจื• ืืžืช ืืœื• ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All of the mitzvot that the Jews perform in this word will come and bear witness for them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justified, and let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€ (Isaiah 43:9). He explains: โ€œLet them bring their witnesses that they may be justifiedโ€; these are referring to the Jews. โ€œAnd let them hear, and say: It is truthโ€; these are referring to the nations of the world.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื‘ืื•ืช ื•ื˜ื•ืจืคื•ืช ืื•ืชื ืœืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉืžืจืชื ื•ืขืฉื™ืชื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื—ื›ืžืชื›ื ื•ื‘ื™ื ืชื›ื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืขืžื™ื ื ื’ื“ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืœื ื ืืžืจ ืืœื ืœืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืขืžื™ื ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื‘ืื•ืช ื•ื˜ื•ืจืคื•ืช ืœืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื”ื ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: All of the mitzvot that the Jewish people perform in this world will come and strike the faces of the nations of the world in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: โ€œObserve therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the eyes of the nationsโ€ (Deuteronomy 4:6). It is not stated: Before the nations; rather, the verse states: โ€œIn the eyes of the nations,โ€ which taken literally teaches that they will come and strike the faces of the nations of the world in the World-to-Come.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืœื ืขืฉื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœ ืืœื ืœื™ืชืŸ ืคืชื—ื•ืŸ ืคื” ืœื‘ืขืœื™ ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื‘ื‘ื ื–ื” ืœื”ื ืœื™ืจืื” ืืชื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The Jewish people fashioned the Golden Calf (see Exodus, chapter 32) only to give a claim to penitents, as it is stated after the revelation at Sinai: โ€œWho would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children foreverโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:25). If the nation was truly at such a lofty spiritual state, how could they worship the Golden Calf? Rather, their sin occurred so that it would be made clear that one can repent for any sin, as even a sin as severe as the Golden Calf was forgiven.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ืื™ ืœื ื“ื•ื“ ืจืื•ื™ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ื•ืœื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืื•ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ืœื ื“ื•ื“ ืจืื•ื™ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื‘ื™ ื—ืœืœ ื‘ืงืจื‘ื™

And this is similar to that which Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: David was not fit to act as he did in that incident involving Bathsheba, and the Jewish people were not fit to act as they did in that incident of the Golden Calf. David was not fit to act as he did in that incident involving Bathsheba (see IIย Samuel, chapter 11), as it is written: โ€œAnd my heart is wounded within meโ€ (Psalms 109:22), i.e., he had vanquished his evil inclination, and therefore it should not have been able to rule over him to that extent.

ื•ืœื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืื•ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืชื• ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื™ ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืœื‘ื‘ื ื–ื” ืœื”ื ืœื™ืจืื” ืื•ืชื™ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืืœื ืœืžื” ืขืฉื•

And likewise the Jewish people were not fit to act as they did in that incident of the Golden Calf, as it is written with regard to the Jewish people of that time: โ€œWho would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children foreverโ€ (Deuteronomy 5:25). Rather, why did they perform these sins?

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