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Today's Daf Yomi

May 3, 2017 | 讝壮 讘讗讬讬专 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Bava Batra 101

If someone buys a burial cave or hires someone to build him a burial cave, what are the minimum measurements assumed and how many burial spots are assumed one will build for him within the cave (in the case where one hires a developer)? 聽Several questions are raised regarding the opinion of Rabbi Shimon in the mishna聽relating to how the number of caves and graves according to his opinion could actually聽fit in the space. 聽A few answers are given.


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讜专讞讘谉 砖砖讛

and their width is six handbreadths.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 注讜砖讛 转讜讻讛 砖诇 诪注专讛 砖砖 讗诪讜转 注诇 砖诪讜谞讛 讜驻讜转讞 诇转讜讻讛 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讻讜讱 讗专讘注讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗专讘注讛 诪讻讗谉 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讻谞讙讚谉 讜讗讞讚 诪讬诪讬谉 讛驻转讞 讜讗讞讚 诪谉 讛砖诪讗诇

Rabbi Shimon says: He should construct the inside of each burial chamber six cubits wide by eight cubits long and open up into the chamber, by digging into its walls, thirteen burial niches. Four niches should be opened up from the wall here, along the length of the chamber, and four from there, along the other side, and three niches from the wall facing the entrance, and one from the right of the entrance and another one from the left.

讜注讜砖讛 讞爪专 注诇 驻讬 讛诪注专讛 砖砖 注诇 砖砖 讻诪诇讗 讛诪讟讛 讜拽讜讘专讬讛

The mishna describes the general structure of the catacomb: And he must fashion a courtyard at the entrance of the burial chamber that should be six cubits by six cubits, which is equal to the combined length of the bier of the deceased and those who bury him, to ensure adequate room for the burial to take place.

讜驻讜转讞 诇转讜讻讛 砖转讬 诪注专讜转 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗专讘注 诇讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转讬讛

And he should open up two burial chambers into the courtyard, one from here and one from there, i.e., on opposite sides of the courtyard. Rabbi Shimon says: He should open up four burial chambers, one on each of the courtyard鈥檚 four sides.

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛住诇注

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everything is dependent on the nature of the bedrock. If the bedrock is hard and strong it will be able to accommodate more niches, which will be more closely packed together, with less bedrock between them. If the bedrock is softer, fewer and more sparsely spaced niches should be formed.

讙诪壮 讛谞讬 转专讬 诇讛讬讻讗 砖讚讬 诇讛讜 讗讬 诇讘专讗讬 讛讗 拽诪讬转讚砖讬 诇讛讜 讜转讜 讛讗 转谞谉 讞爪专 讛拽讘专 讛注讜诪讚 讘转讜讻讜 讟讛讜专

GEMARA: In Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 depiction of a burial chamber, he states that two niches should be opened up, one from the right of the entrance and one from the left. The Gemara asks: These two niches, in which direction does he set them? If they are directed toward the outside of the chamber, i.e., under the floor of the courtyard, won鈥檛 people trample over them when they enter the courtyard, which is improper? And furthermore, didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna (Oholot 15:8): With regard to the courtyard of a catacomb, one who stands inside it is ritually pure because it can be presumed that he did not stand over a dead body? Clearly, these niches are not to be dug underneath the courtyard.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讻诪讬谉 谞讙专

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: He makes these two niches at the side of the entrance, vertically, like a door bolt.

讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉

The Gemara challenges this explanation: But doesn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say with regard to the burial of people in a vertical position:

拽讘讜专转 讞诪讜专讬诐 讛讬讗 讝讜

This is like a burial of donkeys and is disrespectful.

诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转

The Gemara answers: According to the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan, each of these two niches is formed in a different corner of the chamber, aligned diagonally away from the chamber鈥檚 cavity.

讜讛讗 谞讙注讬 讻讜讻讬谉 诇讛讚讚讬

The Gemara challenges: But if so, won鈥檛 the niches located around the corners touch one another? According to Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 suggestion, there are, in fact, three niches located at each of the two back corners. One is recessed into the wall of the length of the chamber, at right angles to it, another is recessed into the back wall of the chamber, also at right angles to it, and a third that extends diagonally away from the chamber. The ends of these three niches will overlap, causing there to be too little space in them to fulfill the minimum required measurement.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讘诪注诪讬拽 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗专讘注 诪注专讜转 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讛讗 拽讗 谞讙注讬 讻讜讻讬谉 诇讛讚讚讬 讗诇讗 讘诪注诪讬拽 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘诪注诪讬拽

Rav Ashi said: It is possible to do this where, when constructing the niches that extend diagonally away from the chamber, one deepens them, i.e., forms them lower down in the wall than the other niches adjacent to them. As, if you do not say that this is a solution, then how could the four chambers depicted by Rabbi Shimon be constructed? Won鈥檛 the niches touch one another? The niches of one chamber will overlap those of the chamber adjacent to it. Rather, it is possible arrange the niches only where, when constructing the niches of two chambers at opposite ends of the courtyard, one deepens them, i.e., forms them lower down in the wall than the niches of the other two chambers that are adjacent to them. Here too, it is a case in which one deepens them.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讗诪专 讗专讘注 诪注专讜转 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讻讬 讞专讜转讗

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said that there is an alternative explanation: It is possible to fashion the four chambers depicted by Rabbi Shimon where one constructs them so that all the niches extend diagonally away from the cavity of the chamber like the leaves of a palm branch, which have spread out from its spine. If formed in this way, the niches of adjacent chambers will not overlap, even if they are at the same depth in the ground.

讜讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讜转讗 讛讬讗 诪讻讚讬 讻诇 讗诪转讗 讘专讬讘讜注讗 讗诪转讗 讜转专讬 讞讜诪砖讬 讘讗诇讻住讜谞讗 讻诪讛 讛讜讬 诇讛讜 讞讚 住专讬 讜讞讜诪砖讗 讻讜讻讬谉 讻诪讛 讛讜讜 转诪谞讬讗 转诪谞讬讗 讘讞讚 住专讬 讜讞讜诪砖讗 讛讬讻讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讗诇讗 讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讜转讗 讛讬讗

The Gemara notes: And this statement of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, is an error, because it is not possible to form all the niches in this way, since the length of the diagonal of every square whose side is one cubit is one and two-fifths cubits. Each chamber is eight cubits long, which means that between two adjacent chambers, placed at right angles to each other, there is a square area of eight cubits by eight cubits into which the niches of those two chambers must be formed. How much is the diagonal of that area? Eleven and one-fifth cubits. How many niches have to fit in that space? Eight. How can you find that eight niches can possibly fit into eleven and one-fifth cubits? Each of the niches is a cubit wide, and there must be a cubit wall of bedrock between each niche. To accommodate this once would need an area of at least fifteen cubits. Rather, this statement of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, is in error.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘谞讬驻诇讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘谞讬驻诇讬

The Gemara provides an alternative solution to the problem of the niches at the corners overlapping. Or if you wish, say as Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in answer to a similar question: It is referring to non-viable newborns, which require only very small burial niches. Similarly, here also, the niches at the corners of the chambers were used for non-viable newborns.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讛诪讜爪讗 诪转 诪讜砖讻讘 讻讚专讻讜 谞讜讟诇讜 讜讗转 转驻讜住转讜 砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟诇谉 讜讗转 转驻讜住转谉

搂 The Gemara considers another mishna that relates to the structure of a catacomb: We learned in a mishna there (Nazir 64b): With regard to one who finds a corpse while inspecting a place that was not previously established as a cemetery, to ensure that it is free of ritual impurity, and the corpse is lying in the usual manner of Jewish burial, he removes it from there and also removes its surrounding earth. And similarly, if he finds two corpses buried in the usual manner, he removes them and their surrounding earth. Since only one or two corpses were found, it may be assumed that the area is not a cemetery; therefore, the corpses may be removed.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Bava Batra 101

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Batra 101

讜专讞讘谉 砖砖讛

and their width is six handbreadths.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 注讜砖讛 转讜讻讛 砖诇 诪注专讛 砖砖 讗诪讜转 注诇 砖诪讜谞讛 讜驻讜转讞 诇转讜讻讛 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讻讜讱 讗专讘注讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗专讘注讛 诪讻讗谉 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讻谞讙讚谉 讜讗讞讚 诪讬诪讬谉 讛驻转讞 讜讗讞讚 诪谉 讛砖诪讗诇

Rabbi Shimon says: He should construct the inside of each burial chamber six cubits wide by eight cubits long and open up into the chamber, by digging into its walls, thirteen burial niches. Four niches should be opened up from the wall here, along the length of the chamber, and four from there, along the other side, and three niches from the wall facing the entrance, and one from the right of the entrance and another one from the left.

讜注讜砖讛 讞爪专 注诇 驻讬 讛诪注专讛 砖砖 注诇 砖砖 讻诪诇讗 讛诪讟讛 讜拽讜讘专讬讛

The mishna describes the general structure of the catacomb: And he must fashion a courtyard at the entrance of the burial chamber that should be six cubits by six cubits, which is equal to the combined length of the bier of the deceased and those who bury him, to ensure adequate room for the burial to take place.

讜驻讜转讞 诇转讜讻讛 砖转讬 诪注专讜转 讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讞转 诪讻讗谉 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗专讘注 诇讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转讬讛

And he should open up two burial chambers into the courtyard, one from here and one from there, i.e., on opposite sides of the courtyard. Rabbi Shimon says: He should open up four burial chambers, one on each of the courtyard鈥檚 four sides.

专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛住诇注

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everything is dependent on the nature of the bedrock. If the bedrock is hard and strong it will be able to accommodate more niches, which will be more closely packed together, with less bedrock between them. If the bedrock is softer, fewer and more sparsely spaced niches should be formed.

讙诪壮 讛谞讬 转专讬 诇讛讬讻讗 砖讚讬 诇讛讜 讗讬 诇讘专讗讬 讛讗 拽诪讬转讚砖讬 诇讛讜 讜转讜 讛讗 转谞谉 讞爪专 讛拽讘专 讛注讜诪讚 讘转讜讻讜 讟讛讜专

GEMARA: In Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 depiction of a burial chamber, he states that two niches should be opened up, one from the right of the entrance and one from the left. The Gemara asks: These two niches, in which direction does he set them? If they are directed toward the outside of the chamber, i.e., under the floor of the courtyard, won鈥檛 people trample over them when they enter the courtyard, which is improper? And furthermore, didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna (Oholot 15:8): With regard to the courtyard of a catacomb, one who stands inside it is ritually pure because it can be presumed that he did not stand over a dead body? Clearly, these niches are not to be dug underneath the courtyard.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讻诪讬谉 谞讙专

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi 岣nina, said: He makes these two niches at the side of the entrance, vertically, like a door bolt.

讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉

The Gemara challenges this explanation: But doesn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan say with regard to the burial of people in a vertical position:

拽讘讜专转 讞诪讜专讬诐 讛讬讗 讝讜

This is like a burial of donkeys and is disrespectful.

诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转

The Gemara answers: According to the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan, each of these two niches is formed in a different corner of the chamber, aligned diagonally away from the chamber鈥檚 cavity.

讜讛讗 谞讙注讬 讻讜讻讬谉 诇讛讚讚讬

The Gemara challenges: But if so, won鈥檛 the niches located around the corners touch one another? According to Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 suggestion, there are, in fact, three niches located at each of the two back corners. One is recessed into the wall of the length of the chamber, at right angles to it, another is recessed into the back wall of the chamber, also at right angles to it, and a third that extends diagonally away from the chamber. The ends of these three niches will overlap, causing there to be too little space in them to fulfill the minimum required measurement.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讘诪注诪讬拽 讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗专讘注 诪注专讜转 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讛讗 拽讗 谞讙注讬 讻讜讻讬谉 诇讛讚讚讬 讗诇讗 讘诪注诪讬拽 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘诪注诪讬拽

Rav Ashi said: It is possible to do this where, when constructing the niches that extend diagonally away from the chamber, one deepens them, i.e., forms them lower down in the wall than the other niches adjacent to them. As, if you do not say that this is a solution, then how could the four chambers depicted by Rabbi Shimon be constructed? Won鈥檛 the niches touch one another? The niches of one chamber will overlap those of the chamber adjacent to it. Rather, it is possible arrange the niches only where, when constructing the niches of two chambers at opposite ends of the courtyard, one deepens them, i.e., forms them lower down in the wall than the niches of the other two chambers that are adjacent to them. Here too, it is a case in which one deepens them.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讗诪专 讗专讘注 诪注专讜转 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚注讘讬讚 诇讛讜 讻讬 讞专讜转讗

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said that there is an alternative explanation: It is possible to fashion the four chambers depicted by Rabbi Shimon where one constructs them so that all the niches extend diagonally away from the cavity of the chamber like the leaves of a palm branch, which have spread out from its spine. If formed in this way, the niches of adjacent chambers will not overlap, even if they are at the same depth in the ground.

讜讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讜转讗 讛讬讗 诪讻讚讬 讻诇 讗诪转讗 讘专讬讘讜注讗 讗诪转讗 讜转专讬 讞讜诪砖讬 讘讗诇讻住讜谞讗 讻诪讛 讛讜讬 诇讛讜 讞讚 住专讬 讜讞讜诪砖讗 讻讜讻讬谉 讻诪讛 讛讜讜 转诪谞讬讗 转诪谞讬讗 讘讞讚 住专讬 讜讞讜诪砖讗 讛讬讻讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讗诇讗 讛讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专讜转讗 讛讬讗

The Gemara notes: And this statement of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, is an error, because it is not possible to form all the niches in this way, since the length of the diagonal of every square whose side is one cubit is one and two-fifths cubits. Each chamber is eight cubits long, which means that between two adjacent chambers, placed at right angles to each other, there is a square area of eight cubits by eight cubits into which the niches of those two chambers must be formed. How much is the diagonal of that area? Eleven and one-fifth cubits. How many niches have to fit in that space? Eight. How can you find that eight niches can possibly fit into eleven and one-fifth cubits? Each of the niches is a cubit wide, and there must be a cubit wall of bedrock between each niche. To accommodate this once would need an area of at least fifteen cubits. Rather, this statement of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, is in error.

讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘谞讬驻诇讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘谞讬驻诇讬

The Gemara provides an alternative solution to the problem of the niches at the corners overlapping. Or if you wish, say as Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said in answer to a similar question: It is referring to non-viable newborns, which require only very small burial niches. Similarly, here also, the niches at the corners of the chambers were used for non-viable newborns.

转谞谉 讛转诐 讛诪讜爪讗 诪转 诪讜砖讻讘 讻讚专讻讜 谞讜讟诇讜 讜讗转 转驻讜住转讜 砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟诇谉 讜讗转 转驻讜住转谉

搂 The Gemara considers another mishna that relates to the structure of a catacomb: We learned in a mishna there (Nazir 64b): With regard to one who finds a corpse while inspecting a place that was not previously established as a cemetery, to ensure that it is free of ritual impurity, and the corpse is lying in the usual manner of Jewish burial, he removes it from there and also removes its surrounding earth. And similarly, if he finds two corpses buried in the usual manner, he removes them and their surrounding earth. Since only one or two corpses were found, it may be assumed that the area is not a cemetery; therefore, the corpses may be removed.

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