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Today's Daf Yomi

February 12, 2017 | 讟状讝 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Bava Batra 21

Can one who shares a courtyard with others open a store in one’s house that will attract many people and cause traffic and noise in the courtyard? 聽Can one have a profession that makes lots of noise (blacksmith)? 聽Can one be a teacher of children as children make a lot of noise? 聽Different issues regarding education – what type is the best type of teacher (more knowledge vs. patience to correct mistakes of the children), how many children should be in a class, the responsibility of the city to set up teachers, does one fire a less good teacher for one who is better, etc. 聽Can one open a store in an alleyway of the same type of another member of the alleyway? 聽Does it depend on whether he was a resident of that alleyway or city?


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住讬驻讗 讗转讗谉 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讜诪转拽谞转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 讜讗讬诇讱

In the latter clause we arrive at the case of schoolchildren who come to learn Torah in his house, and this ruling applies from the time of the ordinance of Yehoshua ben Gamla and onward.

讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讘专诐 讝讻讜专 讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 诇讟讜讘 讜讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 砖诪讜 砖讗诇诪诇讗 讛讜讗 谞砖转讻讞 转讜专讛 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖讘转讞诇讛 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讗讘 诪诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讛 诇诪讚 转讜专讛 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讜诇诪讚转诐 讗转诐 讜诇诪讚转诐 讗转诐

What was this ordinance? As Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Truly, that man is remembered for the good, and his name is Yehoshua ben Gamla. If not for him the Torah would have been forgotten from the Jewish people. Initially, whoever had a father would have his father teach him Torah, and whoever did not have a father would not learn Torah at all. The Gemara explains: What verse did they interpret homiletically that allowed them to conduct themselves in this manner? They interpreted the verse that states: 鈥淎nd you shall teach them [otam] to your sons鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:19), to mean: And you yourselves [atem] shall teach, i.e., you fathers shall teach your sons.

讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 诪诇诪讚讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讻讬 诪爪讬讜谉 转爪讗 转讜专讛 讜注讚讬讬谉 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讗讘 讛讬讛 诪注诇讜 讜诪诇诪讚讜 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讛 注讜诇讛 讜诇诪讚 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 讘讻诇 驻诇讱 讜驻诇讱 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗讜转谉 讻讘谉 砖砖 注砖专讛 讻讘谉 砖讘注 注砖专讛

When the Sages saw that not everyone was capable of teaching their children and Torah study was declining, they instituted an ordinance that teachers of children should be established in Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: What verse did they interpret homiletically that enabled them to do this? They interpreted the verse: 鈥淔or Torah emerges from Zion鈥 (Isaiah 2:3). But still, whoever had a father, his father ascended with him to Jerusalem and had him taught, but whoever did not have a father, he did not ascend and learn. Therefore, the Sages instituted an ordinance that teachers of children should be established in one city in each and every region [pelekh]. And they brought the students in at the age of sixteen and at the age of seventeen.

讜诪讬 砖讛讬讛 专讘讜 讻讜注住 注诇讬讜 诪讘注讬讟 讘讜 讜讬爪讗 注讚 砖讘讗 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 讜转讬拽谉 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 诪诇诪讚讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讻诇 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 讜讘讻诇 注讬专 讜注讬专 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗讜转谉 讻讘谉 砖砖 讻讘谉 砖讘注

But as the students were old and had not yet had any formal education, a student whose teacher grew angry at him would rebel against him and leave. It was impossible to hold the youths there against their will. This state of affairs continued until Yehoshua ben Gamla came and instituted an ordinance that teachers of children should be established in each and every province and in each and every town, and they would bring the children in to learn at the age of six and at the age of seven. With regard to the matter at hand, since this system was established for the masses, the neighbors cannot prevent a scholar from teaching Torah in the courtyard.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 注讚 砖讬转 诇讗 转拽讘讬诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 拽讘讬诇 讜讗住驻讬 诇讬讛 讻转讜专讗 讜讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 讻讬 诪讞讬转 诇讬谞讜拽讗 诇讗 转讬诪讞讬 讗诇讗 讘注专拽转讗 讚诪住谞讗 讚拽讗专讬 拽讗专讬 讚诇讗 拽讗专讬 诇讬讛讜讬 爪讜讜转讗 诇讞讘专讬讛

Concerning that same issue, Rav said to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, a teacher of children: Do not accept a student before the age of six, as he is too young, and it is difficult for him to learn in a steady manner. From this point forward, accept him and stuff him with Torah like an ox. And Rav further said to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat: When you strike a child for educational purposes, hit him only with the strap of a sandal, which is small and does not cause pain. Rav further advised him: He who reads, let him read on his own; whoever does not read, let him be a companion to his friends, which will encourage him to learn to read.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讞爪专 砖讘讬拽砖 诇注砖讜转 专讜驻讗 讗讜诪谉 讜讙专讚讬 讜诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘谞讬 讞爪专 诪注讻讘讬谉 注诇讬讜 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘转讬谞讜拽讜转 讚讙讜讬诐

With regard to a courtyard, the Gemara concluded that it is permitted for one to establish an elementary school to teach Torah and the neighbors cannot protest. The Gemara raises an objection to this ruling from a baraita: With regard to one member of a courtyard who wishes to become a doctor, a bloodletter, a weaver [vegardi], or a teacher of children, the other members of the courtyard can prevent him from doing so. This indicates that neighbors can protest the teaching of children in their shared courtyard. The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here, i.e., when can they protest his teaching children? We are dealing with a case of gentile children, as there is no mitzva to educate them. In this situation, the neighbors can protest about the noise.

转讗 砖诪注 砖谞讬诐 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讞爪专 讜讘讬拽砖 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 诇注砖讜转 专讜驻讗 讜讗讜诪谉 讜讙专讚讬 讜诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讞讘讬专讜 诪注讻讘 注诇讬讜 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘转讬谞讜拽讜转 讚讙讜讬诐

Come and hear another baraita: With regard to two people who are residing in one courtyard, and one of them sought to become a doctor, a bloodletter, a weaver, or a teacher of children, the other can prevent him from doing so. The Gemara answers: Here too, we are dealing with a case of gentile children.

转讗 砖诪注 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘讬转 讘讞爪专 讛砖讜转驻讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬砖讻讬专谞讜 诇讗 诇专讜驻讗 讜诇讗 诇讗讜诪谉 讜诇讗 诇讙专讚讬 讜诇讗 诇住讜驻专 讬讛讜讚讬 讜诇讗 诇住讜驻专 讗专诪讗讬 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘住讜驻专 诪转讗

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear another baraita: One who has a house in a jointly owned courtyard may not rent it to a doctor, nor to a bloodletter, nor to a weaver, nor to a Jewish teacher [sofer], nor to a gentile teacher. This indicates that one鈥檚 neighbors can prevent him from teaching Jewish children. The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? We are dealing with the scribe [sofer] of the town, who does not teach children but writes documents and letters for residents of the town. This type of work is not a mitzva, and since many people seek his services, the residents of the courtyard can prevent him from performing this job near their houses.

讗诪专 专讘讗 诪转拽谞转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讬谞讜拽讗 诪诪转讗 诇诪转讗 讗讘诇 诪讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讜讗讬 诪驻住拽 谞讛专讗 诇讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 转讬转讜专讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讙诪诇讗 诇讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉

搂 With regard to the ordinance of Yehoshua ben Gamla, and concerning teaching children in general, Rava says: From the time of the ordinance of Yehoshua ben Gamla, that schoolteachers must be established in each town, and onward, one does not bring a child from one town to another. Rather, each child is educated where he resides. But one does bring them from one synagogue where they learn to another synagogue. And if a river separates the areas one does not bring the children across, lest they fall into the river. And if there is a bridge spanning the river one may bring them across the river. But if there is only a narrow bridge [gamla] one does not bring them.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 住讱 诪拽专讬 讚专讚拽讬 注砖专讬谉 讜讞诪砖讛 讬谞讜拽讬 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讞诪砖讬谉 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 转专讬 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讗专讘注讬谉 诪讜拽诪讬谞谉 专讬砖 讚讜讻谞讗 讜诪住讬讬注讬谉 诇讬讛 诪诪转讗

And Rava said: The maximum number of students for one teacher of children is twenty-five children. And if there are fifty children in a single place, one establishes two teachers, so that each one teaches twenty-five students. And if there are forty children, one establishes an assistant, and the teacher receives help from the residents of the town to pay the salary of the assistant.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛讗讬 诪拽专讬 讬谞讜拽讬 讚讙专讬住 讜讗讬讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讚讙专讬住 讟驻讬 诪讬谞讬讛 诇讗 诪住诇拽讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讚诇诪讗 讗转讬 诇讗讬转专砖讜诇讬 专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讗诪专 讻诇 砖讻谉 讚讙专讬住 讟驻讬 拽谞讗转 住讜驻专讬诐 转专讘讛 讞讻诪讛

And Rava said: If there is a teacher of children who teaches a few subjects, and there is another who teaches more subjects than him, one does not remove the first teacher from his position to hire the second, as perhaps the other teacher will come to be negligent due to the lack of competition. Rav Dimi from Neharde鈥檃 said: On the contrary, all the more so is it the case that he will teach in a better manner if he knows that he is the sole instructor in the place, as jealousy among teachers increases wisdom. The one who was dismissed will try to refine his skills so that he will be rehired, and this will prevent negligence on the part of the other teacher.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 转专讬 诪拽专讬 讚专讚拽讬 讞讚 讙专讬住 讜诇讗 讚讬讬拽 讜讞讚 讚讬讬拽 讜诇讗 讙专讬住 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 讛讛讜讗 讚讙专讬住 讜诇讗 讚讬讬拽 砖讘砖转讗 诪诪讬诇讗 谞驻拽讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讗诪专 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 讚讚讬讬拽 讜诇讗 讙专讬住 砖讘砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注诇 注诇

And Rava said: If there are two teachers of children, one who teaches a lot of material but is not precise in his statements, and one who is precise but does not teach a lot of material, one hires the one who teaches a lot of material but is not precise. Why is this? Errors will be corrected by themselves, and no lasting harm will be caused. By contrast, Rav Dimi of Neharde鈥檃 said: One hires the instructor who is precise and does not teach a lot of material, as once an error is taught, it is taught, and cannot be easily corrected.

讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 砖砖转 讞讚砖讬诐 讬砖讘 砖诐 讬讜讗讘 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 注讚 讛讻专讬转 讻诇 讝讻专 讘讗讚讜诐 讻讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚讚讜讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛

The Gemara cites a proof for the opinion of Rav Dimi of Neharde鈥檃: This is as it is written: 鈥淔or Joab and all Israel remained there six months until he had cut off every male in Edom鈥 (I聽Kings 11:16). When Joab came before King David after this episode, David said to him:

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 注讘讚转 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 转诪讞讛 讗转 讝讻专 注诪诇拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 讝讻专 拽专讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讝讻专 讗拽专讬讜谉 讗讝诇 砖讬讬诇讬讛 诇专讘讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讗讱 讗拽专讬转谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讻专

What is the reason that you did that? Why did you kill only the males? Joab said to him: As it is written: You shall blot out the males [zakhar] of Amalek, i.e., the male descendants of Amalek, who descend from Edom. David said to him: But we read the verse as stating: 鈥淵ou shall blot out the remembrance [zekher] of Amalek鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:19). Joab said to him: I was taught to read it as zakhar. Joab went and asked his childhood Bible teacher. Joab said to him: How did you read this word to us? The teacher said to him: I read it as zekher. The teacher had read it the proper way, but he failed to notice that his student had learned it incorrectly.

砖拽诇 住驻住讬专讗 诇诪讬拽讟诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗专讜专 注砖讛 诪诇讗讻转 讛壮 专诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讘拽讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚诇讬拽讜诐 讘讗专讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻转讬讘 讜讗专讜专 诪谞注 讞专讘讜 诪讚诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 拽讟诇讬讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讗 拽讟诇讬讛

Joab took a sword to kill him. The teacher said to him: Why do you want to kill me? Joab said to him: As it is written: 鈥淐ursed is he who does the work of the Lord with a slack hand鈥 (Jeremiah 48:10), and you taught me incorrectly. The teacher said to him: Leave that man to remain as cursed. This is a sufficient punishment; there is no need to kill me. Joab said to him: It is also written: 鈥淎nd cursed is he who keeps back his sword from blood鈥 (Jeremiah 48:10). There are those who say that Joab killed him, and there are those who say that he did not kill him. In any event, this episode demonstrates that an error learned in one鈥檚 childhood stays with him his whole life.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诪拽专讬 讬谞讜拽讗 砖转诇讗 讟讘讞讗 讜讗讜诪谞讗 讜住讜驻专 诪转讗 讻讜诇谉 讻诪讜转专讬谉 讜注讜诪讚讬谉 谞讬谞讛讜 讻诇诇讗 讚诪讬诇转讗 讻诇 驻住讬讚讗 讚诇讗 讛讚专 诪讜转专讛 讜注讜诪讚 讛讜讗

And Rava says: With regard to a teacher of children, a professional tree planter, a butcher, a bloodletter, and a town scribe, all these are considered forewarned. In other words, they need not be exhorted to perform their jobs correctly, as if they err in the performance of their duties they can be dismissed immediately. The principle of the matter is: With regard to any case where loss is irreversible, the individual is considered forewarned.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讗讬 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讚讗讜拽讬 专讬讞讬讗 讜讗转讗 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讞讘专讬讛 讜拽诪讜拽讬 讙讘讬讛 讚讬谞讗 讛讜讗 讚诪注讻讘 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讗 驻住拽转 诇讬讛 诇讞讬讜转讬

Rav Huna said: There was a certain resident of an alleyway who set up a mill in the alleyway and earned his living grinding grain for people. And subsequently another resident of the alleyway came and set up a mill next to his. The halakha is that the first one may prevent him from doing so if he wishes, as he can say to him: You are disrupting my livelihood by taking my customers.

诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诪专讞讬拽讬诐 诪爪讜讚转 讛讚讙 诪谉 讛讚讙 讻诪诇讗 专讬爪转 讛讚讙 讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注讚 驻专住讛 砖讗谞讬 讚讙讬诐 讚讬讛讘讬 住讬讬讗专讗

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that a baraita supports his opinion: One must distance fish traps from fish, i.e., from other fish traps, as far as the fish travels, i.e., the distance from which the fish will travel. The Gemara asks: And how much is this distance? Rabba bar Rav Huna says: Up to a parasang [parsa]. This indicates that one must distance himself from the place where another has established his business. The Gemara responds that this is no proof: Perhaps fish are different, as they look around. One fish explores the area ahead of the others, indicating to them where to go. Once they encounter the first trap they will not approach the second.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬谞讗 诇专讘讗 诇讬诪讗 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讬讞诇拽 讞谞讜谞讬 拽诇讬讜转 讜讗讙讜讝讬谉 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 诪驻谞讬 砖诪专讙讬诇谉 讗爪诇讜 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉

Ravina said to Rava: Shall we say that Rav Huna spoke in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As we learned in a mishna (Bava Metzia 60a): Rabbi Yehuda says: A storekeeper may not hand out toasted grain and nuts to children who patronize his store, due to the fact that he thereby accustoms them to come to him at the expense of competing storekeepers. And the Rabbis permit doing so. This indicates that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, all forms of competition are prohibited, which would include the scenario concerning the mill.

讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘谞谉 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 专讘谞谉 注诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛转诐 讗诇讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 拽诪驻诇讙讬谞讗 讗诪讙讜讝讬 讗转 驻诇讜讙 砖讬讜住拽讬 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘谞谉 诪讜讚讜 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讗 驻住拽转 诇讬讛 诇讞讬讜转讬

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: You may even say that Rav Huna holds in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. The Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Yehuda only there, as the storekeeper can say to his competitor: If I distribute walnuts, you can distribute almonds [shiyuskei]. But here, with regard to a resident of an alleyway who sets up a mill in that alleyway where another mill already exists, even the Rabbis concede that the owner of the first mill can say to him: You are disrupting my livelihood, as beforehand whoever required grinding came to me, and you have provided them with another option.

诪讬转讬讘讬 注讜砖讛 讗讚诐 讞谞讜转 讘爪讚 讞谞讜转讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讜诪专讞抓 讘爪讚 诪专讞爪讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇诪讞讜转 讘讬讚讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 诇讜 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讘转讜讱 砖诇讱 讜讗谞讬 注讜砖讛 讘转讜讱 砖诇讬

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: A man may establish a shop alongside the shop of another, and a bathhouse alongside the bathhouse of another, and the other cannot protest, because the newcomer can say to him: You operate in your space, and I operate in my space.

转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讻讜驻讬谉 讘谞讬 诪讘讜讗讜转 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 砖诇讗 诇讛讜砖讬讘 讘讬谞讬讛谉 诇讗 讞讬讬讟 讜诇讗 讘讜专住拽讬 讜诇讗 诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讜诇讗 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讘注诇讬 讗讜诪谞讬讜转 讜诇砖讻谞讜 讗讬谞讜 讻讜驻讬讛讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诇砖讻谞讜 讻讜驻讬讛讜

The Gemara answers: This entire matter is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it is taught in a baraita: The residents of an alleyway can compel one another to agree not to allow among them in that alleyway a tailor, a tanner, a teacher of children, nor any type of craftsman. They can bar outside craftsmen from plying their trade in that alleyway. But one cannot compel his neighbor, i.e., one who already lives in the alleyway, to refrain from practicing a particular occupation there. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One can even compel his neighbor not to conduct such work in the alleyway. Rav Huna holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讬 讘专 诪转讗 讗讘专 诪转讗 讗讞专讬转讬 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘 讜讗讬 砖讬讬讱 讘讻专讙讗 讚讛讻讗 诇讗 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讗讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讚谞驻砖讬讛 诇讗 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, says: It is obvious to me that a resident of one town can prevent a resident of another town from establishing a similar business in the locale of the first individual. But if he pays the tax of that first town, he cannot prevent him from doing business there, as he too is considered a resident of the town. The resident of an alleyway cannot prevent a resident of his alleyway from practicing a particular trade there, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis in the baraita, and contrary to the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

讘注讬 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讗讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讗讞专讬谞讗 诪讗讬 转讬拽讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜诪讜讚讬 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘诪拽专讬 讚专讚拽讬 讚诇讗 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘 讚讗诪专 诪专 注讝专讗 转讬拽谉 诇讛谉 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 住讜驻专 讘爪讚 住讜驻专

With these conclusions in mind, Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, raises a dilemma: With regard to a resident of one alleyway protesting about a resident of another alleyway conducting business there, what is the halakha? No answer was found, and the Gemara states that the dilemma shall stand unresolved. Rav Yosef said: And Rav Huna, who said that a resident of an alleyway can prevent another from setting up an additional mill, concedes with regard to those who teach children that one cannot prevent him from working, as the Master said: Ezra instituted an ordinance for the Jewish people requiring that they establish one teacher alongside another teacher, to raise the standard of teaching.

讜谞讬讞讜砖 讚讬诇诪讗 讗转讬 诇讗讬转专砖讜诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛

The Gemara challenges: And let us be concerned lest the teachers will thereby come to be negligent. Rav Yosef said to the Sage who raised this objection:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Bava Batra 21

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Batra 21

住讬驻讗 讗转讗谉 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讜诪转拽谞转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 讜讗讬诇讱

In the latter clause we arrive at the case of schoolchildren who come to learn Torah in his house, and this ruling applies from the time of the ordinance of Yehoshua ben Gamla and onward.

讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讘专诐 讝讻讜专 讗讜转讜 讛讗讬砖 诇讟讜讘 讜讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 砖诪讜 砖讗诇诪诇讗 讛讜讗 谞砖转讻讞 转讜专讛 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖讘转讞诇讛 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讗讘 诪诇诪讚讜 转讜专讛 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讛 诇诪讚 转讜专讛 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讜诇诪讚转诐 讗转诐 讜诇诪讚转诐 讗转诐

What was this ordinance? As Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Truly, that man is remembered for the good, and his name is Yehoshua ben Gamla. If not for him the Torah would have been forgotten from the Jewish people. Initially, whoever had a father would have his father teach him Torah, and whoever did not have a father would not learn Torah at all. The Gemara explains: What verse did they interpret homiletically that allowed them to conduct themselves in this manner? They interpreted the verse that states: 鈥淎nd you shall teach them [otam] to your sons鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:19), to mean: And you yourselves [atem] shall teach, i.e., you fathers shall teach your sons.

讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 诪诇诪讚讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诪讗讬 讚专讜砖 讻讬 诪爪讬讜谉 转爪讗 转讜专讛 讜注讚讬讬谉 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讗讘 讛讬讛 诪注诇讜 讜诪诇诪讚讜 诪讬 砖讗讬谉 诇讜 讗讘 诇讗 讛讬讛 注讜诇讛 讜诇诪讚 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 讘讻诇 驻诇讱 讜驻诇讱 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗讜转谉 讻讘谉 砖砖 注砖专讛 讻讘谉 砖讘注 注砖专讛

When the Sages saw that not everyone was capable of teaching their children and Torah study was declining, they instituted an ordinance that teachers of children should be established in Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: What verse did they interpret homiletically that enabled them to do this? They interpreted the verse: 鈥淔or Torah emerges from Zion鈥 (Isaiah 2:3). But still, whoever had a father, his father ascended with him to Jerusalem and had him taught, but whoever did not have a father, he did not ascend and learn. Therefore, the Sages instituted an ordinance that teachers of children should be established in one city in each and every region [pelekh]. And they brought the students in at the age of sixteen and at the age of seventeen.

讜诪讬 砖讛讬讛 专讘讜 讻讜注住 注诇讬讜 诪讘注讬讟 讘讜 讜讬爪讗 注讚 砖讘讗 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 讜转讬拽谉 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 诪诇诪讚讬 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘讻诇 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 讜讘讻诇 注讬专 讜注讬专 讜诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讗讜转谉 讻讘谉 砖砖 讻讘谉 砖讘注

But as the students were old and had not yet had any formal education, a student whose teacher grew angry at him would rebel against him and leave. It was impossible to hold the youths there against their will. This state of affairs continued until Yehoshua ben Gamla came and instituted an ordinance that teachers of children should be established in each and every province and in each and every town, and they would bring the children in to learn at the age of six and at the age of seven. With regard to the matter at hand, since this system was established for the masses, the neighbors cannot prevent a scholar from teaching Torah in the courtyard.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 注讚 砖讬转 诇讗 转拽讘讬诇 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 拽讘讬诇 讜讗住驻讬 诇讬讛 讻转讜专讗 讜讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诇专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 讻讬 诪讞讬转 诇讬谞讜拽讗 诇讗 转讬诪讞讬 讗诇讗 讘注专拽转讗 讚诪住谞讗 讚拽讗专讬 拽讗专讬 讚诇讗 拽讗专讬 诇讬讛讜讬 爪讜讜转讗 诇讞讘专讬讛

Concerning that same issue, Rav said to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, a teacher of children: Do not accept a student before the age of six, as he is too young, and it is difficult for him to learn in a steady manner. From this point forward, accept him and stuff him with Torah like an ox. And Rav further said to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat: When you strike a child for educational purposes, hit him only with the strap of a sandal, which is small and does not cause pain. Rav further advised him: He who reads, let him read on his own; whoever does not read, let him be a companion to his friends, which will encourage him to learn to read.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讞爪专 砖讘讬拽砖 诇注砖讜转 专讜驻讗 讗讜诪谉 讜讙专讚讬 讜诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讘谞讬 讞爪专 诪注讻讘讬谉 注诇讬讜 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘转讬谞讜拽讜转 讚讙讜讬诐

With regard to a courtyard, the Gemara concluded that it is permitted for one to establish an elementary school to teach Torah and the neighbors cannot protest. The Gemara raises an objection to this ruling from a baraita: With regard to one member of a courtyard who wishes to become a doctor, a bloodletter, a weaver [vegardi], or a teacher of children, the other members of the courtyard can prevent him from doing so. This indicates that neighbors can protest the teaching of children in their shared courtyard. The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here, i.e., when can they protest his teaching children? We are dealing with a case of gentile children, as there is no mitzva to educate them. In this situation, the neighbors can protest about the noise.

转讗 砖诪注 砖谞讬诐 砖讬讜砖讘讬谉 讘讞爪专 讜讘讬拽砖 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 诇注砖讜转 专讜驻讗 讜讗讜诪谉 讜讙专讚讬 讜诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讞讘讬专讜 诪注讻讘 注诇讬讜 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘转讬谞讜拽讜转 讚讙讜讬诐

Come and hear another baraita: With regard to two people who are residing in one courtyard, and one of them sought to become a doctor, a bloodletter, a weaver, or a teacher of children, the other can prevent him from doing so. The Gemara answers: Here too, we are dealing with a case of gentile children.

转讗 砖诪注 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讘讬转 讘讞爪专 讛砖讜转驻讬谉 讛专讬 讝讛 诇讗 讬砖讻讬专谞讜 诇讗 诇专讜驻讗 讜诇讗 诇讗讜诪谉 讜诇讗 诇讙专讚讬 讜诇讗 诇住讜驻专 讬讛讜讚讬 讜诇讗 诇住讜驻专 讗专诪讗讬 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘住讜驻专 诪转讗

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear another baraita: One who has a house in a jointly owned courtyard may not rent it to a doctor, nor to a bloodletter, nor to a weaver, nor to a Jewish teacher [sofer], nor to a gentile teacher. This indicates that one鈥檚 neighbors can prevent him from teaching Jewish children. The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? We are dealing with the scribe [sofer] of the town, who does not teach children but writes documents and letters for residents of the town. This type of work is not a mitzva, and since many people seek his services, the residents of the courtyard can prevent him from performing this job near their houses.

讗诪专 专讘讗 诪转拽谞转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讙诪诇讗 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讬谞讜拽讗 诪诪转讗 诇诪转讗 讗讘诇 诪讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讜讗讬 诪驻住拽 谞讛专讗 诇讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 转讬转讜专讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讙诪诇讗 诇讗 诪诪讟讬谞谉

搂 With regard to the ordinance of Yehoshua ben Gamla, and concerning teaching children in general, Rava says: From the time of the ordinance of Yehoshua ben Gamla, that schoolteachers must be established in each town, and onward, one does not bring a child from one town to another. Rather, each child is educated where he resides. But one does bring them from one synagogue where they learn to another synagogue. And if a river separates the areas one does not bring the children across, lest they fall into the river. And if there is a bridge spanning the river one may bring them across the river. But if there is only a narrow bridge [gamla] one does not bring them.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 住讱 诪拽专讬 讚专讚拽讬 注砖专讬谉 讜讞诪砖讛 讬谞讜拽讬 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讞诪砖讬谉 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 转专讬 讜讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讗专讘注讬谉 诪讜拽诪讬谞谉 专讬砖 讚讜讻谞讗 讜诪住讬讬注讬谉 诇讬讛 诪诪转讗

And Rava said: The maximum number of students for one teacher of children is twenty-five children. And if there are fifty children in a single place, one establishes two teachers, so that each one teaches twenty-five students. And if there are forty children, one establishes an assistant, and the teacher receives help from the residents of the town to pay the salary of the assistant.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛讗讬 诪拽专讬 讬谞讜拽讬 讚讙专讬住 讜讗讬讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讚讙专讬住 讟驻讬 诪讬谞讬讛 诇讗 诪住诇拽讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讚诇诪讗 讗转讬 诇讗讬转专砖讜诇讬 专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讗诪专 讻诇 砖讻谉 讚讙专讬住 讟驻讬 拽谞讗转 住讜驻专讬诐 转专讘讛 讞讻诪讛

And Rava said: If there is a teacher of children who teaches a few subjects, and there is another who teaches more subjects than him, one does not remove the first teacher from his position to hire the second, as perhaps the other teacher will come to be negligent due to the lack of competition. Rav Dimi from Neharde鈥檃 said: On the contrary, all the more so is it the case that he will teach in a better manner if he knows that he is the sole instructor in the place, as jealousy among teachers increases wisdom. The one who was dismissed will try to refine his skills so that he will be rehired, and this will prevent negligence on the part of the other teacher.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 转专讬 诪拽专讬 讚专讚拽讬 讞讚 讙专讬住 讜诇讗 讚讬讬拽 讜讞讚 讚讬讬拽 讜诇讗 讙专讬住 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 讛讛讜讗 讚讙专讬住 讜诇讗 讚讬讬拽 砖讘砖转讗 诪诪讬诇讗 谞驻拽讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 讗诪专 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 讚讚讬讬拽 讜诇讗 讙专讬住 砖讘砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注诇 注诇

And Rava said: If there are two teachers of children, one who teaches a lot of material but is not precise in his statements, and one who is precise but does not teach a lot of material, one hires the one who teaches a lot of material but is not precise. Why is this? Errors will be corrected by themselves, and no lasting harm will be caused. By contrast, Rav Dimi of Neharde鈥檃 said: One hires the instructor who is precise and does not teach a lot of material, as once an error is taught, it is taught, and cannot be easily corrected.

讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 砖砖转 讞讚砖讬诐 讬砖讘 砖诐 讬讜讗讘 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 注讚 讛讻专讬转 讻诇 讝讻专 讘讗讚讜诐 讻讬 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚讚讜讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛

The Gemara cites a proof for the opinion of Rav Dimi of Neharde鈥檃: This is as it is written: 鈥淔or Joab and all Israel remained there six months until he had cut off every male in Edom鈥 (I聽Kings 11:16). When Joab came before King David after this episode, David said to him:

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 注讘讚转 讛讻讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 转诪讞讛 讗转 讝讻专 注诪诇拽 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讛讗 讗谞谉 讝讻专 拽专讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讝讻专 讗拽专讬讜谉 讗讝诇 砖讬讬诇讬讛 诇专讘讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讗讱 讗拽专讬转谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讻专

What is the reason that you did that? Why did you kill only the males? Joab said to him: As it is written: You shall blot out the males [zakhar] of Amalek, i.e., the male descendants of Amalek, who descend from Edom. David said to him: But we read the verse as stating: 鈥淵ou shall blot out the remembrance [zekher] of Amalek鈥 (Deuteronomy 25:19). Joab said to him: I was taught to read it as zakhar. Joab went and asked his childhood Bible teacher. Joab said to him: How did you read this word to us? The teacher said to him: I read it as zekher. The teacher had read it the proper way, but he failed to notice that his student had learned it incorrectly.

砖拽诇 住驻住讬专讗 诇诪讬拽讟诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗专讜专 注砖讛 诪诇讗讻转 讛壮 专诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 砖讘拽讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚诇讬拽讜诐 讘讗专讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻转讬讘 讜讗专讜专 诪谞注 讞专讘讜 诪讚诐 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 拽讟诇讬讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 诇讗 拽讟诇讬讛

Joab took a sword to kill him. The teacher said to him: Why do you want to kill me? Joab said to him: As it is written: 鈥淐ursed is he who does the work of the Lord with a slack hand鈥 (Jeremiah 48:10), and you taught me incorrectly. The teacher said to him: Leave that man to remain as cursed. This is a sufficient punishment; there is no need to kill me. Joab said to him: It is also written: 鈥淎nd cursed is he who keeps back his sword from blood鈥 (Jeremiah 48:10). There are those who say that Joab killed him, and there are those who say that he did not kill him. In any event, this episode demonstrates that an error learned in one鈥檚 childhood stays with him his whole life.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诪拽专讬 讬谞讜拽讗 砖转诇讗 讟讘讞讗 讜讗讜诪谞讗 讜住讜驻专 诪转讗 讻讜诇谉 讻诪讜转专讬谉 讜注讜诪讚讬谉 谞讬谞讛讜 讻诇诇讗 讚诪讬诇转讗 讻诇 驻住讬讚讗 讚诇讗 讛讚专 诪讜转专讛 讜注讜诪讚 讛讜讗

And Rava says: With regard to a teacher of children, a professional tree planter, a butcher, a bloodletter, and a town scribe, all these are considered forewarned. In other words, they need not be exhorted to perform their jobs correctly, as if they err in the performance of their duties they can be dismissed immediately. The principle of the matter is: With regard to any case where loss is irreversible, the individual is considered forewarned.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讛讗讬 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讚讗讜拽讬 专讬讞讬讗 讜讗转讗 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讞讘专讬讛 讜拽诪讜拽讬 讙讘讬讛 讚讬谞讗 讛讜讗 讚诪注讻讘 注讬诇讜讬讛 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讗 驻住拽转 诇讬讛 诇讞讬讜转讬

Rav Huna said: There was a certain resident of an alleyway who set up a mill in the alleyway and earned his living grinding grain for people. And subsequently another resident of the alleyway came and set up a mill next to his. The halakha is that the first one may prevent him from doing so if he wishes, as he can say to him: You are disrupting my livelihood by taking my customers.

诇讬诪讗 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诪专讞讬拽讬诐 诪爪讜讚转 讛讚讙 诪谉 讛讚讙 讻诪诇讗 专讬爪转 讛讚讙 讜讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 注讚 驻专住讛 砖讗谞讬 讚讙讬诐 讚讬讛讘讬 住讬讬讗专讗

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that a baraita supports his opinion: One must distance fish traps from fish, i.e., from other fish traps, as far as the fish travels, i.e., the distance from which the fish will travel. The Gemara asks: And how much is this distance? Rabba bar Rav Huna says: Up to a parasang [parsa]. This indicates that one must distance himself from the place where another has established his business. The Gemara responds that this is no proof: Perhaps fish are different, as they look around. One fish explores the area ahead of the others, indicating to them where to go. Once they encounter the first trap they will not approach the second.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬谞讗 诇专讘讗 诇讬诪讗 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讬讞诇拽 讞谞讜谞讬 拽诇讬讜转 讜讗讙讜讝讬谉 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 诪驻谞讬 砖诪专讙讬诇谉 讗爪诇讜 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪转讬专讬谉

Ravina said to Rava: Shall we say that Rav Huna spoke in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? As we learned in a mishna (Bava Metzia 60a): Rabbi Yehuda says: A storekeeper may not hand out toasted grain and nuts to children who patronize his store, due to the fact that he thereby accustoms them to come to him at the expense of competing storekeepers. And the Rabbis permit doing so. This indicates that according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, all forms of competition are prohibited, which would include the scenario concerning the mill.

讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘谞谉 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 专讘谞谉 注诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛转诐 讗诇讗 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 拽诪驻诇讙讬谞讗 讗诪讙讜讝讬 讗转 驻诇讜讙 砖讬讜住拽讬 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘谞谉 诪讜讚讜 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 拽讗 驻住拽转 诇讬讛 诇讞讬讜转讬

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: You may even say that Rav Huna holds in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. The Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Yehuda only there, as the storekeeper can say to his competitor: If I distribute walnuts, you can distribute almonds [shiyuskei]. But here, with regard to a resident of an alleyway who sets up a mill in that alleyway where another mill already exists, even the Rabbis concede that the owner of the first mill can say to him: You are disrupting my livelihood, as beforehand whoever required grinding came to me, and you have provided them with another option.

诪讬转讬讘讬 注讜砖讛 讗讚诐 讞谞讜转 讘爪讚 讞谞讜转讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讜诪专讞抓 讘爪讚 诪专讞爪讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇诪讞讜转 讘讬讚讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 诇讜 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讘转讜讱 砖诇讱 讜讗谞讬 注讜砖讛 讘转讜讱 砖诇讬

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: A man may establish a shop alongside the shop of another, and a bathhouse alongside the bathhouse of another, and the other cannot protest, because the newcomer can say to him: You operate in your space, and I operate in my space.

转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讻讜驻讬谉 讘谞讬 诪讘讜讗讜转 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 砖诇讗 诇讛讜砖讬讘 讘讬谞讬讛谉 诇讗 讞讬讬讟 讜诇讗 讘讜专住拽讬 讜诇讗 诪诇诪讚 转讬谞讜拽讜转 讜诇讗 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讘注诇讬 讗讜诪谞讬讜转 讜诇砖讻谞讜 讗讬谞讜 讻讜驻讬讛讜 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诇砖讻谞讜 讻讜驻讬讛讜

The Gemara answers: This entire matter is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it is taught in a baraita: The residents of an alleyway can compel one another to agree not to allow among them in that alleyway a tailor, a tanner, a teacher of children, nor any type of craftsman. They can bar outside craftsmen from plying their trade in that alleyway. But one cannot compel his neighbor, i.e., one who already lives in the alleyway, to refrain from practicing a particular occupation there. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One can even compel his neighbor not to conduct such work in the alleyway. Rav Huna holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讬 讘专 诪转讗 讗讘专 诪转讗 讗讞专讬转讬 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘 讜讗讬 砖讬讬讱 讘讻专讙讗 讚讛讻讗 诇讗 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讗讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讚谞驻砖讬讛 诇讗 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, says: It is obvious to me that a resident of one town can prevent a resident of another town from establishing a similar business in the locale of the first individual. But if he pays the tax of that first town, he cannot prevent him from doing business there, as he too is considered a resident of the town. The resident of an alleyway cannot prevent a resident of his alleyway from practicing a particular trade there, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis in the baraita, and contrary to the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

讘注讬 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讗讘专 诪讘讜讗讛 讗讞专讬谞讗 诪讗讬 转讬拽讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜诪讜讚讬 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘诪拽专讬 讚专讚拽讬 讚诇讗 诪爪讬 诪注讻讘 讚讗诪专 诪专 注讝专讗 转讬拽谉 诇讛谉 诇讬砖专讗诇 砖讬讛讜 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 住讜驻专 讘爪讚 住讜驻专

With these conclusions in mind, Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, raises a dilemma: With regard to a resident of one alleyway protesting about a resident of another alleyway conducting business there, what is the halakha? No answer was found, and the Gemara states that the dilemma shall stand unresolved. Rav Yosef said: And Rav Huna, who said that a resident of an alleyway can prevent another from setting up an additional mill, concedes with regard to those who teach children that one cannot prevent him from working, as the Master said: Ezra instituted an ordinance for the Jewish people requiring that they establish one teacher alongside another teacher, to raise the standard of teaching.

讜谞讬讞讜砖 讚讬诇诪讗 讗转讬 诇讗讬转专砖讜诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛

The Gemara challenges: And let us be concerned lest the teachers will thereby come to be negligent. Rav Yosef said to the Sage who raised this objection:

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