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Today's Daf Yomi

February 16, 2017 | 讻壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Bava Batra 25

As part of a discussion about in which direction of the city may one set up a tannery due to the bad smell and the direction that the winds travel, the gemara goes off on a tangent regarding the strengths of each of the winds (the 4 directions). 聽From there, the gemara brings a braita that attempts to explain why we only see the sun during the day and also why summer days and winter days have different amounts of sunlight/daytime hours. 聽One must distance a tree from a neighbor’s pit as the roots will damage the pit. 聽Details of this law are discussed.


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砖注讜砖讛 讗讜转讜 讙诇诇

he turns it into manure, i.e., the chaff acts like manure, and an excessive amount of manure damages the seeds.

诪转谞讬壮 诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛谞讘诇讜转 讜讗转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜讗转 讛讘讜专住拽讬 诪谉 讛注讬专 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讜专住拽讬 讗诇讗 诇诪讝专讞 讛注讬专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讜诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讜诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛诪砖专讛 诪谉 讛讬专拽 讜讗转 讛讻专讬砖讬谉 诪谉 讛讘爪诇讬诐 讜讗转 讛讞专讚诇 诪谉 讛讚讘讜专讬诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 讘讞专讚诇

MISHNA: One must distance animal carcasses, and graves, and a tannery [haburseki], a place where hides are processed, fifty cubits from the city. One may establish a tannery only on the east side of the city, because winds usually blow from the west and the foul smells would therefore be blown away from the residential area. Rabbi Akiva says: One may establish a tannery on any side of a city except for the west, as the winds blowing from that direction will bring the odors into the city, and one must distance it fifty cubits from the city. One must distance from vegetables water in which flax is steeped, because this water ruins them; and likewise one must distance leeks from onions, and mustard from bees. And Rabbi Yosei permits one not to do so in the case of mustard.

讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讜住讜诪讱 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讚诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讜注讜砖讛 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讜诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讚讗讬谞讜 注讜砖讛 讻诇诇

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to what case is Rabbi Akiva speaking? Did he mean that one may establish a tannery on any side of a city, and one may even place the tannery close to the city, except for the west side, where one must establish it at a distance of fifty cubits? Or perhaps he meant that one may establish a tannery on any side and distance it fifty cubits, except for the west side, where one may not establish a tannery at all.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讜诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讚讗讬谞讜 注讜砖讛 讻诇 注讬拽专 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 转讚讬专讗

The Gemara cites a proof: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva says that one may establish a tannery on any side of the city and distance it fifty cubits, except for the west side, where one may not establish a tannery at all, because the western wind is frequent.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪讗讬 转讚讬专讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 转讚讬专讗 讘专讜讞讜转 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 诪谞砖讘讜转 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 注诐 讻讜诇谉 砖讗讬诇诪诇讗 讻谉 讗讬谉 讛注讜诇诐 诪转拽讬讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转 讜专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 拽砖讛 诪讻讜诇谉 讜讗讬诇诪诇讗 讘谉 谞抓 砖诪注诪讬讚讛 诪讞专讘转 讗转 讛注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛诪讘讬谞转讱 讬讗讘专 谞抓 讬驻专砖 讻谞驻讜 诇转讬诪谉

搂 With regard to the last statement of the baraita, Rava said to Rav Na岣an: What does frequent mean in this context? If we say it means frequent among the winds, i.e., this wind blows all the time, that is difficult. But doesn鈥檛 Rav 岣nan bar Abba say that Rav says: Four winds blow every day from different directions, and the northern wind blows with each of the other three; as, if this were not so, i.e., if it did not blow, the world would not exist for even one hour, as the northern wind is pleasant and tempers the bitter effects of the other winds. And the southern wind is harsher than all of them, and were it not for the angel named Ben Netz, who stops it from blowing even harder, it would destroy the entire world, as it is stated: 鈥淒oes the hawk [netz] soar by your wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?鈥 (Job 39:26). This indicates that the northern wind is the most constant, not the western wind.

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 转讚讬专讗 转讚讬专讗 讘砖讻讬谞讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘讜讗讜 讜谞讞讝讬拽 讟讜讘讛 诇讗讘讜转讬谞讜 砖讛讜讚讬注讜 诪拽讜诐 转驻诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜爪讘讗 讛砖诪讬诐 诇讱 诪砖转讞讜讬诐

Rather, what is the meaning of frequent? It means frequent with the Divine Presence, i.e., the Divine Presence is found on the western side, and therefore it is inappropriate to set up a tannery there with its foul odors. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestors who revealed to us the place of prayer, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the hosts of heaven bow down to You鈥 (Nehemiah 9:6). Since the celestial bodies move from east to west, they bow in that direction, which indicates that the Divine Presence is in the west.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讜讚诇诪讗 讻注讘讚 砖谞讜讟诇 驻专住 诪专讘讜 讜讞讜讝专 诇讗讞讜专讬讜 讜诪砖转讞讜讛 拽砖讬讗

Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov objects to this: But perhaps the celestial bodies are like a servant who receives a gift from his master and walks backward while bowing. If so, the Divine Presence is in the east and the celestial bodies are moving backward. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is difficult, i.e., the verse does not provide a definitive proof.

讜专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 住讘专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗转讛 讛讜讗 讛壮 诇讘讚讱 讗转 注砖讬转 讗转 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讙讜壮 砖诇讜讞讬讱 诇讗 讻砖诇讜讞讬 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖诇讜讞讬 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪诪拽讜诐 砖诪砖转诇讞讬诐 诇砖诐 诪讞讝讬专讬诐 砖诇讬讞讜转谉 讗讘诇 砖诇讜讞讬讱 诇诪拽讜诐 砖诪砖转诇讞讬谉 诪砖诐 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 砖诇讬讞讜转谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛转砖诇讞 讘专拽讬诐 讜讬诇讻讜 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇讱 讛谞谞讜 讬讘讜讗讜 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讜讬诇讻讜 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪诇诪讚 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Oshaya holds that the Divine Presence is found in every place, as Rabbi Oshaya says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou are the Lord, even You alone, You have made heaven鈥You preserve them all alive and the hosts of heaven bow down to You鈥 (Nehemiah 9:6)? This indicates that Your messengers are not like the messengers of flesh and blood. The messengers of flesh and blood return to the place from where they were sent to report on their mission. But Your messengers return and report on their mission from the very same place to which they are sent, as it is stated 鈥淐an you send forth lightnings, that they may go out and say to you: Here we are?鈥 (Job 38:35). The verse does not state: They will come and say, i.e., they do not return to their point of departure, but: 鈥淭hey may go out and say,鈥 which teaches that the Divine Presence is found in every place.

讜讗祝 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 住讘专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪谞讬谉 砖砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讛诪诇讗讱 讛讚讘专 讘讬 讬爪讗 讜诪诇讗讱 讗讞专 讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗讞专讬讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 诇拽专讗转讜 诪诇诪讚 砖砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Yishmael, too, holds that the Divine Presence is in every place, as one of the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: From where is it derived that the Divine Presence is in every place? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd behold the angel who spoke with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him鈥 (Zechariah 2:7). Although both angels were coming from the Divine Presence, the verse does not state: After him, but: 鈥淭o meet him,鈥 which teaches that the Divine Presence is in every place, and therefore the angels depart for their missions from every place.

讜讗祝 专讘 砖砖转 住讘专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 砖砖转 诇砖诪注讬讛 诇讻诇 专讜讞转讗 讗讜拽诪谉 诇讘专 诪诪讝专讞 讜诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讬转 讘讬讛 砖讻讬谞讛 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讜专讜 讘讛 诪讬谞讬

And Rav Sheshet, too, holds that the Divine Presence is in every place, as Rav Sheshet said to his servant: Set me facing any direction to pray except for the east. Rav Sheshet, who was blind, required the assistance of his aide to prepare for prayer. He explained to his servant: And the reason I do not wish to face east is not because it does not contain the Divine Presence, but because the heretics instruct people to pray in that direction.

讜专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘诪注专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪讗讬 讗讜专讬讛 讗讜讬专 讬讛

But Rabbi Abbahu says: The Divine Presence is in the west, as Rabbi Abbahu says: What is the meaning of oriyya, which is a name for the west? It means the air of God [avir Yah], i.e., this is the place of the Divine Presence.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬注专祝 讻诪讟专 诇拽讞讬 讝讜 专讜讞 诪注专讘讬转 砖讘讗讛 诪注专驻讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐

The Gemara cites a statement connected to the four winds. Rav Yehuda said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淢y doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distill as the dew; as the small rain upon the tender growth, and as the showers upon the herb鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:2)? 鈥淢y doctrine shall drop [ya鈥檃rof ] as the rain鈥; this is the western wind, which comes from the back of [me鈥檕rpo] the world, as the west is also referred to as the back.

转讝诇 讻讟诇 讗诪专转讬 讝讜 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 砖诪讝诇转 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讝诇讬诐 讝讛讘 诪讻讬住

鈥淢y speech shall distill [tizzal] as the dew鈥; this is the northern wind, which brings dry air that reduces the rain and grain and thereby devalues [mazzelet] gold. When grain crops are reduced their price appreciates, and consequently the value of gold decreases. And in addition, it says: 鈥淵ou who lavish [hazzalim] gold out of the bag鈥 (Isaiah 46:6).

讻砖注讬专诐 注诇讬 讚砖讗 讝讜 专讜讞 诪讝专讞讬转 砖诪住注专转 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻砖注讬专 讜讻专讘讬讘讬诐 注诇讬 注砖讘 讝讜 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 砖讛讬讗 诪注诇讛 专讘讬讘讬诐 讜诪讙讚诇转 注砖讘讬诐

鈥淎s the small rain [kisirim] upon the tender growth鈥; this is the eastern wind that rages through [maseret] the entire world like a demon [sa鈥檌r] when it blows strongly. 鈥淎nd as the showers upon the herb鈥; this is the southern wind, which raises showers and causes herbs to grow.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 注讜诇诐

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The world

诇讗讻住讚专讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 讜专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 讗讬谞讛 诪住讜讘讘转 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讛 讞诪讛 讗爪诇 拽专谉 诪注专讘讬转 爪驻讜谞讬转 谞讻驻驻转 讜注讜诇讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪谉 讛专拽讬注 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 注讜诇诐 诇拽讜讘讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 讜专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 诪住讜讘讘转 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讞诪讛 诪讙注转 诇拽专谉 诪注专讘讬转 爪驻讜谞讬转 诪拽驻转 讜讞讜讝专转 讗讞讜专讬 讻讬驻讛

is similar to a partially enclosed veranda [le鈥檃khsadra], enclosed on three sides, and the northern side of the world is not enclosed with a partition like the other directions. The sun begins its revolution in the east and passes to the south and the west, and once the sun reaches the northwestern corner it turns around and ascends throughout the night above the sky to the east side and does not pass the north side. And Rabbi Yehoshua says: The world is similar to a small tent [lekubba], and the north side is enclosed with a partition as well, but once the sun reaches the northwestern corner it emerges from this small tent, and circles and passes behind the dome, i.e., outside the northern partition, until it reaches the east.

砖谞讗诪专 讛讜诇讱 讗诇 讚专讜诐 讜住讜讘讘 讗诇 爪驻讜谉 讜讙讜壮 讛讜诇讱 讗诇 讚专讜诐 讘讬讜诐 讜住讜讘讘 讗诇 爪驻讜谉 讘诇讬诇讛 住讜讘讘 住讘讘 讛讜诇讱 讛专讜讞 讜注诇 住讘讬讘转讬讜 砖讘 讛专讜讞 讗诇讜 驻谞讬 诪讝专讞 讜驻谞讬 诪注专讘 砖驻注诪讬诐 诪住讘讘转谉 讜驻注诪讬诐 诪讛诇讻转谉

As it is stated: 鈥淭he sun also rises and the sun goes down, and hastens to its place, where it rises again. It goes toward the south, and turns about to the north; round and round goes the wind, and on its circuits the wind returns鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:5鈥6). The verse is understood as describing the sun鈥檚 movements, as follows: 鈥淚t goes toward the south鈥 during the day, 鈥渁nd turns about to the north,鈥 on the outside of the firmament, at night. 鈥淩ound and round goes the wind [rua岣] and the wind returns again to its circuits鈥; as the word rua岣 can also mean direction or side, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that these are the face of the east and the face of the west. Sometimes, in the short winter days, the sun turns about them without being seen, and sometimes, in the long summer days, it traverses them visibly.

讛讜讗 讛讬讛 讗讜诪专 讗转讗谉 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪谉 讛讞讚专 转讘讗 住讜驻讛 讝讜 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 讜诪诪讝专讬诐 拽专讛 讝讜 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 诪谞砖诪转 讗诇 讬转谉 拽专讞 讝讜 专讜讞 诪注专讘讬转 讜专讞讘 诪讬诐 讘诪讜爪拽 讝讜 专讜讞 诪讝专讞讬转

The baraita continues: He would say. Before continuing its citation, the Gemara interjects: In this statement, we arrive at the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer that the world is like a partially enclosed veranda. The Gemara resumes its citation of the baraita: There is proof from a verse that the north side is open: 鈥淥ut of the chamber comes the storm鈥; this is the southern side that forms a room with the other two sides. 鈥淎nd cold out of the dispersed parts鈥 (Job 37:9); this is the northern side, which is open, and from which a cold wind comes. 鈥淏y the breath of God ice is given鈥; this is the western side. 鈥淎nd the breadth of the waters is straitened鈥 (Job 37:10); this is the eastern side, from which the rains come.

讜讛讗诪专 诪专 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 诪注诇讛 专讘讬讘讬诐 讜诪讙讚诇转 注砖讘讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗转讬讗 诪讟专讗 讘谞讬讞讜转讗 讛讗 讘砖驻讬讻讜转讗

The Gemara asks: But doesn鈥檛 the Master say that the southern wind raises showers and causes herbs to grow? The Gemara answers that this is not difficult: This is referring to rain that falls gently, which waters plants and brings growth; that is referring to a downpour of rain that causes damage.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪驻讜谉 讝讛讘 讬讗转讛 讝讜 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 砖诪讝诇转 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讝诇讬诐 讝讛讘 诪讻讬住

Rav 岣sda said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淥ut of the north comes gold鈥 (Job 37:22)? This is the northern wind, which devalues gold by causing a drought that raises the price of grain. And, in addition, it says: 鈥淵ou who lavish gold out of the bag鈥 (Isaiah 46:6).

讗诪专 专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 诇讗 讛讜讙砖诪讛 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讙讝专 注诇 讬诪讬谉 讜专注讘 讜讬讗讻诇 注诇 砖诪讗诇 讜诇讗 砖讘注讜 讜讻转讬讘 爪驻讜谉 讜讬诪讬谉 讗转讛 讘专讗转诐

Rafram bar Pappa says that Rav 岣sda says: From the day the Temple was destroyed the southern wind has not brought rain, as it is stated in the description of the destruction of the Temple: 鈥淗e decrees on the right and there is hunger, and consumes on the left and they are not satisfied鈥 (Isaiah 9:19). This means that God decreed that the southern wind, which is called right, shall bring famine with it. And it is written: 鈥淣orth and right, You have created them鈥 (Psalms 89:13). This proves that the term right means south.

讜讗诪专 专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诪讗讜爪专 讟讜讘 砖谞讗诪专 讬驻转讞 讛壮 诇讱 讗转 讗讜爪专讜 讛讟讜讘 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 注讜砖讬谉 专爪讜谞讜 砖诇 诪拽讜诐 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转诐 讙砖诪讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诪讗讜爪专 讟讜讘 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转诐 讗讬谉 讙砖诪讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诪讗讜爪专 讟讜讘

And Rafram bar Pappa says that Rav 岣sda says: From the day the Temple was destroyed, the rains no longer descend from the good storehouse, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord will open to you His good storehouse, the skies, to give the rain of your land in its season鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:12). In a time when the Jewish people perform God鈥檚 will, and the Jewish people are settled in their land, rain descends from the good storehouse. In a time when the Jewish people are not settled in their land, rain does not descend from the good storehouse.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讛专讜爪讛 砖讬讞讻讬诐 讬讚专讬诐 讜砖讬注砖讬专 讬爪驻讬谉 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 砖诇讞谉 讘爪驻讜谉 讜诪谞讜专讛 讘讚专讜诐 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬讚专讬诐 砖诪转讜讱 砖诪转讞讻诐 诪转注砖专 砖谞讗诪专 讗专讱 讬诪讬诐 讘讬诪讬谞讛 讘砖诪讗诇讛 注砖专 讜讻讘讜讚

Rabbi Yitz岣k says: One who wishes to become wise should face south, and one who wishes to become wealthy should face north. And your mnemonic for this is that in the Temple the Table, which symbolized blessing and abundance, was in the north, and the Candelabrum, which symbolized the light of wisdom, was in the south of the Sanctuary. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One should always face south, as once he becomes wise he will subsequently also become wealthy, as it is stated with regard to the Torah: 鈥淟ength of days is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor鈥 (Proverbs 3:16).

讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘诪注专讘 讚诪爪讚讚 讗爪讚讜讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讻讙讜谉 讗转讜谉 讚讬转讘讬转讜 讘爪驻讜谞讛 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗讚专讬诪讜 讗讚专讜诪讬 讜诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讘讘诇 诇爪驻讜谞讛 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 拽讬讬诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪驻讜谉 转驻转讞 讛专注讛 注诇 讻诇 讬砖讘讬 讛讗专抓

The Gemara asks: But Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says that the Divine Presence is in the west. How, then, can one pray facing south? The Gemara explains that one should turn aside slightly, so that he faces southwest. Rabbi 岣nina said to Rav Ashi: An individual such as you, who lives to the north of Eretz Yisrael, should face south when you pray. And from where do we derive that Babylonia is located to the north of Eretz Yisrael? As it is written in a prophecy concerning the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians: 鈥淥ut of the north evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land鈥 (Jeremiah 1:14).

诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛诪砖专讛 诪谉 讛讬专拽 讜讻讜壮 转谞讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 讘讞专讚诇 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 诇讜 注讚 砖讗转讛 讗讜诪专 诇讬 讛专讞拽 讞专讚诇讱 诪谉 讚讘讜专讬讬 讛专讞拽 讚讘讜专讱 诪谉 讞专讚诇讬讬 砖讘讗讜转 讜讗讜讻诇讜转 诇讙诇讜讙讬 讞专讚诇讬讬

搂 The mishna teaches that one must distance from vegetables the water in which flax is steeped, and distance mustard from bees. A Sage taught that Rabbi Yosei permits one not to do so in the case of mustard because he can say to the beekeeper: Before you tell me: Distance your mustard from my bees, I can tell you: Distance your bees from my mustard, as they come and eat my mustard plants. In other words, you are also causing damage to my property. Since they each cause damage to the other, neither can force his neighbor to move.

诪转谞讬壮 诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛讗讬诇谉 诪谉 讛讘讜专 注砖专讬诐 讜讞诪砖 讗诪讛 讜讘讞专讜讘 讜讘砖拽诪讛 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讘讬谉 诪诇诪注诇讛 讘讬谉 诪谉 讛爪讚 讗诐 讛讘讜专 拽讚诪讛 拽讜爪抓 讜谞讜转谉 讚诪讬诐 讜讗诐 讗讬诇谉 拽讚诐 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 住驻拽 讝讛 拽讚诐 讜住驻拽 讝讛 拽讚诐 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讘讜专 拽讜讚诪转 诇讗讬诇谉 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 砖讝讛 讞讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜 讜讝讛 谞讜讟注 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜

MISHNA: One must distance a tree twenty-five cubits from a cistern, and in the case of a carob and of a sycamore tree, whose roots extend farther, one must distance the tree fifty cubits. This is the halakha whether the cistern or tree is located above or to the side of the other. If the digging of the cistern preceded the tree, the owner of the tree cuts down the tree and the owner of the cistern pays him money. And if the tree preceded the cistern the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. If it is uncertain whether this came first or that came first, the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. Rabbi Yosei says: Even if the cistern preceded the tree, the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. This is due to the fact that this one digs in his own property, and that one plants in his own property.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 讘讬谉 砖讛讘讜专 诇诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪注诇讛 讘讬谉 砖讛讘讜专 诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪讟讛 讘砖诇诪讗 讘讜专 诇诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪注诇讛 拽讗 讗讝诇讬谉 砖专砖讬谉 诪讝拽讬 诇讛 诇讘讜专 讗诇讗 讘讜专 诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪讟讛 讗诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讙讗 讘砖诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪驻谞讬 砖诪讞诇讬讚讬谉 讗转 讛拽专拽注 讜诪诇拽讬谉 拽专拽注讬转讛 砖诇 讘讜专

GEMARA: The Gemara discusses the mishna鈥檚 statement that a tree must be distanced if it is above a cistern. A Sage taught: This is the halakha whether the cistern is below and the tree is above, or whether the cistern is above and the tree is below. The Gemara asks: Granted, if the cistern is below and the tree is above, it will cause damage, as the roots extend and damage the cistern when they breach its walls. But if the cistern is above and the tree is below, why should he have to distance the tree, considering that the roots extend downward? Rabbi 岣gga says in the name of Rabbi Yosei: He must distance the tree because its roots form holes in the ground and ruin the floor of the cistern.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讘讜专 拽讜讚诪转 诇讗讬诇谉 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 砖讝讛 讞讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜 讜讝讛 谞讜讟注 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻讬 讛讜讗谉 讘讬 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讛讜讛 讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讜讚讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讙讬专讬 讚讬讚讬讛

Rabbi Yosei says: Even if the cistern preceded the tree, the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. This is due to the fact that this one digs in his own property, and that one plants in his own property. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Rav Ashi said: When we were studying in the study hall of Rav Kahana, we would say that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to one鈥檚 arrows, i.e., one must distance his activities from his neighbor if his actions will cause immediate damage to his neighbor, even if he is acting on his own property.

驻讗驻讬 讬讜谞讗讛 注谞讬 讜讛注砖讬专 讛讜讛 讘谞讛 讗驻讚谞讗 讛讜讜 讛谞讱 注爪讜专讬 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讻讬 讛讜讜 讚讬讬拽讬 砖讜诪砖诪讬 讛讜讛 谞讬讬讚讗 讗驻讚谞讬讛 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讜讗谉 讘讬 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讛讜讛 讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讜讚讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讙讬专讬 讚讬诇讬讛

The Gemara relates that a man called Pappei Yona鈥檃 was poor and became wealthy. He built a mansion [appadna] on his land. There were these sesame seed pressers in his neighborhood who would work, and when they would press the sesame seeds their activity would shake his mansion. He came before Rav Ashi to complain. Rav Ashi said to him: When we were studying in the study hall of Rav Kahana, we would say that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to one鈥檚 arrows. Here too, because the sesame seed pressers cause immediate damage they must distance themselves.

讜讻诪讛

The Gemara asks: And how much must the mansion shake for the owner to have the right to compel the sesame seed pressers to distance themselves?

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Bava Batra 25

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Batra 25

砖注讜砖讛 讗讜转讜 讙诇诇

he turns it into manure, i.e., the chaff acts like manure, and an excessive amount of manure damages the seeds.

诪转谞讬壮 诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛谞讘诇讜转 讜讗转 讛拽讘专讜转 讜讗转 讛讘讜专住拽讬 诪谉 讛注讬专 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讜专住拽讬 讗诇讗 诇诪讝专讞 讛注讬专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讜诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讜诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛诪砖专讛 诪谉 讛讬专拽 讜讗转 讛讻专讬砖讬谉 诪谉 讛讘爪诇讬诐 讜讗转 讛讞专讚诇 诪谉 讛讚讘讜专讬诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 讘讞专讚诇

MISHNA: One must distance animal carcasses, and graves, and a tannery [haburseki], a place where hides are processed, fifty cubits from the city. One may establish a tannery only on the east side of the city, because winds usually blow from the west and the foul smells would therefore be blown away from the residential area. Rabbi Akiva says: One may establish a tannery on any side of a city except for the west, as the winds blowing from that direction will bring the odors into the city, and one must distance it fifty cubits from the city. One must distance from vegetables water in which flax is steeped, because this water ruins them; and likewise one must distance leeks from onions, and mustard from bees. And Rabbi Yosei permits one not to do so in the case of mustard.

讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讬讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讜住讜诪讱 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讚诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讜注讜砖讛 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讜诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讚讗讬谞讜 注讜砖讛 讻诇诇

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to what case is Rabbi Akiva speaking? Did he mean that one may establish a tannery on any side of a city, and one may even place the tannery close to the city, except for the west side, where one must establish it at a distance of fifty cubits? Or perhaps he meant that one may establish a tannery on any side and distance it fifty cubits, except for the west side, where one may not establish a tannery at all.

转讗 砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诇讻诇 专讜讞 讛讜讗 注讜砖讛 讜诪专讞讬拽 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讞讜抓 诪诪注专讘讛 讚讗讬谞讜 注讜砖讛 讻诇 注讬拽专 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讗 转讚讬专讗

The Gemara cites a proof: Come and hear, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva says that one may establish a tannery on any side of the city and distance it fifty cubits, except for the west side, where one may not establish a tannery at all, because the western wind is frequent.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 诪讗讬 转讚讬专讗 讗讬诇讬诪讗 转讚讬专讗 讘专讜讞讜转 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 诪谞砖讘讜转 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讜专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 注诐 讻讜诇谉 砖讗讬诇诪诇讗 讻谉 讗讬谉 讛注讜诇诐 诪转拽讬讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 砖注讛 讗讞转 讜专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 拽砖讛 诪讻讜诇谉 讜讗讬诇诪诇讗 讘谉 谞抓 砖诪注诪讬讚讛 诪讞专讘转 讗转 讛注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛诪讘讬谞转讱 讬讗讘专 谞抓 讬驻专砖 讻谞驻讜 诇转讬诪谉

搂 With regard to the last statement of the baraita, Rava said to Rav Na岣an: What does frequent mean in this context? If we say it means frequent among the winds, i.e., this wind blows all the time, that is difficult. But doesn鈥檛 Rav 岣nan bar Abba say that Rav says: Four winds blow every day from different directions, and the northern wind blows with each of the other three; as, if this were not so, i.e., if it did not blow, the world would not exist for even one hour, as the northern wind is pleasant and tempers the bitter effects of the other winds. And the southern wind is harsher than all of them, and were it not for the angel named Ben Netz, who stops it from blowing even harder, it would destroy the entire world, as it is stated: 鈥淒oes the hawk [netz] soar by your wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the south?鈥 (Job 39:26). This indicates that the northern wind is the most constant, not the western wind.

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 转讚讬专讗 转讚讬专讗 讘砖讻讬谞讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讘讜讗讜 讜谞讞讝讬拽 讟讜讘讛 诇讗讘讜转讬谞讜 砖讛讜讚讬注讜 诪拽讜诐 转驻诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜爪讘讗 讛砖诪讬诐 诇讱 诪砖转讞讜讬诐

Rather, what is the meaning of frequent? It means frequent with the Divine Presence, i.e., the Divine Presence is found on the western side, and therefore it is inappropriate to set up a tannery there with its foul odors. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestors who revealed to us the place of prayer, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the hosts of heaven bow down to You鈥 (Nehemiah 9:6). Since the celestial bodies move from east to west, they bow in that direction, which indicates that the Divine Presence is in the west.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讜讚诇诪讗 讻注讘讚 砖谞讜讟诇 驻专住 诪专讘讜 讜讞讜讝专 诇讗讞讜专讬讜 讜诪砖转讞讜讛 拽砖讬讗

Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov objects to this: But perhaps the celestial bodies are like a servant who receives a gift from his master and walks backward while bowing. If so, the Divine Presence is in the east and the celestial bodies are moving backward. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is difficult, i.e., the verse does not provide a definitive proof.

讜专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 住讘专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗转讛 讛讜讗 讛壮 诇讘讚讱 讗转 注砖讬转 讗转 讛砖诪讬诐 讜讙讜壮 砖诇讜讞讬讱 诇讗 讻砖诇讜讞讬 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖诇讜讞讬 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪诪拽讜诐 砖诪砖转诇讞讬诐 诇砖诐 诪讞讝讬专讬诐 砖诇讬讞讜转谉 讗讘诇 砖诇讜讞讬讱 诇诪拽讜诐 砖诪砖转诇讞讬谉 诪砖诐 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 砖诇讬讞讜转谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛转砖诇讞 讘专拽讬诐 讜讬诇讻讜 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇讱 讛谞谞讜 讬讘讜讗讜 讜讬讗诪专讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讜讬诇讻讜 讜讬讗诪专讜 诪诇诪讚 砖讛砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Oshaya holds that the Divine Presence is found in every place, as Rabbi Oshaya says: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou are the Lord, even You alone, You have made heaven鈥You preserve them all alive and the hosts of heaven bow down to You鈥 (Nehemiah 9:6)? This indicates that Your messengers are not like the messengers of flesh and blood. The messengers of flesh and blood return to the place from where they were sent to report on their mission. But Your messengers return and report on their mission from the very same place to which they are sent, as it is stated 鈥淐an you send forth lightnings, that they may go out and say to you: Here we are?鈥 (Job 38:35). The verse does not state: They will come and say, i.e., they do not return to their point of departure, but: 鈥淭hey may go out and say,鈥 which teaches that the Divine Presence is found in every place.

讜讗祝 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 住讘专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪谞讬谉 砖砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛谞讛 讛诪诇讗讱 讛讚讘专 讘讬 讬爪讗 讜诪诇讗讱 讗讞专 讬爪讗 诇拽专讗转讜 讗讞专讬讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 诇拽专讗转讜 诪诇诪讚 砖砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The Gemara comments: And Rabbi Yishmael, too, holds that the Divine Presence is in every place, as one of the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: From where is it derived that the Divine Presence is in every place? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd behold the angel who spoke with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him鈥 (Zechariah 2:7). Although both angels were coming from the Divine Presence, the verse does not state: After him, but: 鈥淭o meet him,鈥 which teaches that the Divine Presence is in every place, and therefore the angels depart for their missions from every place.

讜讗祝 专讘 砖砖转 住讘专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讚讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 砖砖转 诇砖诪注讬讛 诇讻诇 专讜讞转讗 讗讜拽诪谉 诇讘专 诪诪讝专讞 讜诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚诇讬转 讘讬讛 砖讻讬谞讛 讗诇讗 诪砖讜诐 讚诪讜专讜 讘讛 诪讬谞讬

And Rav Sheshet, too, holds that the Divine Presence is in every place, as Rav Sheshet said to his servant: Set me facing any direction to pray except for the east. Rav Sheshet, who was blind, required the assistance of his aide to prepare for prayer. He explained to his servant: And the reason I do not wish to face east is not because it does not contain the Divine Presence, but because the heretics instruct people to pray in that direction.

讜专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘诪注专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪讗讬 讗讜专讬讛 讗讜讬专 讬讛

But Rabbi Abbahu says: The Divine Presence is in the west, as Rabbi Abbahu says: What is the meaning of oriyya, which is a name for the west? It means the air of God [avir Yah], i.e., this is the place of the Divine Presence.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讬注专祝 讻诪讟专 诇拽讞讬 讝讜 专讜讞 诪注专讘讬转 砖讘讗讛 诪注专驻讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐

The Gemara cites a statement connected to the four winds. Rav Yehuda said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淢y doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distill as the dew; as the small rain upon the tender growth, and as the showers upon the herb鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:2)? 鈥淢y doctrine shall drop [ya鈥檃rof ] as the rain鈥; this is the western wind, which comes from the back of [me鈥檕rpo] the world, as the west is also referred to as the back.

转讝诇 讻讟诇 讗诪专转讬 讝讜 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 砖诪讝诇转 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讝诇讬诐 讝讛讘 诪讻讬住

鈥淢y speech shall distill [tizzal] as the dew鈥; this is the northern wind, which brings dry air that reduces the rain and grain and thereby devalues [mazzelet] gold. When grain crops are reduced their price appreciates, and consequently the value of gold decreases. And in addition, it says: 鈥淵ou who lavish [hazzalim] gold out of the bag鈥 (Isaiah 46:6).

讻砖注讬专诐 注诇讬 讚砖讗 讝讜 专讜讞 诪讝专讞讬转 砖诪住注专转 讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻砖注讬专 讜讻专讘讬讘讬诐 注诇讬 注砖讘 讝讜 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 砖讛讬讗 诪注诇讛 专讘讬讘讬诐 讜诪讙讚诇转 注砖讘讬诐

鈥淎s the small rain [kisirim] upon the tender growth鈥; this is the eastern wind that rages through [maseret] the entire world like a demon [sa鈥檌r] when it blows strongly. 鈥淎nd as the showers upon the herb鈥; this is the southern wind, which raises showers and causes herbs to grow.

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 注讜诇诐

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The world

诇讗讻住讚专讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 讜专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 讗讬谞讛 诪住讜讘讘转 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注讛 讞诪讛 讗爪诇 拽专谉 诪注专讘讬转 爪驻讜谞讬转 谞讻驻驻转 讜注讜诇讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪谉 讛专拽讬注 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 注讜诇诐 诇拽讜讘讛 讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 讜专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 诪住讜讘讘转 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讞诪讛 诪讙注转 诇拽专谉 诪注专讘讬转 爪驻讜谞讬转 诪拽驻转 讜讞讜讝专转 讗讞讜专讬 讻讬驻讛

is similar to a partially enclosed veranda [le鈥檃khsadra], enclosed on three sides, and the northern side of the world is not enclosed with a partition like the other directions. The sun begins its revolution in the east and passes to the south and the west, and once the sun reaches the northwestern corner it turns around and ascends throughout the night above the sky to the east side and does not pass the north side. And Rabbi Yehoshua says: The world is similar to a small tent [lekubba], and the north side is enclosed with a partition as well, but once the sun reaches the northwestern corner it emerges from this small tent, and circles and passes behind the dome, i.e., outside the northern partition, until it reaches the east.

砖谞讗诪专 讛讜诇讱 讗诇 讚专讜诐 讜住讜讘讘 讗诇 爪驻讜谉 讜讙讜壮 讛讜诇讱 讗诇 讚专讜诐 讘讬讜诐 讜住讜讘讘 讗诇 爪驻讜谉 讘诇讬诇讛 住讜讘讘 住讘讘 讛讜诇讱 讛专讜讞 讜注诇 住讘讬讘转讬讜 砖讘 讛专讜讞 讗诇讜 驻谞讬 诪讝专讞 讜驻谞讬 诪注专讘 砖驻注诪讬诐 诪住讘讘转谉 讜驻注诪讬诐 诪讛诇讻转谉

As it is stated: 鈥淭he sun also rises and the sun goes down, and hastens to its place, where it rises again. It goes toward the south, and turns about to the north; round and round goes the wind, and on its circuits the wind returns鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:5鈥6). The verse is understood as describing the sun鈥檚 movements, as follows: 鈥淚t goes toward the south鈥 during the day, 鈥渁nd turns about to the north,鈥 on the outside of the firmament, at night. 鈥淩ound and round goes the wind [rua岣] and the wind returns again to its circuits鈥; as the word rua岣 can also mean direction or side, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that these are the face of the east and the face of the west. Sometimes, in the short winter days, the sun turns about them without being seen, and sometimes, in the long summer days, it traverses them visibly.

讛讜讗 讛讬讛 讗讜诪专 讗转讗谉 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪谉 讛讞讚专 转讘讗 住讜驻讛 讝讜 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 讜诪诪讝专讬诐 拽专讛 讝讜 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 诪谞砖诪转 讗诇 讬转谉 拽专讞 讝讜 专讜讞 诪注专讘讬转 讜专讞讘 诪讬诐 讘诪讜爪拽 讝讜 专讜讞 诪讝专讞讬转

The baraita continues: He would say. Before continuing its citation, the Gemara interjects: In this statement, we arrive at the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer that the world is like a partially enclosed veranda. The Gemara resumes its citation of the baraita: There is proof from a verse that the north side is open: 鈥淥ut of the chamber comes the storm鈥; this is the southern side that forms a room with the other two sides. 鈥淎nd cold out of the dispersed parts鈥 (Job 37:9); this is the northern side, which is open, and from which a cold wind comes. 鈥淏y the breath of God ice is given鈥; this is the western side. 鈥淎nd the breadth of the waters is straitened鈥 (Job 37:10); this is the eastern side, from which the rains come.

讜讛讗诪专 诪专 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 诪注诇讛 专讘讬讘讬诐 讜诪讙讚诇转 注砖讘讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗转讬讗 诪讟专讗 讘谞讬讞讜转讗 讛讗 讘砖驻讬讻讜转讗

The Gemara asks: But doesn鈥檛 the Master say that the southern wind raises showers and causes herbs to grow? The Gemara answers that this is not difficult: This is referring to rain that falls gently, which waters plants and brings growth; that is referring to a downpour of rain that causes damage.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪驻讜谉 讝讛讘 讬讗转讛 讝讜 专讜讞 爪驻讜谞讬转 砖诪讝诇转 讗转 讛讝讛讘 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讛讝诇讬诐 讝讛讘 诪讻讬住

Rav 岣sda said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淥ut of the north comes gold鈥 (Job 37:22)? This is the northern wind, which devalues gold by causing a drought that raises the price of grain. And, in addition, it says: 鈥淵ou who lavish gold out of the bag鈥 (Isaiah 46:6).

讗诪专 专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 诇讗 讛讜讙砖诪讛 专讜讞 讚专讜诪讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讙讝专 注诇 讬诪讬谉 讜专注讘 讜讬讗讻诇 注诇 砖诪讗诇 讜诇讗 砖讘注讜 讜讻转讬讘 爪驻讜谉 讜讬诪讬谉 讗转讛 讘专讗转诐

Rafram bar Pappa says that Rav 岣sda says: From the day the Temple was destroyed the southern wind has not brought rain, as it is stated in the description of the destruction of the Temple: 鈥淗e decrees on the right and there is hunger, and consumes on the left and they are not satisfied鈥 (Isaiah 9:19). This means that God decreed that the southern wind, which is called right, shall bring famine with it. And it is written: 鈥淣orth and right, You have created them鈥 (Psalms 89:13). This proves that the term right means south.

讜讗诪专 专驻专诐 讘专 驻驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讬讜诐 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讬谉 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诪讗讜爪专 讟讜讘 砖谞讗诪专 讬驻转讞 讛壮 诇讱 讗转 讗讜爪专讜 讛讟讜讘 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖专讗诇 注讜砖讬谉 专爪讜谞讜 砖诇 诪拽讜诐 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转诐 讙砖诪讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诪讗讜爪专 讟讜讘 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谉 讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转诐 讗讬谉 讙砖诪讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诪讗讜爪专 讟讜讘

And Rafram bar Pappa says that Rav 岣sda says: From the day the Temple was destroyed, the rains no longer descend from the good storehouse, as it is stated: 鈥淭he Lord will open to you His good storehouse, the skies, to give the rain of your land in its season鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:12). In a time when the Jewish people perform God鈥檚 will, and the Jewish people are settled in their land, rain descends from the good storehouse. In a time when the Jewish people are not settled in their land, rain does not descend from the good storehouse.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讛专讜爪讛 砖讬讞讻讬诐 讬讚专讬诐 讜砖讬注砖讬专 讬爪驻讬谉 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 砖诇讞谉 讘爪驻讜谉 讜诪谞讜专讛 讘讚专讜诐 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬讚专讬诐 砖诪转讜讱 砖诪转讞讻诐 诪转注砖专 砖谞讗诪专 讗专讱 讬诪讬诐 讘讬诪讬谞讛 讘砖诪讗诇讛 注砖专 讜讻讘讜讚

Rabbi Yitz岣k says: One who wishes to become wise should face south, and one who wishes to become wealthy should face north. And your mnemonic for this is that in the Temple the Table, which symbolized blessing and abundance, was in the north, and the Candelabrum, which symbolized the light of wisdom, was in the south of the Sanctuary. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One should always face south, as once he becomes wise he will subsequently also become wealthy, as it is stated with regard to the Torah: 鈥淟ength of days is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor鈥 (Proverbs 3:16).

讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专 砖讻讬谞讛 讘诪注专讘 讚诪爪讚讚 讗爪讚讜讚讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讻讙讜谉 讗转讜谉 讚讬转讘讬转讜 讘爪驻讜谞讛 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗讚专讬诪讜 讗讚专讜诪讬 讜诪谞讗 诇谉 讚讘讘诇 诇爪驻讜谞讛 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 拽讬讬诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪驻讜谉 转驻转讞 讛专注讛 注诇 讻诇 讬砖讘讬 讛讗专抓

The Gemara asks: But Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says that the Divine Presence is in the west. How, then, can one pray facing south? The Gemara explains that one should turn aside slightly, so that he faces southwest. Rabbi 岣nina said to Rav Ashi: An individual such as you, who lives to the north of Eretz Yisrael, should face south when you pray. And from where do we derive that Babylonia is located to the north of Eretz Yisrael? As it is written in a prophecy concerning the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians: 鈥淥ut of the north evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land鈥 (Jeremiah 1:14).

诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛诪砖专讛 诪谉 讛讬专拽 讜讻讜壮 转谞讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪转讬专 讘讞专讚诇 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讜诪专 诇讜 注讚 砖讗转讛 讗讜诪专 诇讬 讛专讞拽 讞专讚诇讱 诪谉 讚讘讜专讬讬 讛专讞拽 讚讘讜专讱 诪谉 讞专讚诇讬讬 砖讘讗讜转 讜讗讜讻诇讜转 诇讙诇讜讙讬 讞专讚诇讬讬

搂 The mishna teaches that one must distance from vegetables the water in which flax is steeped, and distance mustard from bees. A Sage taught that Rabbi Yosei permits one not to do so in the case of mustard because he can say to the beekeeper: Before you tell me: Distance your mustard from my bees, I can tell you: Distance your bees from my mustard, as they come and eat my mustard plants. In other words, you are also causing damage to my property. Since they each cause damage to the other, neither can force his neighbor to move.

诪转谞讬壮 诪专讞讬拽讬谉 讗转 讛讗讬诇谉 诪谉 讛讘讜专 注砖专讬诐 讜讞诪砖 讗诪讛 讜讘讞专讜讘 讜讘砖拽诪讛 讞诪砖讬诐 讗诪讛 讘讬谉 诪诇诪注诇讛 讘讬谉 诪谉 讛爪讚 讗诐 讛讘讜专 拽讚诪讛 拽讜爪抓 讜谞讜转谉 讚诪讬诐 讜讗诐 讗讬诇谉 拽讚诐 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 住驻拽 讝讛 拽讚诐 讜住驻拽 讝讛 拽讚诐 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讘讜专 拽讜讚诪转 诇讗讬诇谉 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 砖讝讛 讞讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜 讜讝讛 谞讜讟注 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜

MISHNA: One must distance a tree twenty-five cubits from a cistern, and in the case of a carob and of a sycamore tree, whose roots extend farther, one must distance the tree fifty cubits. This is the halakha whether the cistern or tree is located above or to the side of the other. If the digging of the cistern preceded the tree, the owner of the tree cuts down the tree and the owner of the cistern pays him money. And if the tree preceded the cistern the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. If it is uncertain whether this came first or that came first, the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. Rabbi Yosei says: Even if the cistern preceded the tree, the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. This is due to the fact that this one digs in his own property, and that one plants in his own property.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 讘讬谉 砖讛讘讜专 诇诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪注诇讛 讘讬谉 砖讛讘讜专 诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪讟讛 讘砖诇诪讗 讘讜专 诇诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪注诇讛 拽讗 讗讝诇讬谉 砖专砖讬谉 诪讝拽讬 诇讛 诇讘讜专 讗诇讗 讘讜专 诇诪注诇讛 讜讗讬诇谉 诇诪讟讛 讗诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讙讗 讘砖诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪驻谞讬 砖诪讞诇讬讚讬谉 讗转 讛拽专拽注 讜诪诇拽讬谉 拽专拽注讬转讛 砖诇 讘讜专

GEMARA: The Gemara discusses the mishna鈥檚 statement that a tree must be distanced if it is above a cistern. A Sage taught: This is the halakha whether the cistern is below and the tree is above, or whether the cistern is above and the tree is below. The Gemara asks: Granted, if the cistern is below and the tree is above, it will cause damage, as the roots extend and damage the cistern when they breach its walls. But if the cistern is above and the tree is below, why should he have to distance the tree, considering that the roots extend downward? Rabbi 岣gga says in the name of Rabbi Yosei: He must distance the tree because its roots form holes in the ground and ruin the floor of the cistern.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讛讘讜专 拽讜讚诪转 诇讗讬诇谉 诇讗 讬拽讜抓 砖讝讛 讞讜驻专 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜 讜讝讛 谞讜讟注 讘转讜讱 砖诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻讬 讛讜讗谉 讘讬 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讛讜讛 讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讜讚讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讙讬专讬 讚讬讚讬讛

Rabbi Yosei says: Even if the cistern preceded the tree, the owner of the tree need not cut down the tree. This is due to the fact that this one digs in his own property, and that one plants in his own property. Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Rav Ashi said: When we were studying in the study hall of Rav Kahana, we would say that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to one鈥檚 arrows, i.e., one must distance his activities from his neighbor if his actions will cause immediate damage to his neighbor, even if he is acting on his own property.

驻讗驻讬 讬讜谞讗讛 注谞讬 讜讛注砖讬专 讛讜讛 讘谞讛 讗驻讚谞讗 讛讜讜 讛谞讱 注爪讜专讬 讘砖讬讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讻讬 讛讜讜 讚讬讬拽讬 砖讜诪砖诪讬 讛讜讛 谞讬讬讚讗 讗驻讚谞讬讛 讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬 讛讜讗谉 讘讬 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讛讜讛 讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讜讚讬 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讙讬专讬 讚讬诇讬讛

The Gemara relates that a man called Pappei Yona鈥檃 was poor and became wealthy. He built a mansion [appadna] on his land. There were these sesame seed pressers in his neighborhood who would work, and when they would press the sesame seeds their activity would shake his mansion. He came before Rav Ashi to complain. Rav Ashi said to him: When we were studying in the study hall of Rav Kahana, we would say that Rabbi Yosei concedes with regard to one鈥檚 arrows. Here too, because the sesame seed pressers cause immediate damage they must distance themselves.

讜讻诪讛

The Gemara asks: And how much must the mansion shake for the owner to have the right to compel the sesame seed pressers to distance themselves?

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