Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

April 23, 2017 | 讻状讝 讘谞讬住谉 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Bava Batra 91

Once needs to keep prices controlled on basic food items in Israel. 聽One also cannot export them if by doing so, it will cause prices to rise in Israel (due to less supply). 聽One cannot leave Israel to go out of Israel unless one cannot afford to buy basic needs. 聽Proof is brought from the book of Ruth (Elimelech and his family leaving Israel). 聽As a result of this, various drashot are brought from the beginning of the book of Ruth as well as drashot on the connection between Boaz and Ivtzan – one of the judges mentioned in the book of Shoftim/Judges. 聽A second explanation of the sins of Elimelech and family is that they should have stayed to help pray for everyone. 聽Various criticisms are brought concerning聽situations in which the rich should be helping out the poor.


If the lesson doesn't play, click "Download"

诪讛讬驻专讻讬讗 诇讛讬驻专讻讬讗

from the northernmost province [mehiparkheya] of Eretz Yisrael to the southernmost province of Syria.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖转讻专讬诐 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讘讚讘专讬诐 砖讬砖 讘讛谉 讞讬讬 谞驻砖 讻讙讜谉 讬讬谞讜转 砖诪谞讬诐 讜住诇转讜转

The Sages taught: One may not earn a profit in Eretz Yisrael by buying and reselling items that contain an element of basic sustenance, such as wines, oils, and flours, because this causes their price to rise. Rather, those who grow the produce should sell them in the markets, without recourse to a middleman.

讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 注诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 砖讛讬讛 诪砖转讻专 讘讬讬谉 讜砖诪谉 讘讬讬谉 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘砖诪谉 讘讗转专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 砖讻讬讞 诪讬砖讞讗

The Sages said of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya that he would earn a profit through the sale of wine and oil. With regard to wine, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, who says that it is permitted to export wine from Eretz Yisrael despite the fact that this causes it to become more expensive, as drinking wine leads to licentiousness. With regard to oil, in Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya鈥檚 locale oil was common; consequently, there was no concern that its price would rise if it were not sold directly to the consumer.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖转讻专讬谉 驻注诪讬诐 讘讘讬爪讬诐 讗诪专 诪专讬 讘专 诪专讬 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 注诇 讞讚 转专讬 讜讞讚 讗诪专 转讙专 诇转讙专讗

The Sages taught: One may not earn a profit twice from the sale of eggs. Mari bar Mari said: Rav and Shmuel disagree about the meaning of that statement. One said it means that the seller may not charge double the price he paid for the eggs. And one said that one merchant may not sell to another merchant; rather, the merchant who buys from the owner of the eggs must sell directly to the consumer.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 驻专拽诪讟讬讗 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘转

搂 Apropos price fluctuations, the Gemara cites a baraita. The Sages taught: A community sounds the alarm and gathers in public prayer for merchandise [perakmatya] whose price has dropped. And even on Shabbat it is permitted to cry and plead, even though one may not pray for his personal needs on Shabbat, as this hardship affects the entire public.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讙讜谉 讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 讘讘讘诇 讜讬讬谉 讜砖诪谉 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讛讜讗 讚讝诇 讜拽诐 注砖专讛 讘砖讬转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The baraita is referring specifically to merchandise that serves as the basis of the local economy, such as linen garments in Babylonia, and wine and oil in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Yosef said: And that halakha, that public prayer is recited even on Shabbat, applies only when the merchandise was reduced in price and stood at such prices that goods that had been worth ten are currently selling for six.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 注诪讚讜 住讗转讬诐 讘住诇注 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讗 诇讬拽讞 讗讘诇 讘讝诪谉 砖诪讜爪讗 诇讬拽讞 讗驻讬诇讜 注诪讚讛 住讗讛 讘住诇注 诇讗 讬爪讗

The Sages taught: One may not leave Eretz Yisrael to live outside of Eretz Yisrael unless the price of two se鈥檃 of grain stood at a sela, which is double its usual price. Rabbi Shimon said: When does this exception, permitting one to leave Eretz Yisrael under certain circumstances, apply? It applies when one is unable to find produce to buy, as he has no money. But when one has money and is able to find produce to buy, even if the price of a se鈥檃 of grain stood at a sela, he may not leave.

讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇讬诪诇讱 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 讙讚讜诇讬 讛讚讜专 讛讬讜 讜驻专谞住讬 讛讚讜专 讛讬讜 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞注谞砖讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬爪讗讜 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讛诐 讻诇 讛注讬专 注诇讬讛谉 讜转讗诪专谞讛 讛讝讗转 谞注诪讬 诪讗讬 讛讝讗转 谞注诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专讜 讞讝讬转诐 谞注诪讬 砖讬爪讗转 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 诪讛 注诇转讛 诇讛

And Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i would likewise say: Elimelech and his sons Mahlon and Chilion were prominent members of their generation and were leaders of their generation. And for what reason were they punished? They were punished because they left Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated concerning Naomi and Ruth: 鈥淎nd all the city was astir concerning them, and the women said: Is this Naomi?鈥 (Ruth 1:19). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: 鈥淚s this Naomi鈥? How does this indicate that her husband and sons were punished for leaving Eretz Yisrael? Rabbi Yitz岣k says that the women said: Have you seen what befell Naomi, who left Eretz Yisrael for outside of Eretz Yisrael? Not only did she not escape tribulations there, but she lost her status entirely.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖讘讗转 专讜转 讛诪讜讗讘讬讛 诇讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诪转讛 讗砖转讜 砖诇 讘注讝 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 注讚 讚诇讗 砖讻讬讘 砖讬讻讘讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诪谞讜 讘讬讬转讬讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k also says with regard to this passage: That very day when Ruth the Moabite came to Eretz Yisrael, the wife of Boaz died, i.e., from the moment of their arrival the possibility was created for Ruth鈥檚 eventual marriage to Boaz. This explains the adage that people say: Before the deceased dies, the person who will next be in charge of his house arises, as in this case Boaz鈥檚 new wife, Ruth, arrived as his previous wife died.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘爪谉 讝讛 讘注讝 诪讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讬 讗讬讚讱 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诪砖转讗讜转 注砖讛 讘注讝 诇讘谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 诇讜 砖诇砖讬诐 讘谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讬诐 讘谞讜转 砖诇讞 讛讞讜爪讛 讜砖诇砖讬诐 讘谞讜转 讛讘讬讗 诇讘谞讬讜 诪谉 讛讞讜抓 讜讬砖驻讟 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 砖讘注 砖谞讬诐

Apropos the story of Ruth the Gemara adds: Rabba bar Rav Huna says that Rav says: The judge Ibzan of Bethlehem (see Judges 12:8鈥10) is Boaz. The Gemara asks: What is he teaching us? The Gemara explains that this comment is in accordance with the other statement of Rabba bar Rav Huna, as Rabba bar Rav Huna says that Rav says: Boaz prepared one hundred and twenty feasts for his children at their weddings. As it is stated, concerning Ibzan: 鈥淎nd he had thirty sons, and thirty daughters he sent abroad, and thirty daughters he brought in from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel seven years鈥 (Judges 12:9). The verse indicates that he had sixty children.

讜讘讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 注砖讛 砖谞讬 诪砖转讗讜转 讗讞讚 讘讘讬转 讗讘讬讜 讜讗讞讚 讘讘讬转 讞诪讬讜 讜讘讻讜诇谉 诇讗 讝讬诪谉 讗转 诪谞讜讞 讗诪专 讻讜讚谞讗 注拽专讛 讘诪讗讬 驻专注讗 诇讬

And at each and every wedding he prepared for his children, he made two feasts, one in the house of the father of the groom and one in the house of the father-in-law of the groom. And he did not invite Manoah, the future father of Samson, whose wife was barren (see Judges 13:2) to any of them, as he said: It is not worth inviting him; he is a sterile mule, how will he pay me back? Manoah will never invite me in return, as he has no children.

转讗谞讗 讜讻讜诇谉 诪转讜 讘讞讬讬讜 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讘讞讬讬讱 讚讬诇讚转 砖讬转讬谉 砖讬转讬谉 诇诪讛 诇讬讱 讗讬讻驻诇 讜讗讜诇讬讚 讞讚 讚诪砖讬转讬谉 讝专讬讝

A Sage taught: And all of the children of Ibzan died during his lifetime. And this explains the adage that people say: Why do you need the sixty, the sixty children that you beget during your lifetime? Go to the trouble and beget one who will be more diligent than sixty. This adage refers to Boaz, who had sixty children who died, and yet his last child, born from Ruth, is his glory, as King David was born from this line.

(住讬诪谉 诪诇讱 讗讘专讛诐 注砖专 砖谞讬诐 砖谞驻讟专 谞转谞砖讗 诇讘讚讜) 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗诇讬诪诇讱 讜砖诇诪讜谉 讜驻诇讜谞讬 讗诇诪讜谞讬 讜讗讘讬 谞注诪讬 讻讜诇谉 讘谞讬 谞讞砖讜谉 讘谉 注诪讬谞讚讘 讛谉 诪讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讝讻讜转 讗讘讜转 讗讬谞讛 注讜诪讚转 诇讜 讘砖注讛 砖讬讜爪讗 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓

The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the ensuing statements that Rav 岣nan bar Rava said that Rav said: Melech; Abraham; ten years; when he died; and He alone was exalted. Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: With regard to Elimelech, and Boaz鈥檚 father, Salmon, and So-and-so, the unnamed relative who was a closer relative to Elimelech than Boaz (Ruth 4:1), and Naomi鈥檚 father, all of these are descendants of Nahshon, son of Amminadab, the head of the tribe of Judah (see Ruth 4:20鈥21 and Numbers 2:3). The Gemara asks: What is he teaching us by this statement? He is teaching that even in the case of one who has the merit of his ancestors to protect him, this merit does not stand for him when he leaves Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael, as Elimelech died on account of this sin.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗诪讬讛 讚讗讘专讛诐 讗诪转诇讗讬 讘转 讻专谞讘讜 讗诪讬讛 讚讛诪谉 讗诪转诇讗讬 讘转 注讜专讘转讬 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 讟诪讗 讟诪讗 讟讛讜专 讟讛讜专

And Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: The mother of Abraham was called Amatlai bat Karnevo. The mother of Haman was called Amatlai bat Orevati. And your mnemonic, to ensure that the two are not confused for one another, is that a raven [orev] is impure, and in this manner one remembers that Orevati is the grandmother of the impure Haman, while a sheep [kar] is pure, which indicates that Karnevo is the grandmother of the pure Abraham.

讗诪讬讛 讚讚讜讚 谞爪讘转 讘转 注讚讗诇 砖诪讛 讗诪讬讛 讚砖诪砖讜谉 爪诇诇驻讜谞讬转 讜讗讞转讬讛 谞砖讬讬谉 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇转砖讜讘转 讛诪讬谞讬诐

Rav 岣nan bar Rava continues: The mother of David was named Natzvat bat Ada鈥檈l. The mother of Samson was named Tzelelponit, and his sister was called Nashyan. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference as to what their names were? The Gemara answers: It is important with regard to an answer for heretics who inquire into the names of these women, which are not stated in the Bible. One can reply that there is a tradition handed down concerning their names.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 注砖专 砖谞讬诐 谞讞讘砖 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 砖诇砖 讘讻讜转讗 讜砖讘注 讘拽专讚讜 讜专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 诪转谞讬 讗讬驻讻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讬讘专讗 讝注讬专讗 讚讻讜转讗 讝讛讜 讗讜专 讻砖讚讬诐

And Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: Our forefather Abraham was imprisoned for ten years, because he rejected the idol worship that was accepted in his land. He was imprisoned for three years in the city of Khuta, and seven years in Karddu. And Rav Dimi of Neharde鈥檃 teaches the opposite, that he was imprisoned seven years in Khuta and three in Karddu. Rav 岣sda said: The small passage of Khuta, this is Ur of the Chaldeans (see Genesis 11:31).

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖谞驻讟专 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 注诪讚讜 讻诇 讙讚讜诇讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘砖讜专讛 讜讗诪专讜 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇注讜诇诐 砖讗讘讚

And Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: On that day when our forefather Abraham left the world, the leaders of the nations of the world stood in a line, in the manner of mourners, and said: Woe to the world that has lost

诪谞讛讬讙讜 讜讗讜讬 诇讛 诇住驻讬谞讛 砖讗讘讚 拽讘专讬谞讟讗

its leader, and woe to the ship that has lost its captain.

讜讛诪转谞砖讗 诇讻诇 诇专讗砖 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗驻讬诇讜 专讬砖 讙专讙讜转讗 诪砖诪讬讗 诪讜拽诪讬 诇讬讛

With regard to leaders, the Gemara adds that it is stated in praise of God: 鈥淎nd You are exalted as head above all鈥 (I聽Chronicles 29:11). Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: Even one with the most insignificant position of authority, e.g., an appointee over irrigation, is appointed by Heaven.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 砖讗驻讬诇讜 诪爪讗讜 住讜讘讬谉 诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讜讗诇讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞注谞砖讜 砖讛讬讛 诇讛谉 诇讘拽砖 专讞诪讬诐 注诇 讚讜专诐 讜诇讗 讘拽砖讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讝注拽讱 讬爪讬诇讱 拽讘讜爪讬讱

The Gemara returns to its discussion of the punishment of Elimelech and his sons, which Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says they received because they left Eretz Yisrael. Rav 岣yya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: Heaven forfend that they sinned in this manner, as if Elimelech and his sons had found even bran they would not have left Eretz Yisrael. But rather, for what reason were they punished? They were punished because they should have requested mercy of God for their generation, and they did not request this, as it is stated: 鈥淲hen you cry, let those you have gathered deliver you鈥 (Isaiah 57:13).

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诪注讜转 讘讝讜诇 讜驻讬专讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讗讘诇 诪注讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讗驻讬诇讜 注诪讚讜 讗专讘注 住讗讬谉 讘住诇注 讬讜爪讗讬谉

Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: They taught that it is prohibited to leave Eretz Yisrael only if money is cheap, i.e., not excessively difficult to obtain, and produce is expensive, similar to the case in the baraita where two se鈥檃 of wheat are sold for a sela. But when money is expensive, i.e., it is difficult to earn money for sustenance, even if the price of four se鈥檃 of grain stood at a sela, one may leave Eretz Yisrael in order to survive.

(住讬诪谉 住诇注 驻讜注诇 讞专讜讘讗 讟诇讬讗 讗诪专讬谉) 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗专讘注 住讗讬谉 讘住诇注 讜讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖讬 谞驻讬讞讬 讻驻谉 讘讟讘专讬讗 诪讚诇讬转 讗讬住专 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 诇讗 讛讜讜 诪讬转讙专讬谉 驻讜注诇讬讗 诇诪讚谞讞 拽专转讗 诪专讬讞 驻讬转讗 诪讬讬转讬谉

The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the following list of Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 recollections: Sela; laborer; carob; boy; they would say. The first statement is that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when four se鈥檃 of produce were sold for one sela, and yet there were many swollen from hunger in Tiberias, as they did not have even one issar coin with which to purchase food. And Rabbi Yo岣nan further said: I remember when laborers would not agree to work on the east side of the city, because they would die from the smell of the bread that would waft over them from the city鈥檚 west side.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讛 讘爪注 讬谞讜拽讗 讞专讜讘讗 讜讛讜讛 谞讙讬讚 讞讜讟讗 讚讚讜讘砖讗 注诇 转专讬谉 讚专注讜讛讬 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讛 谞讟讬诇 注讜专讘讗 讘砖专讗 讜谞讙讬讚 讞讜讟讗 讚诪砖讞讗 诪专讬砖 砖讜专讗 讜注讚 诇讗专注讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 诪讟讬讬诇讬谉 讟诇讬讗 讜讟诇讬讬转讗 讘砖讜拽讗 讻讘专 砖讬转 注砖专讛 讜讻讘专 砖讘 注砖专讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讜 讞讟讗谉 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 讗诪专讬谉 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讚诪讜讚讬 诇讛讜谉 谞驻讬诇 讘讬讚讬讛讜谉 讚诪转专讞讬抓 注诇讬讛讜谉 讚讬诇讬讛 讚讬诇讛讜谉

The Gemara continues to relate other, more salutary, memories: And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when a child would break a carob, and a line of honey would extend over his two arms. And Rabbi Elazar said: I remember when a raven would take a piece of meat, and a line of fat would extend from the top of the wall upon which it was standing to the ground. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when a boy and girl, of sixteen and seventeen years of age, would walk together in the market, and they would not sin. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when they would say in the study hall that one who agrees with the gentiles falls into their hands, and that one who relies on them sees that which is his become theirs.

讻转讬讘 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 讜讻转讬讘 讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 砖诪谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪谉 砖专祝 讜讬讜讗砖 讬讜讗砖 砖谞转讬讗砖讜 诪谉 讛讙讗讜诇讛 砖专祝 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖专讬驻讛 诇诪拽讜诐

The Gemara returns to its discussion of the story of Ruth. It is written: 鈥淢ahlon and Chilion鈥 (Ruth 1:2), and it is written elsewhere: 鈥淛oash and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab鈥 (I聽Chronicles 4:22). Apparently, both names refer to the same individuals who married Moabite wives. Rav and Shmuel disagreed with regard to their true names. One says: Their given names were Mahlon and Chilion, and why were they called by the names Saraph and Joash? One was called Joash [yoash] because they despaired [nitya鈥檃shu] of the redemption of Eretz Yisrael, as they established themselves in Moab and lived there for many years. The other was called Saraph, because they were liable to receive the punishment of burning [sereifa] for their sins against God, because they left their community.

讜讞讚 讗诪专 讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 砖诪谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪谉 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 诪讞诇讜谉 砖注砖讜 讙讜驻谉 讞讜诇讬谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 讻诇讬讛 诇诪拽讜诐

And one of them says: Their given names were Joash and Saraph, and why were they called by the names Mahlon and Chilion? One was called Mahlon [ma岣on] because they made their bodies profane [岣llin], and the other was called Chilion [khilyon] because they were liable to receive the punishment of destruction [kelaya] for their sins against God.

转谞讬讗 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 砖诪谉 讚转谞讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讜拽讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讻讝讘讗 讜讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 讗砖专 讘注诇讜 诇诪讜讗讘 讜讬砖讘讬 诇讞诐 讜讛讚讘专讬诐 注转讬拽讬诐 讜讬讜拽讬诐 讝讛 讬讛讜砖注 砖讛拽讬诐 砖讘讜注讛 诇讗谞砖讬 讙讘注讜谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讻讝讘讗 讗诇讜 讗谞砖讬 讙讘注讜谉 砖讻讝讘讜 讘讬讛讜砖注 讜讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 讗诇讜 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪谉 讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 讬讜讗砖 砖谞转讬讗砖讜 诪谉 讛讙讗讜诇讛 砖专祝 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖专讬驻讛 诇诪拽讜诐

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the one who says that their given names were Mahlon and Chilion. As it is taught in a baraita: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd Jokim, and the men of Cozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab, and Jashubi Lehem. And the matters are ancient鈥 (I聽Chronicles 4:22)? 鈥淎nd Jokim,鈥 this refers to Joshua, who established [shehekim] and kept the oath with people of Gibeon (see Joshua, chapter 9). 鈥淎nd the men of Cozeba,鈥 these are the men of Gibeon, who lied [shekizevu] to Joshua by saying that they came from a distant land. 鈥淎nd Joash, and Saraph,鈥 these are Mahlon and Chilion. And why were they called by the names Joash and Saraph? One was called Joash because they despaired [shenitya鈥檃shu] of the redemption; the other was called Saraph because they were liable to receive the punishment of burning [sereifa] for their sins against God.

讗砖专 讘注诇讜 诇诪讜讗讘 砖谞砖讗讜 谞砖讬诐 诪讜讗讘讬讜转 讜讬砖讘讬 诇讞诐 讝讜 专讜转 讛诪讜讗讘讬讛 砖砖讘讛 讜谞讚讘拽讛 讘讘讬转 诇讞诐 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讛讚讘专讬诐 注转讬拽讬诐 讚讘专讬诐 讛诇诇讜 注转讬拽 讬讜诪讬讗 讗诪专谉 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪讗转讬 讚讜讚 注讘讚讬 讜讻转讬讘 砖转讬 讘谞转讬讱 讛谞诪爪讗转

鈥淲ho had dominion in Moab,鈥 this means that they married Moabite women. 鈥淎nd Jashubi Lehem,鈥 this is referring to Ruth the Moabite, who returned [sheshava] and attached herself to Bethlehem of Judea. 鈥淎nd the matters are ancient,鈥 this means that these matters were said by the Ancient of Days, i.e., they occurred through God鈥檚 will, as it is written: 鈥淚 have found David My servant鈥 (Psalms 89:21); and the same term 鈥渇ound鈥 also appears with regard to the daughters of Lot, as it is written: 鈥淵our two daughters that are found here鈥 (Genesis 19:15). This teaches that David鈥檚 ancestry can be traced this far back, as he was destined to be born from Moab, who was the son of Lot鈥檚 daughter and Lot himself.

讛诪讛 讛讬讜爪专讬诐 讜讬砖讘讬 谞讟注讬诐 讜讙讚专讛 注诐 讛诪诇讱 讘诪诇讗讻转讜 讬砖讘讜 砖诐 讛诪讛 讛讬讜爪专讬诐 讗诇讜 讘谞讬 讬讜谞讚讘 讘谉 专讻讘 砖谞爪专讜 砖讘讜注转 讗讘讬讛诐

The Gemara cites a baraita that analyzes the next verse: 鈥淭hese were the potters, and those who dwelt among plantations and hedges; there they dwelt occupied in the king鈥檚 work鈥 (I聽Chronicles 4:23). 鈥淭hese were the potters [yotzerim],鈥 these are the sons of Jonadab, son of Rechab, who kept [natzeru] their father鈥檚 oath.

讬砖讘讬 谞讟注讬诐 讝讛 砖诇诪讛 砖讚讜诪讛 诇谞讟讬注讛 讘诪诇讻讜转讜 讜讙讚专讛 讝讜 住谞讛讚专讬谉 砖讙讚专讜 驻专爪讜转讬讛谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 注诐 讛诪诇讱 讘诪诇讗讻转讜 讬砖讘讜 砖诐 讝讜 专讜转 讛诪讜讗讘讬讛 砖专讗转讛 讘诪诇讻讜转 砖诇诪讛 讘谉 讘谞讜 砖诇 讘谉 讘谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖诐 讻住讗 诇讗诐 讛诪诇讱 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇讗诪讛 砖诇 诪诇讻讜转

鈥淭hose who dwelt among plantations,鈥 this is referring to Solomon, who in his kingship was similar to a plant. 鈥淎nd hedges [ugdera],鈥 this is the Sanhedrin, which fenced [gaderu] in the breaches of the Jewish people by means of ordinances. 鈥淭here they dwelt occupied in the king鈥檚 work,鈥 this is referring to Ruth the Moabite, who saw the kingship of Solomon, the grandson of her grandson. As it is stated about Solomon: 鈥淎nd he caused a throne to be set for the king鈥檚 mother鈥 (I聽Kings 2:19), and Rabbi Elazar says: This means for the mother of the dynasty of kingship, i.e., Ruth.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讗讻诇转诐 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讬砖谉 讘诇讗 住诇诪谞讟讜谉 诪讗讬 讘诇讗 住诇诪谞讟讜谉 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讘诇讗 专爪讬谞转讗 讜专讘 砖砖转 讗诪专 讘诇讗 砖讚讬驻讗

搂 Since the Gemara has discussed times of famine in Eretz Yisrael, it concludes the chapter with a blessing of times of prosperity: The Sages taught: When the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall eat of the produce of the old store鈥 (Leviticus 25:22), referring to the produce grown in the sixth year of the Sabbatical cycle, this means without salmanton. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Without salmanton? Rav Na岣an said: Without worms [retzinta] that consume the produce, and Rav Sheshet said: Without blight, which destroys the taste of the produce.

转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 砖砖转 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讗讻诇转诐 讬砖谉 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪爪驻讬谉 诇讞讚砖 诪驻谞讬 讬砖谉 砖讻诇讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 注讚 讘讗 转讘讜讗转讛 注讚 砖转讘讗 转讘讜讗讛 诪讗诇讬讛

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Sheshet, and it is taught in another baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an: From the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall sow the eighth year, and you shall eat of the produce of the old store, until the ninth year鈥 (Leviticus 25:22), one might have thought that the Jewish people will wait for the new produce because the old store has been destroyed. Therefore the same verse states: 鈥淯ntil its produce comes in,鈥 to indicate that they will not stop eating the old produce until the new produce comes of itself, i.e., until it is fully ripe and they do not need the old produce. The old produce will last until then and will not become worm infested, as stated by Rav Na岣an.

转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 砖砖转 讜讗讻诇转诐 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讬砖谉 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪爪驻讬谉 诇讞讚砖 诪驻谞讬 讬砖谉 砖专注 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 注讚 讘讗 转讘讜讗转讛 注讚 砖转讘讗 转讘讜讗讛 诪讗诇讬讛

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Sheshet: From the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall eat of the produce of the old store,鈥 one might have thought that the Jewish people will wait for the new produce due to the old store because the old store will have gone bad, since blight will ruin the taste of the produce. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淯ntil its produce comes in,鈥 which indicates that they will not stop eating the old produce until the new produce comes of itself, as the stored produce will not suffer from blight.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讗讻诇转诐 讬砖谉 谞讜砖谉 诪诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讛诪讬讜砖谉 诪讞讘讬专讜 讛讜讬 讬驻讛 诪讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 砖讚专讻谉 诇讬讬砖谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谉 诇讬讬砖谞谉 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讬砖谉 谞讜砖谉 诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The Sages taught with regard to a verse in the chapter of the blessings stated to the Jewish people: 鈥淎nd you shall eat old store long kept鈥 (Leviticus 26:10). This teaches that any produce that is older than other produce of that same type will be better than that other produce. And I have derived that this is the case only with regard to items for which it is the normal manner to age them. From where do I derive in the case of items for which it is not the normal manner to age them, e.g., fruit, that they too will improve with age? The verse states: 鈥淥ld store long kept,鈥 a general expression that indicates that in any case the land will keep its produce from spoiling, as all types of produce will improve with age.

讜讬砖谉 诪驻谞讬 讞讚砖 转讜爪讬讗讜 诪诇诪讚 砖讛讬讜 讗讜爪专讜转 诪诇讗讬谉 讬砖谉 讜讙专谞讜转 诪诇讗讬谉 讞讚砖 讜讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讬讗讱 谞讜爪讬讗 讝讛 诪驻谞讬 讝讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 注转讬拽讗 诪注诇讬讗 诇讘专 诪转诪专讬 讜砖讬讻专讗 讜讛专住谞讗

The continuation of the verse: 鈥淵ou shall bring forth the old from before the new,鈥 teaches that there will be storehouses full of old produce and threshing floors full of new produce, and the Jewish people will say: How will we manage to take out this produce from the storehouse before that produce is brought in? Rav Pappa said: Everything that is old is superior in quality to the new, except for dates, liquor, and small fish, which are better when they are fresh.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛诪讜讻专 讗转 讛住驻讬谞讛

 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Bava Batra 91

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bava Batra 91

诪讛讬驻专讻讬讗 诇讛讬驻专讻讬讗

from the northernmost province [mehiparkheya] of Eretz Yisrael to the southernmost province of Syria.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖转讻专讬诐 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讘讚讘专讬诐 砖讬砖 讘讛谉 讞讬讬 谞驻砖 讻讙讜谉 讬讬谞讜转 砖诪谞讬诐 讜住诇转讜转

The Sages taught: One may not earn a profit in Eretz Yisrael by buying and reselling items that contain an element of basic sustenance, such as wines, oils, and flours, because this causes their price to rise. Rather, those who grow the produce should sell them in the markets, without recourse to a middleman.

讗诪专讜 注诇讬讜 注诇 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 砖讛讬讛 诪砖转讻专 讘讬讬谉 讜砖诪谉 讘讬讬谉 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘砖诪谉 讘讗转专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 砖讻讬讞 诪讬砖讞讗

The Sages said of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya that he would earn a profit through the sale of wine and oil. With regard to wine, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, who says that it is permitted to export wine from Eretz Yisrael despite the fact that this causes it to become more expensive, as drinking wine leads to licentiousness. With regard to oil, in Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya鈥檚 locale oil was common; consequently, there was no concern that its price would rise if it were not sold directly to the consumer.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪砖转讻专讬谉 驻注诪讬诐 讘讘讬爪讬诐 讗诪专 诪专讬 讘专 诪专讬 驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 注诇 讞讚 转专讬 讜讞讚 讗诪专 转讙专 诇转讙专讗

The Sages taught: One may not earn a profit twice from the sale of eggs. Mari bar Mari said: Rav and Shmuel disagree about the meaning of that statement. One said it means that the seller may not charge double the price he paid for the eggs. And one said that one merchant may not sell to another merchant; rather, the merchant who buys from the owner of the eggs must sell directly to the consumer.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转专讬注讬谉 注诇 驻专拽诪讟讬讗 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讘转

搂 Apropos price fluctuations, the Gemara cites a baraita. The Sages taught: A community sounds the alarm and gathers in public prayer for merchandise [perakmatya] whose price has dropped. And even on Shabbat it is permitted to cry and plead, even though one may not pray for his personal needs on Shabbat, as this hardship affects the entire public.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻讙讜谉 讻诇讬 驻砖转谉 讘讘讘诇 讜讬讬谉 讜砖诪谉 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讛讜讗 讚讝诇 讜拽诐 注砖专讛 讘砖讬转讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The baraita is referring specifically to merchandise that serves as the basis of the local economy, such as linen garments in Babylonia, and wine and oil in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Yosef said: And that halakha, that public prayer is recited even on Shabbat, applies only when the merchandise was reduced in price and stood at such prices that goods that had been worth ten are currently selling for six.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 注诪讚讜 住讗转讬诐 讘住诇注 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讗 诇讬拽讞 讗讘诇 讘讝诪谉 砖诪讜爪讗 诇讬拽讞 讗驻讬诇讜 注诪讚讛 住讗讛 讘住诇注 诇讗 讬爪讗

The Sages taught: One may not leave Eretz Yisrael to live outside of Eretz Yisrael unless the price of two se鈥檃 of grain stood at a sela, which is double its usual price. Rabbi Shimon said: When does this exception, permitting one to leave Eretz Yisrael under certain circumstances, apply? It applies when one is unable to find produce to buy, as he has no money. But when one has money and is able to find produce to buy, even if the price of a se鈥檃 of grain stood at a sela, he may not leave.

讜讻谉 讛讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讗讬 讗讜诪专 讗诇讬诪诇讱 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 讙讚讜诇讬 讛讚讜专 讛讬讜 讜驻专谞住讬 讛讚讜专 讛讬讜 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞注谞砖讜 诪驻谞讬 砖讬爪讗讜 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讛诐 讻诇 讛注讬专 注诇讬讛谉 讜转讗诪专谞讛 讛讝讗转 谞注诪讬 诪讗讬 讛讝讗转 谞注诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专讜 讞讝讬转诐 谞注诪讬 砖讬爪讗转 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜抓 诇讗专抓 诪讛 注诇转讛 诇讛

And Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i would likewise say: Elimelech and his sons Mahlon and Chilion were prominent members of their generation and were leaders of their generation. And for what reason were they punished? They were punished because they left Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated concerning Naomi and Ruth: 鈥淎nd all the city was astir concerning them, and the women said: Is this Naomi?鈥 (Ruth 1:19). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: 鈥淚s this Naomi鈥? How does this indicate that her husband and sons were punished for leaving Eretz Yisrael? Rabbi Yitz岣k says that the women said: Have you seen what befell Naomi, who left Eretz Yisrael for outside of Eretz Yisrael? Not only did she not escape tribulations there, but she lost her status entirely.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖讘讗转 专讜转 讛诪讜讗讘讬讛 诇讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 诪转讛 讗砖转讜 砖诇 讘注讝 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 注讚 讚诇讗 砖讻讬讘 砖讬讻讘讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诪谞讜 讘讬讬转讬讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k also says with regard to this passage: That very day when Ruth the Moabite came to Eretz Yisrael, the wife of Boaz died, i.e., from the moment of their arrival the possibility was created for Ruth鈥檚 eventual marriage to Boaz. This explains the adage that people say: Before the deceased dies, the person who will next be in charge of his house arises, as in this case Boaz鈥檚 new wife, Ruth, arrived as his previous wife died.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讘爪谉 讝讛 讘注讝 诪讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讬 讗讬讚讱 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讛 讜注砖专讬诐 诪砖转讗讜转 注砖讛 讘注讝 诇讘谞讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 诇讜 砖诇砖讬诐 讘谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讬诐 讘谞讜转 砖诇讞 讛讞讜爪讛 讜砖诇砖讬诐 讘谞讜转 讛讘讬讗 诇讘谞讬讜 诪谉 讛讞讜抓 讜讬砖驻讟 讗转 讬砖专讗诇 砖讘注 砖谞讬诐

Apropos the story of Ruth the Gemara adds: Rabba bar Rav Huna says that Rav says: The judge Ibzan of Bethlehem (see Judges 12:8鈥10) is Boaz. The Gemara asks: What is he teaching us? The Gemara explains that this comment is in accordance with the other statement of Rabba bar Rav Huna, as Rabba bar Rav Huna says that Rav says: Boaz prepared one hundred and twenty feasts for his children at their weddings. As it is stated, concerning Ibzan: 鈥淎nd he had thirty sons, and thirty daughters he sent abroad, and thirty daughters he brought in from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel seven years鈥 (Judges 12:9). The verse indicates that he had sixty children.

讜讘讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 注砖讛 砖谞讬 诪砖转讗讜转 讗讞讚 讘讘讬转 讗讘讬讜 讜讗讞讚 讘讘讬转 讞诪讬讜 讜讘讻讜诇谉 诇讗 讝讬诪谉 讗转 诪谞讜讞 讗诪专 讻讜讚谞讗 注拽专讛 讘诪讗讬 驻专注讗 诇讬

And at each and every wedding he prepared for his children, he made two feasts, one in the house of the father of the groom and one in the house of the father-in-law of the groom. And he did not invite Manoah, the future father of Samson, whose wife was barren (see Judges 13:2) to any of them, as he said: It is not worth inviting him; he is a sterile mule, how will he pay me back? Manoah will never invite me in return, as he has no children.

转讗谞讗 讜讻讜诇谉 诪转讜 讘讞讬讬讜 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 讘讞讬讬讱 讚讬诇讚转 砖讬转讬谉 砖讬转讬谉 诇诪讛 诇讬讱 讗讬讻驻诇 讜讗讜诇讬讚 讞讚 讚诪砖讬转讬谉 讝专讬讝

A Sage taught: And all of the children of Ibzan died during his lifetime. And this explains the adage that people say: Why do you need the sixty, the sixty children that you beget during your lifetime? Go to the trouble and beget one who will be more diligent than sixty. This adage refers to Boaz, who had sixty children who died, and yet his last child, born from Ruth, is his glory, as King David was born from this line.

(住讬诪谉 诪诇讱 讗讘专讛诐 注砖专 砖谞讬诐 砖谞驻讟专 谞转谞砖讗 诇讘讚讜) 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗诇讬诪诇讱 讜砖诇诪讜谉 讜驻诇讜谞讬 讗诇诪讜谞讬 讜讗讘讬 谞注诪讬 讻讜诇谉 讘谞讬 谞讞砖讜谉 讘谉 注诪讬谞讚讘 讛谉 诪讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 砖讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬 砖讬砖 诇讜 讝讻讜转 讗讘讜转 讗讬谞讛 注讜诪讚转 诇讜 讘砖注讛 砖讬讜爪讗 诪讗专抓 诇讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓

The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the ensuing statements that Rav 岣nan bar Rava said that Rav said: Melech; Abraham; ten years; when he died; and He alone was exalted. Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: With regard to Elimelech, and Boaz鈥檚 father, Salmon, and So-and-so, the unnamed relative who was a closer relative to Elimelech than Boaz (Ruth 4:1), and Naomi鈥檚 father, all of these are descendants of Nahshon, son of Amminadab, the head of the tribe of Judah (see Ruth 4:20鈥21 and Numbers 2:3). The Gemara asks: What is he teaching us by this statement? He is teaching that even in the case of one who has the merit of his ancestors to protect him, this merit does not stand for him when he leaves Eretz Yisrael to go outside of Eretz Yisrael, as Elimelech died on account of this sin.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗诪讬讛 讚讗讘专讛诐 讗诪转诇讗讬 讘转 讻专谞讘讜 讗诪讬讛 讚讛诪谉 讗诪转诇讗讬 讘转 注讜专讘转讬 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 讟诪讗 讟诪讗 讟讛讜专 讟讛讜专

And Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: The mother of Abraham was called Amatlai bat Karnevo. The mother of Haman was called Amatlai bat Orevati. And your mnemonic, to ensure that the two are not confused for one another, is that a raven [orev] is impure, and in this manner one remembers that Orevati is the grandmother of the impure Haman, while a sheep [kar] is pure, which indicates that Karnevo is the grandmother of the pure Abraham.

讗诪讬讛 讚讚讜讚 谞爪讘转 讘转 注讚讗诇 砖诪讛 讗诪讬讛 讚砖诪砖讜谉 爪诇诇驻讜谞讬转 讜讗讞转讬讛 谞砖讬讬谉 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇转砖讜讘转 讛诪讬谞讬诐

Rav 岣nan bar Rava continues: The mother of David was named Natzvat bat Ada鈥檈l. The mother of Samson was named Tzelelponit, and his sister was called Nashyan. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference as to what their names were? The Gemara answers: It is important with regard to an answer for heretics who inquire into the names of these women, which are not stated in the Bible. One can reply that there is a tradition handed down concerning their names.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 注砖专 砖谞讬诐 谞讞讘砖 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 砖诇砖 讘讻讜转讗 讜砖讘注 讘拽专讚讜 讜专讘 讚讬诪讬 诪谞讛专讚注讗 诪转谞讬 讗讬驻讻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讬讘专讗 讝注讬专讗 讚讻讜转讗 讝讛讜 讗讜专 讻砖讚讬诐

And Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: Our forefather Abraham was imprisoned for ten years, because he rejected the idol worship that was accepted in his land. He was imprisoned for three years in the city of Khuta, and seven years in Karddu. And Rav Dimi of Neharde鈥檃 teaches the opposite, that he was imprisoned seven years in Khuta and three in Karddu. Rav 岣sda said: The small passage of Khuta, this is Ur of the Chaldeans (see Genesis 11:31).

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 砖谞驻讟专 讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 注诪讚讜 讻诇 讙讚讜诇讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 讘砖讜专讛 讜讗诪专讜 讗讜讬 诇讜 诇注讜诇诐 砖讗讘讚

And Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: On that day when our forefather Abraham left the world, the leaders of the nations of the world stood in a line, in the manner of mourners, and said: Woe to the world that has lost

诪谞讛讬讙讜 讜讗讜讬 诇讛 诇住驻讬谞讛 砖讗讘讚 拽讘专讬谞讟讗

its leader, and woe to the ship that has lost its captain.

讜讛诪转谞砖讗 诇讻诇 诇专讗砖 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞谉 讘专 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗驻讬诇讜 专讬砖 讙专讙讜转讗 诪砖诪讬讗 诪讜拽诪讬 诇讬讛

With regard to leaders, the Gemara adds that it is stated in praise of God: 鈥淎nd You are exalted as head above all鈥 (I聽Chronicles 29:11). Rav 岣nan bar Rava says that Rav says: Even one with the most insignificant position of authority, e.g., an appointee over irrigation, is appointed by Heaven.

讗诪专 专讘 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 砖讗驻讬诇讜 诪爪讗讜 住讜讘讬谉 诇讗 讬爪讗讜 讜讗诇讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 谞注谞砖讜 砖讛讬讛 诇讛谉 诇讘拽砖 专讞诪讬诐 注诇 讚讜专诐 讜诇讗 讘拽砖讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘讝注拽讱 讬爪讬诇讱 拽讘讜爪讬讱

The Gemara returns to its discussion of the punishment of Elimelech and his sons, which Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says they received because they left Eretz Yisrael. Rav 岣yya bar Avin says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: Heaven forfend that they sinned in this manner, as if Elimelech and his sons had found even bran they would not have left Eretz Yisrael. But rather, for what reason were they punished? They were punished because they should have requested mercy of God for their generation, and they did not request this, as it is stated: 鈥淲hen you cry, let those you have gathered deliver you鈥 (Isaiah 57:13).

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诪注讜转 讘讝讜诇 讜驻讬专讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讗讘诇 诪注讜转 讘讬讜拽专 讗驻讬诇讜 注诪讚讜 讗专讘注 住讗讬谉 讘住诇注 讬讜爪讗讬谉

Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: They taught that it is prohibited to leave Eretz Yisrael only if money is cheap, i.e., not excessively difficult to obtain, and produce is expensive, similar to the case in the baraita where two se鈥檃 of wheat are sold for a sela. But when money is expensive, i.e., it is difficult to earn money for sustenance, even if the price of four se鈥檃 of grain stood at a sela, one may leave Eretz Yisrael in order to survive.

(住讬诪谉 住诇注 驻讜注诇 讞专讜讘讗 讟诇讬讗 讗诪专讬谉) 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗专讘注 住讗讬谉 讘住诇注 讜讛讜讜 谞驻讬砖讬 谞驻讬讞讬 讻驻谉 讘讟讘专讬讗 诪讚诇讬转 讗讬住专 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 诇讗 讛讜讜 诪讬转讙专讬谉 驻讜注诇讬讗 诇诪讚谞讞 拽专转讗 诪专讬讞 驻讬转讗 诪讬讬转讬谉

The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the following list of Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 recollections: Sela; laborer; carob; boy; they would say. The first statement is that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when four se鈥檃 of produce were sold for one sela, and yet there were many swollen from hunger in Tiberias, as they did not have even one issar coin with which to purchase food. And Rabbi Yo岣nan further said: I remember when laborers would not agree to work on the east side of the city, because they would die from the smell of the bread that would waft over them from the city鈥檚 west side.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讛 讘爪注 讬谞讜拽讗 讞专讜讘讗 讜讛讜讛 谞讙讬讚 讞讜讟讗 讚讚讜讘砖讗 注诇 转专讬谉 讚专注讜讛讬 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讛 谞讟讬诇 注讜专讘讗 讘砖专讗 讜谞讙讬讚 讞讜讟讗 讚诪砖讞讗 诪专讬砖 砖讜专讗 讜注讚 诇讗专注讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 诪讟讬讬诇讬谉 讟诇讬讗 讜讟诇讬讬转讗 讘砖讜拽讗 讻讘专 砖讬转 注砖专讛 讜讻讘专 砖讘 注砖专讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讜 讞讟讗谉 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞讛讬专谞讗 讻讚 讛讜讜 讗诪专讬谉 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讚诪讜讚讬 诇讛讜谉 谞驻讬诇 讘讬讚讬讛讜谉 讚诪转专讞讬抓 注诇讬讛讜谉 讚讬诇讬讛 讚讬诇讛讜谉

The Gemara continues to relate other, more salutary, memories: And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when a child would break a carob, and a line of honey would extend over his two arms. And Rabbi Elazar said: I remember when a raven would take a piece of meat, and a line of fat would extend from the top of the wall upon which it was standing to the ground. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when a boy and girl, of sixteen and seventeen years of age, would walk together in the market, and they would not sin. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: I remember when they would say in the study hall that one who agrees with the gentiles falls into their hands, and that one who relies on them sees that which is his become theirs.

讻转讬讘 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 讜讻转讬讘 讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 专讘 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讞讚 讗诪专 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 砖诪谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪谉 砖专祝 讜讬讜讗砖 讬讜讗砖 砖谞转讬讗砖讜 诪谉 讛讙讗讜诇讛 砖专祝 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖专讬驻讛 诇诪拽讜诐

The Gemara returns to its discussion of the story of Ruth. It is written: 鈥淢ahlon and Chilion鈥 (Ruth 1:2), and it is written elsewhere: 鈥淛oash and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab鈥 (I聽Chronicles 4:22). Apparently, both names refer to the same individuals who married Moabite wives. Rav and Shmuel disagreed with regard to their true names. One says: Their given names were Mahlon and Chilion, and why were they called by the names Saraph and Joash? One was called Joash [yoash] because they despaired [nitya鈥檃shu] of the redemption of Eretz Yisrael, as they established themselves in Moab and lived there for many years. The other was called Saraph, because they were liable to receive the punishment of burning [sereifa] for their sins against God, because they left their community.

讜讞讚 讗诪专 讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 砖诪谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪谉 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 诪讞诇讜谉 砖注砖讜 讙讜驻谉 讞讜诇讬谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 讻诇讬讛 诇诪拽讜诐

And one of them says: Their given names were Joash and Saraph, and why were they called by the names Mahlon and Chilion? One was called Mahlon [ma岣on] because they made their bodies profane [岣llin], and the other was called Chilion [khilyon] because they were liable to receive the punishment of destruction [kelaya] for their sins against God.

转谞讬讗 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 砖诪谉 讚转谞讬讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讜拽讬诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讻讝讘讗 讜讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 讗砖专 讘注诇讜 诇诪讜讗讘 讜讬砖讘讬 诇讞诐 讜讛讚讘专讬诐 注转讬拽讬诐 讜讬讜拽讬诐 讝讛 讬讛讜砖注 砖讛拽讬诐 砖讘讜注讛 诇讗谞砖讬 讙讘注讜谉 讜讗谞砖讬 讻讝讘讗 讗诇讜 讗谞砖讬 讙讘注讜谉 砖讻讝讘讜 讘讬讛讜砖注 讜讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 讗诇讜 诪讞诇讜谉 讜讻诇讬讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞拽专讗 砖诪谉 讬讜讗砖 讜砖专祝 讬讜讗砖 砖谞转讬讗砖讜 诪谉 讛讙讗讜诇讛 砖专祝 砖谞转讞讬讬讘讜 砖专讬驻讛 诇诪拽讜诐

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the one who says that their given names were Mahlon and Chilion. As it is taught in a baraita: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd Jokim, and the men of Cozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab, and Jashubi Lehem. And the matters are ancient鈥 (I聽Chronicles 4:22)? 鈥淎nd Jokim,鈥 this refers to Joshua, who established [shehekim] and kept the oath with people of Gibeon (see Joshua, chapter 9). 鈥淎nd the men of Cozeba,鈥 these are the men of Gibeon, who lied [shekizevu] to Joshua by saying that they came from a distant land. 鈥淎nd Joash, and Saraph,鈥 these are Mahlon and Chilion. And why were they called by the names Joash and Saraph? One was called Joash because they despaired [shenitya鈥檃shu] of the redemption; the other was called Saraph because they were liable to receive the punishment of burning [sereifa] for their sins against God.

讗砖专 讘注诇讜 诇诪讜讗讘 砖谞砖讗讜 谞砖讬诐 诪讜讗讘讬讜转 讜讬砖讘讬 诇讞诐 讝讜 专讜转 讛诪讜讗讘讬讛 砖砖讘讛 讜谞讚讘拽讛 讘讘讬转 诇讞诐 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讛讚讘专讬诐 注转讬拽讬诐 讚讘专讬诐 讛诇诇讜 注转讬拽 讬讜诪讬讗 讗诪专谉 讚讻转讬讘 诪爪讗转讬 讚讜讚 注讘讚讬 讜讻转讬讘 砖转讬 讘谞转讬讱 讛谞诪爪讗转

鈥淲ho had dominion in Moab,鈥 this means that they married Moabite women. 鈥淎nd Jashubi Lehem,鈥 this is referring to Ruth the Moabite, who returned [sheshava] and attached herself to Bethlehem of Judea. 鈥淎nd the matters are ancient,鈥 this means that these matters were said by the Ancient of Days, i.e., they occurred through God鈥檚 will, as it is written: 鈥淚 have found David My servant鈥 (Psalms 89:21); and the same term 鈥渇ound鈥 also appears with regard to the daughters of Lot, as it is written: 鈥淵our two daughters that are found here鈥 (Genesis 19:15). This teaches that David鈥檚 ancestry can be traced this far back, as he was destined to be born from Moab, who was the son of Lot鈥檚 daughter and Lot himself.

讛诪讛 讛讬讜爪专讬诐 讜讬砖讘讬 谞讟注讬诐 讜讙讚专讛 注诐 讛诪诇讱 讘诪诇讗讻转讜 讬砖讘讜 砖诐 讛诪讛 讛讬讜爪专讬诐 讗诇讜 讘谞讬 讬讜谞讚讘 讘谉 专讻讘 砖谞爪专讜 砖讘讜注转 讗讘讬讛诐

The Gemara cites a baraita that analyzes the next verse: 鈥淭hese were the potters, and those who dwelt among plantations and hedges; there they dwelt occupied in the king鈥檚 work鈥 (I聽Chronicles 4:23). 鈥淭hese were the potters [yotzerim],鈥 these are the sons of Jonadab, son of Rechab, who kept [natzeru] their father鈥檚 oath.

讬砖讘讬 谞讟注讬诐 讝讛 砖诇诪讛 砖讚讜诪讛 诇谞讟讬注讛 讘诪诇讻讜转讜 讜讙讚专讛 讝讜 住谞讛讚专讬谉 砖讙讚专讜 驻专爪讜转讬讛谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 注诐 讛诪诇讱 讘诪诇讗讻转讜 讬砖讘讜 砖诐 讝讜 专讜转 讛诪讜讗讘讬讛 砖专讗转讛 讘诪诇讻讜转 砖诇诪讛 讘谉 讘谞讜 砖诇 讘谉 讘谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬砖诐 讻住讗 诇讗诐 讛诪诇讱 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇讗诪讛 砖诇 诪诇讻讜转

鈥淭hose who dwelt among plantations,鈥 this is referring to Solomon, who in his kingship was similar to a plant. 鈥淎nd hedges [ugdera],鈥 this is the Sanhedrin, which fenced [gaderu] in the breaches of the Jewish people by means of ordinances. 鈥淭here they dwelt occupied in the king鈥檚 work,鈥 this is referring to Ruth the Moabite, who saw the kingship of Solomon, the grandson of her grandson. As it is stated about Solomon: 鈥淎nd he caused a throne to be set for the king鈥檚 mother鈥 (I聽Kings 2:19), and Rabbi Elazar says: This means for the mother of the dynasty of kingship, i.e., Ruth.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讗讻诇转诐 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讬砖谉 讘诇讗 住诇诪谞讟讜谉 诪讗讬 讘诇讗 住诇诪谞讟讜谉 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讘诇讗 专爪讬谞转讗 讜专讘 砖砖转 讗诪专 讘诇讗 砖讚讬驻讗

搂 Since the Gemara has discussed times of famine in Eretz Yisrael, it concludes the chapter with a blessing of times of prosperity: The Sages taught: When the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall eat of the produce of the old store鈥 (Leviticus 25:22), referring to the produce grown in the sixth year of the Sabbatical cycle, this means without salmanton. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Without salmanton? Rav Na岣an said: Without worms [retzinta] that consume the produce, and Rav Sheshet said: Without blight, which destroys the taste of the produce.

转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 砖砖转 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讗讻诇转诐 讬砖谉 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪爪驻讬谉 诇讞讚砖 诪驻谞讬 讬砖谉 砖讻诇讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 注讚 讘讗 转讘讜讗转讛 注讚 砖转讘讗 转讘讜讗讛 诪讗诇讬讛

The Gemara notes: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Sheshet, and it is taught in another baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an. It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Na岣an: From the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall sow the eighth year, and you shall eat of the produce of the old store, until the ninth year鈥 (Leviticus 25:22), one might have thought that the Jewish people will wait for the new produce because the old store has been destroyed. Therefore the same verse states: 鈥淯ntil its produce comes in,鈥 to indicate that they will not stop eating the old produce until the new produce comes of itself, i.e., until it is fully ripe and they do not need the old produce. The old produce will last until then and will not become worm infested, as stated by Rav Na岣an.

转谞讬讗 讻讜转讬讛 讚专讘 砖砖转 讜讗讻诇转诐 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讬砖谉 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪爪驻讬谉 诇讞讚砖 诪驻谞讬 讬砖谉 砖专注 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 注讚 讘讗 转讘讜讗转讛 注讚 砖转讘讗 转讘讜讗讛 诪讗诇讬讛

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Sheshet: From the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall eat of the produce of the old store,鈥 one might have thought that the Jewish people will wait for the new produce due to the old store because the old store will have gone bad, since blight will ruin the taste of the produce. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淯ntil its produce comes in,鈥 which indicates that they will not stop eating the old produce until the new produce comes of itself, as the stored produce will not suffer from blight.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讗讻诇转诐 讬砖谉 谞讜砖谉 诪诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讛诪讬讜砖谉 诪讞讘讬专讜 讛讜讬 讬驻讛 诪讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 砖讚专讻谉 诇讬讬砖谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谉 诇讬讬砖谞谉 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讬砖谉 谞讜砖谉 诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The Sages taught with regard to a verse in the chapter of the blessings stated to the Jewish people: 鈥淎nd you shall eat old store long kept鈥 (Leviticus 26:10). This teaches that any produce that is older than other produce of that same type will be better than that other produce. And I have derived that this is the case only with regard to items for which it is the normal manner to age them. From where do I derive in the case of items for which it is not the normal manner to age them, e.g., fruit, that they too will improve with age? The verse states: 鈥淥ld store long kept,鈥 a general expression that indicates that in any case the land will keep its produce from spoiling, as all types of produce will improve with age.

讜讬砖谉 诪驻谞讬 讞讚砖 转讜爪讬讗讜 诪诇诪讚 砖讛讬讜 讗讜爪专讜转 诪诇讗讬谉 讬砖谉 讜讙专谞讜转 诪诇讗讬谉 讞讚砖 讜讛讬讜 讬砖专讗诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讬讗讱 谞讜爪讬讗 讝讛 诪驻谞讬 讝讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 注转讬拽讗 诪注诇讬讗 诇讘专 诪转诪专讬 讜砖讬讻专讗 讜讛专住谞讗

The continuation of the verse: 鈥淵ou shall bring forth the old from before the new,鈥 teaches that there will be storehouses full of old produce and threshing floors full of new produce, and the Jewish people will say: How will we manage to take out this produce from the storehouse before that produce is brought in? Rav Pappa said: Everything that is old is superior in quality to the new, except for dates, liquor, and small fish, which are better when they are fresh.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛诪讜讻专 讗转 讛住驻讬谞讛

 

Scroll To Top