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Daf Yomi

January 23, 2024 | 讬状讙 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讚

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

  • Masechet Bava Kamma is sponsored by the Futornick Family in loving memory of their fathers and grandfathers, Phillip Kaufman and David Futornick.

Bava Kamma 82

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Terri Krivosha and Rabbi Hayim Herring in loving memory of Terri鈥檚 father Nachum Meir ben David and Malka, Judge Norman Krivosha, on his 3rd yahrzeit, and in honor of their granddaughter, Orli Nessa bat Avi and Sheyna, named in his memory. And in memory of those killed in the war, for the release of the hostages and the refuah shleima of all those who have been wounded. “My dad taught me it is my job as a lawyer to figure out the questions the client doesn鈥檛 ask because once you know the questions, the answers are obvious. Though he never studied Talmud he would have loved its intellectual rigor.”

Today’s daf is sponsored in memory of my mother-in-law, Esther Farber, on her 21st yahrzeit. She would have loved to be part of Hadran and would be learning the daf with us if she were alive today.

Ezra instituted ten takanot, among them Torah reading on Mondays, Thursdays and Shabbat at Mincha, doing laundry on Thursday, eating garlic on Friday, combing or washing hair before going to the mikveh, men doing to the mikveh after a seminal emission before learning Torah, and others. Some of these are still practiced today and others are no longer practiced. There are ten unique laws relating to Jerusalem, many of them based on the fact that Jerusalem was not given to any particular tribe. Laws of selling a house in a walled city don’t apply, as well as egla arufa, leprous house, and ir hanidachat. Other laws relate to it being a city where many holy items and kohanim are passing through and minimizing impurities is necessary. The Mishna mentioned a prohibition on raising pigs. The Gemara tells the story of two Hasmonean brothers, Horkanus and Aristoblus, who fought against each other and one put a siege on the other in the city of Jerusalem. A terrible incident occurred and as a result, they decreed a prohibition to raise pigs and to teach one’s son Greek wisdom.

讜讛讗 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讞讚 讗讬诇谉 讛谞讜讟讛 诇转讜讱 砖讚讛 讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讞讚 讗讬诇谉 讛住诪讜讱 诇诪爪专 诪讘讬讗 讜拽讜专讗 砖注诇 诪谞转 讻谉 讛谞讞讬诇 讬讛讜砖注 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讗专抓


The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua鈥檚 stipulations: But when Rabbi Avin came from Eretz Yisrael he said that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: With regard to both a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundary with another field, the owner of the tree brings the first fruits of the tree and recites the accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5鈥10, as it was on this condition that Joshua apportioned Eretz Yisrael to the Jewish people. This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.


讗诇讗 诪讗谉 转谞讗 注砖专讛 转谞讗讬谉 砖讛转谞讛 讬讛讜砖注 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讜讗 专讘 讙讘讬讛讛 诪讘讬 讻转讬诇 诪转谞讬 诇讛 讘讛讚讬讗 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讜专讘讬 讘专讬讬住 讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 注砖专讛 转谞讗讬谉 讛转谞讛 讬讛讜砖注


The Gemara answers: Rather, who is the one who taught the baraita that deals with the ten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, an amora. Therefore, Rabbi Yo岣nan, another amora, can disagree with it. Rav Geviha from Bei Katil teaches this explicitly in his version of the baraita: Rabbi Tan岣m and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is that elder? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions.


注砖专讛 转拽谞讜转 转讬拽谉 注讝专讗 砖拽讜专讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 讘砖讘转 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜讚谞讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜诪讻讘住讬诐 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讜讗讜讻诇讬谉 砖讜诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 诪砖讻诪转 讜讗讜驻讛 讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜讙专转 讘住讬谞专 讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讜砖讬讛讜 专讜讻诇讬谉 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讘注讬讬专讜转 讜转讬拽谉 讟讘讬诇讛 诇讘注诇讬 拽专讬讬谉


搂 The Sages taught that Ezra the Scribe instituted ten ordinances: He instituted that communities read the Torah on Shabbat in the afternoon; and they also read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday; and the courts convene and judge every Monday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. And Ezra further instituted that a woman should rise early and bake bread on those days when she wants to bake; and that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman should first comb her hair and only then immerse in a ritual bath after being ritually impure; and that peddlers of cosmetics and perfumes should travel around through all the towns. And Ezra further instituted the requirement of immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission.


砖讬讛讜 拽讜专讗讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 讘砖讘转 诪砖讜诐 讬讜砖讘讬 拽专谞讜转


The Gemara analyzes these ordinances, the first of which is that communities shall read the Torah on Shabbat afternoon. This Gemara explains that this ordinance was instituted due to those who sit idly on street corners, who do not attend the synagogue during the week.


讜砖讬讛讜 拽讜专讗讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 注讝专讗 转讬拽谉 讜讛讗 诪注讬拽专讗 讛讜讛 诪讬转拽谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜讬诇讻讜 砖诇砖转 讬诪讬诐 讘诪讚讘专 讜诇讗 诪爪讗讜 诪讬诐 讚讜专砖讬 专砖讜诪讜转 讗诪专讜 讗讬谉 诪讬诐 讗诇讗 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讬 讻诇 爪诪讗 诇讻讜 诇诪讬诐


The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra鈥檚 ordinances: And that they should read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara asks: Did Ezra institute this practice? But it was instituted from the beginning, i.e., long before his time. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淎nd Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water鈥 (Exodus 15:22). Those who interpret verses metaphorically said that water here is referring to nothing other than Torah, as it is stated metaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: 鈥淗o, everyone who thirsts, come for water鈥 (Isaiah 55:1).


讻讬讜谉 砖讛诇讻讜 砖诇砖转 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讗 转讜专讛 谞诇讗讜 注诪讚讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛诐 讜转讬拽谞讜 诇讛诐 砖讬讛讜 拽讜专讬谉 讘砖讘转 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 砖诇讬砖讬 讜专讘讬注讬 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 注专讘 砖讘转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬诇讬谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讗 转讜专讛


The baraita continues: The verse means that since the Jews traveled for three days without hearing any Torah they became weary, and therefore the prophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should read from the Torah each Shabbat, and pause on Sunday, and read again on Monday, and pause on Tuesday and Wednesday, and read again on Thursday, and pause on Shabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days without hearing the Torah. Evidently this practice predates Ezra.


诪注讬拽专讗 转拽谞讜 讞讚 讙讘专讗 转诇转讗 驻住讜拽讬 讗讬 谞诪讬 转诇转讗 讙讘专讬 转诇转讗 驻住讜拽讬 讻谞讙讚 讻讛谞讬诐 诇讜讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讗转讗 讛讜讗 转讬拽谉 转诇转讗 讙讘专讬 讜注砖专讛 驻住讜拽讬 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 讘讟诇谞讬谉


The Gemara answers: Initially they instituted that one man read three verses; or alternatively, that three men read three verses. Either way, the number three corresponds to the three types of Jews: Priests, Levites, and Israelites. Ezra later came and instituted that three men always read, and that ten verses altogether be read by them, corresponding to the ten idlers in a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.


讜讚谞讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讚砖讻讬讞讬 讚讗转讜 诇诪拽专讗 讘住讬驻专讗


The next ordinance of Ezra is: And the courts convene and judge every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordinance is that many people are found in a city on these days, as they come from the countryside for the reading of the holy book, the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.


讜砖讬讛讜 诪讻讘住讬谉 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚 砖讘转


The baraita teaches: And that one should do laundry on Thursday. This was instituted due to the need to have clean garments in deference to Shabbat.


讜砖讬讛讜 讗讜讻诇讬谉 砖讜诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪砖讜诐 注讜谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖专 驻专讬讜 讬转谉 讘注转讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讛 讛诪砖诪砖 诪讟转讜 诪注专讘 砖讘转 诇注专讘 砖讘转


The Gemara explains the next listed ordinance: And that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve. This is due to the fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for conjugal relations. As it is written concerning the righteous: 鈥淎nd he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, who brings forth his fruit in his season鈥 (Psalms 1:3); and Rabbi Yehuda says, and some say it was Rav Na岣an, and some say it was Rav Kahana, and some say it was Rabbi Yo岣nan who said: This is referring to one who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘砖讜诐 诪砖讘讬注 讜诪砖讞讬谉 讜诪爪讛讬诇 驻谞讬诐 讜诪专讘讛 讛讝专注 讜讛讜专讙 讻谞讬诐 砖讘讘谞讬 诪注讬讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讻谞讬住 讗讛讘讛 讜诪讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛拽谞讗讛


The Sages taught in a baraita that five matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warms the body; it causes one鈥檚 countenance to shine; it increases one鈥檚 sperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some say that it also instills love into those who eat it and removes jealousy from them.


讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 诪砖讻诪转 讜讗讜驻讛 讻讚讬 砖转讛讗 驻转 诪爪讜讬讛 诇注谞讬讬诐


The next ordinance is: And that a woman should rise early and bake bread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted so that bread should be available for poor people, who go begging for bread in the mornings.


讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜讙专转 讘住讬谞专 诪砖讜诐 爪谞讬注讜转讗


The baraita further teaches: And that a woman should don a breechcloth [sinar]. This ordinance was instituted due to reasons of modesty.


讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗


The baraita adds: And that a woman should first comb her hair and only then immerse in a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: This is required by Torah law, Ezra did not institute this.


讚转谞讬讗 讜专讞抓 讗转 讘砖专讜 讘诪讬诐 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 讚讘专 讞讜爪抓 讘讬谉 讘砖专讜 诇诪讬诐 讗转 讘砖专讜 讗转 讛讟驻诇 诇讘砖专讜 讜诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 砖注专


As it is taught in a baraita, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: 鈥淎nd he shall bathe his flesh [et besaro] in water鈥 (Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches that no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water. When the verse states this in the expanded form of et his flesh,鈥 using the term 鈥et,鈥 this teaches that the water must come into contact even with that which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that? It is one鈥檚 hair. Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?


讗诪专讬 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诇注讬讜谞讬 讚诇诪讗 诪讬拽讟专 讗讬 谞诪讬 诪讗讜住 诪讬讚讬 诪砖讜诐 讞爪讬爪讛


The Sages say in response: By Torah law one is required to inspect his or her hair before immersion, as perhaps some hairs are knotted together, preventing contact with water at that spot, or perhaps there is some repulsive substance in his hair. One must perform this inspection because these would constitute an interposition.


讜讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 转讬拽谉 讞驻讬驻讛


And Ezra came and added to the Torah鈥檚 minimal obligation. He instituted the requirement of combing the hair even when it is known that it is not knotted and contains no repulsive substance.


讜砖讬讛讜 专讜讻诇讬谉 诪讞讝专讬谉 讘注讬讬专讜转 诪砖讜诐 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬转讙谞讜 注诇 讘注诇讬讛诐


The Gemara discusses the next of Ezra鈥檚 ordinances: And that peddlers should circulate through all the towns. This Gemara explains that this is because peddlers supply women鈥檚 cosmetics, and therefore Ezra instituted this practice so that women should not become unattractive to their husbands.


讜转讬拽谉 讟讘讬诇讛 诇讘注诇讬 拽专讬讬谉 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讬砖 讻讬 转爪讗 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讘转 讝专注 讜专讞抓 讗转 讘砖专讜 讘诪讬诐 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讜讗 诇转专讜诪讛 讜拽讚砖讬诐 讗转讗 讛讜讗 转讬拽谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛


The Gemara analyzes the last of the ten ordinances: And he instituted the requirement of immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. The Gemara asks: But this is required by Torah law, as it is written: 鈥淎nd if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water鈥 (Leviticus 15:16). The Gemara answers: By Torah law immersion is required only if one wishes to partake of teruma or sacrificial meat. Ezra came and further instituted that immersion is necessary even for reciting or studying matters of Torah.


注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 讞诇讜讟 讘讛 讜讗讬谞讛 诪讘讬讗讛 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讜讗讬谞讛 谞注砖讬转 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转


搂 The mishna teaches that one may not raise chickens in Jerusalem. The Gemara cites a baraita that contains a list of other halakhot that are unique to Jerusalem. Ten matters were stated with regard to Jerusalem: A house situated in Jerusalem does not become irredeemable one year after its sale. Those who sell houses in other walled cities have the right to buy back their property for one year after the transaction. If they fail to do so, the house becomes the permanent possession of the buyer (see Leviticus 25:29鈥30). This halakha does not apply to houses in Jerusalem. And its Elders do not bring a heifer whose neck is broken as required when a murder victim is found near a city and the murderer is unknown (see Deuteronomy 21:1鈥9); and it cannot become an idolatrous city (see Deuteronomy 13:13鈥19).


讜讗讬谞讛 诪讟诪讗讛 讘谞讙注讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讘讛 讝讬讝讬谉 讜讙讝讜讝讟专讗讜转 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讗砖驻转讜转 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讻讘砖讜谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讙谞讜转 讜驻专讚住讜转 讞讜抓 诪讙谞讜转 讜讜专讚讬谉 砖讛讬讜 诪讬诪讜转 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讙讚诇讬诐 讘讛 转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讬谞讬谉 讘讛 讗转 讛诪转


The baraita continues its list: And a house in Jerusalem cannot become ritually impure with the impurity of leprous sores; and one may not build out projections or balconies [gezuztraot] from houses that are in it; and one may not establish garbage dumps in Jerusalem; and one may not build kilns in it; and one may not plant gardens and orchards [pardesot] in it, except for the rose gardens that were already there from the times of the early prophets; and one may not raise chickens in it; and finally, one may not leave a corpse overnight in Jerusalem.


讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 讞诇讜讟 讘讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜拽诐 讛讘讬转 讗砖专 诇讜 讞讜诪讛 诇爪诪转转 诇拽谞讛 讗转讜 诇讚专转讬讜 讜拽住讘专 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The Gemara discusses these ten halakhot pertaining to Jerusalem, one by one: A house situated in it does not become irredeemable one year after its sale. The reason is that it is written: 鈥淎nd if it is not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him who bought it, throughout his generations鈥 (Leviticus 25:30). And the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any single one of the tribes of Israel; rather, it is considered common property. Since no one has ancestral ownership of any house in Jerusalem, its houses cannot be sold permanently.


讜讗讬谞讛 诪讘讬讗讛 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讬诪爪讗 讞诇诇 讘讗讚诪讛 讗砖专 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 谞讜转谉 诇讱 诇专砖转讛 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The Gemara analyzes the next halakha: And its inhabitants do not bring a heifer whose neck is broken. The reason is that it is written: 鈥淚f one is found slain in the land that the Lord your God gives you to possess it鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:1). And, again, the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any one of the tribes of Israel. Therefore, it is not included in the description: 鈥淭he land that the Lord your God gives you to possess it.鈥


讜讗讬谞讛 谞注砖讬转 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讚讻转讬讘 注专讬讱 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The baraita states: And it cannot become an idolatrous city. The reason is that it is written, in the introduction of the passage dealing with the halakha of an idolatrous city: 鈥淚f you shall hear tell concerning one of your cities, which the Lord your God gives you to dwell there鈥 (Deuteronomy 13:13). And the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any one of the tribes of Israel. It is therefore not included in the description 鈥渙ne of your cities, which the Lord your God gives you to dwell there.鈥


讜讗讬谞讛 诪讟诪讗讛 讘谞讙注讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞转转讬 谞讙注 爪专注转 讘讘讬转 讗专抓 讗讞讝转讻诐 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The baraita further teaches: And a house in Jerusalem does not become ritually impure with the impurity of leprous sores. The reason is that it is written: 鈥淎nd I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession鈥 (Leviticus 14:34). And the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any one of the tribes of Israel. It is therefore not included in the description 鈥渁 house of the land of your possession.鈥


讜讗讬谉 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讘讛 讝讬讝讬谉 讜讙讝讜讝讟专讗讜转 诪驻谞讬 讗讛诇 讛讟讜诪讗讛 讜诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 诇讬转讝拽讜 注讜诇讬 专讙诇讬诐


The Gemara discusses the next halakha: And one may not build out projections or balconies from houses that are in Jerusalem. The Gemara provides two reasons for this prohibition. First, it is due to the danger of contracting ritual impurity by being in the same tent as a corpse, i.e., under the same roof, in which case the impurity spreads to all items under the roof. If even a small part of a corpse is under a balcony, everyone who passes under that balcony is rendered impure. Many people come to Jerusalem to sacrifice offerings, and they must maintain a state of ritual purity. The other reason is so that those great crowds of pilgrims not be injured by colliding with the projections.


讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讗砖驻转讜转 诪砖讜诐 砖拽爪讬诐


The next halakha pertaining to Jerusalem is: And one may not establish garbage dumps in it. The Gemara explains that the reason is due to the repugnant creatures that are attracted to such heaps and impart ritual impurity upon their death.


讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讻讘砖讜谞讜转 诪砖讜诐 拽讜讟专讗


The baraita states: And one may not build kilns in Jerusalem. The reason is due to the unsightly smoke produced by kilns. The Sages sought to preserve the beauty of Jerusalem and the Temple.


讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讙谞讜转 讜驻专讚住讬谉 诪砖讜诐 住讬专讞讗


The baraita teaches: And one may not plant gardens and orchards in it. This is due to the odor emitted by these places, either from discarded weeds or from fertilizer.


讜讗讬谉 诪讙讚诇讬谉 讘讛 转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 诪砖讜诐 拽讚砖讬诐


The next halakha on the list is: And one may not raise chickens in Jerusalem. The Gemara explains that this is due to the sacrificial meat that is consumed in Jerusalem. Since chickens peck in the garbage, they are likely to pick up items that impart ritual impurity and bring them into contact with the consecrated food, which may not be eaten in an impure state.


讜讗讬谉 诪诇讬谞讬谉 讘讛 讗转 讛诪转 讙诪专讗


The Gemara discusses the last halakha: And one may not leave a corpse overnight in it. The Gemara notes that this prohibition is a tradition; there is no known explanation for it.


讗讬谉 诪讙讚诇讬谉 讞讝讬专讬诐 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖爪专讜 讘讬转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讛讬讛 讛讜专拽谞讜住 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讗专讬住讟讜讘诇讜住 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬讜 诪砖诇砖讬诐 诇讛诐 讘拽讜驻讛 讚讬谞专讬谉 讜讛讬讜 诪注诇讬诐 诇讛诐 转诪讬讚讬诐


搂 The mishna teaches that one may not raise pigs anywhere. The Sages taught in a baraita the background for this halakha: When the members of the house of Hasmonean monarchy were at war with each other, Hyrcanus, one of the parties to this war, was inside the besieged Jerusalem, while his brother Aristobulus, the other contender to the throne, was on the outside. And every day the people inside would lower down money in a box from the Temple walls, to purchase sheep to sacrifice, and those on other side would take the money and send up sheep to them over the wall for the daily offerings.


讛讬讛 砖诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 诪讻讬专 讘讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖注讜住拽讬谉 讘注讘讜讚讛 讗讬谉 谞诪住专讬诐 讘讬讚讻诐 诇诪讞专 砖讬诇砖诇讜 讚讬谞专讬谉 讘拽讜驻讛 讜讛注诇讜 诇讛诐 讞讝讬专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇讞爪讬 讛讞讜诪讛 谞注抓 爪驻专谞讬讜 讘讞讜诪讛 讜谞讝讚注讝注讛 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛 注诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛


There was a certain elder there who was familiar with Greek wisdom, and he said to those besieging Jerusalem: As long as they occupy themselves with the Temple service, they will not be delivered into your hands. The next day they lowered down money in a box as usual, but this time they sent up to them a pig. When the pig reached to the midpoint of the Temple wall it stuck its hooves into the wall, and Eretz Yisrael quaked over an area of four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs.


讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讗诪专讜 讗专讜专 讛讗讬砖 砖讬讙讚诇 讞讝讬专讬诐 讜讗专讜专 讛讗讚诐 砖讬诇诪讚 讗转 讘谞讜 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜注诇 讗讜转讛 砖注讛 砖谞讬谞讜 诪注砖讛 砖讘讗 注讜诪专 诪讙谞讜转 讛爪专讬驻讬谉 讜砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 诪讘拽注转 注讬谉 住讜讻专


At that time the Sages said: Cursed be the man who raises pigs, and cursed be the man who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And it was concerning that time of siege that we learned in a mishna: There was an incident in which the barley for the omer offering came from the gardens of Tzerifin, far from Jerusalem, and the wheat for the two loaves of Shavuot was brought from the valley of Ein Sokher. Barley and wheat could not be brought from any nearer because the besiegers had destroyed all the produce around Jerusalem. This concludes the baraita.


讜讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诪讬 讗住讬专讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇


The Gemara asks a question with regard to this baraita: And is it really prohibited to study Greek wisdom? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: In Eretz Yisrael,


  • This month's learning is sponsored by Shifra Tyberg and Rephael Wenger in loving memory of Zvi ben Yisrael Yitzhak Tyberg on his yahrzeit, and in honor of their daughter Ayelet's upcoming marriage to Ori Kinberg.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Rabbi Hayim Herring with pride and love, in honor of his spouse, Terri Krivosha, who received this year's Sidney Barrows Lifetime Commitment Award from the Mpls. And St. Paul Federations in recognition of her distinguished contribution to the Twin Cities Legal and Jewish Communities.聽

  • Masechet Bava Kamma is sponsored by the Futornick Family in loving memory of their fathers and grandfathers, Phillip Kaufman and David Futornick.

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Bava Kamma 82

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Bava Kamma 82

讜讛讗 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讞讚 讗讬诇谉 讛谞讜讟讛 诇转讜讱 砖讚讛 讞讘讬专讜 讜讗讞讚 讗讬诇谉 讛住诪讜讱 诇诪爪专 诪讘讬讗 讜拽讜专讗 砖注诇 诪谞转 讻谉 讛谞讞讬诇 讬讛讜砖注 诇讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛讗专抓


The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua鈥檚 stipulations: But when Rabbi Avin came from Eretz Yisrael he said that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: With regard to both a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundary with another field, the owner of the tree brings the first fruits of the tree and recites the accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5鈥10, as it was on this condition that Joshua apportioned Eretz Yisrael to the Jewish people. This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.


讗诇讗 诪讗谉 转谞讗 注砖专讛 转谞讗讬谉 砖讛转谞讛 讬讛讜砖注 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讜讗 专讘 讙讘讬讛讛 诪讘讬 讻转讬诇 诪转谞讬 诇讛 讘讛讚讬讗 专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讜专讘讬 讘专讬讬住 讗诪专讬 诪砖讜诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 注砖专讛 转谞讗讬谉 讛转谞讛 讬讛讜砖注


The Gemara answers: Rather, who is the one who taught the baraita that deals with the ten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, an amora. Therefore, Rabbi Yo岣nan, another amora, can disagree with it. Rav Geviha from Bei Katil teaches this explicitly in his version of the baraita: Rabbi Tan岣m and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is that elder? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions.


注砖专讛 转拽谞讜转 转讬拽谉 注讝专讗 砖拽讜专讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 讘砖讘转 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜讚谞讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜诪讻讘住讬诐 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讜讗讜讻诇讬谉 砖讜诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 诪砖讻诪转 讜讗讜驻讛 讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜讙专转 讘住讬谞专 讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讜砖讬讛讜 专讜讻诇讬谉 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讘注讬讬专讜转 讜转讬拽谉 讟讘讬诇讛 诇讘注诇讬 拽专讬讬谉


搂 The Sages taught that Ezra the Scribe instituted ten ordinances: He instituted that communities read the Torah on Shabbat in the afternoon; and they also read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday; and the courts convene and judge every Monday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. And Ezra further instituted that a woman should rise early and bake bread on those days when she wants to bake; and that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman should first comb her hair and only then immerse in a ritual bath after being ritually impure; and that peddlers of cosmetics and perfumes should travel around through all the towns. And Ezra further instituted the requirement of immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission.


砖讬讛讜 拽讜专讗讬谉 讘诪谞讞讛 讘砖讘转 诪砖讜诐 讬讜砖讘讬 拽专谞讜转


The Gemara analyzes these ordinances, the first of which is that communities shall read the Torah on Shabbat afternoon. This Gemara explains that this ordinance was instituted due to those who sit idly on street corners, who do not attend the synagogue during the week.


讜砖讬讛讜 拽讜专讗讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 注讝专讗 转讬拽谉 讜讛讗 诪注讬拽专讗 讛讜讛 诪讬转拽谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜讬诇讻讜 砖诇砖转 讬诪讬诐 讘诪讚讘专 讜诇讗 诪爪讗讜 诪讬诐 讚讜专砖讬 专砖讜诪讜转 讗诪专讜 讗讬谉 诪讬诐 讗诇讗 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讬 讻诇 爪诪讗 诇讻讜 诇诪讬诐


The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra鈥檚 ordinances: And that they should read the Torah on every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara asks: Did Ezra institute this practice? But it was instituted from the beginning, i.e., long before his time. As it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淎nd Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water鈥 (Exodus 15:22). Those who interpret verses metaphorically said that water here is referring to nothing other than Torah, as it is stated metaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: 鈥淗o, everyone who thirsts, come for water鈥 (Isaiah 55:1).


讻讬讜谉 砖讛诇讻讜 砖诇砖转 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讗 转讜专讛 谞诇讗讜 注诪讚讜 谞讘讬讗讬诐 砖讘讬谞讬讛诐 讜转讬拽谞讜 诇讛诐 砖讬讛讜 拽讜专讬谉 讘砖讘转 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 砖诇讬砖讬 讜专讘讬注讬 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讜诪驻住讬拽讬谉 注专讘 砖讘转 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬诇讬谞讜 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讗 转讜专讛


The baraita continues: The verse means that since the Jews traveled for three days without hearing any Torah they became weary, and therefore the prophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should read from the Torah each Shabbat, and pause on Sunday, and read again on Monday, and pause on Tuesday and Wednesday, and read again on Thursday, and pause on Shabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days without hearing the Torah. Evidently this practice predates Ezra.


诪注讬拽专讗 转拽谞讜 讞讚 讙讘专讗 转诇转讗 驻住讜拽讬 讗讬 谞诪讬 转诇转讗 讙讘专讬 转诇转讗 驻住讜拽讬 讻谞讙讚 讻讛谞讬诐 诇讜讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讗转讗 讛讜讗 转讬拽谉 转诇转讗 讙讘专讬 讜注砖专讛 驻住讜拽讬 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 讘讟诇谞讬谉


The Gemara answers: Initially they instituted that one man read three verses; or alternatively, that three men read three verses. Either way, the number three corresponds to the three types of Jews: Priests, Levites, and Israelites. Ezra later came and instituted that three men always read, and that ten verses altogether be read by them, corresponding to the ten idlers in a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.


讜讚谞讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讚砖讻讬讞讬 讚讗转讜 诇诪拽专讗 讘住讬驻专讗


The next ordinance of Ezra is: And the courts convene and judge every Monday and Thursday. The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordinance is that many people are found in a city on these days, as they come from the countryside for the reading of the holy book, the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.


讜砖讬讛讜 诪讻讘住讬谉 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚 砖讘转


The baraita teaches: And that one should do laundry on Thursday. This was instituted due to the need to have clean garments in deference to Shabbat.


讜砖讬讛讜 讗讜讻诇讬谉 砖讜诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪砖讜诐 注讜谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖专 驻专讬讜 讬转谉 讘注转讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘 讻讛谞讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讛 讛诪砖诪砖 诪讟转讜 诪注专讘 砖讘转 诇注专讘 砖讘转


The Gemara explains the next listed ordinance: And that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve. This is due to the fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for conjugal relations. As it is written concerning the righteous: 鈥淎nd he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, who brings forth his fruit in his season鈥 (Psalms 1:3); and Rabbi Yehuda says, and some say it was Rav Na岣an, and some say it was Rav Kahana, and some say it was Rabbi Yo岣nan who said: This is referring to one who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘砖讜诐 诪砖讘讬注 讜诪砖讞讬谉 讜诪爪讛讬诇 驻谞讬诐 讜诪专讘讛 讛讝专注 讜讛讜专讙 讻谞讬诐 砖讘讘谞讬 诪注讬讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讻谞讬住 讗讛讘讛 讜诪讜爪讬讗 讗转 讛拽谞讗讛


The Sages taught in a baraita that five matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warms the body; it causes one鈥檚 countenance to shine; it increases one鈥檚 sperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some say that it also instills love into those who eat it and removes jealousy from them.


讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 诪砖讻诪转 讜讗讜驻讛 讻讚讬 砖转讛讗 驻转 诪爪讜讬讛 诇注谞讬讬诐


The next ordinance is: And that a woman should rise early and bake bread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted so that bread should be available for poor people, who go begging for bread in the mornings.


讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜讙专转 讘住讬谞专 诪砖讜诐 爪谞讬注讜转讗


The baraita further teaches: And that a woman should don a breechcloth [sinar]. This ordinance was instituted due to reasons of modesty.


讜砖转讛讗 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讬讗


The baraita adds: And that a woman should first comb her hair and only then immerse in a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: This is required by Torah law, Ezra did not institute this.


讚转谞讬讗 讜专讞抓 讗转 讘砖专讜 讘诪讬诐 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 讚讘专 讞讜爪抓 讘讬谉 讘砖专讜 诇诪讬诐 讗转 讘砖专讜 讗转 讛讟驻诇 诇讘砖专讜 讜诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 砖注专


As it is taught in a baraita, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: 鈥淎nd he shall bathe his flesh [et besaro] in water鈥 (Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches that no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water. When the verse states this in the expanded form of et his flesh,鈥 using the term 鈥et,鈥 this teaches that the water must come into contact even with that which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that? It is one鈥檚 hair. Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?


讗诪专讬 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诇注讬讜谞讬 讚诇诪讗 诪讬拽讟专 讗讬 谞诪讬 诪讗讜住 诪讬讚讬 诪砖讜诐 讞爪讬爪讛


The Sages say in response: By Torah law one is required to inspect his or her hair before immersion, as perhaps some hairs are knotted together, preventing contact with water at that spot, or perhaps there is some repulsive substance in his hair. One must perform this inspection because these would constitute an interposition.


讜讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 转讬拽谉 讞驻讬驻讛


And Ezra came and added to the Torah鈥檚 minimal obligation. He instituted the requirement of combing the hair even when it is known that it is not knotted and contains no repulsive substance.


讜砖讬讛讜 专讜讻诇讬谉 诪讞讝专讬谉 讘注讬讬专讜转 诪砖讜诐 转讻砖讬讟讬 谞砖讬诐 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 讬转讙谞讜 注诇 讘注诇讬讛诐


The Gemara discusses the next of Ezra鈥檚 ordinances: And that peddlers should circulate through all the towns. This Gemara explains that this is because peddlers supply women鈥檚 cosmetics, and therefore Ezra instituted this practice so that women should not become unattractive to their husbands.


讜转讬拽谉 讟讘讬诇讛 诇讘注诇讬 拽专讬讬谉 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讬砖 讻讬 转爪讗 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讘转 讝专注 讜专讞抓 讗转 讘砖专讜 讘诪讬诐 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讛讜讗 诇转专讜诪讛 讜拽讚砖讬诐 讗转讗 讛讜讗 转讬拽谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讚讘专讬 转讜专讛


The Gemara analyzes the last of the ten ordinances: And he instituted the requirement of immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. The Gemara asks: But this is required by Torah law, as it is written: 鈥淎nd if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water鈥 (Leviticus 15:16). The Gemara answers: By Torah law immersion is required only if one wishes to partake of teruma or sacrificial meat. Ezra came and further instituted that immersion is necessary even for reciting or studying matters of Torah.


注砖专讛 讚讘专讬诐 谞讗诪专讜 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 讞诇讜讟 讘讛 讜讗讬谞讛 诪讘讬讗讛 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讜讗讬谞讛 谞注砖讬转 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转


搂 The mishna teaches that one may not raise chickens in Jerusalem. The Gemara cites a baraita that contains a list of other halakhot that are unique to Jerusalem. Ten matters were stated with regard to Jerusalem: A house situated in Jerusalem does not become irredeemable one year after its sale. Those who sell houses in other walled cities have the right to buy back their property for one year after the transaction. If they fail to do so, the house becomes the permanent possession of the buyer (see Leviticus 25:29鈥30). This halakha does not apply to houses in Jerusalem. And its Elders do not bring a heifer whose neck is broken as required when a murder victim is found near a city and the murderer is unknown (see Deuteronomy 21:1鈥9); and it cannot become an idolatrous city (see Deuteronomy 13:13鈥19).


讜讗讬谞讛 诪讟诪讗讛 讘谞讙注讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讘讛 讝讬讝讬谉 讜讙讝讜讝讟专讗讜转 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讗砖驻转讜转 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讻讘砖讜谞讜转 讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讙谞讜转 讜驻专讚住讜转 讞讜抓 诪讙谞讜转 讜讜专讚讬谉 砖讛讬讜 诪讬诪讜转 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 诪讙讚诇讬诐 讘讛 转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讬谞讬谉 讘讛 讗转 讛诪转


The baraita continues its list: And a house in Jerusalem cannot become ritually impure with the impurity of leprous sores; and one may not build out projections or balconies [gezuztraot] from houses that are in it; and one may not establish garbage dumps in Jerusalem; and one may not build kilns in it; and one may not plant gardens and orchards [pardesot] in it, except for the rose gardens that were already there from the times of the early prophets; and one may not raise chickens in it; and finally, one may not leave a corpse overnight in Jerusalem.


讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 讞诇讜讟 讘讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜拽诐 讛讘讬转 讗砖专 诇讜 讞讜诪讛 诇爪诪转转 诇拽谞讛 讗转讜 诇讚专转讬讜 讜拽住讘专 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The Gemara discusses these ten halakhot pertaining to Jerusalem, one by one: A house situated in it does not become irredeemable one year after its sale. The reason is that it is written: 鈥淎nd if it is not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him who bought it, throughout his generations鈥 (Leviticus 25:30). And the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any single one of the tribes of Israel; rather, it is considered common property. Since no one has ancestral ownership of any house in Jerusalem, its houses cannot be sold permanently.


讜讗讬谞讛 诪讘讬讗讛 注讙诇讛 注专讜驻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讬诪爪讗 讞诇诇 讘讗讚诪讛 讗砖专 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 谞讜转谉 诇讱 诇专砖转讛 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The Gemara analyzes the next halakha: And its inhabitants do not bring a heifer whose neck is broken. The reason is that it is written: 鈥淚f one is found slain in the land that the Lord your God gives you to possess it鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:1). And, again, the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any one of the tribes of Israel. Therefore, it is not included in the description: 鈥淭he land that the Lord your God gives you to possess it.鈥


讜讗讬谞讛 谞注砖讬转 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讚讻转讬讘 注专讬讱 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The baraita states: And it cannot become an idolatrous city. The reason is that it is written, in the introduction of the passage dealing with the halakha of an idolatrous city: 鈥淚f you shall hear tell concerning one of your cities, which the Lord your God gives you to dwell there鈥 (Deuteronomy 13:13). And the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any one of the tribes of Israel. It is therefore not included in the description 鈥渙ne of your cities, which the Lord your God gives you to dwell there.鈥


讜讗讬谞讛 诪讟诪讗讛 讘谞讙注讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜谞转转讬 谞讙注 爪专注转 讘讘讬转 讗专抓 讗讞讝转讻诐 讜讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 谞转讞诇拽讛 诇砖讘讟讬诐


The baraita further teaches: And a house in Jerusalem does not become ritually impure with the impurity of leprous sores. The reason is that it is written: 鈥淎nd I put the plague of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession鈥 (Leviticus 14:34). And the tanna who taught this baraita maintains that Jerusalem was not apportioned to any one of the tribes of Israel. It is therefore not included in the description 鈥渁 house of the land of your possession.鈥


讜讗讬谉 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讘讛 讝讬讝讬谉 讜讙讝讜讝讟专讗讜转 诪驻谞讬 讗讛诇 讛讟讜诪讗讛 讜诪砖讜诐 讚诇讗 诇讬转讝拽讜 注讜诇讬 专讙诇讬诐


The Gemara discusses the next halakha: And one may not build out projections or balconies from houses that are in Jerusalem. The Gemara provides two reasons for this prohibition. First, it is due to the danger of contracting ritual impurity by being in the same tent as a corpse, i.e., under the same roof, in which case the impurity spreads to all items under the roof. If even a small part of a corpse is under a balcony, everyone who passes under that balcony is rendered impure. Many people come to Jerusalem to sacrifice offerings, and they must maintain a state of ritual purity. The other reason is so that those great crowds of pilgrims not be injured by colliding with the projections.


讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讗砖驻转讜转 诪砖讜诐 砖拽爪讬诐


The next halakha pertaining to Jerusalem is: And one may not establish garbage dumps in it. The Gemara explains that the reason is due to the repugnant creatures that are attracted to such heaps and impart ritual impurity upon their death.


讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讻讘砖讜谞讜转 诪砖讜诐 拽讜讟专讗


The baraita states: And one may not build kilns in Jerusalem. The reason is due to the unsightly smoke produced by kilns. The Sages sought to preserve the beauty of Jerusalem and the Temple.


讜讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 讘讛 讙谞讜转 讜驻专讚住讬谉 诪砖讜诐 住讬专讞讗


The baraita teaches: And one may not plant gardens and orchards in it. This is due to the odor emitted by these places, either from discarded weeds or from fertilizer.


讜讗讬谉 诪讙讚诇讬谉 讘讛 转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 诪砖讜诐 拽讚砖讬诐


The next halakha on the list is: And one may not raise chickens in Jerusalem. The Gemara explains that this is due to the sacrificial meat that is consumed in Jerusalem. Since chickens peck in the garbage, they are likely to pick up items that impart ritual impurity and bring them into contact with the consecrated food, which may not be eaten in an impure state.


讜讗讬谉 诪诇讬谞讬谉 讘讛 讗转 讛诪转 讙诪专讗


The Gemara discusses the last halakha: And one may not leave a corpse overnight in it. The Gemara notes that this prohibition is a tradition; there is no known explanation for it.


讗讬谉 诪讙讚诇讬谉 讞讝讬专讬诐 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖爪专讜 讘讬转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讛讬讛 讛讜专拽谞讜住 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讗专讬住讟讜讘诇讜住 诪讘讞讜抓 讜讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讛讬讜 诪砖诇砖讬诐 诇讛诐 讘拽讜驻讛 讚讬谞专讬谉 讜讛讬讜 诪注诇讬诐 诇讛诐 转诪讬讚讬诐


搂 The mishna teaches that one may not raise pigs anywhere. The Sages taught in a baraita the background for this halakha: When the members of the house of Hasmonean monarchy were at war with each other, Hyrcanus, one of the parties to this war, was inside the besieged Jerusalem, while his brother Aristobulus, the other contender to the throne, was on the outside. And every day the people inside would lower down money in a box from the Temple walls, to purchase sheep to sacrifice, and those on other side would take the money and send up sheep to them over the wall for the daily offerings.


讛讬讛 砖诐 讝拽谉 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 诪讻讬专 讘讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讗诪专 诇讛诐 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖注讜住拽讬谉 讘注讘讜讚讛 讗讬谉 谞诪住专讬诐 讘讬讚讻诐 诇诪讞专 砖讬诇砖诇讜 讚讬谞专讬谉 讘拽讜驻讛 讜讛注诇讜 诇讛诐 讞讝讬专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 诇讞爪讬 讛讞讜诪讛 谞注抓 爪驻专谞讬讜 讘讞讜诪讛 讜谞讝讚注讝注讛 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛 注诇 讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 驻专住讛


There was a certain elder there who was familiar with Greek wisdom, and he said to those besieging Jerusalem: As long as they occupy themselves with the Temple service, they will not be delivered into your hands. The next day they lowered down money in a box as usual, but this time they sent up to them a pig. When the pig reached to the midpoint of the Temple wall it stuck its hooves into the wall, and Eretz Yisrael quaked over an area of four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs.


讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讗诪专讜 讗专讜专 讛讗讬砖 砖讬讙讚诇 讞讝讬专讬诐 讜讗专讜专 讛讗讚诐 砖讬诇诪讚 讗转 讘谞讜 讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 讜注诇 讗讜转讛 砖注讛 砖谞讬谞讜 诪注砖讛 砖讘讗 注讜诪专 诪讙谞讜转 讛爪专讬驻讬谉 讜砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 诪讘拽注转 注讬谉 住讜讻专


At that time the Sages said: Cursed be the man who raises pigs, and cursed be the man who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And it was concerning that time of siege that we learned in a mishna: There was an incident in which the barley for the omer offering came from the gardens of Tzerifin, far from Jerusalem, and the wheat for the two loaves of Shavuot was brought from the valley of Ein Sokher. Barley and wheat could not be brought from any nearer because the besiegers had destroyed all the produce around Jerusalem. This concludes the baraita.


讜讞讻诪转 讬讜讜谞讬转 诪讬 讗住讬专讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇


The Gemara asks a question with regard to this baraita: And is it really prohibited to study Greek wisdom? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: In Eretz Yisrael,


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