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September 25, 2021 | י״ט בתשרי תשפ״ב | TODAY'S DAF: Beitzah 25 - Shabbat Chol Hamoed, September 25

Today's Daf Yomi

September 15, 2021 | ט׳ בתשרי תשפ״ב

Masechet Beitzah is dedicated by new friends of Hadran in appreciation of all who find new ways to be marbitzei Torah ba-Rabim ve Rabot.

A month of shiurim are sponsored by Rabbi Lisa Malik in honor of her daughter, Rivkah Wyner, who recently made aliyah, and in memory of Rivkah's namesake, Lisa's grandmother, Regina Post z"l, a Holocaust survivor from Lubaczow, Poland who lived in Brooklyn, NY.

And for a refuah shleima for Noam Eliezer ben Yael Chaya v'Aytan Yehoshua.

Beitzah 15

Today’s daf is sponsored by Odi and Judy, in honor of the birth of baby girl to Elana Perlin, her husband Steven, and her children, Shira and Avi. Tizku l’gadlah l’Torah, l’chupah u’l’ma’asim tovim. And Elana, continued hatzlacha learning the Daf Yomi — so proud of you that you’ve been able to keep it up ’til now! And by Eden Prywes in honor of his wife Adele Druck and her mother Susan Fishbein.

It is permissible to send a gift with a material made out of wool and linen on Yom Tov. Why? What can it be used for? It is forbidden to give a gift of a spiked sandal because it is forbidden to wear this kind of sandal on Shabbat or Yom Tov – why was it forbidden? There was a tragedy that was mentioned in Shabbat 60 where Jews trampled each other and the decree was then instituted. What other types of shoes should not be gifted on Yom Tov? It is permissible to send tefillin even though they are not worn on Shabbat because they reread the Mishna to say that anything that will make a person happy even if it is not usable on that day, can be sent as a gift. If one was wearing tefillin and Shabbat came in, can one bring them back to one’s house?  Under what circumstances? Chapter Two begins with a discussion of cooking from Yom Tov for Shabbat and Eruv Tavshilin that permits it. How many cooked dishes does one need for the eruv do you need? Dispute between Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel. What is the source in the Torah for Eruv Tavshilin? And what is the reason for it? A story is told of Rabbi Eliezer who was teaching all day on Yom Tov and gradually students started leaving to observe the commandment of Simchat Yom Tov. He was angry with them for leaving the beit midrash. He was very upset with them – why? What about the mitzva of Simchat Yom Tov? There is a dispute between him and Rabbi Yehoshua – Do you dedicate either the whole day for God (learning Torah) or the whole day for yourselves (meaning to sanctify the day by eating)? Or half for you and half for God?

אלא בקשין וכי הא דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע האי נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא

Rather, it is referring to hard clothes, upon which it is permitted to sit even if they are a mixture of wool and linen. And this is in accordance with the opinion that Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: With regard to this hard felt [namta] material produced in the town of Neresh, it is permitted to sit or recline on it, and one need not be concerned about the fact that it is a mixture of wool and linen.

אמר רב פפא ערדלין אין בהן משום כלאים אמר רבא הני צררי דפשיטי אין בהם משום כלאים דבזרני יש בהן משום כלאים רב אשי אמר אחד זה ואחד זה אין בהן משום כלאים לפי שאין דרך חמום בכך

Rav Pappa said: With regard to felt socks [ardalayin], there is no prohibition of diverse kinds regarding them, as they are hard. Rava said: These bundles for coins, comprised of hard fabric or felt, there is no prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to them. However, with regard to pouches for holding seeds, there is a prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to them, as they are larger and softer than both felt socks and hard bundles for coins. Rav Ashi said: Both this and that have no prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to them because using these items is not the usual manner of keeping warm. Even if these objects are placed close to one’s skin, this is not the usual way of wearing clothes and warming oneself, and therefore they are permitted.

אבל לא סנדל המסומר סנדל המסומר מאי טעמא לא משום מעשה שהיה

§ The mishna taught: However, one may not send a spiked sandalon a Festival. The Gemara asks: A spiked sandal, what is the reason that it may not be worn? The Gemara answers: It is due to an incident that occurred. A great tragedy resulted when people wore spiked sandals on Shabbat, which led the Sages to decree that these sandals may not be worn on a Shabbat or Festival.

אמר אביי סנדל המסומר אסור לנעלו ומותר לטלטלו אסור לנעלו משום מעשה שהיה ומותר לטלטלו מדקתני אין משלחין דאי סלקא דעתך אסור לטלטלו השתא לטלטולי אסור משלחין מבעיא

Abaye said: With regard to a spiked sandal, it is prohibited to wear it on Shabbat, but it is permitted to move it. He clarifies: It is prohibited to wear a spiked sandal, due to the incident that occurred. And it is permitted to move it, from the fact that the mishna teaches: One may not send. For if it enters your mind that it is prohibited even to move a spiked sandal, now consider: If it were prohibited to move it, is the mishna required to state that one may send it? Rather, it must certainly be permitted to move a spiked sandal inside the house, despite the fact that one may not wear it.

ולא מנעל שאינו תפור פשיטא לא נצרכא דאף על גב דנקיט בסיכי

The mishna further teaches: Nor may one send an unsewn shoe on a Festival. The Gemara asks: This is obvious, as these shoes are unfit for wearing. The Gemara answers: This statement was necessary only to teach that although the shoe is attached with pins and can be worn, it may not be sent on a Festival. Since it not properly sewn, it is not usually worn.

רבי יהודה אומר אף לא מנעל לבן תניא רבי יהודה מתיר בשחור ואוסר בלבן מפני שצריך ביצת הגיר רבי יוסי אוסר בשחור מפני שצריך לצחצחו

The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not even send a white shoe. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda permits the sending of a black shoe but prohibits the sending of a white one because a white one requires a lump of chalk to color it properly. Rabbi Yosei prohibits the sending of a black shoe because one needs to polish it.

ולא פליגי מר כי אתריה ומר כי אתריה באתריה דמר בשרא לתחת באתריה דמר בשרא לעיל

The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree with regard to the halakha, as this Sage ruled in accordance with the custom of his locale, and this Sage ruled differently, in accordance with the custom of his locale. In the place of this Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, the leather was made so that the side of the hide facing the flesh is on the underneath, facing the inside of the shoe, and therefore it does not require polishing; whereas in the place of that Sage, Rabbi Yosei, the leather was made so that side of the hide facing the flesh is above, facing the outside of the shoe. That side is often cracked and uneven and requires smoothing and polishing.

זה הכלל כל שנאותין בו ביום טוב רב ששת שרא להו לרבנן לשדורי תפלין ביומא טבא אמר ליה אביי והא אנן תנן כל שנאותין בו ביום טוב משלחין אותו הכי קאמר כל שנאותין בו בחול משלחין אותו ביום טוב

§ The mishna taught that this is the general principle: With regard to any article that one may use on a Festival, one may send it. The Gemara relates: Rav Sheshet permitted the Sages to send phylacteries on a Festival. Abaye said to him: But didn’t we learn in the mishna: With regard to any article that one may use on a Festival, one may send it? Phylacteries are not worn on Festivals. The Gemara answers: This is what the mishna is saying: With regard to any article that one may use on a weekday, one may send it on a Festival.

אמר אביי תפלין הואיל ואתו לידן נימא בהו מילתא היה בא בדרך ותפלין בראשו ושקעה עליו חמה מניח ידו עליהם עד שמגיע לביתו היה יושב בבית המדרש ותפלין בראשו וקדש עליו היום מניח ידו עליהן עד שמגיע לביתו

Abaye said: With regard to phylacteries, since this topic has come before us in the previous discussion, let us say a novel matter about it: If someone was coming on the road on the eve of a Shabbat or Festival, and he had phylacteries on his head, as the practice then was to don phylacteries the entire day, but not at night, and the sun set before he arrived at his destination, signaling the beginning of the Shabbat or Festival, when phylacteries may not be worn or even moved, he places his hand upon them to cover them so that people will not see them until he reaches his house, at which point he removes them. If he was sitting in the study hall with phylacteries on his head, and the day of Shabbat or the Festival was sanctified, for which he was unprepared, he places his hand upon them until he reaches his house.

מתיב רב הונא בריה דרב איקא היה בא בדרך ותפלין בראשו וקדש עליו היום מניח ידו עליהן עד שמגיע לבית הסמוך לחומה היה יושב בבית המדרש וקדש עליו היום מניח ידו עליהן עד שמגיע לבית הסמוך לבית המדרש

Rav Huna, son of Rav Ika, raised an objection from the following teaching: If one was coming on the road with phylacteries on his head, and the day was sanctified before he arrived at his destination, he places his hand upon them until he reaches the house nearest the wall, where he removes them and leaves them there. If he was sitting in the study hall, outside the city, and the day was sanctified, for which he was unprepared, he places his hand upon them until he reaches a house that is near the study hall, where there are people who can guard the phylacteries. This shows that one may not bring phylacteries all the way to his house, but only to the nearest place within the city boundary.

לא קשיא הא דמנטרא הא דלא מנטרא

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, which teaches that one places the phylacteries in the house nearest the wall, is referring to a case where the phylacteries can be safeguarded there, whereas that baraita, which states that he may bring them all the way to his house, deals with a situation where they are not safeguarded in the nearest house.

אי דלא מנטרא מאי איריא בראשו אפילו מחתן בארעא נמי דהא תנן המוצא תפלין מכניסן זוג זוג

The Gemara challenges this: If the baraita is dealing with a case where the phylacteries are not safeguarded, why discuss specifically the case of phylacteries that were on his head? Even if one was not donning them but found them placed on the ground, he should also be required to don them and bring them to the house, for didn’t we learn in a mishna (Eiruvin 95a): One who finds phylacteries lying in a field outside of the city on Shabbat should don them and bring them into the city one pair at a time?

לא קשיא הא דמנטרא מחמת גנבי ומחמת כלבי הא דמנטרא מחמת כלבי ולא מנטרא מחמת גנבי

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, where it was taught that one need not don the phylacteries if they were not already on his head, is referring to a situation where they are safeguarded from thieves and also from dogs. That mishna, which stated that even if one found them on the ground, he must put them on and bring them into the city, is referring to a case where they are safeguarded from dogs but are not safeguarded from thieves.

מהו דתימא רוב לסטים ישראל נינהו ולא מזלזלי בהו קא משמע לן

The Gemara clarifies the novel element of the mishna’s ruling. Lest you say: Since most thieves [listim] are Jews, who would not treat phylacteries with contempt, one should not be allowed to carry them because there is no danger that they will be desecrated if they are left in their place, the mishna teaches us that the halakha takes the minority of cases into account. It is therefore appropriate to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city.

הדרן עלך ביצה

 

מתני׳ יום טוב שחל להיות ערב שבת לא יבשל בתחלה מיום טוב לשבת אבל מבשל הוא ליום טוב ואם הותיר הותיר לשבת ועושה תבשיל מערב יום טוב וסומך עליו לשבת

MISHNA: With regard to a Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve, one may not cook on the Festival with the initial intent to cook for Shabbat. However, he may cook on that day for the Festival itself, and if he left over any food, he left it over for Shabbat. The early Sages also instituted an ordinance: The joining of cooked foods [eiruv tavshilin], which the mishna explains. One may prepare a cooked dish designated for Shabbat on a Festival eve and rely on it to cook on the Festival for Shabbat.

בית שמאי אומרים שני תבשילין ובית הלל אומרים תבשיל אחד ושוין בדג וביצה שעליו שהן שני תבשילין

The tanna’im disagreed with regard to the details of this ordinance: Beit Shammai say: For the purpose of the joining of cooked foods one must prepare two cooked dishes, and Beit Hillel say: One dish is sufficient. And they both agree with regard to a fish and the egg that is fried on it that these are considered two dishes for this purpose.

אכלו או שאבד לא יבשל עליו בתחלה ואם שייר ממנו כל שהוא סומך עליו לשבת

If one ate the food prepared before the Festival as an eiruv and none of it remained for Shabbat, or if it was lost, he may not rely on it and cook with the initial intent to cook for Shabbat. If he left any part of the eiruv, he may rely on it to cook for Shabbat.

גמ׳ מנא הני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא זכור את יום השבת לקדשו זכרהו מאחר שבא להשכיחו

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? What is the source of the halakha of the joining of cooked foods and of the halakha that one who failed to prepare such an eiruv may not cook on a Festival for Shabbat? Shmuel said that the source is as the verse states: “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8); from which he infers: Remember it and safeguard it from another day that comes to make it forgotten. When a Festival occurs on Friday, preoccupation with the Festival and the preparation and enjoyment of its meals could lead one to overlook Shabbat. Therefore, the Sages instituted an ordinance to ensure that Shabbat will be remembered even then.

מאי טעמא אמר רבא כדי שיברור מנה יפה לשבת ומנה יפה ליום טוב

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Sages instituted this ordinance in particular to ensure that Shabbat would not be overlooked? Rava said: The Sages did so in deference to Shabbat, and they instituted an eiruv so that one will select a choice portion for Shabbat and a choice portion for the Festival. If one fails to prepare a dish specifically for Shabbat before the Festival, it could lead to failure to show the appropriate deference to Shabbat.

רב אשי אמר כדי שיאמרו אין אופין מיום טוב לשבת קל וחומר מיום טוב לחול

Rav Ashi stated a different reason: The Sages did so in deference to the Festival, so that people will say: One may not bake on a Festival for Shabbat unless he began to bake the day before; all the more so, one may not bake on a Festival for a weekday.

תנן עושה תבשיל מערב יום טוב וסומך עליו לשבת בשלמא לרב אשי דאמר כדי שיאמרו אין אופין מיום טוב לשבת היינו דמערב יום טוב אין ביום טוב לא אלא לרבא מאי איריא מערב יום טוב אפילו ביום טוב נמי

We learned in the mishna: One may prepare a cooked dish on a Festival eve and rely on it to cook for Shabbat. Granted, according to Rav Ashi, who said that the reason for an eiruv is so that people will say: One may not bake on a Festival for Shabbat; that is why on a Festival eve, yes, one may prepare the eiruv, but on the Festival itself, no, one may not do so, as it is a reminder that in principle one may not cook on a Festival for Shabbat. However, according to Rava, who stated that the reason for the eiruv is to ensure that one selects choice portions for both the Festival and Shabbat, why does the mishna discuss specifically preparation on a Festival eve? Even were one to prepare a dish for Shabbat on the Festival as well, it would guarantee that he accord the appropriate deference to Shabbat.

אין הכי נמי אלא גזרה שמא יפשע

The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; that objective could have been achieved even on the Festival. However, the Sages issued a decree that the eiruv must be prepared on the Festival eve lest one be negligent and fail to prepare one entirely.

ותנא מייתי לה מהכא את אשר תאפו אפו ואת אשר תבשלו בשלו מכאן אמר רבי אליעזר אין אופין אלא על האפוי ואין מבשלין אלא על המבושל מכאן סמכו חכמים לערובי תבשילין מן התורה

The Gemara comments: And a tanna cites the proof for eiruv tavshilin from here, the following verse: “Tomorrow is a day of rest, a holy Shabbat to the Lord. Bake that which you will bake and cook that which you will cook, and all that remains put aside to be kept for you until the morning” (Exodus 16:23). From here Rabbi Eliezer said: One may bake on a Festival for Shabbat only by relying on that which was already baked for Shabbat the day before, and adding to it; and one may cook only by relying on that which was already cooked. From this verse the Sages established an allusion to the joining of cooked foods from the Torah.

תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר שהיה יושב ודורש כל היום כולו בהלכות יום טוב יצתה כת ראשונה אמר הללו בעלי פטסין כת שניה אמר הללו בעלי חביות כת שלישית אמר הללו בעלי כדין

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who was sitting and lecturing about the halakhot of the Festival throughout the entire Festival day. When the first group left in the middle of his lecture, he said: These must be owners of extremely large jugs [pittasin], who apparently have huge containers of wine awaiting them as well as a comparable amount of food, and they have left the house of study out of a craving for their food. After a while a second group departed. He said: These are owners of barrels, which are smaller than pittasin. Later a third group took its leave, and he said: These are owners of jugs, even smaller than barrels.

כת רביעית אמר הללו בעלי לגינין כת חמישית אמר הללו בעלי כוסות התחילו כת ששית לצאת אמר הללו בעלי מארה

A fourth group left, and he said: These are owners of jars [laginin], which are smaller than jugs. Upon the departure of a fifth group, he said: These are owners of cups, which are smaller still. When a sixth group began to leave, he became upset that the house of study was being left almost completely empty and said: These are owners of a curse; i.e., they obviously do not have anything at home, so why are they leaving?

נתן עיניו בתלמידים התחילו פניהם משתנין אמר להם בני לא לכם אני אומר אלא להללו שיצאו שמניחים חיי עולם ועוסקים בחיי שעה

He cast his eyes upon the students remaining in the house of study. Immediately, their faces began to change color out of shame, as they feared he was referring to them and that perhaps they should have departed along with the others instead of staying. He said to them: My sons, I did not say that about you but about those who left, because they abandon the eternal life of Torah and engage in the temporary life of eating.

בשעת פטירתן אמר להם לכו אכלו משמנים ושתו ממתקים ושלחו מנות לאין נכון לו כי קדוש היום לאדנינו ואל תעצבו כי חדות ה׳ היא מעזכם

At the time of the remaining students’ departure at the conclusion of Rabbi Eliezer’s lecture, he said to them the verse: “Go your way, eat the fat and drink the sweet, and send portions to him for whom nothing is prepared, for this day is holy to our Lord; and do not be grieved, for the joy of the Lord is your strength” (Nehemiah 8:10).

אמר מר שמניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה והא שמחת יום טוב מצוה היא רבי אליעזר לטעמיה דאמר שמחת יום טוב רשות

The Gemara clarifies this baraita. The Master said above: Because they abandon eternal life and engage in temporary life. The Gemara wonders at this: But isn’t the joy of the Festival itself a mitzva and therefore part of eternal life? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as he said: Physical joy on a Festival is merely optional.

דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר אין לו לאדם ביום טוב אלא או אוכל ושותה או יושב ושונה רבי יהושע אומר חלקהו חציו לה׳ וחציו לכם

As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: A person has no way of fulfilling the mitzva of a Festival correctly apart from either eating and drinking, thereby fulfilling the mitzva of joy in a completely physical manner, or sitting and studying Torah, thereby emphasizing only the spiritual; and those who did not engage in Torah study to the fullest extent acted inappropriately. Rabbi Yehoshua says: There is no need for such a dichotomy; rather, simply divide it: Half to God, Torah study, and half to yourselves, engaging in eating, drinking, and other pleasurable activities.

אמר רבי יוחנן ושניהם מקרא אחד דרשו כתוב אחד אומר עצרת לה׳ אלהיך וכתוב אחד אומר עצרת תהיה לכם הא כיצד רבי אליעזר סבר או כולו לה׳ או כולו לכם ורבי יהושע סבר חלקהו חציו לה׳ וחציו לכם

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And both of them derived their opinions from one verse, i.e., the two of them addressed the same apparent contradiction between two verses, resolving it in different ways. One verse states: “It shall be a solemn assembly for the Lord, your God” (Deuteronomy 16:8), indicating a Festival dedicated to the service of God, and one verse states: “It shall be a solemn assembly for you” (Numbers 29:35), indicating a celebratory assembly for the Jewish people. How is this to be reconciled? Rabbi Eliezer holds that the two verses should be understood as offering a choice: The day is to be either entirely for God, in accordance with the one verse, or entirely for you, as per the other verse; and Rabbi Yehoshua holds that it is possible to fulfill both verses: Split the day into two, half of it for God and half of it for you.

מאי לאין נכון לו אמר רב חסדא למי שלא הניח עירובי תבשילין איכא דאמרי מי שלא היה לו להניח עירובי תבשילין אבל מי שהיה לו להניח עירובי תבשילין ולא הניח פושע הוא

§ Since the baraita mentions the verse from Nehemiah, the Gemara poses the following question: What is the meaning of: “Send portions to him for whom nothing is prepared” (Nehemiah 8:10)? Rav Ḥisda said: Send to one who does not have food of his own prepared for Shabbat that follows the Festival because he did not prepare a joining of cooked foods and must therefore rely on others. Some say that he said the following: It is necessary to provide food for one who did not have an opportunity to prepare a joining of cooked foods on the eve of the Festival; but one who had an opportunity to prepare a joining of cooked foods and did not prepare one is negligent, and there is no obligation to care for him.

מאי כי חדות ה׳ היא מעזכם אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל בני לוו עלי וקדשו קדושת היום והאמינו בי ואני פורע

The Gemara poses another question with regard to the same verse: What is the meaning of: “For the joy of the Lord is your strength”? Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: My children, borrow on My account, and sanctify the sanctity of the day of Shabbat and the Festivals with wine, and trust in Me, and I will repay this debt.

ואמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון הרוצה שיתקיימו נכסיו יטע בהן אדר שנאמר אדיר במרום ה׳

Apropos the statement attributed to Rabbi Yoḥanan in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon, the Gemara cites another statement that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon: One who wants his properties to be preserved and protected from ruin should plant an eder tree among them, as it is stated: “The Lord on high is mighty [adir]” (Psalms 93:4). Due to the similarity of the words eder and adir, this is understood to mean that the eder tree bestows permanence.

אי נמי אדרא כשמיה כדאמרי אינשי מאי אדרא דקיימא לדרי דרי תניא נמי הכי שדה שיש בה אדר אינה נגזלת ואינה נחמסת ופירותיה משתמרין

Alternatively: The eder tree will preserve one’s property, as implied by its name, as people say: What is alluded to in the name of the eder? Its name hints that it endures for many generations [darei]. This is also taught in a baraita: A field that contains an eder tree will be neither stolen nor forcibly removed from one’s possession, as the eder serves as a clear indication of its owner, and its fruit is preserved, as the unique odor of the eder sap wards off insects.

תני רב תחליפא אחוה דרבנאי חוזאה

§ The Gemara returns to the previous issue: Rav Taḥlifa, brother of Ravnai Ḥoza’a, taught:

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Beitzah 15

אלא בקשין וכי הא דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע האי נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא

Rather, it is referring to hard clothes, upon which it is permitted to sit even if they are a mixture of wool and linen. And this is in accordance with the opinion that Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: With regard to this hard felt [namta] material produced in the town of Neresh, it is permitted to sit or recline on it, and one need not be concerned about the fact that it is a mixture of wool and linen.

אמר רב פפא ערדלין אין בהן משום כלאים אמר רבא הני צררי דפשיטי אין בהם משום כלאים דבזרני יש בהן משום כלאים רב אשי אמר אחד זה ואחד זה אין בהן משום כלאים לפי שאין דרך חמום בכך

Rav Pappa said: With regard to felt socks [ardalayin], there is no prohibition of diverse kinds regarding them, as they are hard. Rava said: These bundles for coins, comprised of hard fabric or felt, there is no prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to them. However, with regard to pouches for holding seeds, there is a prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to them, as they are larger and softer than both felt socks and hard bundles for coins. Rav Ashi said: Both this and that have no prohibition of diverse kinds with regard to them because using these items is not the usual manner of keeping warm. Even if these objects are placed close to one’s skin, this is not the usual way of wearing clothes and warming oneself, and therefore they are permitted.

אבל לא סנדל המסומר סנדל המסומר מאי טעמא לא משום מעשה שהיה

§ The mishna taught: However, one may not send a spiked sandalon a Festival. The Gemara asks: A spiked sandal, what is the reason that it may not be worn? The Gemara answers: It is due to an incident that occurred. A great tragedy resulted when people wore spiked sandals on Shabbat, which led the Sages to decree that these sandals may not be worn on a Shabbat or Festival.

אמר אביי סנדל המסומר אסור לנעלו ומותר לטלטלו אסור לנעלו משום מעשה שהיה ומותר לטלטלו מדקתני אין משלחין דאי סלקא דעתך אסור לטלטלו השתא לטלטולי אסור משלחין מבעיא

Abaye said: With regard to a spiked sandal, it is prohibited to wear it on Shabbat, but it is permitted to move it. He clarifies: It is prohibited to wear a spiked sandal, due to the incident that occurred. And it is permitted to move it, from the fact that the mishna teaches: One may not send. For if it enters your mind that it is prohibited even to move a spiked sandal, now consider: If it were prohibited to move it, is the mishna required to state that one may send it? Rather, it must certainly be permitted to move a spiked sandal inside the house, despite the fact that one may not wear it.

ולא מנעל שאינו תפור פשיטא לא נצרכא דאף על גב דנקיט בסיכי

The mishna further teaches: Nor may one send an unsewn shoe on a Festival. The Gemara asks: This is obvious, as these shoes are unfit for wearing. The Gemara answers: This statement was necessary only to teach that although the shoe is attached with pins and can be worn, it may not be sent on a Festival. Since it not properly sewn, it is not usually worn.

רבי יהודה אומר אף לא מנעל לבן תניא רבי יהודה מתיר בשחור ואוסר בלבן מפני שצריך ביצת הגיר רבי יוסי אוסר בשחור מפני שצריך לצחצחו

The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda says: One may not even send a white shoe. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda permits the sending of a black shoe but prohibits the sending of a white one because a white one requires a lump of chalk to color it properly. Rabbi Yosei prohibits the sending of a black shoe because one needs to polish it.

ולא פליגי מר כי אתריה ומר כי אתריה באתריה דמר בשרא לתחת באתריה דמר בשרא לעיל

The Gemara comments: And they do not disagree with regard to the halakha, as this Sage ruled in accordance with the custom of his locale, and this Sage ruled differently, in accordance with the custom of his locale. In the place of this Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, the leather was made so that the side of the hide facing the flesh is on the underneath, facing the inside of the shoe, and therefore it does not require polishing; whereas in the place of that Sage, Rabbi Yosei, the leather was made so that side of the hide facing the flesh is above, facing the outside of the shoe. That side is often cracked and uneven and requires smoothing and polishing.

זה הכלל כל שנאותין בו ביום טוב רב ששת שרא להו לרבנן לשדורי תפלין ביומא טבא אמר ליה אביי והא אנן תנן כל שנאותין בו ביום טוב משלחין אותו הכי קאמר כל שנאותין בו בחול משלחין אותו ביום טוב

§ The mishna taught that this is the general principle: With regard to any article that one may use on a Festival, one may send it. The Gemara relates: Rav Sheshet permitted the Sages to send phylacteries on a Festival. Abaye said to him: But didn’t we learn in the mishna: With regard to any article that one may use on a Festival, one may send it? Phylacteries are not worn on Festivals. The Gemara answers: This is what the mishna is saying: With regard to any article that one may use on a weekday, one may send it on a Festival.

אמר אביי תפלין הואיל ואתו לידן נימא בהו מילתא היה בא בדרך ותפלין בראשו ושקעה עליו חמה מניח ידו עליהם עד שמגיע לביתו היה יושב בבית המדרש ותפלין בראשו וקדש עליו היום מניח ידו עליהן עד שמגיע לביתו

Abaye said: With regard to phylacteries, since this topic has come before us in the previous discussion, let us say a novel matter about it: If someone was coming on the road on the eve of a Shabbat or Festival, and he had phylacteries on his head, as the practice then was to don phylacteries the entire day, but not at night, and the sun set before he arrived at his destination, signaling the beginning of the Shabbat or Festival, when phylacteries may not be worn or even moved, he places his hand upon them to cover them so that people will not see them until he reaches his house, at which point he removes them. If he was sitting in the study hall with phylacteries on his head, and the day of Shabbat or the Festival was sanctified, for which he was unprepared, he places his hand upon them until he reaches his house.

מתיב רב הונא בריה דרב איקא היה בא בדרך ותפלין בראשו וקדש עליו היום מניח ידו עליהן עד שמגיע לבית הסמוך לחומה היה יושב בבית המדרש וקדש עליו היום מניח ידו עליהן עד שמגיע לבית הסמוך לבית המדרש

Rav Huna, son of Rav Ika, raised an objection from the following teaching: If one was coming on the road with phylacteries on his head, and the day was sanctified before he arrived at his destination, he places his hand upon them until he reaches the house nearest the wall, where he removes them and leaves them there. If he was sitting in the study hall, outside the city, and the day was sanctified, for which he was unprepared, he places his hand upon them until he reaches a house that is near the study hall, where there are people who can guard the phylacteries. This shows that one may not bring phylacteries all the way to his house, but only to the nearest place within the city boundary.

לא קשיא הא דמנטרא הא דלא מנטרא

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, which teaches that one places the phylacteries in the house nearest the wall, is referring to a case where the phylacteries can be safeguarded there, whereas that baraita, which states that he may bring them all the way to his house, deals with a situation where they are not safeguarded in the nearest house.

אי דלא מנטרא מאי איריא בראשו אפילו מחתן בארעא נמי דהא תנן המוצא תפלין מכניסן זוג זוג

The Gemara challenges this: If the baraita is dealing with a case where the phylacteries are not safeguarded, why discuss specifically the case of phylacteries that were on his head? Even if one was not donning them but found them placed on the ground, he should also be required to don them and bring them to the house, for didn’t we learn in a mishna (Eiruvin 95a): One who finds phylacteries lying in a field outside of the city on Shabbat should don them and bring them into the city one pair at a time?

לא קשיא הא דמנטרא מחמת גנבי ומחמת כלבי הא דמנטרא מחמת כלבי ולא מנטרא מחמת גנבי

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This baraita, where it was taught that one need not don the phylacteries if they were not already on his head, is referring to a situation where they are safeguarded from thieves and also from dogs. That mishna, which stated that even if one found them on the ground, he must put them on and bring them into the city, is referring to a case where they are safeguarded from dogs but are not safeguarded from thieves.

מהו דתימא רוב לסטים ישראל נינהו ולא מזלזלי בהו קא משמע לן

The Gemara clarifies the novel element of the mishna’s ruling. Lest you say: Since most thieves [listim] are Jews, who would not treat phylacteries with contempt, one should not be allowed to carry them because there is no danger that they will be desecrated if they are left in their place, the mishna teaches us that the halakha takes the minority of cases into account. It is therefore appropriate to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city.

הדרן עלך ביצה

 

מתני׳ יום טוב שחל להיות ערב שבת לא יבשל בתחלה מיום טוב לשבת אבל מבשל הוא ליום טוב ואם הותיר הותיר לשבת ועושה תבשיל מערב יום טוב וסומך עליו לשבת

MISHNA: With regard to a Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve, one may not cook on the Festival with the initial intent to cook for Shabbat. However, he may cook on that day for the Festival itself, and if he left over any food, he left it over for Shabbat. The early Sages also instituted an ordinance: The joining of cooked foods [eiruv tavshilin], which the mishna explains. One may prepare a cooked dish designated for Shabbat on a Festival eve and rely on it to cook on the Festival for Shabbat.

בית שמאי אומרים שני תבשילין ובית הלל אומרים תבשיל אחד ושוין בדג וביצה שעליו שהן שני תבשילין

The tanna’im disagreed with regard to the details of this ordinance: Beit Shammai say: For the purpose of the joining of cooked foods one must prepare two cooked dishes, and Beit Hillel say: One dish is sufficient. And they both agree with regard to a fish and the egg that is fried on it that these are considered two dishes for this purpose.

אכלו או שאבד לא יבשל עליו בתחלה ואם שייר ממנו כל שהוא סומך עליו לשבת

If one ate the food prepared before the Festival as an eiruv and none of it remained for Shabbat, or if it was lost, he may not rely on it and cook with the initial intent to cook for Shabbat. If he left any part of the eiruv, he may rely on it to cook for Shabbat.

גמ׳ מנא הני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא זכור את יום השבת לקדשו זכרהו מאחר שבא להשכיחו

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? What is the source of the halakha of the joining of cooked foods and of the halakha that one who failed to prepare such an eiruv may not cook on a Festival for Shabbat? Shmuel said that the source is as the verse states: “Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8); from which he infers: Remember it and safeguard it from another day that comes to make it forgotten. When a Festival occurs on Friday, preoccupation with the Festival and the preparation and enjoyment of its meals could lead one to overlook Shabbat. Therefore, the Sages instituted an ordinance to ensure that Shabbat will be remembered even then.

מאי טעמא אמר רבא כדי שיברור מנה יפה לשבת ומנה יפה ליום טוב

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Sages instituted this ordinance in particular to ensure that Shabbat would not be overlooked? Rava said: The Sages did so in deference to Shabbat, and they instituted an eiruv so that one will select a choice portion for Shabbat and a choice portion for the Festival. If one fails to prepare a dish specifically for Shabbat before the Festival, it could lead to failure to show the appropriate deference to Shabbat.

רב אשי אמר כדי שיאמרו אין אופין מיום טוב לשבת קל וחומר מיום טוב לחול

Rav Ashi stated a different reason: The Sages did so in deference to the Festival, so that people will say: One may not bake on a Festival for Shabbat unless he began to bake the day before; all the more so, one may not bake on a Festival for a weekday.

תנן עושה תבשיל מערב יום טוב וסומך עליו לשבת בשלמא לרב אשי דאמר כדי שיאמרו אין אופין מיום טוב לשבת היינו דמערב יום טוב אין ביום טוב לא אלא לרבא מאי איריא מערב יום טוב אפילו ביום טוב נמי

We learned in the mishna: One may prepare a cooked dish on a Festival eve and rely on it to cook for Shabbat. Granted, according to Rav Ashi, who said that the reason for an eiruv is so that people will say: One may not bake on a Festival for Shabbat; that is why on a Festival eve, yes, one may prepare the eiruv, but on the Festival itself, no, one may not do so, as it is a reminder that in principle one may not cook on a Festival for Shabbat. However, according to Rava, who stated that the reason for the eiruv is to ensure that one selects choice portions for both the Festival and Shabbat, why does the mishna discuss specifically preparation on a Festival eve? Even were one to prepare a dish for Shabbat on the Festival as well, it would guarantee that he accord the appropriate deference to Shabbat.

אין הכי נמי אלא גזרה שמא יפשע

The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; that objective could have been achieved even on the Festival. However, the Sages issued a decree that the eiruv must be prepared on the Festival eve lest one be negligent and fail to prepare one entirely.

ותנא מייתי לה מהכא את אשר תאפו אפו ואת אשר תבשלו בשלו מכאן אמר רבי אליעזר אין אופין אלא על האפוי ואין מבשלין אלא על המבושל מכאן סמכו חכמים לערובי תבשילין מן התורה

The Gemara comments: And a tanna cites the proof for eiruv tavshilin from here, the following verse: “Tomorrow is a day of rest, a holy Shabbat to the Lord. Bake that which you will bake and cook that which you will cook, and all that remains put aside to be kept for you until the morning” (Exodus 16:23). From here Rabbi Eliezer said: One may bake on a Festival for Shabbat only by relying on that which was already baked for Shabbat the day before, and adding to it; and one may cook only by relying on that which was already cooked. From this verse the Sages established an allusion to the joining of cooked foods from the Torah.

תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר שהיה יושב ודורש כל היום כולו בהלכות יום טוב יצתה כת ראשונה אמר הללו בעלי פטסין כת שניה אמר הללו בעלי חביות כת שלישית אמר הללו בעלי כדין

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who was sitting and lecturing about the halakhot of the Festival throughout the entire Festival day. When the first group left in the middle of his lecture, he said: These must be owners of extremely large jugs [pittasin], who apparently have huge containers of wine awaiting them as well as a comparable amount of food, and they have left the house of study out of a craving for their food. After a while a second group departed. He said: These are owners of barrels, which are smaller than pittasin. Later a third group took its leave, and he said: These are owners of jugs, even smaller than barrels.

כת רביעית אמר הללו בעלי לגינין כת חמישית אמר הללו בעלי כוסות התחילו כת ששית לצאת אמר הללו בעלי מארה

A fourth group left, and he said: These are owners of jars [laginin], which are smaller than jugs. Upon the departure of a fifth group, he said: These are owners of cups, which are smaller still. When a sixth group began to leave, he became upset that the house of study was being left almost completely empty and said: These are owners of a curse; i.e., they obviously do not have anything at home, so why are they leaving?

נתן עיניו בתלמידים התחילו פניהם משתנין אמר להם בני לא לכם אני אומר אלא להללו שיצאו שמניחים חיי עולם ועוסקים בחיי שעה

He cast his eyes upon the students remaining in the house of study. Immediately, their faces began to change color out of shame, as they feared he was referring to them and that perhaps they should have departed along with the others instead of staying. He said to them: My sons, I did not say that about you but about those who left, because they abandon the eternal life of Torah and engage in the temporary life of eating.

בשעת פטירתן אמר להם לכו אכלו משמנים ושתו ממתקים ושלחו מנות לאין נכון לו כי קדוש היום לאדנינו ואל תעצבו כי חדות ה׳ היא מעזכם

At the time of the remaining students’ departure at the conclusion of Rabbi Eliezer’s lecture, he said to them the verse: “Go your way, eat the fat and drink the sweet, and send portions to him for whom nothing is prepared, for this day is holy to our Lord; and do not be grieved, for the joy of the Lord is your strength” (Nehemiah 8:10).

אמר מר שמניחין חיי עולם ועוסקין בחיי שעה והא שמחת יום טוב מצוה היא רבי אליעזר לטעמיה דאמר שמחת יום טוב רשות

The Gemara clarifies this baraita. The Master said above: Because they abandon eternal life and engage in temporary life. The Gemara wonders at this: But isn’t the joy of the Festival itself a mitzva and therefore part of eternal life? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer conforms to his standard line of reasoning, as he said: Physical joy on a Festival is merely optional.

דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר אין לו לאדם ביום טוב אלא או אוכל ושותה או יושב ושונה רבי יהושע אומר חלקהו חציו לה׳ וחציו לכם

As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: A person has no way of fulfilling the mitzva of a Festival correctly apart from either eating and drinking, thereby fulfilling the mitzva of joy in a completely physical manner, or sitting and studying Torah, thereby emphasizing only the spiritual; and those who did not engage in Torah study to the fullest extent acted inappropriately. Rabbi Yehoshua says: There is no need for such a dichotomy; rather, simply divide it: Half to God, Torah study, and half to yourselves, engaging in eating, drinking, and other pleasurable activities.

אמר רבי יוחנן ושניהם מקרא אחד דרשו כתוב אחד אומר עצרת לה׳ אלהיך וכתוב אחד אומר עצרת תהיה לכם הא כיצד רבי אליעזר סבר או כולו לה׳ או כולו לכם ורבי יהושע סבר חלקהו חציו לה׳ וחציו לכם

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And both of them derived their opinions from one verse, i.e., the two of them addressed the same apparent contradiction between two verses, resolving it in different ways. One verse states: “It shall be a solemn assembly for the Lord, your God” (Deuteronomy 16:8), indicating a Festival dedicated to the service of God, and one verse states: “It shall be a solemn assembly for you” (Numbers 29:35), indicating a celebratory assembly for the Jewish people. How is this to be reconciled? Rabbi Eliezer holds that the two verses should be understood as offering a choice: The day is to be either entirely for God, in accordance with the one verse, or entirely for you, as per the other verse; and Rabbi Yehoshua holds that it is possible to fulfill both verses: Split the day into two, half of it for God and half of it for you.

מאי לאין נכון לו אמר רב חסדא למי שלא הניח עירובי תבשילין איכא דאמרי מי שלא היה לו להניח עירובי תבשילין אבל מי שהיה לו להניח עירובי תבשילין ולא הניח פושע הוא

§ Since the baraita mentions the verse from Nehemiah, the Gemara poses the following question: What is the meaning of: “Send portions to him for whom nothing is prepared” (Nehemiah 8:10)? Rav Ḥisda said: Send to one who does not have food of his own prepared for Shabbat that follows the Festival because he did not prepare a joining of cooked foods and must therefore rely on others. Some say that he said the following: It is necessary to provide food for one who did not have an opportunity to prepare a joining of cooked foods on the eve of the Festival; but one who had an opportunity to prepare a joining of cooked foods and did not prepare one is negligent, and there is no obligation to care for him.

מאי כי חדות ה׳ היא מעזכם אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל בני לוו עלי וקדשו קדושת היום והאמינו בי ואני פורע

The Gemara poses another question with regard to the same verse: What is the meaning of: “For the joy of the Lord is your strength”? Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: My children, borrow on My account, and sanctify the sanctity of the day of Shabbat and the Festivals with wine, and trust in Me, and I will repay this debt.

ואמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון הרוצה שיתקיימו נכסיו יטע בהן אדר שנאמר אדיר במרום ה׳

Apropos the statement attributed to Rabbi Yoḥanan in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon, the Gemara cites another statement that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon: One who wants his properties to be preserved and protected from ruin should plant an eder tree among them, as it is stated: “The Lord on high is mighty [adir]” (Psalms 93:4). Due to the similarity of the words eder and adir, this is understood to mean that the eder tree bestows permanence.

אי נמי אדרא כשמיה כדאמרי אינשי מאי אדרא דקיימא לדרי דרי תניא נמי הכי שדה שיש בה אדר אינה נגזלת ואינה נחמסת ופירותיה משתמרין

Alternatively: The eder tree will preserve one’s property, as implied by its name, as people say: What is alluded to in the name of the eder? Its name hints that it endures for many generations [darei]. This is also taught in a baraita: A field that contains an eder tree will be neither stolen nor forcibly removed from one’s possession, as the eder serves as a clear indication of its owner, and its fruit is preserved, as the unique odor of the eder sap wards off insects.

תני רב תחליפא אחוה דרבנאי חוזאה

§ The Gemara returns to the previous issue: Rav Taḥlifa, brother of Ravnai Ḥoza’a, taught:

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