Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

April 24, 2019 | ื™ืดื˜ ื‘ื ื™ืกืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Bekhorot 8

The gemara compares different types of fish. A braita is quoted which discusses the gestation period of different animals. relating to gestation periods, a story is brought about a question posed by the Roman emperor to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Chanania which brings Rabbi Yehoshua ben Chanania to debate the wise men of Athens who pose 12 riddles to him. He defeats them with his intelligence and wit.


If the lesson doesn't play, click "Download"

ื”ื“ื•ืœืคื ื™ืŸ ืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžืื™ ื“ื•ืœืคื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืžื

The dulfanin reproduce like people. The Gemara asks: What are dulfanin? Rav Yehuda says: They are creatures that are called sons of the sea.

ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืฆื™ื• ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืคื ื™ื ืžื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื

The baraita continues: In the case of any male animal whose testicles are external, the female gives birth to live offspring, and in the case of any male animal whose testicles are internal, the female lays eggs.

ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื•ื•ื– ื•ืื•ื•ื– ื‘ืจ ื›ืœืื™ื ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ื•ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื• ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื• ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ื•ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But doesnโ€™t Shmuel say that a domestic goose and a wild goose are considered diverse kinds, and one may not mate them with each other. And we discussed it: What is the reason? Abaye said: In the case of this one, the male wild goose, its testicles are external, and in the case of that one, the domestic goose, its testicles are internal. The Gemara comments: And yet both geese lay eggs. Evidently, the fact that the maleโ€™s testicles are external does not prove that the female gives birth.

ืืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื–ื›ืจื•ืชื• ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ืžื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื

Rather, the baraita must mean the following: With regard to any animal whose male reproductive organ is external, the female gives birth, and in the case of any male animal whose reproductive organ is internal, the female lays eggs. Although the testicles of the male wild goose are external, its reproductive organ is internal.

ื›ืœ ืฉืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืœ ืฉืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื”

ยง The baraita continues to discuss matters of animal procreation: Any species whose sexual intercourse occurs only during the daytime gives birth only during the daytime; any species whose intercourse occurs only at night gives birth only at night; any species whose intercourse occurs both during the daytime and at night gives birth both during the daytime and at night.

ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืขื˜ืœืฃ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืื“ื ื•ื›ืœ ื“ื“ืžื™ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara elaborates: The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs during the daytime gives birth during the daytime is referring to a chicken. The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs at night gives birth at night is referring to a bat. The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs both during the daytime and at night gives birth both during the daytime and at night is referring to a human and any creature that is similar to him.

ืœืžืื™ ื ืคืงื ืžื™ื ื” ืœื›ื“ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื‘ื“ืง ื‘ืงื™ื ื” ืฉืœ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืœื ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื” ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ื”ืฉื›ื™ื ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืžื•ืชืจืช ื‘ืื›ื™ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ืžืจ ืœื ื‘ื“ืง ื™ืคื”

The Gemara asks: What halakhic difference is there whether an animal gives birth during the daytime or at night? The Gemara answers: The difference is with regard to that which Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said. As Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said: If one examined a chickenโ€™s nest on a Festival eve and did not find an egg in it, and the following day, on the Festival, he rose early, before dawn, and found an egg in it, consumption of the egg is permitted on the Festival. It is not considered an egg that was laid on the Festival, which is forbidden (see Beitza 2a), as chickens do not lay eggs at night. Although he examined the nest before the Festival and failed to find an egg there, one is compelled to say that he did not examine the nest carefully.

ื•ื”ืœื ื‘ื“ืง ื™ืคื” ืื™ืžืจ ื™ืฆืชื” ืจื•ื‘ื” ื•ื—ื–ืจื” ื”ื•ื” ื•ื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืฉื™ืฆืชื” ืจื•ื‘ื” ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœืื•ื›ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘

The Gemara challenges: But he did examine the nest carefully, as the baraita states that he examined it. The Gemara explains: One must say that this was a case where most of the egg emerged on the eve of the Festival and returned inside its mother before the examination. And this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, as Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: In a case where most of the egg emerged on the eve of the Festival and returned inside its mother it is permitted to eat it on the Festival, as once most of it emerged it is considered to have been laid already.

ื›ืœ ืฉืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื•ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื•ื” ื™ื•ืœื“ื™ื ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื–ื” ืžื–ื” ื”ื›ืœ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืคื ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ืขื•ืจืฃ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืฉืœืฉื” ืฉืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืคื ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ืคื ื™ื ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื“ื’ ื•ืื“ื ื•ื ื—ืฉ

ยง The baraita continues: Any two animals of different species whose manner of intercourse and time of gestation are identical can have offspring together and can raise, i.e., nurse, the young of each other. With regard to the manner of intercourse, all species engage in intercourse with the face of the male opposite the back of the neck of the female, meaning that the male comes from behind the female, except for three species that engage in intercourse face-to-face, and they are these: Fish, and humans, and the snake.

ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ืชืœืชื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื“ื™ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื”ื ืฉื›ื™ื ื”

The Gemara asks: And what is different about these three? When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he reported that they say in the West, Eretz Yisrael, the following explanation: They are different because the Divine Presence spoke with them. This occurred when the fish swallowed the prophet Jonah (see Jonah 2:11), when Adam and other prophets were spoken to by God, and when the snake caused Adam and Eve to sin (see Genesis 3:14).

ืชื ื ื’ืžืœ ืื—ื•ืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืื—ื•ืจ

A tanna taught: A camel engages in intercourse back to back with its mate.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืœืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืœื•ื– ื›ืœื‘ ืœื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืื™ื ื” ื—ืชื•ืœ ืœื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชื•ืช ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืœืฉืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืคื•ื— ืฉื•ืขืœ ื•ื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ ืฉืจืฆื™ื ืฉืฉื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชื‘ื•ืื”

ยง The Gemara cites a baraita that discusses the length of gestation for various animals. The Sages taught that a chicken hatches after twenty-one days, and corresponding to it in length of gestation with regard to trees is the almond, which ripens twenty-one days after the budding of the flower. A dog gives birth after fifty days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the fig. A cat gives birth after fifty-two days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the mulberry. A pig gives birth after sixty days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the apple. A fox and all types of creeping animals give birth after six months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees, i.e., plants, is grain.

ื‘ื”ืžื” ื“ืงื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืœื—ืžืฉื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื’ืคืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื’ืกื” ื˜ืžืื” ืœืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื“ืงืœ ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืœืชืฉืขื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื–ื™ืช ื”ื–ืื‘ ื•ื”ืืจื™ ื•ื”ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ื ืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื“ืœืก ื•ื”ืคื™ืœ ื•ื”ืงื•ืฃ ื•ื”ืงื™ืคื•ืฃ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื‘ื ื•ืช ืฉื•ื—

Small kosher livestock, such as sheep or goats, give birth after five months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the grapevine. Large non-kosher livestock, such as camels or donkeys, give birth after twelve months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the date palm. Large kosher livestock, such as cows, give birth after nine months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the olive. The wolf, and the lion, and the bear, and the leopard, and the bardelas, and the elephant, and the monkey, and the long-tailed ape give birth after three years, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the white fig.

ืืคืขื” ืœืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื—ืจื•ื‘ ื—ืจื•ื‘ ื–ื” ืžืฉืขืช ื ื˜ื™ืขืชื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืช ื’ืžืจ ืคื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ื™ืžื™ ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื ื—ืฉ ืœืฉื‘ืข ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืœืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ื• ื—ื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื•ื›ืกืกื™ื

The baraita continues: A viper gives birth after seventy years, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the carob. In the case of this carob, the period from the time of its planting until the time of the ripening of its fruit is seventy years, and the length of its gestation is three years. A snake is born after seven years, and for that wicked animal we have not found a counterpart among trees. And some say that mukhsasim are the equivalent, as they ripen after seven years.

ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื•ืžื˜ื• ื‘ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืจื•ืจ ืืชื” ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ืžื›ืœ ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉื“ื” ืื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ื ืชืงืœืœื” ืžื—ื™ื” ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

The Gemara asks: From where is this matter, that the gestation period of a snake is seven years, derived? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says, and some determined it to be in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: It is derived from that which is stated with regard to the punishment of the snake for causing Adam and Eve to sin: โ€œCursed are you from among all animals, and from among all beasts of the fieldโ€ (Genesis 3:14), in that your gestation period should be longer than all of them. Now, why does the verse mention the beasts of the field, i.e., undomesticated animals? If the snake was cursed more than the domesticated animals, then all the more so is it not clear that it was cursed more than the undomesticated animals? The shortest gestation period of domesticated animals, which is five months for a goat, is longer than the shortest gestation period among undomesticated animals, which is fifty-two days for a cat.

ืืœื ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ื›ืฉื ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื—ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื‘ืขื” ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื—ืชื•ืœ ื›ืš ื ืชืงืœืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืื—ืช ืœืฉื‘ืข ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืฉื‘ ืฉื ื™

Rather, the verse mentions the beasts of the field to tell you: Just as the domesticated animals were cursed more than the undomesticated animals by a proportion of one to seven; the Gemara interjects: And with regard to what case is that? It is with regard to a donkey, whose gestation period as mentioned is twelve months, compared to a cat, whose gestation period is fifty-two days. Seven times longer than fifty-two days is 364 days, which means that the gestation period of the donkey, which is one year, is almost exactly seven times longer than that of the cat. Rav Yehuda continues: So too, the snake was cursed more than domesticated animals, i.e., the donkey, in a proportion of one to seven, which is a total of seven years.

ืื™ืžื ื›ืฉื ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ื—ื™ื” ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืื—ืช ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืืจื™ ืžื—ืžื•ืจ ื›ืš ื ืชืงืœืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื™ื” ืื—ืช ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืชืฉืข ืฉื ื™ื

The Gemara challenges: Say that the verse can be interpreted as follows: Just as the undomesticated animals were cursed more than the domesticated animals by a measure of one year to three years; the Gemara interjects: And in what case is that? It is in the case of a lion, whose gestation period is three years, compared to a donkey, whose gestation period is one year. The Gemara continues its challenge: So too, the snake was cursed more than the undomesticated animals, i.e., the lion, by a proportion of one year to three years, which is nine years.

ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื” ื•ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ืžื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ืžื—ื™ื”

The Gemara responds: Is it written: Cursed are you from among all beasts, and from among all animals? No, it is written: โ€œFrom among all animals, and from among all beasts,โ€ meaning that it is cursed from among the domesticated animals, which were cursed from among the undomesticated animals.

ื•ืื™ืžื ื›ืฉื ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื—ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืœืฉืœืฉ ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืขื– ืžื—ืชื•ืœ ื›ืš ื ืชืงืœืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืื—ื“ ืœืฉืœืฉ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื—ืžื™ืกืจ ื™ืจื—ื™

The Gemara challenges: Why must it mean that the snake was cursed more than the donkey in the same proportion that the donkey was cursed more than the cat? But say instead that just as the domesticated animals were cursed more than the undomesticated animals by a measure of one to three; the Gemara interjects: And in what case is that? It is in the case of a goat, whose gestation period is five months, compared to a cat, whose gestation period is fifty-two days. The Gemara continues its challenge: So too, the snake was cursed more than the domesticated animals, i.e., the goat, by a proportion of one to three, which is fifteen months.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืงืœืœื” ื”ื•ื ืงืœืœื” ืฉื“ื™ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื”

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that it is written: โ€œCursed are you from among all animals,โ€ including the most accursed of them, i.e., the donkey. If you wish, say instead that since it is a curse that the snake received here, the verse imposes upon it the most extreme curse that can be derived from the text.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื ื—ืฉ ืœื›ืžื” ืžื™ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืฉื‘ ืฉื ื™ ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืืชื•ื ื ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืื•ืœื™ื“ ืœืชืœืช ื”ื ื”ื• ืžื™ืขื‘ืจื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืืจื‘ืข ื•ื”ื ืงืžืฉืžืฉื™ ืฉืžื•ืฉื™ ืื™ื ื”ื• ื ืžื™ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ ื›ืื“ื

ยง With regard to the gestation time of a snake, the Gemara relates that the Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: In the case of a snake, after how long a period of gestation does it give birth? Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya said to him: After seven years. The emperor said to him: But the elders, i.e., the sages, of the school of Athens bred snakes and they gave birth after three years. Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya responded: Those snakes were already pregnant from beforehand for four years. The emperor asked: But they engaged in intercourse, and animals do so only in order to give birth, not when they are already pregnant. Rabbi Yehoshua responded: Snakes also engage in intercourse like people, i.e., they do not do so solely for reproduction.

ื•ื”ื ื—ื›ื™ืžื™ ืื™ื ื”ื• ืื ืŸ ื—ื›ื™ืžื™ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ ื—ื›ื™ืžืช ื–ื™ืœ ื–ื›ื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืื™ืชื™ื ื”ื• ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื• ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื™

The emperor said to him: But how can you disagree with the sages of Athens? Arenโ€™t they wise? Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya responded: We are wiser than they. The emperor said: If you are wiser than they, then go defeat them in debate and bring them to me. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: How many are there? The emperor answered: Sixty men.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื™ ืกืคื™ื ืชื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ ื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืกืชืจืงื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœื”ืชื ืœื‘ื™ ื˜ื‘ื—ื ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงื ืคืฉื™ื˜ ื—ื™ื•ืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉืš ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืคืœื’ื ื“ื–ื•ื–ื ื™ื”ื‘ ืœื™ื”

Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya said to him: Construct a ship that has sixty rooms for me, and each room should have sixty mattresses [bistarkei] in it. The emperor constructed it for him. Rabbi Yehoshua then set out on the ship for Athens. When he arrived there, he entered a butcher shop and found a certain man, the butcher, flaying an animal. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Is your head for sale? The butcher said to him: Yes it is. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: For how much is it being sold? The butcher said to him: For half a dinar. Rabbi Yehoshua gave him the money.

ืœืกื•ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืจื™ืฉื ื“ื—ื™ื•ืชื ืืžืจื™ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ื“ืืฉื‘ืงืš ืกื’ื™ ืื—ื•ื™ ืœื™ ืคื™ืชื—ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืชื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืกืชืคื™ื ื ื“ื›ืœ ื“ืžื—ื•ื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื™ ื›ืจื™ื›ื ื“ืงื ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื™ืช ืœื”ืชื ื–ืงืคื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืงื ืžืชืคื—

After Rabbi Yehoshua paid the butcher, he said to him: Did I say to you that I wanted the head of the animal? I was referring to your head, and you must now keep your word and give me your head. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: If you wish for me to let you be, go and show me the entrance to the school of the sages of Athens. The butcher said to him: I am afraid, as they kill anyone who shows its location to another. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Carry a bundle of reeds, and when you arrive there, stand it up like one who is resting, to mark the location. The butcher did this, and Rabbi Yehoshua successfully found the entrance.

ืืฉื›ื— ื“ืจื‘ื ืื™ ืžื’ื•ืื™ ื•ื“ืจื‘ื ืื™ ืžื‘ืจืื™ ื“ืื™ ื—ื–ื• ื›ืจืขื ื“ืขื™ื™ืœื ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ืจืื™ ื•ื“ื ืคืงื ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื’ื•ืื™

Rabbi Yehoshua found guards stationed on the inside and guards stationed on the outside to ensure that no one could enter or exit. They also spread sand on the ground in the entranceway so that they could detect if anyone entered or left. If they saw footsteps that were entering they would kill the outer guards for allowing people to enter, and if they saw footsteps that were exiting they would kill the inner guards for allowing people to leave.

ืืคื›ื” ืœืกื ื“ืœื™ื” ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื’ื•ืื™ ืืคื›ื”ื” ืœืกื ื“ืœื™ื” ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื•

Rabbi Yehoshua reversed his sandal so it was facing away from the entrance, walked on the sand, and snuck away, thereby creating the appearance of someone who had left the building. When the authorities saw the footsteps, they killed the inner guards. Rabbi Yehoshua then returned, reversed his sandal, and made footsteps in the sand indicating that someone had entered the building. They then killed all the guards, including the outer ones, and Rabbi Yehoshua succeeded in entering the building.

ืืฉื›ื— ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ืžืœืขื™ืœ ืกื‘ื™ ืžืœืชื—ืช ืืžืจ ืื™ ื™ื”ื™ื‘ื ื ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ื ื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื™ ื”ื ื™ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืื ืŸ ืขื“ื™ืคื™ื ืŸ ื“ืื ืŸ ืงืฉื™ื ืŸ ื˜ืคื™ ื•ืื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืจื“ืงื™

Rabbi Yehoshua found the younger sages sitting in the upper, more prominent section, and the elder ones in the lower section. He said to himself: I must first greet the younger sages, as they are sitting in the upper section, prior to the elder sages; but if I greet these younger sages first, those elder sages will kill me, as they maintain: We are better, because we are older and they are children.

ืืžืจ ืฉืœืžื ืœื›ื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ืชื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื ื ื—ื›ื™ืžื ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ืื ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื ืœืžื™ื’ืžืจ ื—ื›ืžืชื ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื›ื• ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืื™ ื–ื›ื™ืชื• ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืขื™ืชื• ืขื‘ื™ื“ื• ื‘ื™ ื•ืื™ ื–ื›ื™ื ื ื‘ื›ื• ืื™ื›ืœื• ื’ื‘ืื™ ื‘ืกืคื™ื ืชื

Rabbi Yehoshua said: Greetings to you, but did not directly address either group. They said to him: What are you doing here? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: I am a Sage of the Jews, and I desire to learn wisdom from you. They said to him: If so, we will ask you questions and see if you are worthy of this privilege. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Very well. If you win, you may do to me anything you wish, and if I defeat you, then eat with me on my ship.

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืืชืชื ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื“ืœื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืฉืงืœ ืกื™ื›ืชื ื“ืฆื” ืœืชืชืื™ ืœื ืขืืœ ืœืขื™ืœืื™ ืขืืœ ืืžืจ ื”ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืžื™ืชืจืžื™ ื‘ืช ืžื–ืœื™ื”

The sages of Athens said to him: In the case of a certain man who goes and asks to marry a woman and her family does not give her to him, why would he see fit to go to a family that is greater than the first? Rabbi Yehoshua took a peg and stuck it into the lower part of the wall, but it did not go in. He then stuck it into the upper portion of the wall where there was a hole, and it went in. He said to them: In this case too, where he goes to a more distinguished family than the first, perhaps he will find the girl destined for him.

ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืื•ื–ื™ืฃ ื•ื˜ืจื™ืฃ ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื ื“ื”ื“ืจ ืื•ื–ื™ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื’ื‘ืจื ืื–ืœ ืœืื’ืžื ืงื˜ืœ ืงืžื ื˜ื•ื ื ื•ืœื ืžืฆื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงื˜ื™ืœ ื•ืžื ื— ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืขื“ ื“ืื™ืชืจืžื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืžื“ืœื™ ืœื™ื”

The sages of Athens asked him another question: In the case of a man who lends money to an individual and the borrower does not repay the loan, and the lender repossesses the borrowerโ€™s property as payment instead, why would he see fit to lend to others again? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This is what people do: If a man goes to the pond, initially cuts a bundle of reeds, but finds that he cannot lift it, he does not stop cutting wood. Instead, he cuts more wood and places it upon the first, until a person happens to pass by and helps him raise it upon his shoulders, so that he can carry it home. So too, a person continues to lend based on the assumption that he will eventually find an appropriate borrower.

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžื ืœืŸ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ื‘ื“ื™ืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื“ื ื™ืชื ื“ื™ืœื™ื“ื ื•ื”ื•ื” ืชืœื™ ืœื™ื” ืคื™ืชืงื ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื“ืžืกื™ืง ื‘ื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืžืื” ืืœืคื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ื›ื•ื“ื ื™ืชื ืžื™ ื™ืœื“ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ื‘ื“ื™ืื™

The sages of Athens said to him: Say to us a matter of nonsense. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: There was a certain mule that gave birth, and a note was hanging on the newborn muleโ€™s neck and on it was written that it is owed 100,000 dinars by its fatherโ€™s household. They said to him: But can a mule give birth? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This is why it is a matter of nonsense, as it is impossible for a mule to give birth.

ืžื™ืœื—ื ื›ื™ ืกืจื™ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืžืœื—ื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืกื™ืœืชื ื“ื›ื•ื“ื ื™ืชื ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืกื™ืœืชื ืœื›ื•ื“ื ืชื ื•ืžื™ืœื—ื ืžื™ ืกืจื™

The sages of Athens then asked another question: When salt is spoiling, with what does one salt it to preserve it? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: With the placenta of a mule. They said to him: But is there a placenta of a mule? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: And does salt spoil?

ื‘ื ื™ ืœืŸ ื‘ื™ืชื ื‘ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืฉื ืชืœื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจืงื™ืขื ืœืืจืขื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืกื™ืงื• ืœื™ ืœื™ื‘ื ื™ ื•ื˜ื™ื ื ืžืฆื™ืขืชื™ื” ื“ืขืœืžื ื”ื™ื›ื ื–ืงืคื” ืœืืฆื‘ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื›ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืžื™ ื™ื™ืžืจ ืื™ื™ืชื• ืืฉืœื™ ื•ืžืฉื—ื•

They said to him: Build us a house in the air of the world. Rabbi Yehoshua uttered a Name of God and hovered between the sky and the earth. He said to them: Bring up to me bricks and mortar and I will build you a house here. They asked him: Where is the center of the world? Rabbi Yehoshua raised his finger and said to them: Here. They said to him: And who says that you are correct? He said to them: Bring ropes and measure.

ืื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื™ืจื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื ืขื™ื™ืœื ืœืžืชื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืคืฉื™ืœื• ืœื™ ื—ื‘ืœื™ ืžืคืืจื™ ื•ืืขื™ื™ืœื™ื” ืื™ืช ืœืŸ ืจื™ื—ื™ื ื“ืชื‘ื™ืจื ื—ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื” ืืžืจ ื›ืจื•ื›ื• ืœื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื’ืจื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื—ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื”

They said to him: We have a pit in the field; bring it to the city. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Braid ropes made of bran for me and I will bring it to the city with them. They then said to him: We have a mill that broke; sew it back together. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Pull out threads from the mill for me and I will sew them together.

ืžืฉืจื ื“ืกื›ื™ื ื™ ื‘ืžืื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ ื‘ืงืจื ื ื“ื—ืžืจื ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืงืจื ื ืœื—ืžืจื ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžืฉืจื ื“ืกื›ื™ื ื™

They asked him another question: With what does one harvest a field of knives? Rabbi Yehoshua answered: With the horn of a donkey. They said to him: But is there such an item as a horn of a donkey? He said to them: But is there such a thing as a field of knives?

ืื™ื™ืชื• ืœื™ื” ืชืจื™ ื‘ื™ืขื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื”ื™ ื“ื–ื’ืชื ืื•ื›ืžืชื™ ื•ื”ื™ ื“ื–ื’ืชื ื—ื™ื•ื•ืจืชื™ ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื”ื• ืชืจื™ ื’ื‘ื™ื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื™ ื“ืขื™ื–ื ืื•ื›ืžืชื™ ื•ื”ื™ ื“ืขื™ื–ื ื—ื™ื•ื•ืจืชื™

They brought him two eggs and said to him: Which is the egg of a black hen and which is the egg of a white hen? Rabbi Yehoshua brought them two cheeses, and said to them: Which is the cheese from the black goat and which is from the white goat?

ื•ืจืฆื•ืฆื ื“ืžื™ืช ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื ืคื™ืง ืจื•ื—ื™ื” ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืขืœ ื ืคืง ืื—ื•ื™ ืœืŸ ืžื ื ื“ืœื ืฉื•ื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ื” ืื™ื™ืชื• ื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื•ื“ื™ื ืคืฉื˜ื•ื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืขื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจืขื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื™ืชื• ืžืจื™ ืกื™ืชืจื•ื” ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžื ื ื“ืœื ืฉื•ื• ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ื”

They asked him: And in the case of a chick that dies inside the egg, from where does its spirit exit? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: From where it enters, it departs. They said to him: Show us a utensil that is not worth the damage that it causes. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Each one of you bring a mat and spread it out. When they did so, each mat did not enter the gate due to its size. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Bring axes and break the gate so that you can bring it inside. This is a utensil that is not worth its damage.

ืื™ืชื™ื ื”ื• ื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ื›ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืกืชืจืงื™ ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื—ื‘ืจืื™ ืœื”ื›ื ืืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืกืคื•ื ื ืฉืจื™ ืกืคื™ื ืชืš ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื“ืงืืชื• ืฉืงืœ ืขืคืจื ืžืขืคืจื™ื™ื”ื•

ยง After Rabbi Yehoshua defeated the sages of Athens in debate, he brought them to his ship as they had agreed. He then brought each one to a different room. When each one saw the sixty mattresses in his room, he said to himself: All of my colleagues are coming here, and waited for them without attempting to leave. Rabbi Yehoshua said to the sailor: Release your ship, i.e., begin sailing. While they were coming to the emperor in Rome, he took out some dirt that he had taken from the dirt of Athens.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

Sorry, there aren't any posts in this category yet. We're adding more soon!

Bekhorot 8

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Bekhorot 8

ื”ื“ื•ืœืคื ื™ืŸ ืคืจื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžืื™ ื“ื•ืœืคื ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืžื

The dulfanin reproduce like people. The Gemara asks: What are dulfanin? Rav Yehuda says: They are creatures that are called sons of the sea.

ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืฆื™ื• ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืคื ื™ื ืžื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื

The baraita continues: In the case of any male animal whose testicles are external, the female gives birth to live offspring, and in the case of any male animal whose testicles are internal, the female lays eggs.

ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื•ื•ื– ื•ืื•ื•ื– ื‘ืจ ื›ืœืื™ื ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ื•ื”ื•ื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื• ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ื•ื–ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื• ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ื•ืชืจื•ื™ื™ื”ื• ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื

The Gemara asks: Is that so? But doesnโ€™t Shmuel say that a domestic goose and a wild goose are considered diverse kinds, and one may not mate them with each other. And we discussed it: What is the reason? Abaye said: In the case of this one, the male wild goose, its testicles are external, and in the case of that one, the domestic goose, its testicles are internal. The Gemara comments: And yet both geese lay eggs. Evidently, the fact that the maleโ€™s testicles are external does not prove that the female gives birth.

ืืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื–ื›ืจื•ืชื• ืžื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ืžื‘ืคื ื™ื ืžื˜ื™ืœ ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื

Rather, the baraita must mean the following: With regard to any animal whose male reproductive organ is external, the female gives birth, and in the case of any male animal whose reproductive organ is internal, the female lays eggs. Although the testicles of the male wild goose are external, its reproductive organ is internal.

ื›ืœ ืฉืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื›ืœ ืฉืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื”

ยง The baraita continues to discuss matters of animal procreation: Any species whose sexual intercourse occurs only during the daytime gives birth only during the daytime; any species whose intercourse occurs only at night gives birth only at night; any species whose intercourse occurs both during the daytime and at night gives birth both during the daytime and at night.

ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืขื˜ืœืฃ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืœื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ื•ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืื“ื ื•ื›ืœ ื“ื“ืžื™ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara elaborates: The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs during the daytime gives birth during the daytime is referring to a chicken. The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs at night gives birth at night is referring to a bat. The statement that any species whose intercourse occurs both during the daytime and at night gives birth both during the daytime and at night is referring to a human and any creature that is similar to him.

ืœืžืื™ ื ืคืงื ืžื™ื ื” ืœื›ื“ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื‘ื“ืง ื‘ืงื™ื ื” ืฉืœ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืœื ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื” ื•ืœืžื—ืจ ื”ืฉื›ื™ื ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืžื•ืชืจืช ื‘ืื›ื™ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ืžืจ ืœื ื‘ื“ืง ื™ืคื”

The Gemara asks: What halakhic difference is there whether an animal gives birth during the daytime or at night? The Gemara answers: The difference is with regard to that which Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said. As Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, said: If one examined a chickenโ€™s nest on a Festival eve and did not find an egg in it, and the following day, on the Festival, he rose early, before dawn, and found an egg in it, consumption of the egg is permitted on the Festival. It is not considered an egg that was laid on the Festival, which is forbidden (see Beitza 2a), as chickens do not lay eggs at night. Although he examined the nest before the Festival and failed to find an egg there, one is compelled to say that he did not examine the nest carefully.

ื•ื”ืœื ื‘ื“ืง ื™ืคื” ืื™ืžืจ ื™ืฆืชื” ืจื•ื‘ื” ื•ื—ื–ืจื” ื”ื•ื” ื•ื›ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ื™ืฆื” ืฉื™ืฆืชื” ืจื•ื‘ื” ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจืช ืžื•ืชืจืช ืœืื•ื›ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘

The Gemara challenges: But he did examine the nest carefully, as the baraita states that he examined it. The Gemara explains: One must say that this was a case where most of the egg emerged on the eve of the Festival and returned inside its mother before the examination. And this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, as Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: In a case where most of the egg emerged on the eve of the Festival and returned inside its mother it is permitted to eat it on the Festival, as once most of it emerged it is considered to have been laid already.

ื›ืœ ืฉืชืฉืžื™ืฉื• ื•ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉื•ื” ื™ื•ืœื“ื™ื ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื–ื” ืžื–ื” ื”ื›ืœ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืคื ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ืขื•ืจืฃ ื—ื•ืฅ ืžืฉืœืฉื” ืฉืžืฉืžืฉื™ืŸ ืคื ื™ื ื›ื ื’ื“ ืคื ื™ื ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื“ื’ ื•ืื“ื ื•ื ื—ืฉ

ยง The baraita continues: Any two animals of different species whose manner of intercourse and time of gestation are identical can have offspring together and can raise, i.e., nurse, the young of each other. With regard to the manner of intercourse, all species engage in intercourse with the face of the male opposite the back of the neck of the female, meaning that the male comes from behind the female, except for three species that engage in intercourse face-to-face, and they are these: Fish, and humans, and the snake.

ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื”ื ื™ ืชืœืชื ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจื™ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื“ื™ื‘ืจื” ืขืžื”ื ืฉื›ื™ื ื”

The Gemara asks: And what is different about these three? When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he reported that they say in the West, Eretz Yisrael, the following explanation: They are different because the Divine Presence spoke with them. This occurred when the fish swallowed the prophet Jonah (see Jonah 2:11), when Adam and other prophets were spoken to by God, and when the snake caused Adam and Eve to sin (see Genesis 3:14).

ืชื ื ื’ืžืœ ืื—ื•ืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืื—ื•ืจ

A tanna taught: A camel engages in intercourse back to back with its mate.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชืจื ื’ื•ืœืช ืœืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืœื•ื– ื›ืœื‘ ืœื—ืžืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืื™ื ื” ื—ืชื•ืœ ืœื—ืžืฉื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ื™ื•ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชื•ืช ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืœืฉืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืคื•ื— ืฉื•ืขืœ ื•ื›ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ ืฉืจืฆื™ื ืฉืฉื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชื‘ื•ืื”

ยง The Gemara cites a baraita that discusses the length of gestation for various animals. The Sages taught that a chicken hatches after twenty-one days, and corresponding to it in length of gestation with regard to trees is the almond, which ripens twenty-one days after the budding of the flower. A dog gives birth after fifty days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the fig. A cat gives birth after fifty-two days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the mulberry. A pig gives birth after sixty days, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the apple. A fox and all types of creeping animals give birth after six months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees, i.e., plants, is grain.

ื‘ื”ืžื” ื“ืงื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืœื—ืžืฉื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื’ืคืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื’ืกื” ื˜ืžืื” ืœืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื“ืงืœ ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืœืชืฉืขื” ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื–ื™ืช ื”ื–ืื‘ ื•ื”ืืจื™ ื•ื”ื“ื•ื‘ ื•ื”ื ืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื“ืœืก ื•ื”ืคื™ืœ ื•ื”ืงื•ืฃ ื•ื”ืงื™ืคื•ืฃ ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื‘ื ื•ืช ืฉื•ื—

Small kosher livestock, such as sheep or goats, give birth after five months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the grapevine. Large non-kosher livestock, such as camels or donkeys, give birth after twelve months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the date palm. Large kosher livestock, such as cows, give birth after nine months, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the olive. The wolf, and the lion, and the bear, and the leopard, and the bardelas, and the elephant, and the monkey, and the long-tailed ape give birth after three years, and corresponding to them with regard to trees is the white fig.

ืืคืขื” ืœืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื—ืจื•ื‘ ื—ืจื•ื‘ ื–ื” ืžืฉืขืช ื ื˜ื™ืขืชื• ืขื“ ืฉืขืช ื’ืžืจ ืคื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ื™ืžื™ ืขื™ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื ื—ืฉ ืœืฉื‘ืข ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืœืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ื• ื—ื‘ืจ ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื•ื›ืกืกื™ื

The baraita continues: A viper gives birth after seventy years, and corresponding to it with regard to trees is the carob. In the case of this carob, the period from the time of its planting until the time of the ripening of its fruit is seventy years, and the length of its gestation is three years. A snake is born after seven years, and for that wicked animal we have not found a counterpart among trees. And some say that mukhsasim are the equivalent, as they ripen after seven years.

ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื•ืžื˜ื• ื‘ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืจื•ืจ ืืชื” ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ืžื›ืœ ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉื“ื” ืื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ื ืชืงืœืœื” ืžื—ื™ื” ืœื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ

The Gemara asks: From where is this matter, that the gestation period of a snake is seven years, derived? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says, and some determined it to be in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: It is derived from that which is stated with regard to the punishment of the snake for causing Adam and Eve to sin: โ€œCursed are you from among all animals, and from among all beasts of the fieldโ€ (Genesis 3:14), in that your gestation period should be longer than all of them. Now, why does the verse mention the beasts of the field, i.e., undomesticated animals? If the snake was cursed more than the domesticated animals, then all the more so is it not clear that it was cursed more than the undomesticated animals? The shortest gestation period of domesticated animals, which is five months for a goat, is longer than the shortest gestation period among undomesticated animals, which is fifty-two days for a cat.

ืืœื ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ื›ืฉื ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื—ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื‘ืขื” ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื—ืžื•ืจ ืžื—ืชื•ืœ ื›ืš ื ืชืงืœืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืื—ืช ืœืฉื‘ืข ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืฉื‘ ืฉื ื™

Rather, the verse mentions the beasts of the field to tell you: Just as the domesticated animals were cursed more than the undomesticated animals by a proportion of one to seven; the Gemara interjects: And with regard to what case is that? It is with regard to a donkey, whose gestation period as mentioned is twelve months, compared to a cat, whose gestation period is fifty-two days. Seven times longer than fifty-two days is 364 days, which means that the gestation period of the donkey, which is one year, is almost exactly seven times longer than that of the cat. Rav Yehuda continues: So too, the snake was cursed more than domesticated animals, i.e., the donkey, in a proportion of one to seven, which is a total of seven years.

ืื™ืžื ื›ืฉื ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ื—ื™ื” ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืื—ืช ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืืจื™ ืžื—ืžื•ืจ ื›ืš ื ืชืงืœืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื—ื™ื” ืื—ืช ืœืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืชืฉืข ืฉื ื™ื

The Gemara challenges: Say that the verse can be interpreted as follows: Just as the undomesticated animals were cursed more than the domesticated animals by a measure of one year to three years; the Gemara interjects: And in what case is that? It is in the case of a lion, whose gestation period is three years, compared to a donkey, whose gestation period is one year. The Gemara continues its challenge: So too, the snake was cursed more than the undomesticated animals, i.e., the lion, by a proportion of one year to three years, which is nine years.

ืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื” ื•ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื•ืžื›ืœ ื”ื—ื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืจื•ืจ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ืžื—ื™ื”

The Gemara responds: Is it written: Cursed are you from among all beasts, and from among all animals? No, it is written: โ€œFrom among all animals, and from among all beasts,โ€ meaning that it is cursed from among the domesticated animals, which were cursed from among the undomesticated animals.

ื•ืื™ืžื ื›ืฉื ืฉื ืชืงืœืœื” ื‘ื”ืžื” ืžื—ื™ื” ืื—ื“ ืœืฉืœืฉ ื•ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืขื– ืžื—ืชื•ืœ ื›ืš ื ืชืงืœืœ ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ื”ืžื” ืื—ื“ ืœืฉืœืฉ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื—ืžื™ืกืจ ื™ืจื—ื™

The Gemara challenges: Why must it mean that the snake was cursed more than the donkey in the same proportion that the donkey was cursed more than the cat? But say instead that just as the domesticated animals were cursed more than the undomesticated animals by a measure of one to three; the Gemara interjects: And in what case is that? It is in the case of a goat, whose gestation period is five months, compared to a cat, whose gestation period is fifty-two days. The Gemara continues its challenge: So too, the snake was cursed more than the domesticated animals, i.e., the goat, by a proportion of one to three, which is fifteen months.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืžื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืงืœืœื” ื”ื•ื ืงืœืœื” ืฉื“ื™ ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื”

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that it is written: โ€œCursed are you from among all animals,โ€ including the most accursed of them, i.e., the donkey. If you wish, say instead that since it is a curse that the snake received here, the verse imposes upon it the most extreme curse that can be derived from the text.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืงื™ืกืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ื—ื ื ื™ื” ื ื—ืฉ ืœื›ืžื” ืžื™ืขื‘ืจ ื•ืžื•ืœื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืฉื‘ ืฉื ื™ ื•ื”ื ืกื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืืชื•ื ื ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืื•ืœื™ื“ ืœืชืœืช ื”ื ื”ื• ืžื™ืขื‘ืจื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืืจื‘ืข ื•ื”ื ืงืžืฉืžืฉื™ ืฉืžื•ืฉื™ ืื™ื ื”ื• ื ืžื™ ืžืฉืžืฉื™ ื›ืื“ื

ยง With regard to the gestation time of a snake, the Gemara relates that the Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya: In the case of a snake, after how long a period of gestation does it give birth? Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya said to him: After seven years. The emperor said to him: But the elders, i.e., the sages, of the school of Athens bred snakes and they gave birth after three years. Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya responded: Those snakes were already pregnant from beforehand for four years. The emperor asked: But they engaged in intercourse, and animals do so only in order to give birth, not when they are already pregnant. Rabbi Yehoshua responded: Snakes also engage in intercourse like people, i.e., they do not do so solely for reproduction.

ื•ื”ื ื—ื›ื™ืžื™ ืื™ื ื”ื• ืื ืŸ ื—ื›ื™ืžื™ื ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ ื—ื›ื™ืžืช ื–ื™ืœ ื–ื›ื™ื ื”ื• ื•ืื™ืชื™ื ื”ื• ืœื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื• ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื’ื‘ืจื™

The emperor said to him: But how can you disagree with the sages of Athens? Arenโ€™t they wise? Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya responded: We are wiser than they. The emperor said: If you are wiser than they, then go defeat them in debate and bring them to me. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: How many are there? The emperor answered: Sixty men.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืœื™ ืกืคื™ื ืชื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื™ ื•ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ืชื ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืกืชืจืงื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื ืœื”ืชื ืœื‘ื™ ื˜ื‘ื—ื ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืงื ืคืฉื™ื˜ ื—ื™ื•ืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ืฉืš ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืคืœื’ื ื“ื–ื•ื–ื ื™ื”ื‘ ืœื™ื”

Rabbi Yehoshua ben แธคananya said to him: Construct a ship that has sixty rooms for me, and each room should have sixty mattresses [bistarkei] in it. The emperor constructed it for him. Rabbi Yehoshua then set out on the ship for Athens. When he arrived there, he entered a butcher shop and found a certain man, the butcher, flaying an animal. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Is your head for sale? The butcher said to him: Yes it is. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: For how much is it being sold? The butcher said to him: For half a dinar. Rabbi Yehoshua gave him the money.

ืœืกื•ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืจื™ืฉื ื“ื—ื™ื•ืชื ืืžืจื™ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ื“ืืฉื‘ืงืš ืกื’ื™ ืื—ื•ื™ ืœื™ ืคื™ืชื—ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืชื•ื ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืกืชืคื™ื ื ื“ื›ืœ ื“ืžื—ื•ื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื™ ื›ืจื™ื›ื ื“ืงื ื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžื˜ื™ืช ืœื”ืชื ื–ืงืคื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืงื ืžืชืคื—

After Rabbi Yehoshua paid the butcher, he said to him: Did I say to you that I wanted the head of the animal? I was referring to your head, and you must now keep your word and give me your head. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: If you wish for me to let you be, go and show me the entrance to the school of the sages of Athens. The butcher said to him: I am afraid, as they kill anyone who shows its location to another. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Carry a bundle of reeds, and when you arrive there, stand it up like one who is resting, to mark the location. The butcher did this, and Rabbi Yehoshua successfully found the entrance.

ืืฉื›ื— ื“ืจื‘ื ืื™ ืžื’ื•ืื™ ื•ื“ืจื‘ื ืื™ ืžื‘ืจืื™ ื“ืื™ ื—ื–ื• ื›ืจืขื ื“ืขื™ื™ืœื ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ืจืื™ ื•ื“ื ืคืงื ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื’ื•ืื™

Rabbi Yehoshua found guards stationed on the inside and guards stationed on the outside to ensure that no one could enter or exit. They also spread sand on the ground in the entranceway so that they could detect if anyone entered or left. If they saw footsteps that were entering they would kill the outer guards for allowing people to enter, and if they saw footsteps that were exiting they would kill the inner guards for allowing people to leave.

ืืคื›ื” ืœืกื ื“ืœื™ื” ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื’ื•ืื™ ืืคื›ื”ื” ืœืกื ื“ืœื™ื” ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื”ื• ืœื›ื•ืœื”ื•

Rabbi Yehoshua reversed his sandal so it was facing away from the entrance, walked on the sand, and snuck away, thereby creating the appearance of someone who had left the building. When the authorities saw the footsteps, they killed the inner guards. Rabbi Yehoshua then returned, reversed his sandal, and made footsteps in the sand indicating that someone had entered the building. They then killed all the guards, including the outer ones, and Rabbi Yehoshua succeeded in entering the building.

ืืฉื›ื— ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ืžืœืขื™ืœ ืกื‘ื™ ืžืœืชื—ืช ืืžืจ ืื™ ื™ื”ื™ื‘ื ื ืฉืœืžื ืœื”ื ื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ ืœื™ ื”ื ื™ ืกื‘ืจื™ ืื ืŸ ืขื“ื™ืคื™ื ืŸ ื“ืื ืŸ ืงืฉื™ื ืŸ ื˜ืคื™ ื•ืื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืจื“ืงื™

Rabbi Yehoshua found the younger sages sitting in the upper, more prominent section, and the elder ones in the lower section. He said to himself: I must first greet the younger sages, as they are sitting in the upper section, prior to the elder sages; but if I greet these younger sages first, those elder sages will kill me, as they maintain: We are better, because we are older and they are children.

ืืžืจ ืฉืœืžื ืœื›ื• ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ืชื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื ื ื—ื›ื™ืžื ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ืื™ ืื ื ื‘ืขื™ื ื ืœืžื™ื’ืžืจ ื—ื›ืžืชื ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื›ื• ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืœื—ื™ื™ ืื™ ื–ื›ื™ืชื• ื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืขื™ืชื• ืขื‘ื™ื“ื• ื‘ื™ ื•ืื™ ื–ื›ื™ื ื ื‘ื›ื• ืื™ื›ืœื• ื’ื‘ืื™ ื‘ืกืคื™ื ืชื

Rabbi Yehoshua said: Greetings to you, but did not directly address either group. They said to him: What are you doing here? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: I am a Sage of the Jews, and I desire to learn wisdom from you. They said to him: If so, we will ask you questions and see if you are worthy of this privilege. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Very well. If you win, you may do to me anything you wish, and if I defeat you, then eat with me on my ship.

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ื‘ืขื™ ืืชืชื ื•ืœื ื™ื”ื‘ื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื™ื” ื“ืื–ื™ืœ ื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืžื“ืœื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืฉืงืœ ืกื™ื›ืชื ื“ืฆื” ืœืชืชืื™ ืœื ืขืืœ ืœืขื™ืœืื™ ืขืืœ ืืžืจ ื”ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืžื™ืชืจืžื™ ื‘ืช ืžื–ืœื™ื”

The sages of Athens said to him: In the case of a certain man who goes and asks to marry a woman and her family does not give her to him, why would he see fit to go to a family that is greater than the first? Rabbi Yehoshua took a peg and stuck it into the lower part of the wall, but it did not go in. He then stuck it into the upper portion of the wall where there was a hole, and it went in. He said to them: In this case too, where he goes to a more distinguished family than the first, perhaps he will find the girl destined for him.

ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืื•ื–ื™ืฃ ื•ื˜ืจื™ืฃ ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื ื“ื”ื“ืจ ืื•ื–ื™ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื’ื‘ืจื ืื–ืœ ืœืื’ืžื ืงื˜ืœ ืงืžื ื˜ื•ื ื ื•ืœื ืžืฆื™ ื‘ื™ื” ืงื˜ื™ืœ ื•ืžื ื— ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืขื“ ื“ืื™ืชืจืžื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืžื“ืœื™ ืœื™ื”

The sages of Athens asked him another question: In the case of a man who lends money to an individual and the borrower does not repay the loan, and the lender repossesses the borrowerโ€™s property as payment instead, why would he see fit to lend to others again? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This is what people do: If a man goes to the pond, initially cuts a bundle of reeds, but finds that he cannot lift it, he does not stop cutting wood. Instead, he cuts more wood and places it upon the first, until a person happens to pass by and helps him raise it upon his shoulders, so that he can carry it home. So too, a person continues to lend based on the assumption that he will eventually find an appropriate borrower.

ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžื ืœืŸ ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ื‘ื“ื™ืื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื•ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื“ื ื™ืชื ื“ื™ืœื™ื“ื ื•ื”ื•ื” ืชืœื™ ืœื™ื” ืคื™ืชืงื ื•ื›ืชื‘ ื‘ื™ื” ื“ืžืกื™ืง ื‘ื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืžืื” ืืœืคื ื–ื•ื–ื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ื›ื•ื“ื ื™ืชื ืžื™ ื™ืœื“ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืžื™ืœื™ ื“ื‘ื“ื™ืื™

The sages of Athens said to him: Say to us a matter of nonsense. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: There was a certain mule that gave birth, and a note was hanging on the newborn muleโ€™s neck and on it was written that it is owed 100,000 dinars by its fatherโ€™s household. They said to him: But can a mule give birth? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This is why it is a matter of nonsense, as it is impossible for a mule to give birth.

ืžื™ืœื—ื ื›ื™ ืกืจื™ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืžืœื—ื™ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืกื™ืœืชื ื“ื›ื•ื“ื ื™ืชื ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืกื™ืœืชื ืœื›ื•ื“ื ืชื ื•ืžื™ืœื—ื ืžื™ ืกืจื™

The sages of Athens then asked another question: When salt is spoiling, with what does one salt it to preserve it? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: With the placenta of a mule. They said to him: But is there a placenta of a mule? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: And does salt spoil?

ื‘ื ื™ ืœืŸ ื‘ื™ืชื ื‘ืื•ื™ืจื ื“ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืฉื ืชืœื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจืงื™ืขื ืœืืจืขื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืกื™ืงื• ืœื™ ืœื™ื‘ื ื™ ื•ื˜ื™ื ื ืžืฆื™ืขืชื™ื” ื“ืขืœืžื ื”ื™ื›ื ื–ืงืคื” ืœืืฆื‘ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื›ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืžื™ ื™ื™ืžืจ ืื™ื™ืชื• ืืฉืœื™ ื•ืžืฉื—ื•

They said to him: Build us a house in the air of the world. Rabbi Yehoshua uttered a Name of God and hovered between the sky and the earth. He said to them: Bring up to me bricks and mortar and I will build you a house here. They asked him: Where is the center of the world? Rabbi Yehoshua raised his finger and said to them: Here. They said to him: And who says that you are correct? He said to them: Bring ropes and measure.

ืื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื™ืจื ื‘ื“ื‘ืจื ืขื™ื™ืœื ืœืžืชื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืืคืฉื™ืœื• ืœื™ ื—ื‘ืœื™ ืžืคืืจื™ ื•ืืขื™ื™ืœื™ื” ืื™ืช ืœืŸ ืจื™ื—ื™ื ื“ืชื‘ื™ืจื ื—ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื” ืืžืจ ื›ืจื•ื›ื• ืœื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื’ืจื“ื™ ื•ืื™ื—ื™ื™ื˜ื™ื”

They said to him: We have a pit in the field; bring it to the city. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Braid ropes made of bran for me and I will bring it to the city with them. They then said to him: We have a mill that broke; sew it back together. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Pull out threads from the mill for me and I will sew them together.

ืžืฉืจื ื“ืกื›ื™ื ื™ ื‘ืžืื™ ืงื˜ืœื™ ื‘ืงืจื ื ื“ื—ืžืจื ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืงืจื ื ืœื—ืžืจื ื•ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ืžืฉืจื ื“ืกื›ื™ื ื™

They asked him another question: With what does one harvest a field of knives? Rabbi Yehoshua answered: With the horn of a donkey. They said to him: But is there such an item as a horn of a donkey? He said to them: But is there such a thing as a field of knives?

ืื™ื™ืชื• ืœื™ื” ืชืจื™ ื‘ื™ืขื™ ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ื”ื™ ื“ื–ื’ืชื ืื•ื›ืžืชื™ ื•ื”ื™ ื“ื–ื’ืชื ื—ื™ื•ื•ืจืชื™ ืื™ื™ืชื™ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื”ื• ืชืจื™ ื’ื‘ื™ื ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ื™ ื“ืขื™ื–ื ืื•ื›ืžืชื™ ื•ื”ื™ ื“ืขื™ื–ื ื—ื™ื•ื•ืจืชื™

They brought him two eggs and said to him: Which is the egg of a black hen and which is the egg of a white hen? Rabbi Yehoshua brought them two cheeses, and said to them: Which is the cheese from the black goat and which is from the white goat?

ื•ืจืฆื•ืฆื ื“ืžื™ืช ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื ืคื™ืง ืจื•ื—ื™ื” ืžื”ื™ื›ื ื“ืขืœ ื ืคืง ืื—ื•ื™ ืœืŸ ืžื ื ื“ืœื ืฉื•ื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ื” ืื™ื™ืชื• ื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื•ื“ื™ื ืคืฉื˜ื•ื” ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืขื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจืขื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ื™ืชื• ืžืจื™ ืกื™ืชืจื•ื” ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžื ื ื“ืœื ืฉื•ื• ื—ื‘ื™ืœื™ื”

They asked him: And in the case of a chick that dies inside the egg, from where does its spirit exit? Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: From where it enters, it departs. They said to him: Show us a utensil that is not worth the damage that it causes. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Each one of you bring a mat and spread it out. When they did so, each mat did not enter the gate due to its size. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: Bring axes and break the gate so that you can bring it inside. This is a utensil that is not worth its damage.

ืื™ืชื™ื ื”ื• ื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ื›ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืกืชืจืงื™ ืืžืจ ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ื—ื‘ืจืื™ ืœื”ื›ื ืืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืกืคื•ื ื ืฉืจื™ ืกืคื™ื ืชืš ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื“ืงืืชื• ืฉืงืœ ืขืคืจื ืžืขืคืจื™ื™ื”ื•

ยง After Rabbi Yehoshua defeated the sages of Athens in debate, he brought them to his ship as they had agreed. He then brought each one to a different room. When each one saw the sixty mattresses in his room, he said to himself: All of my colleagues are coming here, and waited for them without attempting to leave. Rabbi Yehoshua said to the sailor: Release your ship, i.e., begin sailing. While they were coming to the emperor in Rome, he took out some dirt that he had taken from the dirt of Athens.

Scroll To Top