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Today's Daf Yomi

January 16, 2020 | 讬状讟 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Berakhot 13

Why is there a difference between the change of name of Yaakov and Avraham’s name change? Is it forbidden to call Avraham Avram? Does the mitzva of shema need intent? Why type of intent? Is one allowed to speak at all during shema and its blessings? On what does it depend? What is the significance of the order of the sections of shema? Does one need to say shema in hebrew or can one say it in any language? There is a debate and each brings proof texts. Until what section of shema does one need intent? Can one say shema in one’s heart or does one need to say the words? Does one need to hear the words? Can one say only the sentence “shema…” and fulfill one’s obligation? It is told of Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi that he did that – why?

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诇讗 砖讬注拽专 讬注拽讘 诪诪拽讜诪讜 讗诇讗 讬砖专讗诇 注讬拽专 讜讬注拽讘 讟驻诇 诇讜 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗诇 转讝讻专讜 专讗砖谞讜转 讜拽讚诪谞讬讜转 讗诇 转转讘谞谞讜 讗诇 转讝讻专讜 专讗砖谞讜转 讝讛 砖注讘讜讚 诪诇讻讬讜转 讜拽讚诪谞讬讜转 讗诇 转转讘谞谞讜 讝讜 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐

not that the name Jacob will be entirely uprooted from its place, but that the name Israel will be the primary name to which the name Jacob will be secondary, as the Torah continues to refer to him as Jacob after this event. And it also says that the ultimate redemption will overshadow the previous redemption in the verse: 鈥淒o not remember the former events, and do not ponder things of old鈥 (Isaiah 43:18), and the Gemara explains: 鈥淒o not remember the former events,鈥 that is the subjugation to the kingdoms, and 鈥渄o not ponder things of old,鈥 that is the exodus from Egypt, which occurred before the subjugation to the nations.

讛谞谞讬 注砖讛 讞讚砖讛 注转讛 转爪诪讞 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讜 诪诇讞诪转 讙讜讙 讜诪讙讜讙

With regard to the following verse: 鈥淏ehold, I will do new things, now it will spring forth鈥 (Isaiah 43:19), Rav Yosef taught a baraita: This refers to the future war of Gog and Magog, which will cause all earlier events to be forgotten.

诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讜驻讙注 讘讜 讝讗讘 讜谞讬爪诇 诪诪谞讜 讜讛讬讛 诪住驻专 讜讛讜诇讱 诪注砖讛 讝讗讘 驻讙注 讘讜 讗专讬 讜谞讬爪诇 诪诪谞讜 讜讛讬讛 诪住驻专 讜讛讜诇讱 诪注砖讛 讗专讬 驻讙注 讘讜 谞讞砖 讜谞讬爪诇 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讞 诪注砖讛 砖谞讬讛诐 讜讛讬讛 诪住驻专 讜讛讜诇讱 诪注砖讛 谞讞砖 讗祝 讻讱 讬砖专讗诇 爪专讜转 讗讞专讜谞讜转 诪砖讻讞讜转 讗转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转:

The Gemara cites a parable: To what is this comparable? To a person who was walking along the way and a wolf accosted him and he survived it, and he continued to relate the story of the wolf. A lion accosted him and he survived it, and he continued to relate the story of the lion. A snake accosted him and he survived it, he forgot both the lion and the wolf, and he continued to relate the story of the snake. Each encounter was more dangerous and each escape more miraculous than the last, so he would continue to relate the most recent story. So too with Israel; more recent troubles cause the earlier troubles to be forgotten.

讗讘专诐 讛讜讗 讗讘专讛诐

Having mentioned the changing of Jacob鈥檚 name, the Gemara addresses the changing of the names of Abraham and Sarah. What is the meaning of changing Abram鈥檚 name to Abraham? As it is stated: 鈥淎bram is Abraham鈥 (I Chronicles 1:27).

讘转讞诇讛 谞注砖讛 讗讘 诇讗专诐 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞注砖讛 讗讘 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

The Gemara explains: Initially he became a father, a minister, and prominent person, only to Aram, so he was called Abram, father [av] of Aram, and ultimately with God鈥檚 blessing he became the father of the entire world, so he was called Abraham, father of the masses [av hamon], as it is stated: 鈥淚 have made you the father of a multitude of nations鈥 (Genesis 17:5).

砖专讬 讛讬讗 砖专讛

Similarly, what is the meaning of changing Sarai鈥檚 name to Sarah? The same concept applies to Sarai as to Abram: Sarai is Sarah.鈥

讘转讞诇讛 谞注砖讬转 砖专讬 诇讗讜诪转讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞注砖讬转 砖专讛 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜:

The Gemara explains: Initially she was a princess only to her nation: My princess [Sarai], but ultimately she became Sarah, a general term indicating that she was princess for the entire world.

转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗 讻诇 讛拽讜专讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 讗讘专诐 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 砖诪讱 讗讘专讛诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 注讜讘专 讘诇讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗 讬拽专讗 注讜讚 [讗转] 砖诪讱 讗讘专诐

Also, with regard to Abraham鈥檚 name, bar Kappara taught: Anyone who calls Abraham Abram transgresses a positive mitzva, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your name will be Abraham鈥 (Genesis 17:5). This is a positive mitzva to refer to him as Abraham. Rabbi Eliezer says: One who calls Abraham Abram transgresses a negative mitzva, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your name shall no longer be called Abram, and your name will be Abraham, for I have made you the father of a multitude of nations鈥 (Genesis 17:5).

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讛拽讜专讗 诇砖专讛 砖专讬 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

The Gemara asks: But if we consider these obligatory statements, then from here we must infer that one who calls Sarah Sarai also transgresses a positive or negative mitzva.

讛转诐 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讗讘专讛诐 砖专讬 讗砖转讱 诇讗 转拽专讗 讗转 砖诪讛 砖专讬 讻讬 砖专讛 砖诪讛

The Gemara answers: There in the case of Sarah, it is not a general mitzva, rather the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham alone: 鈥淎nd God said to Abraham, your wife Sarai, you shall not call her name Sarai; rather, Sarah is her name鈥 (Genesis 17:15). In contrast, this is stated regarding Abraham in general terms: 鈥淵our name shall no longer be called Abram.鈥

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讛拽讜专讗 诇讬注拽讘 讬注拽讘 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

Again, the Gemara asks: But if that is so, one who calls Jacob Jacob, about whom it is written: 鈥淵our name shall no longer be Jacob, but Israel鈥 (Genesis 32:29), also transgresses a mitzva.

砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讛讚专 讗讛讚专讬讛 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘诪专讗讜转 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讬讗诪专 讬注拽讘 讬注拽讘

The Gemara answers: It is different there, as the verse reverts back and God Himself refers to Jacob as Jacob, as it is written before his descent to Egypt: 鈥淎nd God said to Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob, and he said, 鈥楬ere I am鈥欌 (Genesis 46:2).

诪转讬讘 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讝讘讬讚讗 讗转讛 讛讜讗 讛壮 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗砖专 讘讞专转 讘讗讘专诐

Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, and some say Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida, raised an objection to the statements of bar Kappara and Rabbi Eliezer based on what is said in the recounting of the history of the Jewish people: 鈥淵ou are the Lord, God, Who chose Abram and took him out of Ur Kasdim and made his name Abraham鈥 (Nehemiah 9:7). Here the Bible refers to him as Abram.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛转诐 谞讘讬讗 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪住讚专 诇砖讘讞讬讛 讚专讞诪谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讛讜讛 诪注讬拽专讗:

The Gemara responds: There, the prophet is recounting God鈥檚 praises, including that which was the situation originally, before his name was changed to Abraham. Indeed, the verse continues: 鈥淵ou took him out of Ur Kasdim and made his name Abraham, and found his heart faithful before You and made a covenant with him to give him the land of Canaan鈥o give to his descendants, and You fulfilled Your words for You are righteous鈥 (Nehemiah 9:7鈥8).

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讗讬诪转讬

 

诪转谞讬壮 讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 讘转讜专讛 讜讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 讛诪拽专讗 讗诐 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讬爪讗

MISHNA: The first question discussed in the mishna is the question of intent. One who was reading the sections of the Torah which comprise Shema, and the time for the recitation of the morning or evening Shema arrived, if he focused his heart, he fulfilled his obligation and need not repeat Shema in order to fulfill his obligation. This is true even if he failed to recite the requisite blessings (Rabbeinu 岣nanel).

讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 讜讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Ab initio, one may not interrupt the recitation of Shema. The tanna鈥檌m, however, disagree over how strict one must be in this regard. They distinguish between interruptions between paragraphs and interruptions within each paragraph. At the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet an individual due to the respect that he is obligated to show him, and one may respond to another鈥檚 greeting due to respect. And in the middle of each paragraph one may greet an individual due to the fear that the individual may harm him if he fails do so (Me鈥檌ri) and one may respond to another鈥檚 greeting due to fear. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 砖诇讜诐 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Rabbi Yehuda says: There is a distinction between greeting someone and responding to his greeting. In the middle of each paragraph, one may greet another due to fear and respond due to respect. In the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet another due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person who greets him, whether or not he is obligated to show him respect.

讗诇讜 讛谉 讘讬谉 讛驻专拽讬诐 讘讬谉 讘专讻讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 诇砖谞讬讛 讘讬谉 砖谞讬讛 诇砖诪注 讘讬谉 砖诪注 诇讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 讘讬谉 讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 诇讜讬讗诪专 讘讬谉 讜讬讗诪专 诇讗诪转 讜讬爪讬讘

As for what constitutes a paragraph, these are the breaks between the paragraphs: Between the first blessing and the second, between the second and Shema, between Shema and the second paragraph: If you indeed heed My commandments [VeHaya im Shamoa], between VeHaya im Shamoa and the third paragraph: And the Lord spoke [VaYomer] and between VaYomer and True and Firm [emet veyatziv], the blessing that follows Shema.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 讜讬讗诪专 诇讗诪转 讜讬爪讬讘 诇讗 讬驻住讬拽

The Rabbis held that each blessing and each paragraph of Shema constitutes its own entity, and treat interruptions between them as between the paragraphs. Rabbi Yehuda, however, says: Between VaYomer and emet veyatziv, which begins the blessing that follows Shema, one may not interrupt at all. According to Rabbi Yehuda, these must be recited consecutively.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 诇诪讛 拽讚诪讛 驻专砖转 砖诪注 诇讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 讻讚讬 砖讬拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐 转讞诇讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪爪讜转 讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 诇讜讬讗诪专 砖讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 谞讜讛讙 讘讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讜讘讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讬讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚:

Since the paragraphs of Shema are not adjacent to one another in the Torah, and they are not recited in the order in which they appear, the mishna explains their placement. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 said: Why, in the mitzva of the recitation of Shema, did the portion of Shema precede that of VeHaya im Shamoa? This is so that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven, the awareness of God and God鈥檚 unity, and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot, which appears in the paragraph of VeHaya im Shamoa. Why did VeHaya im Shamoa precede VaYomer? Because the paragraph of VeHaya im Shamoa is practiced both by day and by night, while VaYomer, which discusses the mitzva of ritual fringes, is only practiced during the day.

讙诪壮 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪爪讜转 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one must focus his heart while reading the portion of Shema in the Torah in order to fulfill his obligation. From here, the Gemara seeks to conclude: Learn from this that mitzvot require intent, when one performs a mitzva, he must intend to fulfill his obligation. If he lacks that intention, he does not fulfill his obligation. With that statement, this Gemara hopes to resolve an issue that is raised several times throughout the Talmud.

诪讗讬 讗诐 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 诇拽专讜转 诇拽专讜转 讜讛讗 拽讗 拽专讬

The Gemara rejects this conclusion: What is the meaning of: If one focused his heart? It means that one had the intention to read. The Gemara attacks this explanation: How can you say that it means that one must have intention to read? Isn鈥檛 he already reading? The case in the mishna refers to a person who is reading from the Torah. Therefore, focused his heart must refer to intention to perform a mitzva.

讘拽讜专讗 诇讛讙讬讛:

The Gemara rejects this: Perhaps the mishna speaks of one who is reading the Torah not for the purpose of reciting the words, but in order to emend mistakes in the text. Therefore, if he focused his heart and intended to read the words and not merely emend the text, he fulfills his obligation. He need not have the intention to fulfill his obligation.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讻讻转讘讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉

The Sages taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to the language in which Shema must be recited. This dispute serves as an introduction to a broader analysis of the question of intent: Shema must be recited as it is written, in Hebrew, this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: Shema may be recited in any language.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬讜 讘讛讜讬讬转谉 讬讛讜

The Gemara seeks to clarify: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 opinion? The Gemara answers: The source for his halakha lies in the emphasis on the word: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day, will be upon your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:6). 鈥淲ill be鈥 means as they are, so shall they be; they should remain unchanged, in their original language.

讜专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 拽专讗 砖诪注 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注

The Gemara seeks to clarify further: And what is the reason for the Rabbis鈥 opinion? The Gemara answers: The source upon which the Rabbis base their opinion is, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear, Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), which they understand to mean that Shema must be understood. Therefore, one may recite Shema in any language that you can hear and understand.

讜诇专讘讬 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讛讛讜讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 讛砖诪注 诇讗讝谞讬讱 诪讛 砖讗转讛 诪讜爪讬讗 诪驻讬讱

The Gemara explains how Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and the Rabbis each contend with the source cited by the other. And according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, isn鈥檛 it also stated: 鈥淗ear, Israel鈥? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara responds: He requires this verse in order to derive a different halakha: Make your ears hear what your mouth utters, i.e., one must recite Shema audibly so he hears it while reciting it.

讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 诇讛讜 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 讛砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讜 讬爪讗

And from where do the Rabbis derive that one must recite Shema audibly? The Rabbis do not accept the literal interpretation of the word Shema; rather, they hold in accordance with the one who said: One who recited Shema in a manner inaudible to his own ears, fulfilled his obligation.

讜诇专讘谞谉 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜 讛讛讜讗 诪讘注讬 诇讛讜 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注

The Gemara asks: And according to the Rabbis, isn鈥檛 it also written: 鈥淎nd they will be鈥? How do the Sages explain that emphasis in the verse? The Gemara answers: They, too, require this expression to derive that one may not recite Shema out of order. One may not begin reciting Shema from the end, but only in the order in which it is written.

讜专讘讬 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注 诪谞讗 诇讬讛 谞驻拽讗 诇讬讛 诪讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 讜专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 讚专砖讬

And from where does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derive the halakha that one may not recite Shema out of order? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derives it from an additional emphasis in the verse: 鈥淎nd the words [hadevarim], which I command you this day, will be upon your heart.鈥 The verse could have conveyed the same idea had it written: Words [devarim], without the definite article. However, it says the words [hadevarim], employing the definite article, emphasizing that it must be recited in the specific order in which it is written. The Rabbis, however, do not derive anything from the fact that the words, with the definite article, was written in place of words, without the definite article.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚住讘专 专讘讬 讚讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讜讛讬讜 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬

The Gemara seeks to link this debate to another: Is that to say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds that the entire Torah, i.e., any portion of the Torah which must be read publicly (Tosafot), or if one studies or reads the Torah in general (Me鈥檌ri), may be recited in any language? As if it should enter your mind to say that the entire Torah may only be recited in the holy tongue and not in any other, then why do I need that which the Torah wrote: 鈥淎nd they will be鈥? Prohibiting recitation of Shema in a language other than Hebrew is superfluous, if indeed one is prohibited from reciting any portion of the Torah in a language other than Hebrew. Since the Torah saw the need to specifically require Shema to be recited in Hebrew, it must be because the rest of the Torah may be recited in any language.

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注

The Gemara rejects this: This is not necessarily so, as the phrase: And they will be is necessary in this case because Shema, hear, is also written. Had it not been for the phrase: And they will be, I would have understood hear, to allow Shema to be recited in any language, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, and they will be, was necessary.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚住讘专讬 专讘谞谉 讚讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专讛 砖诪注 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬

The Gemara attempts to clarify: Is that to say that the Rabbis hold that the entire Torah may only be recited in the holy tongue and not in any other? As if it should enter your mind to say that the Torah may be recited in any language, then why do I require that which the Torah wrote: Shema, hear? One is permitted to recite the entire Torah in any language, rendering a specific requirement regarding Shema superfluous.

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜:

The Gemara rejects this: Shema is necessary in any case, because and they will be, is also written. Had it not been for Shema, I would have understood this in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, that one is prohibited from reciting Shema in any other language. Therefore, Shema, is necessary.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讛讬讜 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注 讛讚讘专讬诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讬讻讜诇 转讛讗 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讗诇讛 注讚 讻讗谉 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The interpretation of these verses is the source of a fundamental dispute concerning the obligation to recite Shema and the required intent during its recitation. The Rabbis taught: From: And they will be, it is derived that one may not recite Shema out of order. From: These words鈥pon your heart, it is derived that they must be recited with intent. I might have thought that the entire paragraph requires intent? Therefore the verse teaches: These, to indicate that to this point, one must have intent, but from here on one need not have intent, and even if he recites the rest of Shema without intent he fulfills his obligation. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专

Rabbi Akiva said to him: But the verse states:

讗砖专 讗谞讻讬 诪爪讜讱 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 诪讻讗谉 讗转讛 诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛

鈥淲hich I command you this day, will be upon your heart.鈥 Surely the word these, does not come to limit the mitzva of intent. On the contrary, from here you derive that the entire portion requires intent.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗

Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva; the entire portion requires intent.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 爪专讬讱 砖讬讻讜讬谉 讗转 诇讘讜 专讘讬 讗讞讗 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讘驻专拽 专讗砖讜谉 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗讞讗 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

Some teach this halakha stated by Rabbi Yo岣nan with regard to that which was taught in a Tosefta, where there is a tannaitic dispute. The first tanna holds: One who recites Shema must focus his heart for the entire Shema. Rabbi A岣 says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Once he focused his heart for the first paragraph alone, he no longer requires intent. With regard to this Tosefta, Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with Rabbi A岣 who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda. While this differs from the previous version in form, it arrives at the same conclusion.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讜讛讬讜 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注 注诇 诇讘讘讱 专讘 讝讜讟专讗 讗讜诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛

It was taught in another baraita on this subject, which cited different opinions. From: And they will be, recited in Shema, it is derived that it may not be recited out of order. From: Upon your heart, Rav Zutra says: To this point, there is the mitzva of intent; from here on, beginning with the second paragraph, there is only the mitzva of recitation. Rabbi Yoshiya says that it means the opposite: To this point, there is the mitzva of recitation; from here on there is only the mitzva of intent.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇讚讘专 讘诐 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讚讘专转 讘诐

At first the Gemara understands that Rav Zutra required recitation only in the second paragraph, while in the first paragraph only intent was required. Therefore, the Gemara asks: What is different, that from here on, beginning with the second paragraph, there is the mitzva of recitation? Is it because it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall teach them to your children, to speak of them鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:19)? This is no proof, as here too, in the first paragraph it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall speak of them.鈥 The mitzva of recitation applies to the first paragraph as well.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜拽专讬讗讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 拽专讬讗讛 讘诇讗 讻讜讜谞讛

Rather, he is saying as follows: To this point there is the mitzva of both intent and recitation, but from here on, there is only the mitzva of recitation without intent.

讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜拽专讬讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讜讚讘专转 讘诐 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讻诐 诇讚讘专 讘诐

Again the Gemara asks: According to Rav Zutra, what is different, that to this point, in the first paragraph, there is the mitzva of both intent and recitation because there are two requirements in the first paragraph, as it is written: 鈥淯pon your heart鈥nd you shall speak of them鈥? There, too, in the second paragraph it is also written: 鈥淎nd you shall place these words upon your heart鈥o speak of them,鈥 indicating that intent is also required in that paragraph.

讛讛讜讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讗诪专 讜砖诪转诐 讗转 讚讘专讬 讗诇讛 爪专讬讻讛 砖转讛讗 砖讬诪讛 讻谞讙讚 讛诇讘:

The Gemara responds: That verse is necessary to derive that which was taught by Rabbi Yitz岣k, who said: 鈥淎nd you shall place these words鈥 refers literally to the paragraphs of Shema found in the phylacteries. The verse teaches that the placement of the phylacteries of the arm must be opposite the heart.

讗诪专 诪专 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讻诐 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讱

The Gemara now attempts to clarify the second opinion in the baraita. The Master said, Rabbi Yoshiya says: To this point at the end of the first paragraph, there is the mitzva of recitation; from here on there is the mitzva of intent. The Gemara asks: What is different, that from here on, beginning with the second paragraph, there is the mitzva of intent? Is it because it is written in the second paragraph: 鈥淎nd you shall place these words upon your heart鈥? That is no proof, as here too, in the first paragraph it is written: 鈥淯pon your heart.鈥

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 讜讻讜讜谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讜讜谞讛 讘诇讗 拽专讬讗讛

The Gemara responds that he is saying as follows: To this point, there is the mitzva of both recitation and intent, but from here on, there is only the mitzva of intent without recitation.

讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 讜讻讜讜谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讜讚讘专转 讘诐 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讻诐 诇讚讘专 讘诐

The Gemara continues: And what is different, that to this point, in the first paragraph, there is the mitzva of recitation and intent because there are two requirements, as it is written: Upon your heart as well as: And you shall speak of them? There, too, with regard to the second paragraph isn鈥檛 it written: And you shall place these words upon your heart鈥nd you shall teach them to your children, to speak of them?

讛讛讜讗 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讗讙诪讬专讜 讘谞讬讬讻讜 转讜专讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬讙专住讜 讘讛讜:

Rabbi Yoshiya responded: That verse refers to Torah study in general, not to the recitation of Shema in particular. And the Torah says the following: Teach your children Torah, that they will be well-versed in them.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 注讚 讻讗谉 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞转 讛诇讘 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Sages taught in another baraita with regard to one who recites Shema and utters the verse, 鈥淗ear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One.鈥 Intent of the heart is only required to this point. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rava said: In this matter, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

转谞讬讗 住讜诪讻讜住 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛诪讗专讬讱 讘讗讞讚 诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜砖谞讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讜讘讚诇讬转 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讞讟讜祝 讘讞讬转

It was taught in a baraita, Sumakhos says: One who extends his intonation of the word One [e岣d] while reciting Shema, is rewarded that his days and years are extended. Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: This is only true if he extends the letter dalet, so the word e岣d is sounded in its entirety. Rav Ashi said: This is only so long as one does not pronounce the letter 岣t hurriedly.

专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 [讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗] 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 诪讗专讬讱 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪诇讬讻转讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 讜诇诪讟讛 讜诇讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 转讜 诇讗 爪专讬讻转:

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was seated before Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba. He saw that he was greatly extending his pronunciation of e岣d. He said to him: Once you have crowned Him in your thoughts over everything above, in Heaven, below, on earth, and in the four corners of the heavens, you need not extend any further.

讗诪专 专讘 谞转谉 讘专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讘注诪讬讚讛 注诇 诇讘讘讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 注讚 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讘注诪讬讚讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 讘注诪讬讚讛

Rav Natan bar Mar Ukva said that Rav Yehuda said: One must recite upon your heart, while standing in one place. The Gemara is perplexed: Does it enter your mind that upon your heart alone must be recited while standing in one place? What distinguishes that phrase from the rest of Shema? Rather, say: One must recite until upon your heart while standing in one place. From here on, one need not stand in one place. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One must recite the entire first portion while standing in one place.

讜讗讝讚讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗讞讗 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛:

The Gemara notes: Rabbi Yo岣nan is consistent and follows his reasoning expressed elsewhere, as Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi A岣 who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda; one is required to recite the entire first paragraph of Shema with intent.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讝讜 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞砖讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诇专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诇讗 讞讝讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讚诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讛 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专 驻讞转讬 讘砖注讛 砖诪注讘讬专 讬讚讬讜 注诇 驻谞讬讜 诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: The single verse, 鈥淗ear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One鈥; this is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 recitation of Shema. The Gemara relates: Rav said to his uncle, Rabbi 岣yya: I did not see Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi accept the kingship of Heaven upon himself, meaning that he did not see him recite Shema. Rabbi 岣yya said to him: Son of noblemen [bar pa岣ei], when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi passed his hands over his face in the study hall in the middle of his lesson, he accepted the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself, as his Shema was comprised of a single verse.

讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讘专 拽驻专讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专 拽驻专讗 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讘砖诇诪讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讚讗诪讬谞讗 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讚诪讛讚专 专讘讬 讗砖诪注转讗 讚讗讬转 讘讛 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讗诇讗 诇讚讬讚讱 讚讗诪专转 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 诇诪讛 诇讬讛 诇讗讛讚讜专讬

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 students and members of his household disputed: Does he complete Shema later or does he not complete it later? Bar Kappara says: He does not complete it later. Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, says: He completes it later. Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Granted, according to my position, that I say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi does not complete Shema later, that is why when he taught, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would specifically seek a topic that included the exodus from Egypt, as by so doing he fulfills the mitzva to remember the Exodus; a mitzva that others fulfill in their recitation of the last paragraph of Shema. But according to you, who says that he completes his recitation of Shema later, why, when he teaches, would he specifically seek a topic that included the exodus from Egypt?

讻讚讬 诇讛讝讻讬专 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讘讝诪谞讛

Rabbi Shimon responded: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so in order to mention the exodus from Egypt at its appointed time, during the time of the recitation of Shema.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 诪专转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗诪专 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜谞讗谞住 讘砖讬谞讛 讬爪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇讚专讜 注讘讚讬讛 讘驻住讜拽讗 拽诪讗 爪注专谉 讟驻讬 诇讗 转爪注专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讛 讗讘讜讱 讛讬讻讬 讛讜讛 注讘讬讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘驻住讜拽讗 拽诪讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛 讟驻讬 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛

Based on this halakha, Rabbi Ila, son of Rav Shmuel bar Marta, said in the name of Rav: One who recited the verse, 鈥淗ear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One,鈥 and was immediately overcome by sleep, fulfilled his obligation to recite Shema. Similarly, Rav Na岣an said to his slave, Daru: If you see that I have fallen asleep, bother me to recite the first verse, do not bother me to recite any more than that. Similarly, Rav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: What would your father do? Rav Yosef, son of Rabba, said to him: He would exert himself not to fall asleep in order to recite the first verse, he would not exert himself to recite any more than that.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 驻专拽讚谉 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 诪拽专讗 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 诇讬拽专讬 讛讗 诪讬讙谞讗 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讬讬讟 讗诪讗谉 讚讙谞讬 讗驻专拽讬讚

Rav Yosef said: One who is lying [perakdan] on his back may not recite Shema, for lying that way is unbecoming. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one may not recite Shema in this position, but to sleep lying in that position is permissible? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi curse one who sleeps lying on his back?

讗诪专讬 诪讬讙谞讗 讻讬 诪爪诇讬 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬 诪拽专讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诪爪诇讬 谞诪讬 讗住讜专

The Gemara answers: If one lies on his back while leaning slightly to the side, it is permissible. Nonetheless, to recite Shema in this position, even though he is leaning, is prohibited.

讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪爪诇讬 讜拽专讬

The Gemara asks: Wouldn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan lie on his back, lean slightly and recite Shema?

砖讗谞讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讘注诇 讘砖专 讛讜讛:

The Gemara responds: The case of Rabbi Yo岣nan is different, because he was corpulent and it was difficult for him to read any other way.

讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 讜讻讜壮

The mishna cited Rabbi Meir鈥檚 statement: At the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet an individual due to the respect that he is obligated to show him, and may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, one may greet an individual due to the fear that the individual may harm him if he fails do so, and may respond.

诪砖讬讘 诪讞诪转 诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讛砖转讗 诪砖讗诇 砖讗讬诇 讗讛讚讜专讬 诪讘注讬讗 讗诇讗 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 砖诇讜诐 诇讻诇 讗讚诐 讗讬诪讗 住讬驻讗 讜讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘

About this, the Gemara asks: He may respond due to what circumstance? If you say that one may respond due to respect; now that we learned that one may greet another due to respect, is it necessary to say that one may respond due to respect? Rather, it must be explained as follows: One may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. But if that is the case, say the latter clause of the mishna: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and return another鈥檚 greeting due to fear.

诪砖讬讘 诪讞诪转 诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讛砖转讗 诪砖讗诇 砖讗讬诇 讗讛讚讜专讬 诪讘注讬讗 讗诇讗 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讛讬讬谞讜 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 砖诇讜诐 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Here too, it must be clarified: He may respond due to what circumstance? If you say that one may respond due to fear; now that we have learned that one may greet another due to fear, is it necessary to say that one may respond due to fear? Rather, it must mean that one may respond to another鈥檚 greeting even due to honor. If so, that is identical to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as we learned in the mishna: In the middle of each paragraph, one may greet another due to fear and respond due to respect. At the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet another due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. If so, what is the dispute between them?

讞住讜专讬 诪讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讬讘 讜讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讬讘 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚

The Gemara says: The mishna is incomplete; it is missing an important element, and it teaches the following: At the breaks between the paragraphs, one may greet due to respect, and, needless to say, he may respond due to respect. In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear, and, needless to say, he may respond due to fear. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and respond due to respect.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite 鈥楾il...

Berakhot 13

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Berakhot 13

诇讗 砖讬注拽专 讬注拽讘 诪诪拽讜诪讜 讗诇讗 讬砖专讗诇 注讬拽专 讜讬注拽讘 讟驻诇 诇讜 讜讻谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讗诇 转讝讻专讜 专讗砖谞讜转 讜拽讚诪谞讬讜转 讗诇 转转讘谞谞讜 讗诇 转讝讻专讜 专讗砖谞讜转 讝讛 砖注讘讜讚 诪诇讻讬讜转 讜拽讚诪谞讬讜转 讗诇 转转讘谞谞讜 讝讜 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐

not that the name Jacob will be entirely uprooted from its place, but that the name Israel will be the primary name to which the name Jacob will be secondary, as the Torah continues to refer to him as Jacob after this event. And it also says that the ultimate redemption will overshadow the previous redemption in the verse: 鈥淒o not remember the former events, and do not ponder things of old鈥 (Isaiah 43:18), and the Gemara explains: 鈥淒o not remember the former events,鈥 that is the subjugation to the kingdoms, and 鈥渄o not ponder things of old,鈥 that is the exodus from Egypt, which occurred before the subjugation to the nations.

讛谞谞讬 注砖讛 讞讚砖讛 注转讛 转爪诪讞 转谞讬 专讘 讬讜住祝 讝讜 诪诇讞诪转 讙讜讙 讜诪讙讜讙

With regard to the following verse: 鈥淏ehold, I will do new things, now it will spring forth鈥 (Isaiah 43:19), Rav Yosef taught a baraita: This refers to the future war of Gog and Magog, which will cause all earlier events to be forgotten.

诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诪讛诇讱 讘讚专讱 讜驻讙注 讘讜 讝讗讘 讜谞讬爪诇 诪诪谞讜 讜讛讬讛 诪住驻专 讜讛讜诇讱 诪注砖讛 讝讗讘 驻讙注 讘讜 讗专讬 讜谞讬爪诇 诪诪谞讜 讜讛讬讛 诪住驻专 讜讛讜诇讱 诪注砖讛 讗专讬 驻讙注 讘讜 谞讞砖 讜谞讬爪诇 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讞 诪注砖讛 砖谞讬讛诐 讜讛讬讛 诪住驻专 讜讛讜诇讱 诪注砖讛 谞讞砖 讗祝 讻讱 讬砖专讗诇 爪专讜转 讗讞专讜谞讜转 诪砖讻讞讜转 讗转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转:

The Gemara cites a parable: To what is this comparable? To a person who was walking along the way and a wolf accosted him and he survived it, and he continued to relate the story of the wolf. A lion accosted him and he survived it, and he continued to relate the story of the lion. A snake accosted him and he survived it, he forgot both the lion and the wolf, and he continued to relate the story of the snake. Each encounter was more dangerous and each escape more miraculous than the last, so he would continue to relate the most recent story. So too with Israel; more recent troubles cause the earlier troubles to be forgotten.

讗讘专诐 讛讜讗 讗讘专讛诐

Having mentioned the changing of Jacob鈥檚 name, the Gemara addresses the changing of the names of Abraham and Sarah. What is the meaning of changing Abram鈥檚 name to Abraham? As it is stated: 鈥淎bram is Abraham鈥 (I Chronicles 1:27).

讘转讞诇讛 谞注砖讛 讗讘 诇讗专诐 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞注砖讛 讗讘 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜

The Gemara explains: Initially he became a father, a minister, and prominent person, only to Aram, so he was called Abram, father [av] of Aram, and ultimately with God鈥檚 blessing he became the father of the entire world, so he was called Abraham, father of the masses [av hamon], as it is stated: 鈥淚 have made you the father of a multitude of nations鈥 (Genesis 17:5).

砖专讬 讛讬讗 砖专讛

Similarly, what is the meaning of changing Sarai鈥檚 name to Sarah? The same concept applies to Sarai as to Abram: Sarai is Sarah.鈥

讘转讞诇讛 谞注砖讬转 砖专讬 诇讗讜诪转讛 讜诇讘住讜祝 谞注砖讬转 砖专讛 诇讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜:

The Gemara explains: Initially she was a princess only to her nation: My princess [Sarai], but ultimately she became Sarah, a general term indicating that she was princess for the entire world.

转谞讬 讘专 拽驻专讗 讻诇 讛拽讜专讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 讗讘专诐 注讜讘专 讘注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 砖诪讱 讗讘专讛诐 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 注讜讘专 讘诇讗讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇讗 讬拽专讗 注讜讚 [讗转] 砖诪讱 讗讘专诐

Also, with regard to Abraham鈥檚 name, bar Kappara taught: Anyone who calls Abraham Abram transgresses a positive mitzva, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your name will be Abraham鈥 (Genesis 17:5). This is a positive mitzva to refer to him as Abraham. Rabbi Eliezer says: One who calls Abraham Abram transgresses a negative mitzva, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your name shall no longer be called Abram, and your name will be Abraham, for I have made you the father of a multitude of nations鈥 (Genesis 17:5).

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讛拽讜专讗 诇砖专讛 砖专讬 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

The Gemara asks: But if we consider these obligatory statements, then from here we must infer that one who calls Sarah Sarai also transgresses a positive or negative mitzva.

讛转诐 拽讜讚砖讗 讘专讬讱 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讗讘专讛诐 砖专讬 讗砖转讱 诇讗 转拽专讗 讗转 砖诪讛 砖专讬 讻讬 砖专讛 砖诪讛

The Gemara answers: There in the case of Sarah, it is not a general mitzva, rather the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham alone: 鈥淎nd God said to Abraham, your wife Sarai, you shall not call her name Sarai; rather, Sarah is her name鈥 (Genesis 17:15). In contrast, this is stated regarding Abraham in general terms: 鈥淵our name shall no longer be called Abram.鈥

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讛拽讜专讗 诇讬注拽讘 讬注拽讘 讛讻讬 谞诪讬

Again, the Gemara asks: But if that is so, one who calls Jacob Jacob, about whom it is written: 鈥淵our name shall no longer be Jacob, but Israel鈥 (Genesis 32:29), also transgresses a mitzva.

砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讛讚专 讗讛讚专讬讛 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讬砖专讗诇 讘诪专讗讜转 讛诇讬诇讛 讜讬讗诪专 讬注拽讘 讬注拽讘

The Gemara answers: It is different there, as the verse reverts back and God Himself refers to Jacob as Jacob, as it is written before his descent to Egypt: 鈥淎nd God said to Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob, and he said, 鈥楬ere I am鈥欌 (Genesis 46:2).

诪转讬讘 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讝讘讬讚讗 讗转讛 讛讜讗 讛壮 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗砖专 讘讞专转 讘讗讘专诐

Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, and some say Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida, raised an objection to the statements of bar Kappara and Rabbi Eliezer based on what is said in the recounting of the history of the Jewish people: 鈥淵ou are the Lord, God, Who chose Abram and took him out of Ur Kasdim and made his name Abraham鈥 (Nehemiah 9:7). Here the Bible refers to him as Abram.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛转诐 谞讘讬讗 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪住讚专 诇砖讘讞讬讛 讚专讞诪谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讛讜讛 诪注讬拽专讗:

The Gemara responds: There, the prophet is recounting God鈥檚 praises, including that which was the situation originally, before his name was changed to Abraham. Indeed, the verse continues: 鈥淵ou took him out of Ur Kasdim and made his name Abraham, and found his heart faithful before You and made a covenant with him to give him the land of Canaan鈥o give to his descendants, and You fulfilled Your words for You are righteous鈥 (Nehemiah 9:7鈥8).

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 诪讗讬诪转讬

 

诪转谞讬壮 讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 讘转讜专讛 讜讛讙讬注 讝诪谉 讛诪拽专讗 讗诐 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讬爪讗

MISHNA: The first question discussed in the mishna is the question of intent. One who was reading the sections of the Torah which comprise Shema, and the time for the recitation of the morning or evening Shema arrived, if he focused his heart, he fulfilled his obligation and need not repeat Shema in order to fulfill his obligation. This is true even if he failed to recite the requisite blessings (Rabbeinu 岣nanel).

讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 讜讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Ab initio, one may not interrupt the recitation of Shema. The tanna鈥檌m, however, disagree over how strict one must be in this regard. They distinguish between interruptions between paragraphs and interruptions within each paragraph. At the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet an individual due to the respect that he is obligated to show him, and one may respond to another鈥檚 greeting due to respect. And in the middle of each paragraph one may greet an individual due to the fear that the individual may harm him if he fails do so (Me鈥檌ri) and one may respond to another鈥檚 greeting due to fear. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 砖诇讜诐 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Rabbi Yehuda says: There is a distinction between greeting someone and responding to his greeting. In the middle of each paragraph, one may greet another due to fear and respond due to respect. In the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet another due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person who greets him, whether or not he is obligated to show him respect.

讗诇讜 讛谉 讘讬谉 讛驻专拽讬诐 讘讬谉 讘专讻讛 专讗砖讜谞讛 诇砖谞讬讛 讘讬谉 砖谞讬讛 诇砖诪注 讘讬谉 砖诪注 诇讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 讘讬谉 讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 诇讜讬讗诪专 讘讬谉 讜讬讗诪专 诇讗诪转 讜讬爪讬讘

As for what constitutes a paragraph, these are the breaks between the paragraphs: Between the first blessing and the second, between the second and Shema, between Shema and the second paragraph: If you indeed heed My commandments [VeHaya im Shamoa], between VeHaya im Shamoa and the third paragraph: And the Lord spoke [VaYomer] and between VaYomer and True and Firm [emet veyatziv], the blessing that follows Shema.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讬谉 讜讬讗诪专 诇讗诪转 讜讬爪讬讘 诇讗 讬驻住讬拽

The Rabbis held that each blessing and each paragraph of Shema constitutes its own entity, and treat interruptions between them as between the paragraphs. Rabbi Yehuda, however, says: Between VaYomer and emet veyatziv, which begins the blessing that follows Shema, one may not interrupt at all. According to Rabbi Yehuda, these must be recited consecutively.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 诇诪讛 拽讚诪讛 驻专砖转 砖诪注 诇讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 讻讚讬 砖讬拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐 转讞诇讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪爪讜转 讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 诇讜讬讗诪专 砖讜讛讬讛 讗诐 砖诪讜注 谞讜讛讙 讘讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讜讘讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讬讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙 讗诇讗 讘讬讜诐 讘诇讘讚:

Since the paragraphs of Shema are not adjacent to one another in the Torah, and they are not recited in the order in which they appear, the mishna explains their placement. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 said: Why, in the mitzva of the recitation of Shema, did the portion of Shema precede that of VeHaya im Shamoa? This is so that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven, the awareness of God and God鈥檚 unity, and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot, which appears in the paragraph of VeHaya im Shamoa. Why did VeHaya im Shamoa precede VaYomer? Because the paragraph of VeHaya im Shamoa is practiced both by day and by night, while VaYomer, which discusses the mitzva of ritual fringes, is only practiced during the day.

讙诪壮 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪爪讜转 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one must focus his heart while reading the portion of Shema in the Torah in order to fulfill his obligation. From here, the Gemara seeks to conclude: Learn from this that mitzvot require intent, when one performs a mitzva, he must intend to fulfill his obligation. If he lacks that intention, he does not fulfill his obligation. With that statement, this Gemara hopes to resolve an issue that is raised several times throughout the Talmud.

诪讗讬 讗诐 讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 诇拽专讜转 诇拽专讜转 讜讛讗 拽讗 拽专讬

The Gemara rejects this conclusion: What is the meaning of: If one focused his heart? It means that one had the intention to read. The Gemara attacks this explanation: How can you say that it means that one must have intention to read? Isn鈥檛 he already reading? The case in the mishna refers to a person who is reading from the Torah. Therefore, focused his heart must refer to intention to perform a mitzva.

讘拽讜专讗 诇讛讙讬讛:

The Gemara rejects this: Perhaps the mishna speaks of one who is reading the Torah not for the purpose of reciting the words, but in order to emend mistakes in the text. Therefore, if he focused his heart and intended to read the words and not merely emend the text, he fulfills his obligation. He need not have the intention to fulfill his obligation.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 讻讻转讘讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉

The Sages taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to the language in which Shema must be recited. This dispute serves as an introduction to a broader analysis of the question of intent: Shema must be recited as it is written, in Hebrew, this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: Shema may be recited in any language.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬讜 讘讛讜讬讬转谉 讬讛讜

The Gemara seeks to clarify: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 opinion? The Gemara answers: The source for his halakha lies in the emphasis on the word: 鈥淎nd these words, which I command you this day, will be upon your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:6). 鈥淲ill be鈥 means as they are, so shall they be; they should remain unchanged, in their original language.

讜专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 拽专讗 砖诪注 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 砖讗转讛 砖讜诪注

The Gemara seeks to clarify further: And what is the reason for the Rabbis鈥 opinion? The Gemara answers: The source upon which the Rabbis base their opinion is, as it is stated: 鈥淗ear, Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), which they understand to mean that Shema must be understood. Therefore, one may recite Shema in any language that you can hear and understand.

讜诇专讘讬 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 砖诪注 讛讛讜讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 讛砖诪注 诇讗讝谞讬讱 诪讛 砖讗转讛 诪讜爪讬讗 诪驻讬讱

The Gemara explains how Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and the Rabbis each contend with the source cited by the other. And according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, isn鈥檛 it also stated: 鈥淗ear, Israel鈥? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara responds: He requires this verse in order to derive a different halakha: Make your ears hear what your mouth utters, i.e., one must recite Shema audibly so he hears it while reciting it.

讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 诇讛讜 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 讛砖诪讬注 诇讗讝谞讜 讬爪讗

And from where do the Rabbis derive that one must recite Shema audibly? The Rabbis do not accept the literal interpretation of the word Shema; rather, they hold in accordance with the one who said: One who recited Shema in a manner inaudible to his own ears, fulfilled his obligation.

讜诇专讘谞谉 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜 讛讛讜讗 诪讘注讬 诇讛讜 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注

The Gemara asks: And according to the Rabbis, isn鈥檛 it also written: 鈥淎nd they will be鈥? How do the Sages explain that emphasis in the verse? The Gemara answers: They, too, require this expression to derive that one may not recite Shema out of order. One may not begin reciting Shema from the end, but only in the order in which it is written.

讜专讘讬 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注 诪谞讗 诇讬讛 谞驻拽讗 诇讬讛 诪讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 讜专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 讛讚讘专讬诐 诇讗 讚专砖讬

And from where does Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derive the halakha that one may not recite Shema out of order? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi derives it from an additional emphasis in the verse: 鈥淎nd the words [hadevarim], which I command you this day, will be upon your heart.鈥 The verse could have conveyed the same idea had it written: Words [devarim], without the definite article. However, it says the words [hadevarim], employing the definite article, emphasizing that it must be recited in the specific order in which it is written. The Rabbis, however, do not derive anything from the fact that the words, with the definite article, was written in place of words, without the definite article.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚住讘专 专讘讬 讚讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讜讛讬讜 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬

The Gemara seeks to link this debate to another: Is that to say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds that the entire Torah, i.e., any portion of the Torah which must be read publicly (Tosafot), or if one studies or reads the Torah in general (Me鈥檌ri), may be recited in any language? As if it should enter your mind to say that the entire Torah may only be recited in the holy tongue and not in any other, then why do I need that which the Torah wrote: 鈥淎nd they will be鈥? Prohibiting recitation of Shema in a language other than Hebrew is superfluous, if indeed one is prohibited from reciting any portion of the Torah in a language other than Hebrew. Since the Torah saw the need to specifically require Shema to be recited in Hebrew, it must be because the rest of the Torah may be recited in any language.

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖诪注

The Gemara rejects this: This is not necessarily so, as the phrase: And they will be is necessary in this case because Shema, hear, is also written. Had it not been for the phrase: And they will be, I would have understood hear, to allow Shema to be recited in any language, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, and they will be, was necessary.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚住讘专讬 专讘谞谉 讚讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛 讘诇砖讜谉 讛拽讜讚砖 谞讗诪专讛 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘讻诇 诇砖讜谉 谞讗诪专讛 砖诪注 讚讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讛 诇讬

The Gemara attempts to clarify: Is that to say that the Rabbis hold that the entire Torah may only be recited in the holy tongue and not in any other? As if it should enter your mind to say that the Torah may be recited in any language, then why do I require that which the Torah wrote: Shema, hear? One is permitted to recite the entire Torah in any language, rendering a specific requirement regarding Shema superfluous.

讗讬爪讟专讬讱 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讜:

The Gemara rejects this: Shema is necessary in any case, because and they will be, is also written. Had it not been for Shema, I would have understood this in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, that one is prohibited from reciting Shema in any other language. Therefore, Shema, is necessary.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讜讛讬讜 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注 讛讚讘专讬诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讬讻讜诇 转讛讗 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讗诇讛 注讚 讻讗谉 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专

The interpretation of these verses is the source of a fundamental dispute concerning the obligation to recite Shema and the required intent during its recitation. The Rabbis taught: From: And they will be, it is derived that one may not recite Shema out of order. From: These words鈥pon your heart, it is derived that they must be recited with intent. I might have thought that the entire paragraph requires intent? Therefore the verse teaches: These, to indicate that to this point, one must have intent, but from here on one need not have intent, and even if he recites the rest of Shema without intent he fulfills his obligation. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专

Rabbi Akiva said to him: But the verse states:

讗砖专 讗谞讻讬 诪爪讜讱 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 诪讻讗谉 讗转讛 诇诪讚 砖讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞讛

鈥淲hich I command you this day, will be upon your heart.鈥 Surely the word these, does not come to limit the mitzva of intent. On the contrary, from here you derive that the entire portion requires intent.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗

Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva; the entire portion requires intent.

讗讬讻讗 讚诪转谞讬 诇讛 讗讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 爪专讬讱 砖讬讻讜讬谉 讗转 诇讘讜 专讘讬 讗讞讗 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讻讬讜谉 砖讻讜讜谉 诇讘讜 讘驻专拽 专讗砖讜谉 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗讞讗 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

Some teach this halakha stated by Rabbi Yo岣nan with regard to that which was taught in a Tosefta, where there is a tannaitic dispute. The first tanna holds: One who recites Shema must focus his heart for the entire Shema. Rabbi A岣 says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Once he focused his heart for the first paragraph alone, he no longer requires intent. With regard to this Tosefta, Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with Rabbi A岣 who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda. While this differs from the previous version in form, it arrives at the same conclusion.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讜讛讬讜 砖诇讗 讬拽专讗 诇诪驻专注 注诇 诇讘讘讱 专讘 讝讜讟专讗 讗讜诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛

It was taught in another baraita on this subject, which cited different opinions. From: And they will be, recited in Shema, it is derived that it may not be recited out of order. From: Upon your heart, Rav Zutra says: To this point, there is the mitzva of intent; from here on, beginning with the second paragraph, there is only the mitzva of recitation. Rabbi Yoshiya says that it means the opposite: To this point, there is the mitzva of recitation; from here on there is only the mitzva of intent.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 诇讚讘专 讘诐 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讚讘专转 讘诐

At first the Gemara understands that Rav Zutra required recitation only in the second paragraph, while in the first paragraph only intent was required. Therefore, the Gemara asks: What is different, that from here on, beginning with the second paragraph, there is the mitzva of recitation? Is it because it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall teach them to your children, to speak of them鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:19)? This is no proof, as here too, in the first paragraph it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall speak of them.鈥 The mitzva of recitation applies to the first paragraph as well.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜拽专讬讗讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 拽专讬讗讛 讘诇讗 讻讜讜谞讛

Rather, he is saying as follows: To this point there is the mitzva of both intent and recitation, but from here on, there is only the mitzva of recitation without intent.

讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜拽专讬讗讛 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讜讚讘专转 讘诐 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讻诐 诇讚讘专 讘诐

Again the Gemara asks: According to Rav Zutra, what is different, that to this point, in the first paragraph, there is the mitzva of both intent and recitation because there are two requirements in the first paragraph, as it is written: 鈥淯pon your heart鈥nd you shall speak of them鈥? There, too, in the second paragraph it is also written: 鈥淎nd you shall place these words upon your heart鈥o speak of them,鈥 indicating that intent is also required in that paragraph.

讛讛讜讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讗诪专 讜砖诪转诐 讗转 讚讘专讬 讗诇讛 爪专讬讻讛 砖转讛讗 砖讬诪讛 讻谞讙讚 讛诇讘:

The Gemara responds: That verse is necessary to derive that which was taught by Rabbi Yitz岣k, who said: 鈥淎nd you shall place these words鈥 refers literally to the paragraphs of Shema found in the phylacteries. The verse teaches that the placement of the phylacteries of the arm must be opposite the heart.

讗诪专 诪专 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗讜诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诪爪讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讻诐 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讱

The Gemara now attempts to clarify the second opinion in the baraita. The Master said, Rabbi Yoshiya says: To this point at the end of the first paragraph, there is the mitzva of recitation; from here on there is the mitzva of intent. The Gemara asks: What is different, that from here on, beginning with the second paragraph, there is the mitzva of intent? Is it because it is written in the second paragraph: 鈥淎nd you shall place these words upon your heart鈥? That is no proof, as here too, in the first paragraph it is written: 鈥淯pon your heart.鈥

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 讜讻讜讜谞讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讻讜讜谞讛 讘诇讗 拽专讬讗讛

The Gemara responds that he is saying as follows: To this point, there is the mitzva of both recitation and intent, but from here on, there is only the mitzva of intent without recitation.

讜诪讗讬 砖谞讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诪爪讜转 拽专讬讗讛 讜讻讜讜谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讜讚讘专转 讘诐 讛转诐 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 注诇 诇讘讘讻诐 诇讚讘专 讘诐

The Gemara continues: And what is different, that to this point, in the first paragraph, there is the mitzva of recitation and intent because there are two requirements, as it is written: Upon your heart as well as: And you shall speak of them? There, too, with regard to the second paragraph isn鈥檛 it written: And you shall place these words upon your heart鈥nd you shall teach them to your children, to speak of them?

讛讛讜讗 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讗讙诪讬专讜 讘谞讬讬讻讜 转讜专讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬讙专住讜 讘讛讜:

Rabbi Yoshiya responded: That verse refers to Torah study in general, not to the recitation of Shema in particular. And the Torah says the following: Teach your children Torah, that they will be well-versed in them.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 注讚 讻讗谉 爪专讬讻讛 讻讜讜谞转 讛诇讘 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Sages taught in another baraita with regard to one who recites Shema and utters the verse, 鈥淗ear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One.鈥 Intent of the heart is only required to this point. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rava said: In this matter, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

转谞讬讗 住讜诪讻讜住 讗讜诪专 讻诇 讛诪讗专讬讱 讘讗讞讚 诪讗专讬讻讬谉 诇讜 讬诪讬讜 讜砖谞讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讜讘讚诇讬转 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讞讟讜祝 讘讞讬转

It was taught in a baraita, Sumakhos says: One who extends his intonation of the word One [e岣d] while reciting Shema, is rewarded that his days and years are extended. Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: This is only true if he extends the letter dalet, so the word e岣d is sounded in its entirety. Rav Ashi said: This is only so long as one does not pronounce the letter 岣t hurriedly.

专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 [讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗] 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 诪讗专讬讱 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪诇讬讻转讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 讜诇诪讟讛 讜诇讗专讘注 专讜讞讜转 讛砖诪讬诐 转讜 诇讗 爪专讬讻转:

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was seated before Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba. He saw that he was greatly extending his pronunciation of e岣d. He said to him: Once you have crowned Him in your thoughts over everything above, in Heaven, below, on earth, and in the four corners of the heavens, you need not extend any further.

讗诪专 专讘 谞转谉 讘专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讘注诪讬讚讛 注诇 诇讘讘讱 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 讗讬诪讗 注讚 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讘注诪讬讚讛 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 诇讗 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讻诇 讛驻专砖讛 讻讜诇讛 讘注诪讬讚讛

Rav Natan bar Mar Ukva said that Rav Yehuda said: One must recite upon your heart, while standing in one place. The Gemara is perplexed: Does it enter your mind that upon your heart alone must be recited while standing in one place? What distinguishes that phrase from the rest of Shema? Rather, say: One must recite until upon your heart while standing in one place. From here on, one need not stand in one place. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: One must recite the entire first portion while standing in one place.

讜讗讝讚讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛诇讻讛 讻专讘讬 讗讞讗 砖讗诪专 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛:

The Gemara notes: Rabbi Yo岣nan is consistent and follows his reasoning expressed elsewhere, as Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi A岣 who said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda; one is required to recite the entire first paragraph of Shema with intent.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讝讜 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛谞砖讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诇专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诇讗 讞讝讬谞讗 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讚诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讛 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专 驻讞转讬 讘砖注讛 砖诪注讘讬专 讬讚讬讜 注诇 驻谞讬讜 诪拽讘诇 注诇讬讜 注讜诇 诪诇讻讜转 砖诪讬诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: The single verse, 鈥淗ear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One鈥; this is Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 recitation of Shema. The Gemara relates: Rav said to his uncle, Rabbi 岣yya: I did not see Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi accept the kingship of Heaven upon himself, meaning that he did not see him recite Shema. Rabbi 岣yya said to him: Son of noblemen [bar pa岣ei], when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi passed his hands over his face in the study hall in the middle of his lesson, he accepted the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself, as his Shema was comprised of a single verse.

讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讘专 拽驻专讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讗讜诪专 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘专 拽驻专讗 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专讘讬 讘砖诇诪讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讚讗诪讬谞讗 讗讬谞讜 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讚诪讛讚专 专讘讬 讗砖诪注转讗 讚讗讬转 讘讛 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讗诇讗 诇讚讬讚讱 讚讗诪专转 讞讜讝专 讜讙讜诪专讛 诇诪讛 诇讬讛 诇讗讛讚讜专讬

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 students and members of his household disputed: Does he complete Shema later or does he not complete it later? Bar Kappara says: He does not complete it later. Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, says: He completes it later. Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Granted, according to my position, that I say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi does not complete Shema later, that is why when he taught, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would specifically seek a topic that included the exodus from Egypt, as by so doing he fulfills the mitzva to remember the Exodus; a mitzva that others fulfill in their recitation of the last paragraph of Shema. But according to you, who says that he completes his recitation of Shema later, why, when he teaches, would he specifically seek a topic that included the exodus from Egypt?

讻讚讬 诇讛讝讻讬专 讬爪讬讗转 诪爪专讬诐 讘讝诪谞讛

Rabbi Shimon responded: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did so in order to mention the exodus from Egypt at its appointed time, during the time of the recitation of Shema.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 诪专转讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗诪专 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜谞讗谞住 讘砖讬谞讛 讬爪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 诇讚专讜 注讘讚讬讛 讘驻住讜拽讗 拽诪讗 爪注专谉 讟驻讬 诇讗 转爪注专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讛 讗讘讜讱 讛讬讻讬 讛讜讛 注讘讬讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘驻住讜拽讗 拽诪讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛 讟驻讬 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪爪注专 谞驻砖讬讛

Based on this halakha, Rabbi Ila, son of Rav Shmuel bar Marta, said in the name of Rav: One who recited the verse, 鈥淗ear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One,鈥 and was immediately overcome by sleep, fulfilled his obligation to recite Shema. Similarly, Rav Na岣an said to his slave, Daru: If you see that I have fallen asleep, bother me to recite the first verse, do not bother me to recite any more than that. Similarly, Rav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: What would your father do? Rav Yosef, son of Rabba, said to him: He would exert himself not to fall asleep in order to recite the first verse, he would not exert himself to recite any more than that.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 驻专拽讚谉 诇讗 讬拽专讗 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 诪拽专讗 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 诇讬拽专讬 讛讗 诪讬讙谞讗 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬 讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇讬讬讟 讗诪讗谉 讚讙谞讬 讗驻专拽讬讚

Rav Yosef said: One who is lying [perakdan] on his back may not recite Shema, for lying that way is unbecoming. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one may not recite Shema in this position, but to sleep lying in that position is permissible? Didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi curse one who sleeps lying on his back?

讗诪专讬 诪讬讙谞讗 讻讬 诪爪诇讬 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬 诪拽专讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚诪爪诇讬 谞诪讬 讗住讜专

The Gemara answers: If one lies on his back while leaning slightly to the side, it is permissible. Nonetheless, to recite Shema in this position, even though he is leaning, is prohibited.

讜讛讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪爪诇讬 讜拽专讬

The Gemara asks: Wouldn鈥檛 Rabbi Yo岣nan lie on his back, lean slightly and recite Shema?

砖讗谞讬 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讚讘注诇 讘砖专 讛讜讛:

The Gemara responds: The case of Rabbi Yo岣nan is different, because he was corpulent and it was difficult for him to read any other way.

讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 讜讻讜壮

The mishna cited Rabbi Meir鈥檚 statement: At the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet an individual due to the respect that he is obligated to show him, and may respond. And in the middle of each paragraph, one may greet an individual due to the fear that the individual may harm him if he fails do so, and may respond.

诪砖讬讘 诪讞诪转 诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讛砖转讗 诪砖讗诇 砖讗讬诇 讗讛讚讜专讬 诪讘注讬讗 讗诇讗 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 砖诇讜诐 诇讻诇 讗讚诐 讗讬诪讗 住讬驻讗 讜讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘

About this, the Gemara asks: He may respond due to what circumstance? If you say that one may respond due to respect; now that we learned that one may greet another due to respect, is it necessary to say that one may respond due to respect? Rather, it must be explained as follows: One may greet due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. But if that is the case, say the latter clause of the mishna: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and return another鈥檚 greeting due to fear.

诪砖讬讘 诪讞诪转 诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讛砖转讗 诪砖讗诇 砖讗讬诇 讗讛讚讜专讬 诪讘注讬讗 讗诇讗 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讛讬讬谞讜 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜诪砖讬讘 砖诇讜诐 诇讻诇 讗讚诐

Here too, it must be clarified: He may respond due to what circumstance? If you say that one may respond due to fear; now that we have learned that one may greet another due to fear, is it necessary to say that one may respond due to fear? Rather, it must mean that one may respond to another鈥檚 greeting even due to honor. If so, that is identical to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as we learned in the mishna: In the middle of each paragraph, one may greet another due to fear and respond due to respect. At the breaks between paragraphs, one may greet another due to respect and respond with a greeting to any person. If so, what is the dispute between them?

讞住讜专讬 诪讞住专讗 讜讛讻讬 拽转谞讬 讘驻专拽讬诐 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讬讘 讜讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 砖讛讜讗 诪砖讬讘 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜讗诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讬专讗讛 讜诪砖讬讘 诪驻谞讬 讛讻讘讜讚

The Gemara says: The mishna is incomplete; it is missing an important element, and it teaches the following: At the breaks between the paragraphs, one may greet due to respect, and, needless to say, he may respond due to respect. In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear, and, needless to say, he may respond due to fear. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: In the middle of each paragraph one may greet due to fear and respond due to respect.

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