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Today's Daf Yomi

January 19, 2020 | כ״ב בטבת תש״פ

Berakhot 16

Rabbi Elazar explains what to do when one gets confused at various points in shema. What are the laws regarding workers – can they come down from a tree or a high wall to say shema and shmone esreh? Is there a difference between the two? Why? Does it depend what type of salary the worker receives? A groom is exempt from shema on his wedding night and for a few days until he has sex with his wife for the first time. Why? A few stories are brought regarding Rabban Gamliel where he acted against mainstream halacha. Each time he is challenged by his students and explains to them why he made an exception. Laws regarding canaanite slaves are discussed – can one mourn for them? The gemara brings a list of personal prayers that rabbis added at the end of their shmone esreh. Some are incorporated into our prayers but not immediately following shmone esreh.

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

אהלים לנחלים דכתיב כנחלים נטיו כגנות עלי נהר כאהלים נטע וגו׳ לומר לך מה נחלים מעלין את האדם מטומאה לטהרה אף אהלים מעלין את האדם מכף חובה לכף זכות:

tents juxtaposed to streams, as it is written: “As streams stretched forth, as gardens by the riverside; as aloes [ahalim] planted by the Lord, as cedars by the water” (Numbers 24:6)? The Gemara vocalizes the word ohalim, tents, rather than ahalim. They are juxtaposed in order to tell you: Just as streams elevate a person from ritual impurity to purity after he immerses himself in their water, so too tents of Torah elevate a person from the scale of guilt to the scale of merit.

הקורא למפרע לא יצא וכו׳:

We learned in our mishna: One who recited Shema out of order did not fulfill his obligation. One who recited and erred, should return to the place in Shema that he erred.

רבי אמי ורבי אסי הוו קא קטרין ליה גננא לרבי אלעזר אמר להו אדהכי והכי איזיל ואשמע מלתא דבי מדרשא ואיתי ואימא לכו אזל אשכחיה לתנא דקתני קמיה דרבי יוחנן

With regard to an error in the recitation of Shema, the Gemara recounts: Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi were once tying a wedding canopy in preparation for the wedding of Rabbi Elazar. He said to them: In the meantime, until you finish, I will go and hear something in the study hall, and I will come and say it to you. He went and found the tanna who recited mishnayot in the study hall, who was reciting this Tosefta before Rabbi Yoḥanan:

קרא וטעה ואינו יודע להיכן טעה באמצע הפרק יחזור לראש בין פרק לפרק יחזור לפרק ראשון בין כתיבה לכתיבה יחזור לכתיבה ראשונה

One who recited Shema and erred, and does not know where exactly he erred; if he was in the middle of a paragraph when he realized his error, he must return to the beginning of the paragraph; if he was between one paragraph and another when he realized his error but does not remember between which paragraphs, he must return to the first break between paragraphs. Similarly, if one erred between writing and writing, i.e., between the verse: “And you shall write them on the door posts of your house and on your gates” (Deuteronomy 6:9) in the first paragraph and the identical verse (Deuteronomy 11:20) in the second paragraph, he must return to the first writing.

אמר ליה רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שלא פתח בלמען ירבו ימיכם אבל פתח בלמען ירבו ימיכם סרכיה נקט ואתי

Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: They only taught this halakha in a case where one did not yet begin: “In order to lengthen your days” (Deuteronomy 11:21) which follows that verse at the end of the second paragraph. However, if he already began to recite: In order to lengthen your days, he can assume that he assumed his routine and continued and completed the second paragraph.

אתא ואמר להו אמרו ליה אלו לא באנו אלא לשמוע דבר זה דיינו:

Rabbi Elazar came and told Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi what he heard. They said to him: Had we come only to hear this, it would have been sufficient.

מתני׳ האומנין קורין בראש האילן ובראש הנדבך מה שאינן רשאין לעשות כן בתפלה

MISHNA: The primary issue in this mishna is the requisite degree of concentration when reciting Shema. Laborers engaged in their work may recite Shema while standing atop the tree or atop the course of stones in a wall under construction, which they are not permitted to do for the Amida prayer, which requires intent of the heart.

חתן פטור מקריאת שמע לילה הראשונה ועד מוצאי שבת אם לא עשה מעשה ומעשה ברבן גמליאל שנשא אשה וקרא לילה הראשונה אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שחתן פטור מקריאת שמע אמר להם איני שומע לכם לבטל הימני מלכות שמים אפילו שעה אחת:

The mishna continues: A groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema on the first night of his marriage, which was generally Wednesday night, until Saturday night, if he has not taken action and consummated the marriage, as he is preoccupied by concerns related to consummation of the marriage. The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel married a woman and recited Shema even the first night. His students said to him: Didn’t our teacher teach us that a groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema? He answered them: Nevertheless, I am not listening to you to refrain from reciting Shema, and in so doing preclude myself from the acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven, for even one moment.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן האומנין קורין בראש האילן ובראש הנדבך ומתפללין בראש הזית ובראש התאנה ושאר כל האילנות יורדים למטה ומתפללין ובעל הבית בין כך ובין כך יורד למטה ומתפלל לפי שאין דעתו מיושבת עליו

GEMARA: With regard to laborers, the Sages taught in a Tosefta: Laborers, while engaged in their labor, may recite Shema while standing atop the tree or atop the course of stones in a wall under construction. And they may pray atop the olive tree or the fig tree, as those trees have many branches close together, so one could stand on them and focus properly while praying. In the case of all the rest of the trees, however, they must climb down and pray. However, the homeowner, who is self-employed, in all cases, regardless of the type of tree, must climb down and pray, as he will be unable to focus appropriately. Since, in contrast to the laborers, it is his prerogative to climb down and pray, the Sages did not permit him to pray atop the tree.

רמי ליה רב מרי ברה דבת שמואל לרבא תנן האומנין קורין בראש האילן ובראש הנדבך אלמא לא בעי כונה ורמינהי הקורא את שמע צריך שיכוין את לבו שנאמר שמע ישראל ולהלן הוא אומר הסכת ושמע ישראל מה להלן בהסכת אף כאן בהסכת

Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, raised a contradiction before Rava: We learned in our mishna: Laborers may recite Shema atop the tree or atop the course of stones in a wall under construction. We see that he does not require intent, simple recitation is sufficient. And he raised a contradiction from the verbal analogy taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema must focus his heart, as it is stated: “Hear [Shema], Israel.” And below, later in Deuteronomy, it says: “Pay attention, and hear [shema], Israel” (Deuteronomy 27:9). Just as there one must pay attention, so too here one must pay attention.

אשתיק אמר ליה מידי שמיע לך בהא אמר ליה הכי אמר רב ששת והוא שבטלין ממלאכתן וקורין

Rava was silent as he had no response. But he said to him: Have you heard anything on this matter? He replied: Rav Sheshet said as follows: And this halakha, that laborers may recite Shema atop the tree only applies when they are idle from their work and recite it so they can focus their hearts.

והתניא בית הלל אומרים עוסקים במלאכתן וקורין

The Gemara challenges this: But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Beit Hillel say: Laborers engage in their labor and recite Shema?

לא קשיא הא בפרק ראשון הא בפרק שני

The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. This, which says that laborers must be idle from their labor, is referring to a case when they are reciting the first paragraph of Shema, while that, which says that they may continue to work, is in a case when they are reciting the second paragraph.

תנו רבנן הפועלים שהיו עושין מלאכה אצל בעל הבית קורין קריאת שמע ומברכין לפניה ולאחריה ואוכלין פתן ומברכין לפניה ולאחריה ומתפללין תפלה של שמונה עשרה אבל אין יורדין לפני התיבה ואין נושאין כפיהם

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: Laborers who were working for a homeowner are obligated to recite Shema and recite the blessings before it and after it; and when they eat their bread they are obligated to recite the blessing before and after it; and they are obligated to recite the Amida prayer. However, they do not descend before the ark as communal prayer leaders and the priests among them do not lift their hands to recite the Priestly Blessing, so as not to be derelict in the duties they were hired to perform.

והתניא מעין שמונה עשרה אמר רב ששת לא קשיא הא רבן גמליאל הא רבי יהושע

The Gemara challenges this: Didn’t we learn in a different baraita that laborers recite an abridged prayer consisting of a microcosm of the Amida prayer in place of the full Amida prayer? The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. This baraita obligating laborers to recite the full Amida prayer is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, as he holds that one must always recite the full eighteen blessings. This baraita which allows laborers to abridge their prayers is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who permits one to abridge the Amida prayer.

אי רבי יהושע מאי איריא פועלים אפילו כל אדם נמי

The Gemara objects: But if this baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, why did the baraita discuss a case involving laborers in particular? Rabbi Yehoshua holds that every person may also recite an abridged version of the Amida prayer.

אלא אידי ואידי רבן גמליאל ולא קשיא כאן בעושין בשכרן כאן בעושין בסעודתן

Rather, we must say that this baraita and that baraita are both in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, and this is not difficult: Here, in the baraita where laborers pray the abridged version of the Amida prayer, refers to a case where laborers work for their wage beyond the meal provided by their employer; while here, in the baraita where laborers must pray the full Amida prayer, refers to a case where laborers work only for their meal.

והתניא הפועלים שהיו עושים מלאכה אצל בעל הבית קורין קריאת שמע ומתפללין ואוכלין פתן ואין מברכים לפניה אבל מברכין לאחריה שתים כיצד ברכה ראשונה כתקונה שניה פותח בברכת הארץ וכוללין בונה ירושלים בברכת הארץ

And indeed it was taught in a baraita: Laborers who were performing labor for the homeowner recite Shema and pray; and when they eat their bread they do not recite a blessing beforehand because the blessing recited before food is only an obligation by rabbinic law, but they recite two of the three blessings normally recited in the blessing thereafter, the Grace after Meals, which is an obligation by Torah law. How so? The first blessing is recited in its standard formula; the second blessing, he begins to recite the blessing of the land and they include the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem within the blessing of the land, at which point they conclude the Grace after Meals.

במה דברים אמורים בעושין בשכרן אבל עושין בסעודתן או שהיה בעל הבית מיסב עמהן מברכין כתיקונה:

In what case is this said? This is said with regard to laborers who work for their wage, but if they work for their meal or if the homeowner reclined and ate the meal with them, they recite the blessings in their standard formula.

חתן פטור מקריאת שמע: תנו רבנן בשבתך בביתך פרט לעוסק במצוה ובלכתך בדרך פרט לחתן מכאן אמרו הכונס את הבתולה פטור ואת האלמנה חייב

We learned in the mishna that a groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema on the first night of his marriage. The Sages taught the source of this halakha in a baraita based on the verse: “When you sit in your home, and when you walk along the way.” When you sit in your home, to the exclusion of one who is engaged in performance of a mitzva, who is exempt from the recitation of Shema; and when you walk along the way, to the exclusion of a groom, who is also exempt from the recitation of Shema. The baraita adds that from here, from this interpretation of the verses, they said: One who marries a virgin is exempt from the recitation of Shema on his wedding night, but one who marries a widow is obligated.

מאי משמע אמר רב פפא כי דרך מה דרך רשות אף הכא נמי רשות

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of this baraita, and asks: From where is it inferred that the verse: “When you walk along the way,” enables us to derive that a groom is exempt from the obligation to recite Shema? Rav Pappa said that it is derived: Like the way; just as the journey along a specific way described in the verse is voluntary and involves no mitzva, so too all of those who are obligated to recite Shema are engaged in voluntary activities. However, one engaged in performance of a mitzva is exempt from the obligation to recite Shema.

מי לא עסקינן דקאזיל לדבר מצוה ואפילו הכי אמר רחמנא ליקרי

The Gemara asks: Are we not dealing with a case where one is walking along on his way to perform a mitzva; nevertheless, the Torah said to recite Shema, indicating that he is obligated even if he set out to perform a mitzva.

אם כן לימא קרא בלכת מאי בלכתך שמע מינה בלכת דידך הוא דמחייבת הא דמצוה פטירת

The Gemara explains: If so, that the intention was to obligate in all cases, let the Torah say: When walking along the way. What is the meaning of: When you walk along the way? Conclude from this: It is in a case of your walking, meaning that when you do this for your own purposes and of your own volition, you are obligated to recite Shema, but when you go with the objective of performing a mitzva, you are exempt.

אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפילו כונס את האלמנה נמי

The Gemara questions this: If so, why discuss a case of one who is marrying a virgin in particular? Even one who is marrying a widow is performing a mitzva and should also be exempt.

הכא טריד והכא לא טריד

The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. Here, in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is preoccupied by his thoughts, while here, in the case of one who marries a widow, he is not preoccupied.

אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר פארך חבוש עליך וגו׳

The Gemara challenges: If a groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema simply due to preoccupation, then even one who is preoccupied because his ship sank at sea should be exempt. If so, why then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda say that Rav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except for the mitzva to don phylacteries, as the term splendor is stated with regard to phylacteries, as it is stated that the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: “Bind your splendor upon yourself” (Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite Shema, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.

אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:

The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. There, it is a case of preoccupation with a voluntary act, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but here, in the case of a groom, the cause of the preoccupation is the mitzva itself.

מתני׳ רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני

MISHNA: The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. He bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him: Have you not taught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe? He answered them: I am not like other people, I am delicate [istenis]. For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.

וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה

Another exceptional incident is related: And when his slave, Tavi, died, Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for his death as one would for a close family member. His students said to him: Have you not taught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences for the death of slaves? Rabban Gamliel said to his students: My slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuous and it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.

חתן אם רוצה לקרות קריאת שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:

With regard to the recitation of Shema on one’s wedding night, the Sages said that if, despite his exemption, a groom wishes to recite Shema on the first night, he may do so. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputation of a God-fearing person may assume it, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite Shema on his wedding night may do so.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום איסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן:

GEMARA: With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rabban Gamliel did not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: He holds that acute mourning [aninut] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but acute mourning at night is only by rabbinic law, as it is written: “And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, and the end will be like a bitter day” (Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. And in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decree that one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.

וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו׳:

We learned in our mishna that: When his servant, Tavi, died, Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him.

תנו רבנן עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים

The Sages taught in a baraita: For slaves and maidservants who die, one does not stand in a row of comforters to console the mourners, and one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners.

מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדים עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך

An incident is related that when Rabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw them approaching he went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [anpilon], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [teraklin], and they entered after him. Having seen them follow him everywhere, he said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water, meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. Now I see that you are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following: For slaves and maidservants who die, one does not stand in a row of comforters to console the mourners, and one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nor does he recite the consolation of the mourners, as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? Rather, what does one say about them when they die? Just as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservant who died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, as the connection between a master and his slave is only financial in nature.

תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן רבי יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:

It was taught in another baraita: One does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over him a eulogy of sorts: Alas, a good and loyal man who enjoyed the fruits of his hard labor. They said to him: If so, what praise have you left for virtuous Jews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner.

תנו רבנן אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may only call three people patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. And one may only call four people matriarchs, Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.

אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this exclusivity with regard to the Patriarchs? If you say that it is because we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon, so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, if so, with regard to the Matriarchs as well, we do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah, and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. Instead, the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because until Jacob they are significant enough to be referred to as patriarchs, but beyond Jacob, they are not significant enough to be referred to as patriarchs.

תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל רבן גמליאל היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית

This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, it was taught in another baraita: One may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [abba] so-and-so or mother [imma] so-and-so. And they would call the slaves and maidservants of Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.”

מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:

The Gemara asks: Is a story cited in order to contradict the previously stated halakha? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, because Rabban Gamliel’s servants were significant, they were addressed with these honorifics.

אמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו קריאת שמע בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא שנאמר ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:

The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of Shema. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands” (Psalms 63:5)? So I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of Shema, and to Your name I will raise my hands, refers to the Amida prayer, which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. And if one does so, recites Shema and prays, the verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied” (Psalms 63:6). And not only does he receive this reward, but he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [renanot], my mouth praises You” (Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.

רבי אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה

The Gemara describes how after Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the following additional prayer:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
to cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship.
And may You make our borders rich in disciples
and cause us to ultimately succeed, that we will have a good end and hope.
And may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden,
and may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world.
And may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name,
and may the satisfaction of our souls come before You, i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world for the best.

רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך

Similarly, the Gemara recounts that after Rabbi Yoḥanan concluded his prayer, he said the following additional prayer:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that You look upon our shame and behold our plight,
that You clothe Yourself in Your mercy,
and cover Yourself with Your might,
that You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness,
and gird Yourself with Your grace,
and may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You.

רבי זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו

Similarly, after Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the following additional prayer:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that we not sin or shame ourselves,
and that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers,
in the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers.

רבי חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו

After Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that Your Torah should be our vocation,
and may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim.

רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה

After his prayer, Rav said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that You grant us long life, a life of peace,
a life of goodness, a life of blessing,
a life of sustenance, a life of freedom of movement from place to place, where we are not tied to one place,
a life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace,
a life of wealth and honor,
a life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven,
a life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good.

רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית

After his prayer, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers,
that You save us from the arrogant and from arrogance in general,
from a bad man, from a bad mishap,
from an evil instinct, from a bad companion,
from a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan,
from a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent,
whether he is a member of the covenant, a Jew,
or whether he is not a member of the covenant.

ואף על גב דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי

And the Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day despite the fact that royal officers stood watch over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance.

רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתשים שלום

After his prayer, Rav Safra said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace

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Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

Extempore Effusions on the Completion of Masechet Berakhot (chapters 1-3)

PEREK ALEPH: (2a) When may we say Shma at night? From the time the priests take their first bite ‘Til...

Berakhot 16

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Berakhot 16

אהלים לנחלים דכתיב כנחלים נטיו כגנות עלי נהר כאהלים נטע וגו׳ לומר לך מה נחלים מעלין את האדם מטומאה לטהרה אף אהלים מעלין את האדם מכף חובה לכף זכות:

tents juxtaposed to streams, as it is written: “As streams stretched forth, as gardens by the riverside; as aloes [ahalim] planted by the Lord, as cedars by the water” (Numbers 24:6)? The Gemara vocalizes the word ohalim, tents, rather than ahalim. They are juxtaposed in order to tell you: Just as streams elevate a person from ritual impurity to purity after he immerses himself in their water, so too tents of Torah elevate a person from the scale of guilt to the scale of merit.

הקורא למפרע לא יצא וכו׳:

We learned in our mishna: One who recited Shema out of order did not fulfill his obligation. One who recited and erred, should return to the place in Shema that he erred.

רבי אמי ורבי אסי הוו קא קטרין ליה גננא לרבי אלעזר אמר להו אדהכי והכי איזיל ואשמע מלתא דבי מדרשא ואיתי ואימא לכו אזל אשכחיה לתנא דקתני קמיה דרבי יוחנן

With regard to an error in the recitation of Shema, the Gemara recounts: Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi were once tying a wedding canopy in preparation for the wedding of Rabbi Elazar. He said to them: In the meantime, until you finish, I will go and hear something in the study hall, and I will come and say it to you. He went and found the tanna who recited mishnayot in the study hall, who was reciting this Tosefta before Rabbi Yoḥanan:

קרא וטעה ואינו יודע להיכן טעה באמצע הפרק יחזור לראש בין פרק לפרק יחזור לפרק ראשון בין כתיבה לכתיבה יחזור לכתיבה ראשונה

One who recited Shema and erred, and does not know where exactly he erred; if he was in the middle of a paragraph when he realized his error, he must return to the beginning of the paragraph; if he was between one paragraph and another when he realized his error but does not remember between which paragraphs, he must return to the first break between paragraphs. Similarly, if one erred between writing and writing, i.e., between the verse: “And you shall write them on the door posts of your house and on your gates” (Deuteronomy 6:9) in the first paragraph and the identical verse (Deuteronomy 11:20) in the second paragraph, he must return to the first writing.

אמר ליה רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שלא פתח בלמען ירבו ימיכם אבל פתח בלמען ירבו ימיכם סרכיה נקט ואתי

Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: They only taught this halakha in a case where one did not yet begin: “In order to lengthen your days” (Deuteronomy 11:21) which follows that verse at the end of the second paragraph. However, if he already began to recite: In order to lengthen your days, he can assume that he assumed his routine and continued and completed the second paragraph.

אתא ואמר להו אמרו ליה אלו לא באנו אלא לשמוע דבר זה דיינו:

Rabbi Elazar came and told Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi what he heard. They said to him: Had we come only to hear this, it would have been sufficient.

מתני׳ האומנין קורין בראש האילן ובראש הנדבך מה שאינן רשאין לעשות כן בתפלה

MISHNA: The primary issue in this mishna is the requisite degree of concentration when reciting Shema. Laborers engaged in their work may recite Shema while standing atop the tree or atop the course of stones in a wall under construction, which they are not permitted to do for the Amida prayer, which requires intent of the heart.

חתן פטור מקריאת שמע לילה הראשונה ועד מוצאי שבת אם לא עשה מעשה ומעשה ברבן גמליאל שנשא אשה וקרא לילה הראשונה אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שחתן פטור מקריאת שמע אמר להם איני שומע לכם לבטל הימני מלכות שמים אפילו שעה אחת:

The mishna continues: A groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema on the first night of his marriage, which was generally Wednesday night, until Saturday night, if he has not taken action and consummated the marriage, as he is preoccupied by concerns related to consummation of the marriage. The mishna relates that there was an incident where Rabban Gamliel married a woman and recited Shema even the first night. His students said to him: Didn’t our teacher teach us that a groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema? He answered them: Nevertheless, I am not listening to you to refrain from reciting Shema, and in so doing preclude myself from the acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven, for even one moment.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן האומנין קורין בראש האילן ובראש הנדבך ומתפללין בראש הזית ובראש התאנה ושאר כל האילנות יורדים למטה ומתפללין ובעל הבית בין כך ובין כך יורד למטה ומתפלל לפי שאין דעתו מיושבת עליו

GEMARA: With regard to laborers, the Sages taught in a Tosefta: Laborers, while engaged in their labor, may recite Shema while standing atop the tree or atop the course of stones in a wall under construction. And they may pray atop the olive tree or the fig tree, as those trees have many branches close together, so one could stand on them and focus properly while praying. In the case of all the rest of the trees, however, they must climb down and pray. However, the homeowner, who is self-employed, in all cases, regardless of the type of tree, must climb down and pray, as he will be unable to focus appropriately. Since, in contrast to the laborers, it is his prerogative to climb down and pray, the Sages did not permit him to pray atop the tree.

רמי ליה רב מרי ברה דבת שמואל לרבא תנן האומנין קורין בראש האילן ובראש הנדבך אלמא לא בעי כונה ורמינהי הקורא את שמע צריך שיכוין את לבו שנאמר שמע ישראל ולהלן הוא אומר הסכת ושמע ישראל מה להלן בהסכת אף כאן בהסכת

Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, raised a contradiction before Rava: We learned in our mishna: Laborers may recite Shema atop the tree or atop the course of stones in a wall under construction. We see that he does not require intent, simple recitation is sufficient. And he raised a contradiction from the verbal analogy taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema must focus his heart, as it is stated: “Hear [Shema], Israel.” And below, later in Deuteronomy, it says: “Pay attention, and hear [shema], Israel” (Deuteronomy 27:9). Just as there one must pay attention, so too here one must pay attention.

אשתיק אמר ליה מידי שמיע לך בהא אמר ליה הכי אמר רב ששת והוא שבטלין ממלאכתן וקורין

Rava was silent as he had no response. But he said to him: Have you heard anything on this matter? He replied: Rav Sheshet said as follows: And this halakha, that laborers may recite Shema atop the tree only applies when they are idle from their work and recite it so they can focus their hearts.

והתניא בית הלל אומרים עוסקים במלאכתן וקורין

The Gemara challenges this: But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Beit Hillel say: Laborers engage in their labor and recite Shema?

לא קשיא הא בפרק ראשון הא בפרק שני

The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. This, which says that laborers must be idle from their labor, is referring to a case when they are reciting the first paragraph of Shema, while that, which says that they may continue to work, is in a case when they are reciting the second paragraph.

תנו רבנן הפועלים שהיו עושין מלאכה אצל בעל הבית קורין קריאת שמע ומברכין לפניה ולאחריה ואוכלין פתן ומברכין לפניה ולאחריה ומתפללין תפלה של שמונה עשרה אבל אין יורדין לפני התיבה ואין נושאין כפיהם

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: Laborers who were working for a homeowner are obligated to recite Shema and recite the blessings before it and after it; and when they eat their bread they are obligated to recite the blessing before and after it; and they are obligated to recite the Amida prayer. However, they do not descend before the ark as communal prayer leaders and the priests among them do not lift their hands to recite the Priestly Blessing, so as not to be derelict in the duties they were hired to perform.

והתניא מעין שמונה עשרה אמר רב ששת לא קשיא הא רבן גמליאל הא רבי יהושע

The Gemara challenges this: Didn’t we learn in a different baraita that laborers recite an abridged prayer consisting of a microcosm of the Amida prayer in place of the full Amida prayer? The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. This baraita obligating laborers to recite the full Amida prayer is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, as he holds that one must always recite the full eighteen blessings. This baraita which allows laborers to abridge their prayers is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who permits one to abridge the Amida prayer.

אי רבי יהושע מאי איריא פועלים אפילו כל אדם נמי

The Gemara objects: But if this baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, why did the baraita discuss a case involving laborers in particular? Rabbi Yehoshua holds that every person may also recite an abridged version of the Amida prayer.

אלא אידי ואידי רבן גמליאל ולא קשיא כאן בעושין בשכרן כאן בעושין בסעודתן

Rather, we must say that this baraita and that baraita are both in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel, and this is not difficult: Here, in the baraita where laborers pray the abridged version of the Amida prayer, refers to a case where laborers work for their wage beyond the meal provided by their employer; while here, in the baraita where laborers must pray the full Amida prayer, refers to a case where laborers work only for their meal.

והתניא הפועלים שהיו עושים מלאכה אצל בעל הבית קורין קריאת שמע ומתפללין ואוכלין פתן ואין מברכים לפניה אבל מברכין לאחריה שתים כיצד ברכה ראשונה כתקונה שניה פותח בברכת הארץ וכוללין בונה ירושלים בברכת הארץ

And indeed it was taught in a baraita: Laborers who were performing labor for the homeowner recite Shema and pray; and when they eat their bread they do not recite a blessing beforehand because the blessing recited before food is only an obligation by rabbinic law, but they recite two of the three blessings normally recited in the blessing thereafter, the Grace after Meals, which is an obligation by Torah law. How so? The first blessing is recited in its standard formula; the second blessing, he begins to recite the blessing of the land and they include the blessing: Who builds Jerusalem within the blessing of the land, at which point they conclude the Grace after Meals.

במה דברים אמורים בעושין בשכרן אבל עושין בסעודתן או שהיה בעל הבית מיסב עמהן מברכין כתיקונה:

In what case is this said? This is said with regard to laborers who work for their wage, but if they work for their meal or if the homeowner reclined and ate the meal with them, they recite the blessings in their standard formula.

חתן פטור מקריאת שמע: תנו רבנן בשבתך בביתך פרט לעוסק במצוה ובלכתך בדרך פרט לחתן מכאן אמרו הכונס את הבתולה פטור ואת האלמנה חייב

We learned in the mishna that a groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema on the first night of his marriage. The Sages taught the source of this halakha in a baraita based on the verse: “When you sit in your home, and when you walk along the way.” When you sit in your home, to the exclusion of one who is engaged in performance of a mitzva, who is exempt from the recitation of Shema; and when you walk along the way, to the exclusion of a groom, who is also exempt from the recitation of Shema. The baraita adds that from here, from this interpretation of the verses, they said: One who marries a virgin is exempt from the recitation of Shema on his wedding night, but one who marries a widow is obligated.

מאי משמע אמר רב פפא כי דרך מה דרך רשות אף הכא נמי רשות

The Gemara clarifies the meaning of this baraita, and asks: From where is it inferred that the verse: “When you walk along the way,” enables us to derive that a groom is exempt from the obligation to recite Shema? Rav Pappa said that it is derived: Like the way; just as the journey along a specific way described in the verse is voluntary and involves no mitzva, so too all of those who are obligated to recite Shema are engaged in voluntary activities. However, one engaged in performance of a mitzva is exempt from the obligation to recite Shema.

מי לא עסקינן דקאזיל לדבר מצוה ואפילו הכי אמר רחמנא ליקרי

The Gemara asks: Are we not dealing with a case where one is walking along on his way to perform a mitzva; nevertheless, the Torah said to recite Shema, indicating that he is obligated even if he set out to perform a mitzva.

אם כן לימא קרא בלכת מאי בלכתך שמע מינה בלכת דידך הוא דמחייבת הא דמצוה פטירת

The Gemara explains: If so, that the intention was to obligate in all cases, let the Torah say: When walking along the way. What is the meaning of: When you walk along the way? Conclude from this: It is in a case of your walking, meaning that when you do this for your own purposes and of your own volition, you are obligated to recite Shema, but when you go with the objective of performing a mitzva, you are exempt.

אי הכי מאי איריא הכונס את הבתולה אפילו כונס את האלמנה נמי

The Gemara questions this: If so, why discuss a case of one who is marrying a virgin in particular? Even one who is marrying a widow is performing a mitzva and should also be exempt.

הכא טריד והכא לא טריד

The Gemara responds that nevertheless, there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. Here, in the case of one who marries a virgin, the groom is preoccupied by his thoughts, while here, in the case of one who marries a widow, he is not preoccupied.

אי משום טרדא אפילו טבעה ספינתו בים נמי אלמה אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא אמר רב אבל חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה חוץ מן התפילין שהרי נאמר בהן פאר שנאמר פארך חבוש עליך וגו׳

The Gemara challenges: If a groom is exempt from the recitation of Shema simply due to preoccupation, then even one who is preoccupied because his ship sank at sea should be exempt. If so, why then did Rabbi Abba bar Zavda say that Rav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah except for the mitzva to don phylacteries, as the term splendor is stated with regard to phylacteries, as it is stated that the prophet Ezekiel was prohibited to mourn and was told: “Bind your splendor upon yourself” (Ezekiel 24:17). If even a mourner, who is pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite Shema, clearly preoccupation has no bearing upon one’s obligation.

אמרי התם טרדא דרשות הכא טרדא דמצוה:

The Gemara responds: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. There, it is a case of preoccupation with a voluntary act, as there is no mitzva to be preoccupied with his mourning, but here, in the case of a groom, the cause of the preoccupation is the mitzva itself.

מתני׳ רחץ לילה הראשון שמתה אשתו אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאבל אסור לרחוץ אמר להם איני כשאר בני אדם אסטניס אני

MISHNA: The mishna relates another episode portraying unusual conduct by Rabban Gamliel. He bathed on the first night after his wife died. His students said to him: Have you not taught us, our teacher, that a mourner is prohibited to bathe? He answered them: I am not like other people, I am delicate [istenis]. For me, not bathing causes actual physical distress, and even a mourner need not suffer physical distress as part of his mourning.

וכשמת טבי עבדו קבל עליו תנחומין אמרו לו תלמידיו למדתנו רבינו שאין מקבלין תנחומין על העבדים אמר להם אין טבי עבדי כשאר כל העבדים כשר היה

Another exceptional incident is related: And when his slave, Tavi, died, Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for his death as one would for a close family member. His students said to him: Have you not taught us, our teacher, that one does not accept condolences for the death of slaves? Rabban Gamliel said to his students: My slave, Tavi, is not like all the rest of the slaves, he was virtuous and it is appropriate to accord him the same respect accorded to a family member.

חתן אם רוצה לקרות קריאת שמע לילה הראשון קורא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא כל הרוצה ליטול את השם יטול:

With regard to the recitation of Shema on one’s wedding night, the Sages said that if, despite his exemption, a groom wishes to recite Shema on the first night, he may do so. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputation of a God-fearing person may assume it, and consequently, not everyone who wishes to recite Shema on his wedding night may do so.

גמ׳ מאי טעמא דרבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל קסבר אנינות לילה דרבנן דכתיב ואחריתה כיום מר ובמקום איסטניס לא גזרו ביה רבנן:

GEMARA: With regard to Rabban Gamliel’s bathing on the first night after the death of his wife, the Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rabban Gamliel did not practice the customs of mourning after his wife died? The Gemara answers: He holds that acute mourning [aninut] is in effect only on the day of the death itself, but acute mourning at night is only by rabbinic law, as it is written: “And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentations; I will bring sackcloth upon your loins and baldness upon every head; and I will make you like a mourner for an only child, and the end will be like a bitter day” (Amos 8:10). Therefore, by Torah law one’s acute mourning is only during the day, like a bitter day, while the acute mourning at night that follows is only rabbinic. And in the case of a delicate person, the Sages did not issue a decree that one should afflict himself during the period of acute mourning.

וכשמת טבי עבדו וכו׳:

We learned in our mishna that: When his servant, Tavi, died, Rabban Gamliel accepted condolences for him.

תנו רבנן עבדים ושפחות אין עומדין עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים

The Sages taught in a baraita: For slaves and maidservants who die, one does not stand in a row of comforters to console the mourners, and one recites neither the blessing of the mourners nor the consolation of the mourners.

מעשה ומתה שפחתו של רבי אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לנחמו כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ועלו אחריו נכנס לאנפילון נכנסו אחריו נכנס לטרקלין נכנסו אחריו אמר להם כמדומה אני שאתם נכוים בפושרים עכשיו אי אתם נכוים אפילו בחמי חמין לא כך שניתי לכם עבדים ושפחות אין עומדים עליהם בשורה ואין אומרים עליהם ברכת אבלים ולא תנחומי אבלים אלא מה אומרים עליהם כשם שאומרים לו לאדם על שורו ועל חמורו שמתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך כך אומרים לו על עבדו ועל שפחתו המקום ימלא לך חסרונך

An incident is related that when Rabbi Eliezer’s maidservant died, his students entered to console him. When he saw them approaching he went up to the second floor, and they went up after him. He entered the gatehouse [anpilon], and they entered after him. He entered the banquet hall [teraklin], and they entered after him. Having seen them follow him everywhere, he said to them: It seems to me that you would be burned by lukewarm water, meaning that you could take a hint and when I went up to the second floor, you would understand that I did not wish to receive your consolations. Now I see that you are not even burned by boiling hot water. Did I not teach you the following: For slaves and maidservants who die, one does not stand in a row of comforters to console the mourners, and one neither recites the blessing of the mourners nor does he recite the consolation of the mourners, as the relationship between master and slave is not like a familial relationship? Rather, what does one say about them when they die? Just as we say to a person about his ox or donkey which died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, so too do we say for one’s slave or maidservant who died: May the Omnipresent replenish your loss, as the connection between a master and his slave is only financial in nature.

תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין מספידין אותן רבי יוסי אומר אם עבד כשר הוא אומרים עליו הוי איש טוב ונאמן ונהנה מיגיעו אמרו לו אם כן מה הנחת לכשרים:

It was taught in another baraita: One does not eulogize slaves and maidservants. Rabbi Yosei says: If he was a virtuous servant, one recites over him a eulogy of sorts: Alas, a good and loyal man who enjoyed the fruits of his hard labor. They said to him: If so, what praise have you left for virtuous Jews? A Jewish person would be proud to be eulogized in that manner.

תנו רבנן אין קורין אבות אלא לשלשה ואין קורין אמהות אלא לארבע

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may only call three people patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not Jacob’s children. And one may only call four people matriarchs, Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.

אבות מאי טעמא אילימא משום דלא ידעינן אי מראובן קא אתינן אי משמעון קא אתינן אי הכי אמהות נמי לא ידעינן אי מרחל קא אתינן אי מלאה קא אתינן אלא עד הכא חשיבי טפי לא חשיבי

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this exclusivity with regard to the Patriarchs? If you say that it is because we do not know whether we descend from Reuben or from Simon, so we cannot accurately say our father Reuben, for example, if so, with regard to the Matriarchs as well, we do not know whether we descend from Rachel or from Leah, and we should not call Rachel and Leah matriarchs either. Instead, the reason the sons of Jacob are not called patriarchs is not for that reason, but because until Jacob they are significant enough to be referred to as patriarchs, but beyond Jacob, they are not significant enough to be referred to as patriarchs.

תניא אידך עבדים ושפחות אין קורין אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית ושל רבן גמליאל היו קורים אותם אבא פלוני ואמא פלונית

This serves as an introduction; although older people are often referred to with the honorific: Father so-and-so, it was taught in another baraita: One may not refer to slaves and maidservants as father [abba] so-and-so or mother [imma] so-and-so. And they would call the slaves and maidservants of Rabban Gamliel “father so-and-so” and “mother so-and-so.”

מעשה לסתור משום דחשיבי:

The Gemara asks: Is a story cited in order to contradict the previously stated halakha? The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction; rather, because Rabban Gamliel’s servants were significant, they were addressed with these honorifics.

אמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב כן אברכך בחיי בשמך אשא כפי כן אברכך בחיי זו קריאת שמע בשמך אשא כפי זו תפלה ואם עושה כן עליו הכתוב אומר כמו חלב ודשן תשבע נפשי ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא שנאמר ושפתי רננות יהלל פי:

The Gemara cites an aggadic statement concerning prayer and the recitation of Shema. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “So I will bless You as I live, to Your name I will raise my hands” (Psalms 63:5)? So I will bless You as I live, refers to the recitation of Shema, and to Your name I will raise my hands, refers to the Amida prayer, which is characterized as lifting one’s hands to God. And if one does so, recites Shema and prays, the verse says about him: “As with fat and marrow, my soul will be satisfied” (Psalms 63:6). And not only does he receive this reward, but he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With lips of joys [renanot], my mouth praises You” (Psalms 63:6). The plural, joys, refers to two joys, that of this world and that of the World-to-Come.

רבי אלעזר בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתשכן בפורינו אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות ותרבה גבולנו בתלמידים ותצליח סופנו אחרית ותקוה ותשים חלקנו בגן עדן ותקננו בחבר טוב ויצר טוב בעולמך ונשכים ונמצא יחול לבבנו ליראה את שמך ותבא לפניך קורת נפשנו לטובה

The Gemara describes how after Rabbi Elazar concluded his prayer, he said the following additional prayer:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
to cause to dwell in our lot love and brotherhood, peace and friendship.
And may You make our borders rich in disciples
and cause us to ultimately succeed, that we will have a good end and hope.
And may You set our portion in the Garden of Eden,
and may You establish for us a good companion and a good inclination in Your world.
And may we rise early and find the aspiration of our hearts to fear Your name,
and may the satisfaction of our souls come before You, i.e., may You hear our prayers that we may have spiritual contentment in this world for the best.

רבי יוחנן בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתציץ בבשתנו ותביט ברעתנו ותתלבש ברחמיך ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך ותבא לפניך מדת טובך וענותנותך

Similarly, the Gemara recounts that after Rabbi Yoḥanan concluded his prayer, he said the following additional prayer:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that You look upon our shame and behold our plight,
that You clothe Yourself in Your mercy,
and cover Yourself with Your might,
that You wrap Yourself in Your loving-kindness,
and gird Yourself with Your grace,
and may Your attributes of goodness and humility come before You.

רבי זירא בתר דמסיים צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שלא נחטא ולא נבוש ולא נכלם מאבותינו

Similarly, after Rabbi Zeira concluded his prayers he said the following additional prayer:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that we not sin or shame ourselves,
and that we not disgrace ourselves before our forefathers,
in the sense that our actions should not disgrace the actions of our forefathers.

רבי חייא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתהא תורתך אומנותנו ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו

After Rabbi Ḥiyya prayed he said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that Your Torah should be our vocation,
and may our heart not become faint nor our eyes dim.

רב בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתתן לנו חיים ארוכים חיים של שלום חיים של טובה חיים של ברכה חיים של פרנסה חיים של חלוץ עצמות חיים שיש בהם יראת חטא חיים שאין בהם בושה וכלימה חיים של עושר וכבוד חיים שתהא בנו אהבת תורה ויראת שמים חיים שתמלא לנו את כל משאלות לבנו לטובה

After his prayer, Rav said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God,
that You grant us long life, a life of peace,
a life of goodness, a life of blessing,
a life of sustenance, a life of freedom of movement from place to place, where we are not tied to one place,
a life of dread of sin, a life without shame and disgrace,
a life of wealth and honor,
a life in which we have love of Torah and reverence for Heaven,
a life in which You fulfill all the desires of our heart for good.

רבי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו ואלהי אבותינו שתצילנו מעזי פנים ומעזות פנים מאדם רע ומפגע רע מיצר רע מחבר רע משכן רע ומשטן המשחית ומדין קשה ומבעל דין קשה בין שהוא בן ברית בין שאינו בן ברית

After his prayer, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God, and God of our forefathers,
that You save us from the arrogant and from arrogance in general,
from a bad man, from a bad mishap,
from an evil instinct, from a bad companion,
from a bad neighbor, from the destructive Satan,
from a harsh trial and from a harsh opponent,
whether he is a member of the covenant, a Jew,
or whether he is not a member of the covenant.

ואף על גב דקיימי קצוצי עליה דרבי

And the Gemara notes that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would recite this prayer every day despite the fact that royal officers stood watch over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi for his protection; nevertheless, he prayed to avoid conflict or hindrance resulting from arrogance.

רב ספרא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה׳ אלהינו שתשים שלום

After his prayer, Rav Safra said the following:
May it be Your will, Lord our God, that You establish peace

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