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Today's Daf Yomi

January 26, 2020 | כ״ט בטבת תש״פ

Berakhot 23

If one needs to go to the bathroom during shmone esreh, what does one do? Can one pray when one needs to go to the bathroom? Can one bring tefillin into the bathroom? Can one bring them in by carrying them in one’s hand or wrapped in something? There are dangers if one leaves them outside and therefore Beit Hillel permits bringing them into a permanent bathroom in one’s hand. Would he allow it also in a temporary bathroom? It was also believed that there were spirits in the bathroom and some brought tefillin there to protect them from the spirits. Why would there be a difference? Before sitting down to a meal, one should try to use the bathroom. Also one should not wear one’s tefillin when eating, in case one gets drunk. Can one put money in a head covering that is being used to wrap one’s tefillin? Can one sleep with tefillin under one’s pillow? Is it allowed even if his wife is in bed with him?

תוכן זה תורגם גם ל: עברית

מר סבר אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש ומר סבר למקום שפסק

One Sage held that, as a rule, if one interrupted his prayer and delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And one Sage held: He returns to the place in the prayer where he stopped.

אמר רב אשי האי אם שהה אם לא שהה מיבעי ליה אלא דכולי עלמא אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש והתם בדלא שהה קמיפלגי דמר סבר גברא דחויא הוא ואין ראוי ואין תפלתו תפלה ומר סבר גברא חזיא הוא ותפלתו תפלה

Rejecting this possibility, Rav Ashi said: If that was the point of their dispute, they should not have simply issued a ruling in a case: If he delayed. They should have also addressed a case if he did not delay as well as discussing the length of the delay. Rather, everyone, both Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna, agrees that if one delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And there, in the dispute under discussion, they disagreed with regard to one who did not delay that long. The dispute deals with his particular predicament. As one Sage held: He is a man who is disqualified and unfit, and his prayer is not a valid prayer; therefore he must repeat it in its entirety. And one Sage held: He is a man who is fit and his prayer is a valid prayer.

תנו רבנן הנצרך לנקביו אל יתפלל ואם התפלל תפלתו תועבה אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאינו יכול לשהות בעצמו אבל אם יכול לשהות בעצמו תפלתו תפלה

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, and if he prayed, his prayer is an abomination. Rav Zevid and some say Rav Yehuda said in qualifying this statement: They only taught this halakha in a case where one cannot restrain himself. But, if he can restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer as he is not tarnished by his need to relieve himself.

ועד כמה אמר רב ששת עד פרסה איכא דמתני לה אמתניתא במה דברים אמורים כשאין יכול לעמוד על עצמו אבל אם יכול לעמוד על עצמו תפלתו תפלה ועד כמה אמר רב זביד עד פרסה

The Gemara asks: And for how long must he be able to restrain himself? Rav Sheshet said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang. Some teach this halakha directly on what was taught in the baraita: In what case is this statement said? Where he is unable to restrain himself, but if he is able to restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer. And for how long? Rav Zevid said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang.

אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הנצרך לנקביו הרי זה לא יתפלל משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, because it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, O Israel” (Amos 4:12), and one must clear his mind of all distractions to prepare to receive the Lord during prayer.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים שמור עצמך שלא תחטא ואם תחטא הבא קרבן לפני וקרוב לשמע דברי חכמים אמר רבא הוי קרוב לשמוע דברי חכמים שאם חוטאים מביאים קרבן ועושים תשובה מתת הכסילים זבח אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואין עושים תשובה

In this context, the Gemara cites an additional statement, which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Guard your foot when you go to the house of God, and prepare to listen; it is better than when fools offer sacrifices, as they know not to do evil” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)? It means: When you enter the house of the Lord, guard yourself from transgression, and if you commit a transgression, bring a sacrifice before Me in atonement. The verse continues: “And draw near and listen to the words of the wise.” Rava said: Be prepared to hearken to the words of the wise, who, if they commit a transgression, they bring a sacrifice and repent. He interprets the next part of the verse: “It is better than when fools give sacrifices,” that one should not act like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice but do not repent.

כי אינם יודעים לעשות רע אי הכי צדיקים נינהו אלא אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואינם יודעים אם על הטובה הם מביאים אם על הרעה הם מביאים אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא בין טוב לרע אינן מבחינים והם מביאים קרבן לפני

Regarding the end of the verse: “As they know not to do evil,” the Gemara asks: If so, they are righteous. Rather it must be understood: Do not be like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice, but are unaware whether they are bringing it as a thanks-offering for the good, or as an offering of atonement for the evil. This is the meaning of the verse: “As they know not to do evil”; they know not if and when their actions are evil. With regard to those individuals, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: They cannot distinguish between good and evil and yet they bring a sacrifice before me?

רב אשי ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא אמר שמור נקביך בשעה שאתה עומד בתפלה לפני

Rav Ashi and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Mind your orifices when you stand before me in prayer.

תנו רבנן הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ארבע אמות ונכנס אמר רב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת לא שנו אלא בית הכסא קבוע אבל בית הכסא עראי חולץ ונפנה לאלתר וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ארבע אמות ומניחן מפני שעשאו בית הכסא קבוע

The Sages taught: One who enters a bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and enter. Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna said that Rav Sheshet said: This was only taught with regard to one entering a regular bathroom, but one who enters a makeshift bathroom may remove his phylacteries and defecate immediately. But when one exits from a makeshift bathroom, he must distance himself four cubits before donning his phylacteries because he has now rendered that place a regular bathroom.

איבעיא להו מהו שיכנס אדם בתפילין לבית הכסא קבוע להשתין מים רבינא שרי רב אדא בר מתנא אסר אתו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו אסור חיישינן שמא יפנה בהן ואמרי לה שמא יפיח בהן

A dilemma was raised before the Sages in the yeshiva: What is the halakha; may one enter a regular bathroom wearing his phylacteries in order to urinate? The Sages disagreed: Ravina permitted to do so while Rav Adda bar Mattana prohibited it. They came and asked this of Rava. He said to them: It is forbidden because we are concerned lest he will come to defecate with them still on. Others say that this halakha is because we are concerned that, since he is already in the bathroom, he might forget that his phylacteries are on his head and will break wind with them still on him.

תניא אידך הנכנס לבית הכסא קבוע חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ארבע אמות ומניחן בחלון הסמוך לרשות הרבים ונכנס וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ארבע אמות ומניחן דברי בית שמאי ובית הלל אומרים אוחזן בידו ונכנס רבי עקיבא אומר אוחזן בבגדו ונכנס

It was taught in another baraita: One who enters a regular bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits, place them in the window in the wall of the bathroom adjacent to the public domain, and then enter. And when he exits, he must distance himself four cubits before donning them. This is the statement of Beit Shammai. Beit Hillel say: He must remove his phylacteries but he holds them in his hand and enters. Rabbi Akiva says: He holds them in his garment and enters.

בבגדו סלקא דעתך זימנין מישתלי להו ונפלי אלא אימא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס

The Gemara wonders: Does it enter your mind to say in his garment? There is room for concern because sometimes he forgets them and they fall. Rather, say: He holds them with his garment and in his hand and enters the bathroom. He holds the phylacteries in his hand and covers it with the garment.

ומניחם בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ולא יניחם בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים שמא יטלו אותם עוברי דרכים ויבא לידי חשד

It was established in the baraita: And if there is room to place them, he places them in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, but he does not place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, lest the phylacteries will be taken by passersby and he will come to be suspect.

ומעשה בתלמיד אחד שהניח תפיליו בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים ובאת זונה אחת ונטלתן ובאת לבית המדרש ואמרה ראו מה נתן לי פלוני בשכרי כיון ששמע אותו תלמיד כך עלה לראש הגג ונפל ומת באותה שעה התקינו שיהא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס

And an incident occurred involving a student who placed his phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the public domain, and a prostitute passed by and took the phylacteries. She came to the study hall and said: See what so-and-so gave me as my payment. When that student heard this, he ascended to the rooftop and fell and died. At that moment they instituted that one should hold them with his garment and in his hand and enter to avoid situations of that kind.

תנו רבנן בראשונה היו מניחין תפילין בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ובאין עכברים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהו מניחין אותן בחלונות הסמוכות לרשות הרבים ובאין עוברי דרכים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהא אוחזן בידו ונכנס

The Sages taught in a baraita on this topic: At first, they would place the phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, and mice would come and take them or gnaw upon them. Therefore, they instituted that they should place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, where there were no mice. However, passersby would come and take the phylacteries. Ultimately, they instituted that one should hold the phylacteries in his hand and enter.

אמר רבי מיאשא בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה גוללן כמין ספר ואוחזן בימינו כנגד לבו אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן ובלבד שלא תהא רצועה יוצאת מתחת ידו טפח

On this topic, Rabbi Meyasha, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: The halakha in this case is that one rolls up the phylacteries in their straps like a scroll, and holds them in his hand opposite his heart. Rav Yosef bar Manyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: This is provided that the strap of the phylacteries does not emerge more than a handbreadth below his hand.

אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר רבי זירא לא שנו אלא שיש שהות ביום ללבשן אבל אין שהות ביום ללבשן עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן

Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa said that Rabbi Zeira said: It was only taught that one rolls up his phylacteries when there is still time left in the day to don them. If there is not time left in the day to don them before nightfall, when phylacteries are not donned, he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ביום גוללן כמין ספר ומניחן בידו כנגד לבו ובלילה עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן

Similarly, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: During the day one rolls up the phylacteries like a scroll and places them in his hand opposite his heart, and at night he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.

אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בכלי שהוא כליין אבל בכלי שאינו כליין אפילו פחות מטפח

Abaye said: They only taught that it must be a one-handbreadth pouch with regard to a vessel that is the phylacteries’ regular vessel, but in a vessel that is not their regular vessel, he may place the phylacteries in it, even if it is less than a handbreadth.

אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי תדע שהרי פכין קטנים מצילין באהל המת

Mar Zutra and, some say, Rav Ashi, said as proof for that distinction: The laws of impurity state that only a space of at least a handbreadth can serve as a barrier to prevent the spread of impurity imparted by a corpse. Nevertheless, small sealed vessels less than a handbreadth in size protect their contents from ritual impurity even if they are inside a tent over a corpse. This proves that even a space smaller than a handbreadth can serve as a barrier before impurity.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן כי הוה בעי למיעל לבית הכסא כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא הוה יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא הוה יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would walk after Rabbi Yoḥanan, we would see that when he sought to enter the bathroom while holding a book of aggada, he would give it to us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not give them to us, as he said: Since the Sages permitted to hold them,

נינטרן אמר רבא כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרב נחמן כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן נינטרן

they will protect me. Although there were people on hand to whom he could have handed the phylacteries, he kept them to protect himself from danger. Rava said: When we would walk after Rabbi Naḥman, we would see that when he was holding a book of aggada, he would give it to us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not give them to us, as he said: Since the Sages permitted to hold them, they will protect me.

תנו רבנן לא יאחז אדם תפילין בידו וספר תורה בזרועו ויתפלל ולא ישתין בהן מים ולא יישן בהן לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי אמר שמואל סכין ומעות וקערה וככר הרי אלו כיוצא בהן

The Sages taught: One may not hold phylacteries in his hand or a Torah scroll in his arm and pray, because his concern that the phylacteries or Torah scroll might fall will distract him from his prayer. And so too, with regard to sacred objects, one may not urinate with them in his hands and may not sleep with them in his hands, neither a deep sleep nor even a brief nap. Shmuel said: Not only should one holding phylacteries refrain from prayer, but one holding a knife, money, a bowl, or a loaf of bread have a similar status in that his concern that they might fall will distract him from his prayer.

אמר רבא אמר רב ששת לית הלכתא כי הא מתניתא דבית שמאי היא דאי בית הלל השתא בית הכסא קבוע שרי בית הכסא עראי מיבעיא

Rava said that Rav Sheshet said: The halakha is not in accordance with this baraita, because it in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. As if it was in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, now Beit Hillel permitted to hold phylacteries in his hand when he defecates in a regular bathroom, is it necessary to say that it is permitted when he urinates in a makeshift bathroom?

מיתיבי דברים שהתרתי לך כאן אסרתי לך כאן מאי לאו תפילין אי אמרת בשלמא בית הלל התרתי לך כאן קבוע אסרתי לך כאן בית הכסא עראי אלא אי אמרת בית שמאי הא לא שרו ולא מידי

The Gemara raised an objection based on the second part of the baraita, where it was taught: Matters which I permitted you to do here, I prohibited you from doing there. In other words, there are matters that were permitted in a regular bathroom and not in a makeshift bathroom. What, is it not referring to phylacteries? Granted, if you say that the prohibition against urinating while wearing phylacteries is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, then we would understand the baraita as follows: Matters which I permitted you to do here, to hold phylacteries in a regular bathroom, I have prohibited you from doing there, in the makeshift bathroom. But if you hold that this baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, they did not permit anything in a regular bathroom. What, then, is the meaning of matters which I permitted you to do here?

כי תניא ההיא לענין טפח וטפחיים דתני חדא כשהוא נפנה מגלה לאחריו טפח ולפניו טפחיים ותניא אידך לאחריו טפח ולפניו ולא כלום

This challenge is rejected by the Gemara, which explains: When that baraita was taught it was not in reference to phylacteries, but with regard to the matter of one handbreadth and two handbreadths. As is it was taught in one baraita: When one relieves himself, he must maintain modesty and bare a single handbreadth of his flesh behind him and two handbreadths before him. And it was taught in another baraita: One may only bare a single handbreadth behind him and nothing before him.

מאי לאו אידי ואידי באיש ולא קשיא כאן לגדולים כאן לקטנים

What, are not both this baraita and that one referring to a male, and the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as here the baraita that states that one may bare a handbreadth behind him and nothing before him is referring to defecation, while here, the other baraita that states that one may bare a handbreadth behind him and two handbreadths before him is referring to urination. Accordingly, despite the fact that one may bare two handbreadths before him when urinating in a makeshift bathroom, matters that I have permitted you to do here, one may bare nothing before him when defecating in an established bathroom, I have prohibited you from doing there.

ותסברא אי בקטנים לאחריו טפח למה לי אלא אידי ואידי בגדולים ולא קשיא הא באיש הא באשה

The Gemara immediately rejects this explanation: And how can you understand it that way? Can you accept that explanation? If that baraita is referring to urination, why do I need to bare a handbreadth behind him? Rather, both this baraita and that one are referring to defecation and the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as this baraita that states that one may bare two handbreadths before him is referring to a man, who must bare before him to facilitate urination, while this other baraita that states that one may bare nothing before him is referring to a woman, who need not bare anything before her in order to urinate.

אי הכי הא דקתני עלה זהו קל וחומר שאין עליו תשובה מאי אין עליו תשובה דרכא דמלתא הכי איתא אלא לאו תפילין ותיובתא דרבא אמר רב ששת

The Gemara challenges this: If so, then that which was taught with regard to this halakha in the baraita: This is an a fortiori inference that cannot be rebutted, meaning that even though logically it would have been appropriate to be stricter in the case of defecating in a regular bathroom than in the case of urinating in a makeshift bathroom, that is not the ruling. According to the distinction suggested above, what is cannot be rebutted? That is the nature of the matter; men and women need to bare themselves differently. Rather, is the baraita which states: Matters which I permitted you to do here, I prohibited you from doing there, not referring to phylacteries? And the a fortiori inference that cannot be rebutted is similarly referring to phylacteries. This is a conclusive refutation of that which Rava said that Rav Sheshet said that the baraita is not referring to phylacteries.

תיובתא

The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

מכל מקום קשיא השתא בית הכסא קבוע שרי בית הכסא עראי לא כל שכן

The Gemara asks: Nevertheless, it remains difficult: Now, holding phylacteries in his hand when he defecates in a regular bathroom is permitted, all the more so that it is permitted when he urinates in a makeshift bathroom.

הכי קאמר בית הכסא קבוע דליכא ניצוצות שרי בית הכסא עראי דאיכא ניצוצות אסרי

The Gemara explains: It says as follows: When defecating in a regular bathroom, where one sits there are no drops of urine on one’s clothes or shoes, he need not dirty his hands to clean his garment, and therefore one is permitted to hold phylacteries in his hand. However, in a makeshift bathroom, where one stands, and there are ricocheting drops which he may touch with his hand, it is prohibited.

אי הכי אמאי אין עליו תשובה תשובה מעליתא היא

The Gemara challenges: If so, then why was it referred to as an a fortiori inference that “cannot be refuted”? This seems an excellent refutation that explains the distinction.

הכי קאמר הא מילתא תיתי לה בתורת טעמא ולא תיתי לה בקל וחומר דאי אתיא לה בתורת קל וחומר זהו קל וחומר שאין עליו תשובה:

The Gemara explains that it says as follows: Derive this matter based on the reason mentioned above that due to different circumstances the ruling is different. Do not derive it by means of an a fortiori inference, as if you were to derive it by means of an a fortiori inference, it would certainly be an a fortiori inference that cannot be rebutted.

תנו רבנן הרוצה ליכנס לסעודת קבע מהלך עשרה פעמים ארבע אמות או ארבעה פעמים עשר אמות ויפנה ואחר כך נכנס

The Sages taught: One who wishes to enter and partake of a regular meal that will last for some time, paces a distance of four cubits ten times, or ten cubits four times, in order to expedite the movement of the bowels, and defecates. Only then may he enter and partake of the meal. That way he spares himself the unpleasantness of being forced to leave in the middle of the meal.

אמר רבי יצחק הנכנס לסעודת קבע חולץ תפיליו ואחר כך נכנס ופליגא דרבי חייא דאמר רבי חייא מניחן על שלחנו וכן הדור לו

On this same subject, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One who partakes of a regular meal removes his phylacteries and then enters, as it is inappropriate to partake in a meal where there is frivolity while wearing phylacteries. And this statement disputes the statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya, as Rabbi Ḥiyya said: During a formal meal one places his phylacteries on his table, and it is admirable for him to do so in order that they will be available to don immediately if he so desires.

ועד אימת אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עד זמן ברכה

The Gemara asks: And until when in the meal must he refrain from wearing phylacteries? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Until the time of the recitation of the blessing of Grace after Meals.

תני חדא צורר אדם תפיליו עם מעותיו באפרקסותו ותניא אידך לא יצור

It was taught in one baraita: One may bundle his phylacteries with his money in his head covering [apraksuto], and it was taught in another baraita: One may not bundle phylacteries and money together.

לא קשיא הא דאזמניה הא דלא אזמניה דאמר רב חסדא האי סודרא תפילין דאזמניה למיצר ביה תפילין צר ביה תפילין אסור למיצר ביה פשיטי אזמניה ולא צר ביה צר ביה ולא אזמניה שרי למיצר ביה זוזי

The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as one must distinguish and say that this baraita, which prohibits bundling phylacteries and money together, refers to a case where the vessel was designated for use with phylacteries, while this baraita, which permits one to do so, refers to a case where the vessel was not designated for that purpose. As Rav Ḥisda said: With regard to this cloth used with phylacteries that one designated to bundle phylacteries in it, if one already bundled phylacteries in it then it is prohibited to bundle coins in it, but if he only designated it for that purpose, but did not yet bundle phylacteries in it, or if he bundled phylacteries in it but did not originally designate it for that purpose, then it is permitted to bundle money in it.

ולאביי דאמר הזמנה מילתא היא אזמניה אף על גב דלא צר ביה צר ביה אי אזמניה אסיר אי לא אזמניה לא

And according to Abaye, who said that designation is significant, as Abaye holds that all relevant halakhot apply to an object designated for a specific purpose, whether or not it has been already used for that purpose, the halakha is: If he designated the cloth, even if he did not bundle phylacteries in it, he is prohibited from bundling money in it. However, if he bundled phylacteries in it, if he designated the cloth for that particular use, it is prohibited to bundle money in it, but if he did not designate it, no, it is not prohibited.

בעא מיניה רב יוסף בריה דרב נחוניא מרב יהודה מהו שיניח אדם תפיליו תחת מראשותיו תחת מרגלותיו לא קא מיבעיא לי שנוהג בהן מנהג בזיון כי קא מיבעיא לי תחת מראשותיו מאי אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל מותר אפילו אשתו עמו

Rav Yosef, son of Rav Neḥunya, raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the halakha; may a man place his phylacteries in his bed, under his head while he sleeps? He himself explains: With regard to whether or not one may place them under his feet, I have no dilemma, as that would be treating them in a deprecating manner and is certainly prohibited. My dilemma is whether or not one may place them under his head; what is the halakha in that case? Rav Yehuda said to him, Shmuel said as follows: It is permitted, even if his wife is with him in his bed.

מיתיבי לא יניח אדם תפיליו תחת מרגלותיו מפני שנוהג בהם דרך בזיון אבל מניחם תחת מראשותיו ואם היתה אשתו עמו אסור היה מקום שגבוה שלשה טפחים או נמוך שלשה טפחים מותר

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: A man may not place his phylacteries under his feet, as in doing so, he treats them in a deprecating manner, but he may place them under his head. And if his wife was with him, it is prohibited even to place it under his head. If there was a place where he could place the phylacteries three handbreadths above or three handbreadths below his head it is permissible, as that space is sufficient for the phylacteries to be considered in a separate place.

תיובתא דשמואל תיובתא

This is a conclusive refutation of Shmuel’s statement. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

אמר רבא אף על גב דתניא תיובתא דשמואל הלכתא כוותיה מאי טעמא

Rava said: Although a baraita was taught that constitutes a conclusive refutation of Shmuel, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion in this matter. What is the reason for this?

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Berakhot 23

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Berakhot 23

מר סבר אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש ומר סבר למקום שפסק

One Sage held that, as a rule, if one interrupted his prayer and delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And one Sage held: He returns to the place in the prayer where he stopped.

אמר רב אשי האי אם שהה אם לא שהה מיבעי ליה אלא דכולי עלמא אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש והתם בדלא שהה קמיפלגי דמר סבר גברא דחויא הוא ואין ראוי ואין תפלתו תפלה ומר סבר גברא חזיא הוא ותפלתו תפלה

Rejecting this possibility, Rav Ashi said: If that was the point of their dispute, they should not have simply issued a ruling in a case: If he delayed. They should have also addressed a case if he did not delay as well as discussing the length of the delay. Rather, everyone, both Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna, agrees that if one delayed continuing his prayer for an interval sufficient to complete the entire prayer, he returns to the beginning of the prayer. And there, in the dispute under discussion, they disagreed with regard to one who did not delay that long. The dispute deals with his particular predicament. As one Sage held: He is a man who is disqualified and unfit, and his prayer is not a valid prayer; therefore he must repeat it in its entirety. And one Sage held: He is a man who is fit and his prayer is a valid prayer.

תנו רבנן הנצרך לנקביו אל יתפלל ואם התפלל תפלתו תועבה אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאינו יכול לשהות בעצמו אבל אם יכול לשהות בעצמו תפלתו תפלה

The Sages taught in a baraita: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, and if he prayed, his prayer is an abomination. Rav Zevid and some say Rav Yehuda said in qualifying this statement: They only taught this halakha in a case where one cannot restrain himself. But, if he can restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer as he is not tarnished by his need to relieve himself.

ועד כמה אמר רב ששת עד פרסה איכא דמתני לה אמתניתא במה דברים אמורים כשאין יכול לעמוד על עצמו אבל אם יכול לעמוד על עצמו תפלתו תפלה ועד כמה אמר רב זביד עד פרסה

The Gemara asks: And for how long must he be able to restrain himself? Rav Sheshet said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang. Some teach this halakha directly on what was taught in the baraita: In what case is this statement said? Where he is unable to restrain himself, but if he is able to restrain himself, his prayer is a valid prayer. And for how long? Rav Zevid said: For as long as it takes to walk one parasang.

אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הנצרך לנקביו הרי זה לא יתפלל משום שנאמר הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, because it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, O Israel” (Amos 4:12), and one must clear his mind of all distractions to prepare to receive the Lord during prayer.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים שמור עצמך שלא תחטא ואם תחטא הבא קרבן לפני וקרוב לשמע דברי חכמים אמר רבא הוי קרוב לשמוע דברי חכמים שאם חוטאים מביאים קרבן ועושים תשובה מתת הכסילים זבח אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואין עושים תשובה

In this context, the Gemara cites an additional statement, which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Guard your foot when you go to the house of God, and prepare to listen; it is better than when fools offer sacrifices, as they know not to do evil” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)? It means: When you enter the house of the Lord, guard yourself from transgression, and if you commit a transgression, bring a sacrifice before Me in atonement. The verse continues: “And draw near and listen to the words of the wise.” Rava said: Be prepared to hearken to the words of the wise, who, if they commit a transgression, they bring a sacrifice and repent. He interprets the next part of the verse: “It is better than when fools give sacrifices,” that one should not act like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice but do not repent.

כי אינם יודעים לעשות רע אי הכי צדיקים נינהו אלא אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואינם יודעים אם על הטובה הם מביאים אם על הרעה הם מביאים אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא בין טוב לרע אינן מבחינים והם מביאים קרבן לפני

Regarding the end of the verse: “As they know not to do evil,” the Gemara asks: If so, they are righteous. Rather it must be understood: Do not be like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice, but are unaware whether they are bringing it as a thanks-offering for the good, or as an offering of atonement for the evil. This is the meaning of the verse: “As they know not to do evil”; they know not if and when their actions are evil. With regard to those individuals, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: They cannot distinguish between good and evil and yet they bring a sacrifice before me?

רב אשי ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא אמר שמור נקביך בשעה שאתה עומד בתפלה לפני

Rav Ashi and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Mind your orifices when you stand before me in prayer.

תנו רבנן הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ארבע אמות ונכנס אמר רב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת לא שנו אלא בית הכסא קבוע אבל בית הכסא עראי חולץ ונפנה לאלתר וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ארבע אמות ומניחן מפני שעשאו בית הכסא קבוע

The Sages taught: One who enters a bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and enter. Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna said that Rav Sheshet said: This was only taught with regard to one entering a regular bathroom, but one who enters a makeshift bathroom may remove his phylacteries and defecate immediately. But when one exits from a makeshift bathroom, he must distance himself four cubits before donning his phylacteries because he has now rendered that place a regular bathroom.

איבעיא להו מהו שיכנס אדם בתפילין לבית הכסא קבוע להשתין מים רבינא שרי רב אדא בר מתנא אסר אתו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו אסור חיישינן שמא יפנה בהן ואמרי לה שמא יפיח בהן

A dilemma was raised before the Sages in the yeshiva: What is the halakha; may one enter a regular bathroom wearing his phylacteries in order to urinate? The Sages disagreed: Ravina permitted to do so while Rav Adda bar Mattana prohibited it. They came and asked this of Rava. He said to them: It is forbidden because we are concerned lest he will come to defecate with them still on. Others say that this halakha is because we are concerned that, since he is already in the bathroom, he might forget that his phylacteries are on his head and will break wind with them still on him.

תניא אידך הנכנס לבית הכסא קבוע חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ארבע אמות ומניחן בחלון הסמוך לרשות הרבים ונכנס וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ארבע אמות ומניחן דברי בית שמאי ובית הלל אומרים אוחזן בידו ונכנס רבי עקיבא אומר אוחזן בבגדו ונכנס

It was taught in another baraita: One who enters a regular bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits, place them in the window in the wall of the bathroom adjacent to the public domain, and then enter. And when he exits, he must distance himself four cubits before donning them. This is the statement of Beit Shammai. Beit Hillel say: He must remove his phylacteries but he holds them in his hand and enters. Rabbi Akiva says: He holds them in his garment and enters.

בבגדו סלקא דעתך זימנין מישתלי להו ונפלי אלא אימא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס

The Gemara wonders: Does it enter your mind to say in his garment? There is room for concern because sometimes he forgets them and they fall. Rather, say: He holds them with his garment and in his hand and enters the bathroom. He holds the phylacteries in his hand and covers it with the garment.

ומניחם בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ולא יניחם בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים שמא יטלו אותם עוברי דרכים ויבא לידי חשד

It was established in the baraita: And if there is room to place them, he places them in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, but he does not place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, lest the phylacteries will be taken by passersby and he will come to be suspect.

ומעשה בתלמיד אחד שהניח תפיליו בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים ובאת זונה אחת ונטלתן ובאת לבית המדרש ואמרה ראו מה נתן לי פלוני בשכרי כיון ששמע אותו תלמיד כך עלה לראש הגג ונפל ומת באותה שעה התקינו שיהא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס

And an incident occurred involving a student who placed his phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the public domain, and a prostitute passed by and took the phylacteries. She came to the study hall and said: See what so-and-so gave me as my payment. When that student heard this, he ascended to the rooftop and fell and died. At that moment they instituted that one should hold them with his garment and in his hand and enter to avoid situations of that kind.

תנו רבנן בראשונה היו מניחין תפילין בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ובאין עכברים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהו מניחין אותן בחלונות הסמוכות לרשות הרבים ובאין עוברי דרכים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהא אוחזן בידו ונכנס

The Sages taught in a baraita on this topic: At first, they would place the phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, and mice would come and take them or gnaw upon them. Therefore, they instituted that they should place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, where there were no mice. However, passersby would come and take the phylacteries. Ultimately, they instituted that one should hold the phylacteries in his hand and enter.

אמר רבי מיאשא בריה דרבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה גוללן כמין ספר ואוחזן בימינו כנגד לבו אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן ובלבד שלא תהא רצועה יוצאת מתחת ידו טפח

On this topic, Rabbi Meyasha, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: The halakha in this case is that one rolls up the phylacteries in their straps like a scroll, and holds them in his hand opposite his heart. Rav Yosef bar Manyumi said that Rav Naḥman said: This is provided that the strap of the phylacteries does not emerge more than a handbreadth below his hand.

אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר רבי זירא לא שנו אלא שיש שהות ביום ללבשן אבל אין שהות ביום ללבשן עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן

Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa said that Rabbi Zeira said: It was only taught that one rolls up his phylacteries when there is still time left in the day to don them. If there is not time left in the day to don them before nightfall, when phylacteries are not donned, he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ביום גוללן כמין ספר ומניחן בידו כנגד לבו ובלילה עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן

Similarly, Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: During the day one rolls up the phylacteries like a scroll and places them in his hand opposite his heart, and at night he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places them in it.

אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בכלי שהוא כליין אבל בכלי שאינו כליין אפילו פחות מטפח

Abaye said: They only taught that it must be a one-handbreadth pouch with regard to a vessel that is the phylacteries’ regular vessel, but in a vessel that is not their regular vessel, he may place the phylacteries in it, even if it is less than a handbreadth.

אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי תדע שהרי פכין קטנים מצילין באהל המת

Mar Zutra and, some say, Rav Ashi, said as proof for that distinction: The laws of impurity state that only a space of at least a handbreadth can serve as a barrier to prevent the spread of impurity imparted by a corpse. Nevertheless, small sealed vessels less than a handbreadth in size protect their contents from ritual impurity even if they are inside a tent over a corpse. This proves that even a space smaller than a handbreadth can serve as a barrier before impurity.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן כי הוה בעי למיעל לבית הכסא כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא הוה יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא הוה יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would walk after Rabbi Yoḥanan, we would see that when he sought to enter the bathroom while holding a book of aggada, he would give it to us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not give them to us, as he said: Since the Sages permitted to hold them,

נינטרן אמר רבא כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרב נחמן כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן נינטרן

they will protect me. Although there were people on hand to whom he could have handed the phylacteries, he kept them to protect himself from danger. Rava said: When we would walk after Rabbi Naḥman, we would see that when he was holding a book of aggada, he would give it to us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not give them to us, as he said: Since the Sages permitted to hold them, they will protect me.

תנו רבנן לא יאחז אדם תפילין בידו וספר תורה בזרועו ויתפלל ולא ישתין בהן מים ולא יישן בהן לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי אמר שמואל סכין ומעות וקערה וככר הרי אלו כיוצא בהן

The Sages taught: One may not hold phylacteries in his hand or a Torah scroll in his arm and pray, because his concern that the phylacteries or Torah scroll might fall will distract him from his prayer. And so too, with regard to sacred objects, one may not urinate with them in his hands and may not sleep with them in his hands, neither a deep sleep nor even a brief nap. Shmuel said: Not only should one holding phylacteries refrain from prayer, but one holding a knife, money, a bowl, or a loaf of bread have a similar status in that his concern that they might fall will distract him from his prayer.

אמר רבא אמר רב ששת לית הלכתא כי הא מתניתא דבית שמאי היא דאי בית הלל השתא בית הכסא קבוע שרי בית הכסא עראי מיבעיא

Rava said that Rav Sheshet said: The halakha is not in accordance with this baraita, because it in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. As if it was in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, now Beit Hillel permitted to hold phylacteries in his hand when he defecates in a regular bathroom, is it necessary to say that it is permitted when he urinates in a makeshift bathroom?

מיתיבי דברים שהתרתי לך כאן אסרתי לך כאן מאי לאו תפילין אי אמרת בשלמא בית הלל התרתי לך כאן קבוע אסרתי לך כאן בית הכסא עראי אלא אי אמרת בית שמאי הא לא שרו ולא מידי

The Gemara raised an objection based on the second part of the baraita, where it was taught: Matters which I permitted you to do here, I prohibited you from doing there. In other words, there are matters that were permitted in a regular bathroom and not in a makeshift bathroom. What, is it not referring to phylacteries? Granted, if you say that the prohibition against urinating while wearing phylacteries is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, then we would understand the baraita as follows: Matters which I permitted you to do here, to hold phylacteries in a regular bathroom, I have prohibited you from doing there, in the makeshift bathroom. But if you hold that this baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, they did not permit anything in a regular bathroom. What, then, is the meaning of matters which I permitted you to do here?

כי תניא ההיא לענין טפח וטפחיים דתני חדא כשהוא נפנה מגלה לאחריו טפח ולפניו טפחיים ותניא אידך לאחריו טפח ולפניו ולא כלום

This challenge is rejected by the Gemara, which explains: When that baraita was taught it was not in reference to phylacteries, but with regard to the matter of one handbreadth and two handbreadths. As is it was taught in one baraita: When one relieves himself, he must maintain modesty and bare a single handbreadth of his flesh behind him and two handbreadths before him. And it was taught in another baraita: One may only bare a single handbreadth behind him and nothing before him.

מאי לאו אידי ואידי באיש ולא קשיא כאן לגדולים כאן לקטנים

What, are not both this baraita and that one referring to a male, and the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as here the baraita that states that one may bare a handbreadth behind him and nothing before him is referring to defecation, while here, the other baraita that states that one may bare a handbreadth behind him and two handbreadths before him is referring to urination. Accordingly, despite the fact that one may bare two handbreadths before him when urinating in a makeshift bathroom, matters that I have permitted you to do here, one may bare nothing before him when defecating in an established bathroom, I have prohibited you from doing there.

ותסברא אי בקטנים לאחריו טפח למה לי אלא אידי ואידי בגדולים ולא קשיא הא באיש הא באשה

The Gemara immediately rejects this explanation: And how can you understand it that way? Can you accept that explanation? If that baraita is referring to urination, why do I need to bare a handbreadth behind him? Rather, both this baraita and that one are referring to defecation and the apparent contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult, as this baraita that states that one may bare two handbreadths before him is referring to a man, who must bare before him to facilitate urination, while this other baraita that states that one may bare nothing before him is referring to a woman, who need not bare anything before her in order to urinate.

אי הכי הא דקתני עלה זהו קל וחומר שאין עליו תשובה מאי אין עליו תשובה דרכא דמלתא הכי איתא אלא לאו תפילין ותיובתא דרבא אמר רב ששת

The Gemara challenges this: If so, then that which was taught with regard to this halakha in the baraita: This is an a fortiori inference that cannot be rebutted, meaning that even though logically it would have been appropriate to be stricter in the case of defecating in a regular bathroom than in the case of urinating in a makeshift bathroom, that is not the ruling. According to the distinction suggested above, what is cannot be rebutted? That is the nature of the matter; men and women need to bare themselves differently. Rather, is the baraita which states: Matters which I permitted you to do here, I prohibited you from doing there, not referring to phylacteries? And the a fortiori inference that cannot be rebutted is similarly referring to phylacteries. This is a conclusive refutation of that which Rava said that Rav Sheshet said that the baraita is not referring to phylacteries.

תיובתא

The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

מכל מקום קשיא השתא בית הכסא קבוע שרי בית הכסא עראי לא כל שכן

The Gemara asks: Nevertheless, it remains difficult: Now, holding phylacteries in his hand when he defecates in a regular bathroom is permitted, all the more so that it is permitted when he urinates in a makeshift bathroom.

הכי קאמר בית הכסא קבוע דליכא ניצוצות שרי בית הכסא עראי דאיכא ניצוצות אסרי

The Gemara explains: It says as follows: When defecating in a regular bathroom, where one sits there are no drops of urine on one’s clothes or shoes, he need not dirty his hands to clean his garment, and therefore one is permitted to hold phylacteries in his hand. However, in a makeshift bathroom, where one stands, and there are ricocheting drops which he may touch with his hand, it is prohibited.

אי הכי אמאי אין עליו תשובה תשובה מעליתא היא

The Gemara challenges: If so, then why was it referred to as an a fortiori inference that “cannot be refuted”? This seems an excellent refutation that explains the distinction.

הכי קאמר הא מילתא תיתי לה בתורת טעמא ולא תיתי לה בקל וחומר דאי אתיא לה בתורת קל וחומר זהו קל וחומר שאין עליו תשובה:

The Gemara explains that it says as follows: Derive this matter based on the reason mentioned above that due to different circumstances the ruling is different. Do not derive it by means of an a fortiori inference, as if you were to derive it by means of an a fortiori inference, it would certainly be an a fortiori inference that cannot be rebutted.

תנו רבנן הרוצה ליכנס לסעודת קבע מהלך עשרה פעמים ארבע אמות או ארבעה פעמים עשר אמות ויפנה ואחר כך נכנס

The Sages taught: One who wishes to enter and partake of a regular meal that will last for some time, paces a distance of four cubits ten times, or ten cubits four times, in order to expedite the movement of the bowels, and defecates. Only then may he enter and partake of the meal. That way he spares himself the unpleasantness of being forced to leave in the middle of the meal.

אמר רבי יצחק הנכנס לסעודת קבע חולץ תפיליו ואחר כך נכנס ופליגא דרבי חייא דאמר רבי חייא מניחן על שלחנו וכן הדור לו

On this same subject, Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One who partakes of a regular meal removes his phylacteries and then enters, as it is inappropriate to partake in a meal where there is frivolity while wearing phylacteries. And this statement disputes the statement of Rabbi Ḥiyya, as Rabbi Ḥiyya said: During a formal meal one places his phylacteries on his table, and it is admirable for him to do so in order that they will be available to don immediately if he so desires.

ועד אימת אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עד זמן ברכה

The Gemara asks: And until when in the meal must he refrain from wearing phylacteries? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Until the time of the recitation of the blessing of Grace after Meals.

תני חדא צורר אדם תפיליו עם מעותיו באפרקסותו ותניא אידך לא יצור

It was taught in one baraita: One may bundle his phylacteries with his money in his head covering [apraksuto], and it was taught in another baraita: One may not bundle phylacteries and money together.

לא קשיא הא דאזמניה הא דלא אזמניה דאמר רב חסדא האי סודרא תפילין דאזמניה למיצר ביה תפילין צר ביה תפילין אסור למיצר ביה פשיטי אזמניה ולא צר ביה צר ביה ולא אזמניה שרי למיצר ביה זוזי

The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as one must distinguish and say that this baraita, which prohibits bundling phylacteries and money together, refers to a case where the vessel was designated for use with phylacteries, while this baraita, which permits one to do so, refers to a case where the vessel was not designated for that purpose. As Rav Ḥisda said: With regard to this cloth used with phylacteries that one designated to bundle phylacteries in it, if one already bundled phylacteries in it then it is prohibited to bundle coins in it, but if he only designated it for that purpose, but did not yet bundle phylacteries in it, or if he bundled phylacteries in it but did not originally designate it for that purpose, then it is permitted to bundle money in it.

ולאביי דאמר הזמנה מילתא היא אזמניה אף על גב דלא צר ביה צר ביה אי אזמניה אסיר אי לא אזמניה לא

And according to Abaye, who said that designation is significant, as Abaye holds that all relevant halakhot apply to an object designated for a specific purpose, whether or not it has been already used for that purpose, the halakha is: If he designated the cloth, even if he did not bundle phylacteries in it, he is prohibited from bundling money in it. However, if he bundled phylacteries in it, if he designated the cloth for that particular use, it is prohibited to bundle money in it, but if he did not designate it, no, it is not prohibited.

בעא מיניה רב יוסף בריה דרב נחוניא מרב יהודה מהו שיניח אדם תפיליו תחת מראשותיו תחת מרגלותיו לא קא מיבעיא לי שנוהג בהן מנהג בזיון כי קא מיבעיא לי תחת מראשותיו מאי אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל מותר אפילו אשתו עמו

Rav Yosef, son of Rav Neḥunya, raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the halakha; may a man place his phylacteries in his bed, under his head while he sleeps? He himself explains: With regard to whether or not one may place them under his feet, I have no dilemma, as that would be treating them in a deprecating manner and is certainly prohibited. My dilemma is whether or not one may place them under his head; what is the halakha in that case? Rav Yehuda said to him, Shmuel said as follows: It is permitted, even if his wife is with him in his bed.

מיתיבי לא יניח אדם תפיליו תחת מרגלותיו מפני שנוהג בהם דרך בזיון אבל מניחם תחת מראשותיו ואם היתה אשתו עמו אסור היה מקום שגבוה שלשה טפחים או נמוך שלשה טפחים מותר

The Gemara raises an objection based on what was taught in a baraita: A man may not place his phylacteries under his feet, as in doing so, he treats them in a deprecating manner, but he may place them under his head. And if his wife was with him, it is prohibited even to place it under his head. If there was a place where he could place the phylacteries three handbreadths above or three handbreadths below his head it is permissible, as that space is sufficient for the phylacteries to be considered in a separate place.

תיובתא דשמואל תיובתא

This is a conclusive refutation of Shmuel’s statement. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a conclusive refutation.

אמר רבא אף על גב דתניא תיובתא דשמואל הלכתא כוותיה מאי טעמא

Rava said: Although a baraita was taught that constitutes a conclusive refutation of Shmuel, the halakha is in accordance with his opinion in this matter. What is the reason for this?

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